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Iron Curtain

Index Iron Curtain

The Iron Curtain was the name for the boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas from the end of World War II in 1945 until the end of the Cold War in 1991. [1]

194 relations: Adolf Hitler, Adriatic Sea, Alaska, Allen Dulles, Alois Mock, Andrei Zhdanov, Antony Beevor, Arthur Machen, Austria, Baltic Sea, Bamboo Curtain, Belgium, Bering Sea, Berlin, Berlin Blockade, Berlin Wall, Bessarabia, Big Diomede, Blue Banana, Bratislava, Brezhnev Doctrine, Bukovina, Cactus, Central Europe, Checkpoint Charlie, Cold War, Comecon, Cominform, Communist state, Croatia, Cuba, Curtain, Czech language, Czechoslovak border fortifications, Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, Czechoslovakia, Danube, Danube River Conference of 1948, Das Reich (newspaper), Devín, Distributism, Douglas Reed, East Berlin, East Germany, East Prussia, Eastern Bloc, Eastern Bloc politics, Elisabeth of Bavaria, Queen of Belgium, Empire of Japan, England, Their England, ..., Era of Stagnation, Erlebach, Estado Novo (Portugal), Estonia, Ethel Snowden, Europe, European Economic Community, European Free Trade Association, European Green Belt, EV13 The Iron Curtain Trail, Falsifiers of History, Finland, First Sudanese Civil War, Foreign minister, Francoist Spain, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Friendly fire, Fulton, Missouri, G. K. Chesterton, Gabriela von Habsburg, Geneva Conventions, George Marshall, German Question, German–Soviet Axis talks, German–Soviet Credit Agreement (1939), Glasnost, Grass Curtain, Greece, Greek military junta of 1967–1974, Guantanamo Bay Naval Base, Guy Debord, Gyula Horn, Harry S. Truman, Hegemony, Helmut Kohl, Hungarian People's Republic, Hungary, Industrial Revolution, Inner German border, International Churchill Society, Iron (metaphor), Joachim von Ribbentrop, Joseph Goebbels, Joseph Stalin, Kaliningrad Oblast, Karelo-Finnish Soviet Socialist Republic, Korean Demilitarized Zone, Kresy, Land mine, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Little Diomede Island, Long-distance cycling route, Lutz Graf Schwerin von Krosigk, Malta, Market economy, Marshall Plan, Mödlareuth, Mikhail Gorbachev, Missouri, Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic, Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact negotiations, Morava (river), Morgenthau Plan, NATO, Nazi Germany, Nazi–Soviet economic relations (1934–41), Neutral country, Nicolae Ceaușescu, Nihilism, Nikolai Tolstoy, Norway, Operation Barbarossa, Operation Keelhaul, Padraic Kenney, Pan-European Picnic, People's Republic, People's Republic of Bulgaria, People's Socialist Republic of Albania, Perestroika, Piotr Sztompka, Poland, Police state, Polish People's Republic, Pomaks, Potsdam Conference, Pravda, Raoul Vaneigem, Reich Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda, Reichsmark, Removal of Hungary's border fence with Austria, Republics of the Soviet Union, Revolutions of 1989, Roller shutter, Romania, Romanian Revolution, Safety curtain, Satellite state, Sebastian Haffner, Self-determination, Signal (magazine), Sinatra Doctrine, Situationist International, Slovak language, Slovakia, Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Socialist Republic of Romania, Solidarity (Polish trade union), Sorin Antohi, Soviet Union, Sweden, Switzerland, Szczecin, Talmud, Telephone tapping in the Eastern Bloc, Territories of Poland annexed by the Soviet Union, The Illustrated London News, The Times, Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, Todor Zhivkov, Trieste, United States, United States Department of State, United States Navy, United States non-interventionism, Vasily Rozanov, Velvet Revolution, Victims of Yalta, Vladimir Tismăneanu, Vladko Maček, Vyacheslav Molotov, Warsaw Pact, West Berlin, West Germany, Western betrayal, Western Bloc, Westminster College (Missouri), Wildlife corridor, Winston Churchill, World War II, Yalta Conference, 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état. Expand index (144 more) »

Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.

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Adriatic Sea

The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula.

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Alaska (Alax̂sxax̂) is a U.S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America.

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Allen Dulles

Allen Welsh Dulles (April 7, 1893 – January 29, 1969) was an American diplomat and lawyer who became the first civilian Director of Central Intelligence (DCI), and its longest-serving director to date.

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Alois Mock

Alois Mock (10 June 1934 – 1 June 2017) was a politician and member of the Austrian People's Party (ÖVP).

