163 relations: Agave murpheyi, Agriculture, Alkali soil, Amenemhat III, American Society of Civil Engineers, Ancient Egypt, Andes, Anuradhapura, Aquifer, Arable land, Automation, Berm, Canal, Chain pump, China, Commerce, Common Era, Comprehensive Assessment of Water Management in Agriculture, Condensation, Consolidation (soil), Container garden, Controller (irrigation), Deficit irrigation, Desalination, Distribution uniformity, Drainage, Drainage basin, Drainage system (agriculture), Dryland farming, Dujiangyan, Dust, Earthscan, Economic water scarcity, Energy crop, Environmental impact of irrigation, Faiyum Oasis, Farm water, Fertigation, Flooding of the Nile, Fog collection, Food security, Geotextile, Gezira Scheme, Girnar, Global Positioning System, Golf course, Great Plains, Greenhouse, Groundwater, Growing season, ..., Han dynasty, Hangul, Heap leaching, History of Iran, Human overpopulation, Hydraulics, Indus Valley Civilisation, Industry, International Water Management Institute, Iran, Irrigation district, Irrigation management, Irrigation scheduling, Irrigation statistics, Jang Yeong-sil, Joseon, Korean language, Lake, Landscape, Lanzarote, Leaching (agriculture), Leaf sensor, Li Bing, Lift irrigation, List of countries by irrigated land area, Livestock, Logging, Meat, Mesopotamia, Microclimate, Nano Ganesh, New Orleans, New World, Niger River, Nile, Noria, North China Plain, Nubia, Nutrient, Overdrafting, Ox, Paddy field, Pandukabhaya of Anuradhapura, Parakramabahu I, Peru, Pharaoh, Phoenix, Arizona, Physical water scarcity, Plastic mulch, Pollution, Polonnaruwa, Polyethylene, Polypropylene, Public works, Punjab, Qanat, Qin (state), Radiocarbon dating, Rain, Rainfed agriculture, Rainwater harvesting, Reclaimed water, Reservoir, Revegetation, River, Roman Republic, Root, Sakia, Saline water, Sejong the Great, Sewage, Sichuan, Sinhalese people, Sodium adsorption ratio, Soil, Soil salinity, Soil salinity control, Solenoid valve, Southwestern United States, Spate irrigation, Spring (hydrology), Spring and Autumn period, Sri Lanka, Sub-irrigated planter, Sub-Saharan Africa, Subirrigation, Subsidence, Sunshu Ao, Surface irrigation, Tidal irrigation, Tom Dillehay, Truss, Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt, Urbanization, Valve, Warring States period, Water efficiency, Water pollution, Water resources, Water right, Water scarcity, Water table, Water tank, Water well, Water wheel, Watercourse, Watertable control, Weir, World Health Organization, Ximen Bao, 4th millennium BC, 5th millennium BC, 6th millennium BC. Expand index (113 more) » « Shrink index
Agave murpheyi is a species of agave.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Alkali, or Alkaline, soils are clay soils with high pH (> 8.5), a poor soil structure and a low infiltration capacity.
Amenemhat III, also spelled Amenemhet III, was a pharaoh of the Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt.
The American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) is a tax-exempt professional body founded in 1852 to represent members of the civil engineering profession worldwide.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
The Andes or Andean Mountains (Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world.
Anuradhapura (අනුරාධපුරය; Tamil: அனுராதபுரம்) is a major city in Sri Lanka.
An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock, rock fractures or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, or silt).
Arable land (from Latin arabilis, "able to be plowed") is, according to one definition, land capable of being ploughed and used to grow crops.
Automation is the technology by which a process or procedure is performed without human assistance.
A berm is a level space, shelf, or raised barrier (usually made of compacted soil) separating two areas.
Canals, or navigations, are human-made channels, or artificial waterways, for water conveyance, or to service water transport vehicles.
The chain pump is type of a water pump in which several circular discs are positioned on an endless chain.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Commerce relates to "the exchange of goods and services, especially on a large scale.” Commerce includes legal, economic, political, social, cultural and technological systems that operate in any country or internationally.
Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.
