228 relations: Abdomen, Abdominal distension, Abdominal pain, Algorithm, Allergy, Alosetron, Alverine, American Gastroenterological Association, Anemia, Anticholinergic, Antidepressant, Antiemetic, Antihistamine, Antileukotriene, Antispasmodic, Anxiety, Anxiety disorder, Appendectomy, Asthma, Ataxia, Atopy, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Autism, Autoimmune disease, Back pain, Bacteriocin, Bacteroidetes, Benzodiazepine, Bifidobacterium, Bile acid malabsorption, Bile acid sequestrant, Blastocystis, Blastocystosis, Bran, Candida albicans, Carcinoid syndrome, Cholecystectomy, Chronic condition, Chronic fatigue syndrome, Chymase, Cilansetron, Citric acid, Clozapine, Cochrane (organisation), Codeine, Coeliac disease, Cognitive behavioral therapy, Colitis, Colorectal cancer, Comorbidity, ..., Complete blood count, Constipation, Crossover study, Cytokine, Defecation, Depression (mood), Dermatitis, Developed country, Diarrhea, Dicycloverine, Dientamoeba fragilis, Dietary fiber, Diphenoxylate, Disaccharide, Doctor–patient relationship, Drug tolerance, Eating disorder, Electrolyte, Endometriosis, Endoscopy, Enteric coating, Enterochromaffin cell, Eosinophilic gastroenteritis, Epithelium, Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, Esophagus, Fatigue, Fatty acid, Fecal microbiota transplant, Fibromyalgia, Firmicutes, Flagellin, Flatulence, FODMAP, Folate deficiency, Food intolerance, Fructan, Fructose, Fructose malabsorption, Functional gastrointestinal disorder, Gallstone, Gastroenteritis, Gastroenterology, Gastroesophageal reflux disease, Gastrointestinal bleeding, Genitourinary system, Giardiasis, Gluten, Gluten-free diet, Gut flora, Gut–brain axis, Headache, Helicobacter pylori, Hemorrhoid, Histamine H1 receptor, Histamine H2 receptor, Histamine H3 receptor, Human leukocyte antigen, Hydrogen breath test, Hyoscyamine, Hypnosis, Hypnotic, Hypoesthesia, Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, Hysterectomy, Iberogast, Idiopathic disease, Infection, Inflammatory bowel disease, Innate immune system, Interstitial cystitis, Intestinal mucosal barrier, Intestinal permeability, Intraepithelial lymphocyte, Iron-deficiency anemia, Ischemic colitis, Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactose, Lactose intolerance, Lactulose, Large intestine, Laxative, Libido, Life expectancy, Ligand-gated ion channel, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Liver function tests, Loperamide, Lubiprostone, Major depressive disorder, Malnutrition, Manning criteria, Mast cell, Mast cell activation syndrome, Mast cell stabilizer, Mebeverine, Meditation, Mental disorder, Mesalazine, Meta-analysis, Metabolome, Microscopic colitis, Migraine, Mite, Monosaccharide, Mycobiota, Nausea, Nickel, Non-celiac gluten sensitivity, Novartis, Olanzapine, Oligosaccharide, Ondansetron, Opiate, Opioid, Otilonium bromide, Parasitism, Paresthesia, Parietaria, Patient education, Peppermint extract, Peripheral neuropathy, Physical dependence, Poaceae, Polyethylene glycol, Polyol, Probiotic, Prostaglandin, Prostaglandin D2, Prostaglandin D2 receptor, Protease-activated receptor 2, Proton-pump inhibitor, Protozoa, Psychotherapy, Psyllium, Pyrope, Quality of life, Randomized controlled trial, Rash, Rectal tenesmus, Rhinitis, Rifaximin, Rome process, Saccharomyces boulardii, Schizophrenia, Sedative, SeHCAT, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Serotonin, Shellfish, Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, Small intestine, Sorbitol, South America, Southeast Asia, Stool test, Stress (biology), Structural analog, Substance use disorder, Sympathetic nervous system, Symptomatic treatment, Tai chi, Tegaserod, Thyroid, Tricyclic antidepressant, Tropical sprue, Tryptase, Tryptophan, Ultrasound, Visceral pain, Vitamin D, Vitamin D deficiency, Wheat allergy, World Gastroenterology Organisation, Yoga, Yogurt, 5-HT3 receptor. Expand index (178 more) » « Shrink index
The abdomen (less formally called the belly, stomach, tummy or midriff) constitutes the part of the body between the thorax (chest) and pelvis, in humans and in other vertebrates.