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Andrei Zhdanov

Andrei Alexandrovich Zhdanov (p; – 31 August 1948) was a Soviet Communist Party leader and cultural ideologist.

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Antony Beevor

Sir Antony James Beevor, (born 14 December 1946) is an English military historian.

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Arthur Machen

Arthur Machen (3 March 1863 – 15 December 1947) was a Welsh author and mystic of the 1890s and early 20th century.

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Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.

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Baltic Sea

The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.

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Bamboo Curtain

The Bamboo Curtain was the Cold War political demarcation between the Communist states of East Asia, particularly the People's Republic of China, and the capitalist and non-Communist states of East, South and Southeast Asia.

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Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.

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Bering Sea

The Bering Sea (r) is a marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean.

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Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.

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Berlin Blockade

The Berlin Blockade (24 June 1948–12 May 1949) was one of the first major international crises of the Cold War.

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Berlin Wall

The Berlin Wall (Berliner Mauer) was a guarded concrete barrier that physically and ideologically divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989.

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Bessarabia (Basarabia; Бессарабия, Bessarabiya; Besarabya; Бессара́бія, Bessarabiya; Бесарабия, Besarabiya) is a historical region in Eastern Europe, bounded by the Dniester river on the east and the Prut river on the west.

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Big Diomede

Big Diomede Island (о́стров Ратма́нова, ostrov Ratmanova (Russian for Ratmanov Island); Inupiat: Imaqłiq) or "Tomorrow Island" (due to the International Date Line) is the western island of the two Diomede Islands in the middle of the Bering Strait.

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Blue Banana

The Blue Banana (banane bleue, also known as the European Megalopolis or the Manchester–Milan Axis) is a discontinuous corridor of urbanisation spreading over Western and Central Europe, with a population of around 111 million.

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Bratislava (Preßburg or Pressburg, Pozsony) is the capital of Slovakia.

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Brezhnev Doctrine

The Brezhnev Doctrine was a Soviet foreign policy, first and most clearly outlined by Sergei Kovalev in a September 26, 1968 Pravda article entitled Sovereignty and the International Obligations of Socialist Countries.

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Bukovina (Bucovina; Bukowina/Buchenland; Bukowina; Bukovina, Буковина Bukovyna; see also other languages) is a historical region in Central Europe,Klaus Peter Berger,, Kluwer Law International, 2010, p. 132 divided between Romania and Ukraine, located on the northern slopes of the central Eastern Carpathians and the adjoining plains.

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A cactus (plural: cacti, cactuses, or cactus) is a member of the plant family Cactaceae,Although the spellings of botanical families have been largely standardized, there is little agreement among botanists as to how these names are to be pronounced.

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Central Europe

Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.

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Checkpoint Charlie

Checkpoint Charlie (or "Checkpoint C") was the name given by the Western Allies to the best-known Berlin Wall crossing point between East Berlin and West Berlin during the Cold War (1947–1991).

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Cold War

The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).

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The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (English abbreviation COMECON, CMEA, or CAME) was an economic organization from 1949 to 1991 under the leadership of the Soviet Union that comprised the countries of the Eastern Bloc along with a number of communist states elsewhere in the world.

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Founded on October 5, 1947, Cominform (from Communist Information Bureau) is the common name for what was officially referred to as the Information Bureau of the Communist and Workers' Parties.

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Communist state

A Communist state (sometimes referred to as workers' state) is a state that is administered and governed by a single party, guided by Marxist–Leninist philosophy, with the aim of achieving communism.

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Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.

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Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.

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A curtain (sometimes known as a drape, mainly in the United States) is a piece of cloth intended to block or obscure light, or drafts, or (in the case of a shower curtain) water.

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Czech language

Czech (čeština), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.

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Czechoslovak border fortifications

The Czechoslovak government built a system of border fortifications, as well as some fortified defensive lines inland, from 1935 to 1938 as a defensive countermeasure against the rising threat of Nazi Germany.

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Czechoslovak Socialist Republic

The Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (Czech/Slovak: Československá socialistická republika, ČSSR) ruled Czechoslovakia from 1948 until 23 April 1990, when the country was under Communist rule.

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Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.

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The Danube or Donau (known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga.

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Danube River Conference of 1948

The Danube River Conference of 1948 was held in Belgrade, Yugoslavia, to develop a new international regime for the development and control of the Danube in the wake of World War II.

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Das Reich (newspaper)

Das Reich (German: The Reich) was a weekly newspaper founded by Joseph Goebbels, the propaganda minister of Nazi Germany, in May 1940.