The report A Comprehensive Assessment of Water Management in Agriculture was published in 2007 by International Water Management Institute and Earthscan in an attempt to answer the question: how can water in agriculture be developed and managed to help end poverty and hunger, ensure environmentally sustainable practices, and find the right balance between food and environmental security?.
Condensation is the change of the physical state of matter from gas phase into liquid phase, and is the reverse of vapourisation.
Consolidation refers to the process by which soils change volume in response to a change in pressure.
Container gardening or pot gardening is the practice of growing plants, including edible plants, exclusively in containers instead of planting them in the ground.
An irrigation controller is a device to operate automatic irrigation systems such as lawn sprinklers and drip irrigation systems.
Deficit irrigation (DI) is a watering strategy that can be applied by different types of irrigation application methods.
Desalination is a process that extracts mineral components from saline water.
Distribution Uniformity or DU in irrigation is a measure of how uniformly water is applied to the area being watered, expressed as a ratio to avoid confusing it with efficiency.
Drainage is the natural or artificial removal of a surface's water and sub-surface water from an area.
A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water.
An agricultural drainage system is a system by which water is drained on or in the soil to enhance agricultural production of crops.
Dryland farming and dry farming are agricultural techniques for non-irrigated cultivation of crops.
The Dujiangyan is an ancient irrigation system in Dujiangyan City, Sichuan, China.
Dust are fine particles of matter.
Earthscan is an English-language publisher of books and journals on climate change, sustainable development and environmental technology for academic, professional and general readers.
Economic water scarcity is caused by a lack of investment in water infrastructure or insufficient human capacity to satisfy the demand of water in areas where the population cannot afford to use an adequate source of water.
An energy crop is a plant grown as a low-cost and low-maintenance harvest used to make biofuels, such as bioethanol, or combusted for its energy content to generate electricity or heat.
The environmental impacts of irrigation relate to the changes in quantity and quality of soil and water as a result of irrigation and the effects on natural and social conditions in river basins and downstream of an irrigation scheme.
The Faiyum Oasis (واحة الفيوم Waḥet El Fayyum) is a depression or basin in the desert immediately to the west of the Nile south of Cairo.
Farm water, also known as agricultural water, is water committed for use in the production of food and fiber.
Fertigation is the injection of fertilizers, soil amendments, and other water-soluble products into an irrigation system.
The flooding of the Nile has been an important natural cycle in Egypt since ancient times.
"Atrapanieblas" or fog collection in Alto Patache, Atacama Desert, Chile. Fog collection refers to the collection of water from fog using large pieces of vertical canvas to make the fog-droplets flow down towards a trough below the canvas, known as a fog fence.
Food security is a condition related to the availability of food supply, group of people such as (ethnicities, racial, cultural and religious groups) as well as individuals' access to it.
Geotextiles are permeable fabrics which, when used in association with soil, have the ability to separate, filter, reinforce, protect, or drain.
The Gezira Scheme (مشروع الجزيرة) is one of the largest irrigation projects in the world.
Girnar, also known as Girinagar ('city-on-the-hill') or Revatak Parvata, is a group of mountains in the Junagadh District of Gujarat, India, situated near Junagadh.
The Global Positioning System (GPS), originally Navstar GPS, is a satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government and operated by the United States Air Force.
A golf course is the grounds where the game of golf is played.
The Great Plains (sometimes simply "the Plains") is the broad expanse of flat land (a plain), much of it covered in prairie, steppe, and grassland, that lies west of the Mississippi River tallgrass prairie in the United States and east of the Rocky Mountains in the U.S. and Canada.
A greenhouse (also called a glasshouse) is a structure with walls and roof made mainly of transparent material, such as glass, in which plants requiring regulated climatic conditions are grown.
Groundwater is the water present beneath Earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.
The growing season is the part of the year during which local weather conditions (i.e. rainfall and temperature) permit normal plant growth.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul (from Korean hangeul 한글), has been used to write the Korean language since its creation in the 15th century by Sejong the Great.
Heap leaching is an industrial mining process to extract precious metals, copper, uranium, and other compounds from ore via a series of chemical reactions that absorb specific minerals and then re-separates them after their division from other earth materials.