Abdominal distension occurs when substances, such as air (gas) or fluid, accumulate in the abdomen causing its outward expansion beyond the normal girth of the stomach and waist.
Abdominal pain, also known as a stomach ache, is a symptom associated with both non-serious and serious medical issues.
In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems.
Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to typically harmless substances in the environment.
Alosetron (original brand name: Lotronex; originator: GSK) is a 5-HT3 antagonist used for the management of severe diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in women only.
Alverine is a drug used for functional gastrointestinal disorders.
The American Gastroenterological Association (AGA) is a medical association of gastroenterologists.
Anemia is a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood, or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen.
An anticholinergic agent is a substance that blocks the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and the peripheral nervous system.
Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, dependence, and sleep disorders.
An antiemetic is a drug that is effective against vomiting and nausea.
Antihistamines are drugs which treat allergic rhinitis and other allergies.
An antileukotriene is a drug which functions as a leukotriene-related enzyme inhibitor (arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase) or leukotriene receptor antagonist (cysteinyl leukotriene receptors) and consequently opposes the function of these inflammatory mediators; leukotrienes are produced by the immune system and serve to promote bronchoconstriction, inflammation, microvascular permeability, and mucus secretion in asthma and COPD.
An antispasmodic (synonym: spasmolytic) is a pharmaceutical drug or other agent that suppresses muscle spasms.
Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.
Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by significant feelings of anxiety and fear.
An appendectomy (known outside the United States as appendisectomy or appendicectomy) is a surgical operation in which the vermiform appendix (a portion of the intestine) is removed.
Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.
Ataxia is a neurological sign consisting of lack of voluntary coordination of muscle movements that includes gait abnormality.
Atopy is a predisposition toward developing certain allergic hypersensitivity reactions.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.
Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by troubles with social interaction and communication and by restricted and repetitive behavior.
An autoimmune disease is a condition arising from an abnormal immune response to a normal body part.
Back pain is pain felt in the back of the body.
Bacteriocins are proteinaceous or peptidic toxins produced by bacteria to inhibit the growth of similar or closely related bacterial strain(s).
The phylum Bacteroidetes is composed of three large classes of Gram-negative, nonsporeforming, anaerobic or aerobic, and rod-shaped bacteria that are widely distributed in the environment, including in soil, sediments, and sea water, as well as in the guts and on the skin of animals.
Benzodiazepines (BZD, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.
Bifidobacterium is a genus of gram-positive, nonmotile, often branched anaerobic bacteria.
Bile acid malabsorption, known also as bile acid diarrhea, is a cause of several gut-related problems, the main one being chronic diarrhea.
The bile acid sequestrants are a group of resins used to bind certain components of bile in the gastrointestinal tract.
Blastocystis is a genus of single-celled heterokont parasites belonging to a group of organisms known as the Stramenopiles (also called Heterokonts) that includes algae, diatoms, and water molds.
Blastocystosis refers to a medical condition caused by infection with Blastocystis.
Bran, also known as miller's bran, is the hard outer layers of cereal grain.
Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogenic yeast that is a common member of the human gut flora.
Carcinoid syndrome is a paraneoplastic syndrome comprising the signs and symptoms that occur secondary to carcinoid tumors.
Cholecystectomy is the surgical removal of the gallbladder.
A chronic condition is a human health condition or disease that is persistent or otherwise long-lasting in its effects or a disease that comes with time.
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), also referred to as myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), is a medical condition characterized by long-term fatigue and other symptoms that limit a person's ability to carry out ordinary daily activities.
Chymases (mast cell protease 1, skeletal muscle protease, skin chymotryptic proteinase, mast cell serine proteinase, skeletal muscle protease) are a family of serine proteases found primarily in mast cells, though also present in basophil granulocytes (e.g. alpha chymase mcpt8).
Cilansetron is a drug that is a 5HT-3 antagonist currently under trial phase in the EU and US it is manufactured by Solvay Pharmaceuticals INC.