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Devín (Dévény, Theben) is a borough of Bratislava, the capital of Slovakia, located in the Bratislava IV district.

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Distributism is an economic ideology that developed in Europe in the late 19th and early 20th century based upon the principles of Catholic social teaching, especially the teachings of Pope Leo XIII in his encyclical Rerum novarum and Pope Pius XI in Quadragesimo anno.

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Douglas Reed

Douglas Launcelot Reed (11 March 1895 – 26 August 1976) was a British journalist, playwright, novelist and author of a number of books of political analysis.

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East Berlin

East Berlin existed from 1949 to 1990 and consisted of the Soviet sector of Berlin established in 1945.

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East Germany

East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.

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East Prussia

East Prussia (Ostpreußen,; Prusy Wschodnie; Rytų Prūsija; Borussia orientalis; Восточная Пруссия) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1773 to 1829 and again from 1878 (with the Kingdom itself being part of the German Empire from 1871); following World War I it formed part of the Weimar Republic's Free State of Prussia, until 1945.

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Eastern Bloc

The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.

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Eastern Bloc politics

Eastern Bloc politics followed the Red Army's occupation of much of eastern Europe at the end of World War II and the Soviet Union's installation of Soviet-controlled Stalinist or Marxist–Leninist governments in the Eastern Bloc through a process of bloc politics and repression.

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Elisabeth of Bavaria, Queen of Belgium

Elisabeth of Bavaria (25 July 187623 November 1965) was Queen consort of the Belgians as the spouse of King Albert I, and a Duchess in Bavaria by birth.

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Empire of Japan

The was the historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.

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England, Their England

England, Their England (1933) is an affectionately satirical comic novel of 1920s English urban and rural society by the Scottish writer A. G. Macdonell.

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Era of Stagnation

The Era of Stagnation (Период застоя, Stagnation Period, also called the Brezhnevian Stagnation) was the period in the history of the Soviet Union which began during the rule of Leonid Brezhnev (1964–1982) and continued under Yuri Andropov (1982–1984) and Konstantin Chernenko (1984–1985).

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Erlebach was a village in Germany, founded in 1310 A D. It was destroyed by the East German authorities in 1986 as it stood too close to the Inner German border (part of the larger "Iron Curtain"), the border between the post-war states of East and West Germany.

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Estado Novo (Portugal)

The Estado Novo ("New State"), or the Second Republic, was the corporatist authoritarian regime installed in Portugal in 1933, which was considered fascist.

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Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.

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Ethel Snowden

Ethel Snowden, Viscountess Snowden (born Ethel Annakin; 8 September 1881 – 22 February 1951), was a British socialist, human rights activist, and feminist politician.

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Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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European Economic Community

The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states.

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European Free Trade Association

The European Free Trade Association (EFTA) is a regional trade organization and free trade area consisting of four European states: Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, and Switzerland.

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European Green Belt

The European Green Belt initiative is a grassroots movement for nature conservation and sustainable development along the corridor of the former Iron Curtain.

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EV13 The Iron Curtain Trail

The Iron Curtain Trail (ICT), also known as EuroVelo 13 (EV13), is a partially complete long-distance cycling route which will run along the entire length of the former Iron Curtain.

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Falsifiers of History

Falsifiers of History was a book published by the Soviet Information Bureau, edited and partially re-written by Joseph Stalin, in response to documents made public in January 1948 regarding German–Soviet relations before and after the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact.

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Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.

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First Sudanese Civil War

The First Sudanese Civil War (also known as the Anyanya Rebellion or Anyanya I, after the name of the rebels, a term in the Madi language which means 'snake venom') was a conflict from 1955 to 1972 between the northern part of Sudan and the southern Sudan region that demanded representation and more regional autonomy. Half a million people died over the 17 years of war, which may be divided into three stages: initial guerrilla war, Anyanya, and South Sudan Liberation Movement. However, the agreement that ended the First Sudanese Civil War's fighting in 1972 failed to completely dispel the tensions that had originally caused it, leading to a reigniting of the north-south conflict during the Second Sudanese Civil War, which lasted from 1983 to 2005. The period between 1955 and 2005 is thus sometimes considered to be a single conflict with an eleven-year ceasefire that separates two violent phases.

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Foreign minister

A foreign minister or minister of foreign affairs (less commonly for foreign affairs) is generally a cabinet minister in charge of a state's foreign policy and relations.