The history of Iran, commonly also known as Persia in the Western world, is intertwined with the history of a larger region, also to an extent known as Greater Iran, comprising the area from Anatolia, the Bosphorus, and Egypt in the west to the borders of Ancient India and the Syr Darya in the east, and from the Caucasus and the Eurasian Steppe in the north to the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman in the south.
Human overpopulation (or population overshoot) occurs when the ecological footprint of a human population in a specific geographical location exceeds the carrying capacity of the place occupied by that group.
Hydraulics (from Greek: Υδραυλική) is a technology and applied science using engineering, chemistry, and other sciences involving the mechanical properties and use of liquids.
The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC), or Harappan Civilisation, was a Bronze Age civilisation (5500–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) mainly in the northwestern regions of South Asia, extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India.
Industry is the production of goods or related services within an economy.
The International Water Management Institute (IWMI) is a non-profit research organisation with headquarters in Colombo, Sri Lanka, and offices across Africa and Asia.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
In the United States an irrigation district is a cooperative, self-governing public corporation set up as a subdivision of the State government, with definite geographic boundaries, organized, and having taxing power to obtain and distribute water for irrigation of lands within the district; created under the authority of a State legislature with the consent of a designated fraction of the landowners or citizens.
Irrigation is the artificial exploitation and distribution of water at project level aiming at application of water at field level to agricultural crops in dry areas or in periods of scarce rainfall to assure or improve crop production.
Irrigation scheduling is the process used by irrigation system managers to determine the correct frequency and duration of watering.
This page shows statistical data on irrigation of agricultural lands worldwide.
Jang Yeong-sil (c. 1390 – after 1442) was a Korean engineer, scientist and inventor during the Joseon dynasty (1392–1897).
The Joseon dynasty (also transcribed as Chosŏn or Chosun, 조선; officially the Kingdom of Great Joseon, 대조선국) was a Korean dynastic kingdom that lasted for approximately five centuries.
The Korean language (Chosŏn'gŭl/Hangul: 조선말/한국어; Hanja: 朝鮮말/韓國語) is an East Asian language spoken by about 80 million people.
A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, that is surrounded by land, apart from any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake.
A landscape is the visible features of an area of land, its landforms and how they integrate with natural or man-made features.
Lanzarote is a Spanish island, the northernmost and easternmost of the autonomous Canary Islands in the Atlantic Ocean.
In agriculture, leaching refers to the loss of water-soluble plant nutrients from the soil, due to rain and irrigation.
A leaf sensor is a phytometric device (measurement of plant physiological processes) that measures water loss or the water deficit stress (WDS) in plants by real-time monitoring the moisture level in plant leaves.
Li Bing (c. 3rd century BC) was a Chinese irrigation engineer and politician of the Warring States period.
Periyar lift irrigation in Kadungallur, Kerala Lift irrigation is a method of irrigation in which water is not transported by natural flow, (as in gravity-fed canal) but is lifted with pumps or surge pools etc.
This is a list of countries by irrigated land area based on The World Factbook.
Livestock are domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce labor and commodities such as meat, eggs, milk, fur, leather, and wool.
Logging is the cutting, skidding, on-site processing, and loading of trees or logs onto trucks or skeleton cars.
Meat is animal flesh that is eaten as food.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
A microclimate is a local set of atmospheric conditions that differ from those in the surrounding areas, often with a slight difference but sometimes with a substantial one.
Nano Ganesh is a product which allows farmers to use mobile phones to remotely monitor and switch on irrigation pumps used for watering crops in remote locations.
New Orleans (. Merriam-Webster.; La Nouvelle-Orléans) is a major United States port and the largest city and metropolitan area in the state of Louisiana.
The New World is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).
The Niger River is the principal river of West Africa, extending about.
The Nile River (النيل, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew:, Ha-Ye'or or, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest.
A noria (ناعورة, nā‘ūra, from ܢܥܘܪܐ, nā‘urā) is a machine activated by water power and used for lifting water into a small aqueduct, either for the purpose of irrigation or for the use in towns and villages.