Citric acid is a weak organic acid that has the chemical formula.
Clozapine, sold under the brand name Clozaril among others, is an atypical antipsychotic medication.
Cochrane is a non-profit, non-governmental organization formed to organize medical research findings so as to facilitate evidence-based choices about health interventions faced by health professionals, patients, and policy makers.
Codeine is an opiate used to treat pain, as a cough medicine, and for diarrhea. It is typically used to treat mild to moderate degrees of pain. Greater benefit may occur when combined with paracetamol (acetaminophen) or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) such as aspirin or ibuprofen. Evidence does not support its use for acute cough suppression in children or adults. In Europe it is not recommended as a cough medicine in those under twelve years of age. It is generally taken by mouth. It typically starts working after half an hour with maximum effect at two hours. The total duration of its effects last for about four to six hours. Common side effects include vomiting, constipation, itchiness, lightheadedness, and drowsiness. Serious side effects may include breathing difficulties and addiction. It is unclear if its use in pregnancy is safe. Care should be used during breastfeeding as it may result in opiate toxicity in the baby. Its use as of 2016 is not recommended in children. Codeine works following being broken down by the liver into morphine. How quickly this occurs depends on a person's genetics. Codeine was discovered in 1832 by Pierre Jean Robiquet. In 2013 about 361,000 kilograms of codeine were produced while 249,000 kilograms were used. This makes it the most commonly taken opiate. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. The wholesale cost in the developing world is between 0.04 and 0.29 USD per dose as of 2014. In the United States it costs about one dollar a dose. Codeine occurs naturally and makes up about 2% of opium.
Coeliac disease, also spelled celiac disease, is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects the small intestine.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a psycho-social intervention that is the most widely used evidence-based practice aimed at improving mental health.
Colitis is an inflammation of the colon.
Colorectal cancer (CRC), also known as bowel cancer and colon cancer, is the development of cancer from the colon or rectum (parts of the large intestine).
In medicine, comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional diseases or disorders co-occurring with (that is, concomitant or concurrent with) a primary disease or disorder; in the countable sense of the term, a comorbidity (plural comorbidities) is each additional disorder or disease.
A complete blood count (CBC), also known as a complete blood cell count, full blood count (FBC), or full blood exam (FBE), is a blood panel requested by a doctor or other medical professional that gives information about the cells in a patient's blood, such as the cell count for each cell type and the concentrations of various proteins and minerals.
Constipation refers to bowel movements that are infrequent or hard to pass.
A crossover study, also referred to as a crossover trial, is a longitudinal study in which subjects receive a sequence of different treatments (or exposures).
Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.
Defecation is the final act of digestion, by which organisms eliminate solid, semisolid, or liquid waste material from the digestive tract via the anus.
Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.
Dermatitis, also known as eczema, is a group of diseases that results in inflammation of the skin.
A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.
Dicycloverine, also known as dicyclomine, is a prescription medication that relieves muscle spasms in the gastrointestinal tract through an apparent mechanism of nonselective smooth muscle relaxation, and that presents a range of anticholinergic side effects.
Dientamoeba fragilis is a species of single-celled excavates found in the gastrointestinal tract of some humans, pigs and gorillas.
Dietary fiber or roughage is the indigestible portion of food derived from plants.
Diphenoxylate is a centrally active opioid drug of the phenylpiperidine series that is used in a combination drug with atropine for the treatment of diarrhea.
A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or bivose) is the sugar formed when two monosaccharides (simple sugars) are joined by glycosidic linkage.
The doctor–patient relationship is a central part of health care and the practice of medicine.
Drug tolerance is a pharmacological concept describing subjects' reduced reaction to a drug following its repeated use.
An eating disorder is a mental disorder defined by abnormal eating habits that negatively affect a person's physical or mental health.
An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.
Endometriosis is a condition in which the endometrium, the layer of tissue that normally covers the inside of the uterus, grows outside of it.
An endoscopy (looking inside) is used in medicine to look inside the body.
An enteric coating is a polymer barrier applied on oral medication that prevents its dissolution or disintegration in the gastric environment.
Enterochromaffin (EC) cells (also known as Kulchitsky cells), discovered by Nikolai Kulchitsky of Karazin Kharkiv National University.
Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EG) is a rare and heterogeneous condition characterized by patchy or diffuse eosinophilic infiltration of gastrointestinal (GI) tissue, first described by Kaijser in 1937.
Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.
The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR or sed rate) is the rate at which red blood cells sediment in a period of one hour.
The esophagus (American English) or oesophagus (British English), commonly known as the food pipe or gullet (gut), is an organ in vertebrates through which food passes, aided by peristaltic contractions, from the pharynx to the stomach.
Fatigue is a subjective feeling of tiredness that has a gradual onset.
In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated.
Fecal microbiota transplant (FMT), also known as a stool transplant, is the process of transplantation of fecal bacteria from a healthy individual into a recipient.
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a medical condition characterised by chronic widespread pain and a heightened pain response to pressure.
The Firmicutes (Latin: firmus, strong, and cutis, skin, referring to the cell wall) are a phylum of bacteria, most of which have Gram-positive cell wall structure.
Flagellin is a globular protein that arranges itself in a hollow cylinder to form the filament in a bacterial flagellum.
Flatulence is defined in the medical literature as "flatus expelled through the anus" or the "quality or state of being flatulent", which is defined in turn as "marked by or affected with gases generated in the intestine or stomach; likely to cause digestive flatulence".
FODMAPs are short chain carbohydrates that are poorly absorbed in the small intestine.
Folate deficiency is a low level of folic acid and derivatives in the body.
Food intolerance is a detrimental reaction, often delayed, to a food, beverage, food additive, or compound found in foods that produces symptoms in one or more body organs and systems, but generally refers to reactions other than food allergy.
A fructan is a polymer of fructose molecules.
Fructose, or fruit sugar, is a simple ketonic monosaccharide found in many plants, where it is often bonded to glucose to form the disaccharide sucrose.
Fructose malabsorption, formerly named "dietary fructose intolerance" (DFI), is a digestive disorder in which absorption of fructose is impaired by deficient fructose carriers in the small intestine's enterocytes.
Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID), also known as disorders of gut-brain interaction include a number of separate idiopathic disorders which affect different parts of the gastrointestinal tract and involve visceral hypersensitivity and impaired gastrointestinal motility.
A gallstone is a stone formed within the gallbladder out of bile components. The term cholelithiasis may refer to the presence of gallstones or to the diseases caused by gallstones. Most people with gallstones (about 80%) never have symptoms. When a gallstone blocks the bile duct, a crampy pain in the right upper part of the abdomen, known as biliary colic (gallbladder attack) can result. This happens in 1–4% of those with gallstones each year. Complications of gallstones may include inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis), inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis), jaundice, and infection of a bile duct (cholangitis). Symptoms of these complications may include pain of more than five hours duration, fever, yellowish skin, vomiting, dark urine, and pale stools. Risk factors for gallstones include birth control pills, pregnancy, a family history of gallstones, obesity, diabetes, liver disease, or rapid weight loss. The bile components that form gallstones include cholesterol, bile salts, and bilirubin. Gallstones formed mainly from cholesterol are termed cholesterol stones, and those mainly from bilirubin are termed pigment stones. Gallstones may be suspected based on symptoms. Diagnosis is then typically confirmed by ultrasound. Complications may be detected on blood tests. The risk of gallstones may be decreased by maintaining a healthy weight through sufficient exercise and eating a healthy diet. If there are no symptoms, treatment is usually not needed. In those who are having gallbladder attacks, surgery to remove the gallbladder is typically recommended. This can be carried out either through several small incisions or through a single larger incision, usually under general anesthesia. In rare cases when surgery is not possible medication may be used to try to dissolve the stones or lithotripsy to break down the stones. In developed countries, 10–15% of adults have gallstones. Rates in many parts of Africa, however, are as low as 3%. Gallbladder and biliary related diseases occurred in about 104 million people (1.6%) in 2013 and they resulted in 106,000 deaths. Women more commonly have stones than men and they occur more commonly after the age of 40. Certain ethnic groups have gallstones more often than others. For example, 48% of Native Americans have gallstones. Once the gallbladder is removed, outcomes are generally good.
Gastroenteritis, also known as infectious diarrhea, is inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract -- the stomach and small intestine.