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Francoist Spain

Francoist Spain (España franquista) or the Franco regime (Régimen de Franco), formally known as the Spanish State (Estado Español), is the period of Spanish history between 1939, when Francisco Franco took control of Spain after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War establishing a dictatorship, and 1975, when Franco died and Prince Juan Carlos was crowned King of Spain.

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Franklin D. Roosevelt

Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.

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Friendly fire

Friendly fire is an attack by a military force on non-enemy, own, allied or neutral, forces while attempting to attack the enemy, either by misidentifying the target as hostile, or due to errors or inaccuracy.

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Fulton, Missouri

Fulton is the largest city in and the county seat of Callaway County, Missouri, United States.

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G. K. Chesterton

Gilbert Keith Chesterton, KC*SG (29 May 1874 – 14 June 1936), was an English writer, poet, philosopher, dramatist, journalist, orator, lay theologian, biographer, and literary and art critic.

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Gabriela von Habsburg

Gabriela von Habsburg (born 14 October 1956) also known as Archduchess Gabriela of Austria, is the granddaughter of Charles I, the last Emperor of Austria.

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Geneva Conventions

Original document as PDF in single pages, 1864 The Geneva Conventions comprise four treaties, and three additional protocols, that establish the standards of international law for humanitarian treatment in war.

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George Marshall

George Catlett Marshall Jr. (December 31, 1880 – October 16, 1959) was an American statesman and soldier.

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German Question

The German Question was a debate in the 19th century, especially during the Revolutions of 1848, over the best way to achieve the unification of Germany.

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German–Soviet Axis talks

In October and November 1940, German–Soviet Axis talks occurred concerning the Soviet Union's potential entry as a fourth Axis Power in World War II.

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German–Soviet Credit Agreement (1939)

The German–Soviet Credit Agreement (also referred to as the German–Soviet Trade and Credit Agreement) was an economic arrangement between the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany whereby Soviet Union received an acceptance credit of 200 million Reichsmark.

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In the Russian language the word glasnost (гла́сность) has several general and specific meanings.

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Grass Curtain

Grass Curtain was a quarterly journal of Southern Sudanese politics and current events published by the Southern Sudan Association in London between 1970 and 1972.

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No description.

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Greek military junta of 1967–1974

The Greek military junta of 1967–1974, commonly known as the Regime of the Colonels (καθεστώς των Συνταγματαρχών), or in Greece simply The Junta (or; Χούντα), The Dictatorship (Η Δικτατορία) and The Seven Years (Η Επταετία), was a series of far-right military juntas that ruled Greece following the 1967 Greek coup d'état led by a group of colonels on 21 April 1967.

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Guantanamo Bay Naval Base

Guantanamo Bay Naval Base (Base Naval de la Bahía de Guantánamo), officially known as Naval Station Guantanamo Bay or NSGB (also called GTMO because of the abbreviation of Guantanamo or Gitmo because of the common pronunciation of this word by the U.S. military), is a United States military base located on 120 square kilometres (45 sq mi) of land and water at Guantánamo Bay, Cuba, which the U.S. leased for use as a coaling station and naval base in 1903 for $2,000 in gold per year until 1934, when the payment was set to match the value in gold in dollars; in 1974, the yearly lease was set to $4,085.

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Guy Debord

Guy Louis Debord (28 December 1931 – 30 November 1994) was a French Marxist theorist, philosopher, filmmaker, member of the Letterist International, founder of a Letterist faction, and founding member of the Situationist International (SI).

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Gyula Horn

Gyula Horn (5 July 1932 – 19 June 2013) was a Hungarian politician who served as the third Prime Minister of the Republic of Hungary from 1994 to 1998.

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Harry S. Truman

Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was an American statesman who served as the 33rd President of the United States (1945–1953), taking office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt.

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Hegemony (or) is the political, economic, or military predominance or control of one state over others.

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Helmut Kohl

Helmut Josef Michael Kohl (3 April 1930 – 16 June 2017) was a German statesman who served as Chancellor of Germany from 1982 to 1998 (of West Germany 1982–1990 and of the reunited Germany 1990–1998) and as the chairman of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) from 1973 to 1998.

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Hungarian People's Republic

The Hungarian People's Republic (Magyar Népköztársaság) was a one-party socialist republic (communist state) from 20 August 1949 to 23 October 1989.

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Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.

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Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.

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Inner German border

The inner German border (innerdeutsche Grenze or deutsch-deutsche Grenze; initially also Zonengrenze) was the border between the German Democratic Republic (GDR, East Germany) and the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, West Germany) from 1949 to 1990.