The North China Plain is based on the deposits of the Yellow River and is the largest alluvial plain of China.
Nubia is a region along the Nile river encompassing the area between Aswan in southern Egypt and Khartoum in central Sudan.
A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.
Overdrafting is the process of extracting groundwater beyond the equilibrium yield of the aquifer.
An ox (plural oxen), also known as a bullock in Australia and India, is a bovine trained as a draft animal or riding animal.
A paddy field is a flooded parcel of arable land used for growing semiaquatic rice.
Pandukabhaya (474 BC – 367 BC) was King of Upatissa Nuwara and the first monarch of the Anuradhapura Kingdom and 6th over all of the island of Sri Lanka since the arrival of the Vijaya, he reigned from 437 BC to 367 BC.
Parākramabāhu I (Pali Mahā Parākaramabāhu 1123–1186) was king of the Kingdom of Polonnaruwa from 1153-86.
Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
Pharaoh (ⲡⲣ̅ⲣⲟ Prro) is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty (c. 3150 BCE) until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until circa 1200 BCE.
Phoenix is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Arizona.
Physical water scarcity occurs when and where there is not enough water to meet both human demands and those of ecosystems to function effectively.
Plastic mulch is a product used, in a similar fashion to mulch, to suppress weeds and conserve water in crop production and landscaping.
Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change.
Poḷonnaruwa (Sinhalese: පොළොන්නරුව, Poḷonnaruwa or Puḷattipura, Tamil: பொலன்னறுவை, Polaṉṉaṟuvai or Puḷatti nakaram) is the main town of Polonnaruwa District in North Central Province, Sri Lanka.
Polyethylene or polythene (abbreviated PE; IUPAC name polyethene or poly(ethylene)) is the most common plastic.
Polypropylene (PP), also known as polypropene, is a thermoplastic polymer used in a wide variety of applications.
Public works (or internal improvements historically in the United States)Carter Goodrich, (Greenwood Press, 1960)Stephen Minicucci,, Studies in American Political Development (2004), 18:2:160-185 Cambridge University Press.
The Punjab, also spelled Panjab (land of "five rivers"; Punjabi: پنجاب (Shahmukhi); ਪੰਜਾਬ (Gurumukhi); Πενταποταμία, Pentapotamia) is a geographical and cultural region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India.
A qanāt (قنات) is a gently sloping underground channel to transport water from an aquifer or water well to surface for irrigation and drinking.
Qin (Old Chinese: *) was an ancient Chinese state during the Zhou dynasty.
Radiocarbon dating (also referred to as carbon dating or carbon-14 dating) is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon, a radioactive isotope of carbon.
Rain is liquid water in the form of droplets that have condensed from atmospheric water vapor and then becomes heavy enough to fall under gravity.
The term Rainfed agriculture is used to describe farming practices that rely on rainfall for water.
Rainwater harvesting is the accumulation and storage of rainwater for reuse on-site, rather than allowing it to run off.
Reclaimed or recycled water (also called wastewater reuse or water reclamation) is the process of converting wastewater into water that can be reused for other purposes.
A reservoir (from French réservoir – a "tank") is a storage space for fluids.
Revegetation is the process of replanting and rebuilding the soil of disturbed land.
A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
In vascular plants, the root is the organ of a plant that typically lies below the surface of the soil.
A sakia, alternative spelling sakieh or saqiya (from ساقية, sāqīya), also called Persian wheel, tablia, and in Latin tympanum is a mechanical water lifting device which uses buckets, jars, or scoops fastened either directly to a vertical wheel, or to an endless belt activated by such a wheel.
Saline water (more commonly known as salt water) is water that contains a high concentration of dissolved salts (mainly NaCl).
Sejong the Great (7 May 1397 – 8 April 1450) was the fourth king of Joseon-dynasty Korea.
Sewage (or domestic wastewater or municipal wastewater) is a type of wastewater that is produced from a community of people.
Sichuan, formerly romanized as Szechuan or Szechwan, is a province in southwest China occupying most of the Sichuan Basin and the easternmost part of the Tibetan Plateau between the Jinsha River on the west, the Daba Mountains in the north, and the Yungui Plateau to the south.