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International Churchill Society

The International Churchill Society (ICS), formerly known as the Churchill Centre, was founded in 1968 to educate new generations on the leadership, statesmanship, vision, courage and boldness of Sir Winston Churchill.

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Iron (metaphor)

Iron, when used metaphorically, refers to certain traits of the metal iron.

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Joachim von Ribbentrop

Ulrich Friedrich Wilhelm Joachim von Ribbentrop (30 April 1893 – 16 October 1946), more commonly known as Joachim von Ribbentrop, was Foreign Minister of Nazi Germany from 1938 until 1945.

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Joseph Goebbels

Paul Joseph Goebbels (29 October 1897 – 1 May 1945) was a German Nazi politician and Reich Minister of Propaganda of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945.

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Joseph Stalin

Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.

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Kaliningrad Oblast

Kaliningrad Oblast (Калинингра́дская о́бласть, Kaliningradskaya oblast), often referred to as the Kaliningrad Region in English, or simply Kaliningrad, is a federal subject of the Russian Federation that is located on the coast of the Baltic Sea.

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Karelo-Finnish Soviet Socialist Republic

The Karelo-Finnish Soviet Socialist Republic (Karelo-Finnish SSR; Karjalais-suomalainen sosialistinen neuvostotasavalta; r), also called Soviet Karelia or simply known as Karelia, was a republic of the Soviet Union.

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Korean Demilitarized Zone

The Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ; Chosŏn'gŭl/Hangul: 한반도 비무장 지대; Hanja: 韓半島非武裝地帶) is a strip of land running across the Korean Peninsula.

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Kresy Wschodnie or Kresy (Eastern Borderlands, or Borderlands) was the Eastern part of the Second Polish Republic during the interwar period constituting nearly half of the territory of the state.

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Land mine

A land mine is an explosive device concealed under or on the ground and designed to destroy or disable enemy targets, ranging from combatants to vehicles and tanks, as they pass over or near it.

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Latvia (or; Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a sovereign state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.

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Liechtenstein, officially the Principality of Liechtenstein (Fürstentum Liechtenstein), is a doubly landlocked German-speaking microstate in Central Europe.

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Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.

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Little Diomede Island

Little Diomede Island (Inupiat: Iŋaliq, formerly known as Krusenstern Island, Остров Крузенштерна, Ostrov Kruzenshterna) is an island of Alaska, United States.

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Long-distance cycling route

Long-distance cycling routes are designated cycling routes in various countries around the world for bicycle tourism.

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Lutz Graf Schwerin von Krosigk

Lutz Graf Schwerin von Krosigk, born Johann Ludwig von Krosigk and known as Lutz von Krosigk (22 August 18874 March 1977), was a German senior government official who served as Minister of Finance of Germany from 1932 to 1945 and de facto Chancellor of Germany in May 1945.

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Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.

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Market economy

A market economy is an economic system in which the decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are guided by the price signals created by the forces of supply and demand.

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Marshall Plan

The Marshall Plan (officially the European Recovery Program, ERP) was an American initiative to aid Western Europe, in which the United States gave over $13 billion (nearly $ billion in US dollars) in economic assistance to help rebuild Western European economies after the end of World War II.

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Mödlareuth is a German village situated partly in Bavaria and partly in Thuringia.

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Mikhail Gorbachev

Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, GCL (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian and former Soviet politician.

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Missouri is a state in the Midwestern United States.

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Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic

Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic (shortly: Moldavian SSR, abbr.: MSSR; Republica Sovietică Socialistă Moldovenească, in Cyrillic alphabet: Република Советикэ Сочиалистэ Молдовеняскэ; Молда́вская Сове́тская Социалисти́ческая Респу́блика Moldavskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika), also known to as Soviet Moldavia or Soviet Moldova, was one of the fifteen republics of the Soviet Union existed from 1940 to 1991.

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Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact

The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, also known as the Nazi–Soviet Pact,Charles Peters (2005), Five Days in Philadelphia: The Amazing "We Want Willkie!" Convention of 1940 and How It Freed FDR to Save the Western World, New York: PublicAffairs, Ch.

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Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact negotiations

The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact was an August 23, 1939, agreement between the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany colloquially named after Soviet foreign minister Vyacheslav Molotov and German foreign minister Joachim von Ribbentrop.

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Morava (river)

The Morava (March, Morva, Morawa) is a river in Central Europe, a left tributary of the Danube.

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Morgenthau Plan

The Morgenthau Plan (Morgenthau-Plan) by the Allied occupation of Germany following World War II was a proposal to eliminate Germany's ability to wage war by eliminating its arms industry, and the removal or destruction of other key industries basic to military strength.

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The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.

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Nazi Germany

Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).

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Nazi–Soviet economic relations (1934–41)

After the Nazis rose to power in Germany in 1933, relations between Germany and the Soviet Union began to deteriorate rapidly, and trade between the two countries decreased.

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Neutral country

A neutral country is a state, which is either neutral towards belligerents in a specific war, or holds itself as permanently neutral in all future conflicts (including avoiding entering into military alliances such as NATO).

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Nicolae Ceaușescu

Nicolae Ceaușescu (26 January 1918 – 25 December 1989) was a Romanian Communist politician.

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Nihilism is the philosophical viewpoint that suggests the denial or lack of belief towards the reputedly meaningful aspects of life.

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Nikolai Tolstoy

Count Nikolai Dmitrievich Tolstoy-Miloslavsky (born 23 June 1935) is an English-Russian author who writes under the name Nikolai Tolstoy.

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Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.

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Operation Barbarossa

Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II.

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Operation Keelhaul

Operation Keelhaul was a forced repatriation of former Soviet Armed Forces POWs of the Nazis to the Soviet Union, carried out in Northern Italy by British and American forces between 14 August 1946 and 9 May 1947.

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Padraic Kenney

Padraic Jeremiah Kenney (born 1963) is a professor of history and International Studies at Indiana University.

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Pan-European Picnic

The Pan-European Picnic (Paneuropäisches Picknick; páneurópai piknik) was a peace demonstration held on the Austrian-Hungarian border near Sopron, Hungary on 19 August 1989, the day before the Hungarian holiday commemorating Stephen I of Hungary.

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People's Republic

"People's Republic" is a title used by some sovereign states with republican constitutions.

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People's Republic of Bulgaria

The People's Republic of Bulgaria (PRB; Народна република България (НРБ) Narodna republika Bǎlgariya (NRB)) was the official name of Bulgaria when it was a socialist republic.

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People's Socialist Republic of Albania

Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia, Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the People's Socialist Republic of Albania (Republika Popullore Socialiste e Shqipërisë), was a Marxist-Leninist government that ruled Albania from 1946 to 1992.

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Perestroika (a) was a political movement for reformation within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during the 1980s until 1991 and is widely associated with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and his glasnost (meaning "openness") policy reform.

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Piotr Sztompka

Piotr Sztompka (born 2 March 1944, in Warsaw, Poland) is a Polish sociologist known for his work on the theory of social trust.

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Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.

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Police state

Police state is a term denoting a government that exercises power arbitrarily through the power of the police force.

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Polish People's Republic

The Polish People's Republic (Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa, PRL) covers the history of contemporary Poland between 1952 and 1990 under the Soviet-backed socialist government established after the Red Army's release of its territory from German occupation in World War II.

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Pomaks (Помаци/Pomatsi, Πομάκοι/Pomákoi, Pomaklar) is a term used for Slavic Muslims inhabiting Bulgaria, northeastern Greece and northwestern Turkey, mainly referring to the ca.

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Potsdam Conference

The Potsdam Conference (Potsdamer Konferenz) was held at Cecilienhof, the home of Crown Prince Wilhelm, in Potsdam, occupied Germany, from 17 July to 2 August 1945.

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Pravda (a, "Truth") is a Russian broadsheet newspaper, formerly the official newspaper of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, when it was one of the most influential papers in the country with a circulation of 11 million.

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Raoul Vaneigem

Raoul Vaneigem (born 1934) is a Belgian writer known for his 1967 book The Revolution of Everyday Life.

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Reich Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda

The Reich Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda (Reichsministerium für Volksaufklärung und Propaganda, RMVP or Propagandaministerium) was a Nazi government agency to enforce Nazi ideology.

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The Reichsmark (sign: ℛℳ) was the currency in Germany from 1924 until 20 June 1948 in West Germany, where it was replaced with the Deutsche Mark, and until 23 June in East Germany when it was replaced by the East German mark.

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Removal of Hungary's border fence with Austria

The removal of Hungary's border fence with Austria occurred in 1989 during the collapse of communism in Hungary, which was part of a broad wave of revolutions in various communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe.

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Republics of the Soviet Union

The Republics of the Soviet Union or the Union Republics (r) of the Soviet Union were ethnically based proto-states that were subordinated directly to the Government of the Soviet Union.

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Revolutions of 1989

The Revolutions of 1989 formed part of a revolutionary wave in the late 1980s and early 1990s that resulted in the end of communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe and beyond.