The Sinhalese (Sinhala: සිංහල ජාතිය Sinhala Jathiya, also known as Hela) are an Indo-Aryan-speaking ethnic group native to the island of Sri Lanka.
The Sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) is an irrigation water quality parameter used in the management of sodium-affected soils.
Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.
Soil salinity is the salt content in the soil; the process of increasing the salt content is known as salinization.
Soil salinity control relates to controlling the problem of soil salinity and reclaiming salinized agricultural land.
A solenoid valve is an electromechanical device in which the solenoid uses an electric current to generate a magnetic field and thereby operate a mechanism which regulates the opening of fluid flow in a valve.
The Southwestern United States (Suroeste de Estados Unidos; also known as the American Southwest) is the informal name for a region of the western United States.
Spate irrigation (from the English word spate, meaning: a. a flood or inundation. b. a river flooding its banks) uses seasonal floods of rivers, streams, ponds and lakes to fill water storage canals.
A spring is any natural situation where water flows from an aquifer to the Earth's surface.
The Spring and Autumn period was a period in Chinese history from approximately 771 to 476 BC (or according to some authorities until 403 BC) which corresponds roughly to the first half of the Eastern Zhou Period.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
Sub-irrigated planter (SIP) is a generic name for a special type of planting box used in container gardening and commercial landscaping.
Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.
Subirrigation also known as seepage irrigation, is a method of irrigation where water is delivered to the plant root zone The excess may be collected for reuse.
Subsidence is the motion of a surface (usually, the earth's surface) as it shifts downward relative to a datum such as sea level.
Sunshu Ao (孫叔敖, ca. 630, † ca. 593 BCE) was a Chinese hydrologist and politician.
Surface irrigation is defined as the group of application techniques where water is applied and distributed over the soil surface by gravity.
Tidal irrigation is the subsurface irrigation of levee soils in coastal plains with river water under tidal influence.
Tom Dillehay is an American anthropologist who is the Rebecca Webb Wilson University Distinguished Professor of Anthropology, Religion, and Culture and Professor of Anthropology at Vanderbilt University.
In engineering, a truss is a structure that "consists of two-force members only, where the members are organized so that the assemblage as a whole behaves as a single object".
The Twelfth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (Dynasty XII), is often combined with the Eleventh, Thirteenth and Fourteenth Dynasties under the group title Middle Kingdom.
Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural to urban residency, the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas, and the ways in which each society adapts to this change.
A valve is a device that regulates, directs or controls the flow of a fluid (gases, liquids, fluidized solids, or slurries) by opening, closing, or partially obstructing various passageways.
The Warring States period was an era in ancient Chinese history of warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation, following the Spring and Autumn period and concluding with the Qin wars of conquest that saw the annexation of all other contender states, which ultimately led to the Qin state's victory in 221 BC as the first unified Chinese empire known as the Qin dynasty.
Water efficiency is reducing water wastage by measuring the amount of water required for a particular purpose and the amount of water used or delivered.
Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies, usually as a result of human activities.
Water resources are natural resources of water that are potentially useful.
Water right in water law refers to the right of a user to use water from a water source, e.g., a river, stream, pond or source of groundwater.
Water scarcity is the lack of fresh water resources to meet water demand.
The water table is the upper surface of the zone of saturation.
A water tank is a container for storing water.
A water well is an excavation or structure created in the ground by digging, driving, boring, or drilling to access groundwater in underground aquifers.
A water wheel is a machine for converting the energy of flowing or falling water into useful forms of power, often in a watermill.
A watercourse is the channel that a flowing body of water follows.
Watertable control is the practice of controlling the height of the water table by drainage.
A weir or low head dam is a barrier across the horizontal width of a river that alters the flow characteristics of water and usually results in a change in the height of the river level.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
Ximen Bao was a Chinese hydraulic engineer, philosopher, and politician.
The 4th millennium BC spanned the years 4000 through 3001 BC.
The 5th millennium BC spanned the years 5000 through 4001 BC.
The 6th millennium BC spanned the years 6000 through 5001 BC.
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