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Roller shutter

A roller shutter, roller door or sectional overhead door is a type of door or window shutter consisting of many horizontal slats (or sometimes bars or web systems) hinged together.

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Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.

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Romanian Revolution

The Romanian Revolution (Revoluția Română) was a period of violent civil unrest in Romania in December 1989 and part of the Revolutions of 1989 that occurred in several countries.

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Safety curtain

A safety curtain (or fire curtain in America) is a fire safety precaution used in large proscenium theatres.

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Satellite state

The term satellite state designates a country that is formally independent in the world, but under heavy political, economic and military influence or control from another country.

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Sebastian Haffner

Raimund Pretzel (27 December 1907 – 2 January 1999), better known by his pseudonym Sebastian Haffner, was a German journalist and author.

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The right of people to self-determination is a cardinal principle in modern international law (commonly regarded as a jus cogens rule), binding, as such, on the United Nations as authoritative interpretation of the Charter's norms.

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Signal (magazine)

Signal was a magazine published by the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany from 1940 through 1945.

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Sinatra Doctrine

"Sinatra Doctrine" was the name that the Soviet government of Mikhail Gorbachev used jokingly to describe its policy of allowing neighboring Warsaw Pact states to determine their own internal affairs.

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Situationist International

The Situationist International (SI) was an international organization of social revolutionaries made up of avant-garde artists, intellectuals, and political theorists, prominent in Europe from its formation in 1957 to its dissolution in 1972.

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Slovak language

Slovak is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, and Sorbian).

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Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a landlocked country in Central Europe.

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Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFR Yugoslavia or SFRY) was a socialist state led by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of World War II until its dissolution in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars.

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Socialist Republic of Romania

The Socialist Republic of Romania (Republica Socialistă România, RSR) refers to Romania under Marxist-Leninist one-party Communist rule that existed officially from 1947 to 1989.

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Solidarity (Polish trade union)

Solidarity (Solidarność, pronounced; full name: Independent Self-governing Labour Union "Solidarity"—Niezależny Samorządny Związek Zawodowy „Solidarność”) is a Polish labour union that was founded on 17 September 1980 at the Lenin Shipyard under the leadership of Lech Wałęsa.

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Sorin Antohi

Sorin Antohi (born 20 August 1957) is a Romanian historian, essayist, and journalist.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.

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Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Szczecin (German and Swedish Stettin), known also by other alternative names) is the capital and largest city of the West Pomeranian Voivodeship in Poland. Located near the Baltic Sea and the German border, it is a major seaport and Poland's seventh-largest city. As of June 2011, the population was 407,811. Szczecin is located on the Oder, south of the Szczecin Lagoon and the Bay of Pomerania. The city is situated along the southwestern shore of Dąbie Lake, on both sides of the Oder and on several large islands between the western and eastern branches of the river. Szczecin is adjacent to the town of Police and is the urban centre of the Szczecin agglomeration, an extended metropolitan area that includes communities in the German states of Brandenburg and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. The city's recorded history began in the 8th century as a Slavic Pomeranian stronghold, built at the site of the Ducal castle. In the 12th century, when Szczecin had become one of Pomerania's main urban centres, it lost its independence to Piast Poland, the Duchy of Saxony, the Holy Roman Empire and Denmark. At the same time, the House of Griffins established themselves as local rulers and the population was Christianized. After the Treaty of Stettin in 1630, the town came under the control of the Swedish Empire and became in 1648 the Capital of Swedish Pomerania until 1720, when it was acquired by the Kingdom of Prussia and then the German Empire. Following World War II Stettin became part of Poland, resulting in expulsion of the German population. Szczecin is the administrative and industrial centre of West Pomeranian Voivodeship and is the site of the University of Szczecin, Pomeranian Medical University, Maritime University, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin Art Academy, and the see of the Szczecin-Kamień Catholic Archdiocese. From 1999 onwards, Szczecin has served as the site of the headquarters of NATO's Multinational Corps Northeast. Szczecin was a candidate for the European Capital of Culture in 2016.

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The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד talmūd "instruction, learning", from a root LMD "teach, study") is the central text of Rabbinic Judaism and the primary source of Jewish religious law and theology.

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Telephone tapping in the Eastern Bloc

Telephone tapping in the countries of the Eastern Bloc was a widespread method of the mass surveillance of the population by the secret police.

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Territories of Poland annexed by the Soviet Union

17 days after the German invasion of Poland in 1939, which marked the beginning of World War II, the Soviet Union invaded the eastern regions of the Second Polish Republic, which Poland re-established during the Polish–Soviet War and referred to as the "Kresy", and annexed territories totaling with a population of 13,299,000 inhabitants including Lithuanians,Russians, Belarusians, Ukrainians, Poles, Jews, Czechs and others.

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The Illustrated London News

The Illustrated London News appeared first on Saturday 14 May 1842, as the world's first illustrated weekly news magazine.

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The Times

The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.

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Theatre Royal, Drury Lane

The Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, commonly known as Drury Lane, is a West End theatre and Grade I listed building in Covent Garden, London, England.

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Todor Zhivkov

Todor Hristov Zhivkov (Тодор Христов Живков; 7 September 1911 – 5 August 1998) was the communist leader of the People's Republic of Bulgaria (PRB) from 4 March 1954 until 10 November 1989.

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Trieste (Trst) is a city and a seaport in northeastern Italy.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States Department of State

The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.

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United States Navy

The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.

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United States non-interventionism

Non-interventionism, the diplomatic policy whereby a nation seeks to avoid alliances with other nations in order to avoid being drawn into wars not related to direct territorial self-defense, has had a long history of popularity in the government and among the people of the United States at various periods in time.

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Vasily Rozanov

Vasily Vasilievich Rozanov (Васи́лий Васи́льевич Рóзанов; – 5 February 1919) was one of the most controversial Russian writers and philosophers of the pre-revolutionary epoch.

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Velvet Revolution

The Velvet Revolution (sametová revoluce) or Gentle Revolution (nežná revolúcia) was a non-violent transition of power in what was then Czechoslovakia, occurring from 17 November to 29 December 1989.

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Victims of Yalta

Victims of Yalta (British title) or The Secret Betrayal (American title) is a 1977 book by Nikolai Tolstoy that chronicles the fate of Soviet citizens who had been under German control during World War II and at its end fallen into the hands of the Western Allies.

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Vladimir Tismăneanu

Vladimir Tismăneanu (born July 4, 1951) is a Romanian and American political scientist, political analyst, sociologist, and professor at the University of Maryland, College Park.

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Vladko Maček

Vladimir "Vladko" Maček (20 June 1879 – 15 May 1964) was a Croatian politician in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and as a leader of the Croatian Peasant Party (HSS) following the 1928 assassination of Stjepan Radić, was a leading Croatian political figure until the Axis invasion of Yugoslavia in 1941.

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Vyacheslav Molotov

Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Molotov (né Skryabin; 9 March 1890 – 8 November 1986) was a Soviet politician and diplomat, an Old Bolshevik, and a leading figure in the Soviet government from the 1920s, when he rose to power as a protégé of Joseph Stalin.

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Warsaw Pact

The Warsaw Pact, formally known as the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, was a collective defence treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland among the Soviet Union and seven Soviet satellite states of Central and Eastern Europe during the Cold War.

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West Berlin

West Berlin (Berlin (West) or colloquially West-Berlin) was a political enclave which comprised the western part of Berlin during the years of the Cold War.

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West Germany

West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; Bundesrepublik Deutschland, BRD) in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990.

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Western betrayal

The concept of Western betrayal refers to the view that the United Kingdom and France failed to meet their legal, diplomatic, military and moral obligations with respect to the Czechoslovak and Polish nations during the prelude to and aftermath of World War II.

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Western Bloc

The Western Bloc during the Cold War refers to the countries allied with the United States and NATO against the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact.

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Westminster College (Missouri)

Westminster College is a private, residential, undergraduate college with a curriculum based on the liberal arts.

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Wildlife corridor

A wildlife corridor, habitat corridor, or green corridor is an area of habitat connecting wildlife populations separated by human activities or structures (such as roads, development, or logging).

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Winston Churchill

Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Yalta Conference

The Yalta Conference, also known as the Crimea Conference and code named the Argonaut Conference, held from 4 to 11 February 1945, was the World War II meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union for the purpose of discussing Germany and Europe's postwar reorganization.

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1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état

The 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état (often simply the Czech coup) (Únor 1948, Február 1948, both meaning "February 1948") – in Marxist historiography known as "Victorious February" (Vítězný únor, Víťazný február) – was an event late that February in which the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, with Soviet backing, assumed undisputed control over the government of Czechoslovakia, marking the onset of four decades of communist rule in the country.

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Redirects here:

Eiserner Vorhang, Iron Curtain speech, Iron curtain, Iron curtain nuclear battle, Jernteppe, Sinews of Peace, Teló d'acer, The Iron Curtain, The Sinews of Peace.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iron_Curtain

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