Gastroenterology (MeSH heading) is the branch of medicine focused on the digestive system and its disorders.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), also known as acid reflux, is a long-term condition where stomach contents come back up into the esophagus resulting in either symptoms or complications.
Gastrointestinal bleeding (GI bleed), also known as gastrointestinal hemorrhage, is all forms of bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract, from the mouth to the rectum.
The genitourinary system or urogenital system is the organ system of the reproductive organs and the urinary system.
Giardiasis, popularly known as beaver fever, is a parasitic disease caused by Giardia lamblia.
Gluten (from Latin gluten, "glue") is a composite of storage proteins termed prolamins and glutelins and stored together with starch in the endosperm (which nourishes the embryonic plant during germination) of various cereal (grass) grains.
A gluten-free diet (GFD) is a diet that strictly excludes gluten, a mixture of proteins found in wheat and related grains, including barley, rye, oat, and all their species and hybrids (such as spelt, kamut, and triticale).
Gut flora, or gut microbiota, or gastrointestinal microbiota, is the complex community of microorganisms that live in the digestive tracts of humans and other animals, including insects.
The gut–brain axis is the biochemical signaling that takes place between the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) and the central nervous system (CNS).
Headache is the symptom of pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck.
Helicobacter pylori, previously known as Campylobacter pylori, is a gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium usually found in the stomach.
Hemorrhoids, also called piles, are vascular structures in the anal canal.
The H1 receptor is a histamine receptor belonging to the family of rhodopsin-like G-protein-coupled receptors.
H2 receptors are positively coupled to adenylate cyclase via Gs.
Histamine H3 receptors are expressed in the central nervous system and to a lesser extent the peripheral nervous system, where they act as autoreceptors in presynaptic histaminergic neurons, and also control histamine turnover by feedback inhibition of histamine synthesis and release.
The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system or complex is a gene complex encoding the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins in humans.
A hydrogen breath test (or HBT) is used as a diagnostic tool for small intestine bacterial overgrowth and carbohydrate malabsorption, such as lactose, fructose, and sorbitol malabsorption.
Hyoscyamine (also known as daturine) is a tropane alkaloid.
Hypnosis is a state of human consciousness involving focused attention and reduced peripheral awareness and an enhanced capacity to respond to suggestion.
Hypnotic (from Greek Hypnos, sleep) or soporific drugs, commonly known as sleeping pills, are a class of psychoactive drugs whose primary function is to induce sleep and to be used in the treatment of insomnia (sleeplessness), or surgical anesthesia.
Hypoesthesia (also spelled as hypesthesia) is a common side effect of various medical conditions which manifests as a reduced sense of touch or sensation, or a partial loss of sensitivity to sensory stimuli.
The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA axis or HTPA axis) is a complex set of direct influences and feedback interactions among three components: the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland (a pea-shaped structure located below the thalamus), and the adrenal (also called "suprarenal") glands (small, conical organs on top of the kidneys).
Hysterectomy is the surgical removal of the uterus.
Iberogast, also known as STW5, is a liquid formulation of nine herbs.
An idiopathic disease is any disease with an unknown cause or mechanism of apparently spontaneous origin.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of inflammatory conditions of the colon and small intestine.
The innate immune system, also known as the non-specific immune system or in-born immunity system, is an important subsystem of the overall immune system that comprises the cells and mechanisms involved in the defense of the host from infection by other organisms.
Interstitial cystitis (IC), also known as bladder pain syndrome (BPS), is a type of chronic pain that affects the bladder.
The intestinal mucosal barrier, also referred to as intestinal barrier, refers to the property of the intestinal mucosa that ensures adequate containment of undesirable luminal contents within the intestine while preserving the ability to absorb nutrients.
Intestinal permeability is a term describing the control of material passing from inside the gastrointestinal tract through the cells lining the gut wall, into the rest of the body.
Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) are lymphocytes found in the epithelial layer of mammalian mucosal linings, such as the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and reproductive tract.
Iron-deficiency anemia is anemia caused by a lack of iron.
Ischemic colitis (also spelled ischaemic colitis) is a medical condition in which inflammation and injury of the large intestine result from inadequate blood supply.
Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology is a peer reviewed medical journal covering gastroenterology and hepatology, published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Lactobacillus plantarum is a widespread member of the genus Lactobacillus, commonly found in many fermented food products as well as anaerobic plant matter.
Lactose is a disaccharide.
Lactose intolerance is a condition in which people have symptoms due to the decreased ability to digest lactose, a sugar found in dairy products.
Lactulose is a non-absorbable sugar used in the treatment of constipation and hepatic encephalopathy.
The large intestine, also known as the large bowel or colon, is the last part of the gastrointestinal tract and of the digestive system in vertebrates.
Laxatives, purgatives, or aperients are substances that loosen stools and increase bowel movements.
Libido, colloquially known as sex drive, is a person's overall sexual drive or desire for sexual activity.
Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.
Ligand-gated ion channels (LICs, LGIC), also commonly referred as ionotropic receptors, are a group of transmembrane ion-channel proteins which open to allow ions such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, and/or Cl− to pass through the membrane in response to the binding of a chemical messenger (i.e. a ligand), such as a neurotransmitter.
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins (LWW) is an imprint of the publishing conglomerate Wolters Kluwer.
Liver function tests (LFTs or LFs) are groups of blood tests that give information about the state of a patient's liver.
Loperamide, sold under the brand name Imodium among others, is a medication used to decrease the frequency of diarrhea.
Lubiprostone (rINN, marketed under the trade name Amitiza among others) is a medication used in the management of chronic idiopathic constipation, predominantly irritable bowel syndrome-associated constipation in women and opioid-induced constipation.
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.
Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which one or more nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems.
The Manning criteria are a diagnostic algorithm used in the diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).
A mast cell (also known as a mastocyte or a labrocyte) is a type of white blood cell.
Mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS) is one type of mast cell activation disorder (MCAD), and is an immunological condition in which mast cells inappropriately and excessively release chemical mediators, resulting in a range of chronic symptoms, sometimes including anaphylaxis or near-anaphylaxis attacks.
Mast cell stabilizers are chromone medications used to prevent or control certain allergic disorders.
Mebeverine is a drug used to alleviate some of the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome.
Meditation can be defined as a practice where an individual uses a technique, such as focusing their mind on a particular object, thought or activity, to achieve a mentally clear and emotionally calm state.
A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.
Mesalazine, also known as mesalamine or 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), is an aminosalicylate anti-inflammatory drug.
A meta-analysis is a statistical analysis that combines the results of multiple scientific studies.
The metabolome refers to the complete set of small-molecule chemicals found within a biological sample.
Microscopic colitis refers to two related medical conditions which cause diarrhea: collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis.
A migraine is a primary headache disorder characterized by recurrent headaches that are moderate to severe.
Mites are small arthropods belonging to the class Arachnida and the subclass Acari (also known as Acarina).
Monosaccharides (from Greek monos: single, sacchar: sugar), also called simple sugars, are the most basic units of carbohydrates.
Mycobiota (plural noun, no singular) are a group of all the fungi present in a particular geographic region (e.g. "the mycobiota of Ireland") or habitat type (e.g. "the mycobiota of cocoa").
Nausea or queasiness is an unpleasant sense of unease, discomfort, and revulsion towards food.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) or gluten sensitivity is defined as "a clinical entity induced by the ingestion of gluten leading to intestinal and/or extraintestinal symptoms that improve once the gluten-containing foodstuff is removed from the diet, and celiac disease and wheat allergy have been excluded".
Novartis International AG is a Swiss multinational pharmaceutical company based in Basel, Switzerland.
Olanzapine (originally branded Zyprexa) is an antipsychotic medication used to treat schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
An oligosaccharide (from the Greek ὀλίγος olígos, "a few", and σάκχαρ sácchar, "sugar") is a saccharide polymer containing a small number (typically three to ten) of monosaccharides (simple sugars).
Ondansetron, marketed under the brand name Zofran, is a medication used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery.
Opiate is a term classically used in pharmacology to mean a drug derived from opium.
Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.
Otilonium bromide is an antimuscarinic and calcium channel blocker used to relieve spasmodic pain of the gut, especially in irritable bowel syndrome.
In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.
Paresthesia is an abnormal sensation such as tingling, tickling, pricking, numbness or burning of a person's skin with no apparent physical cause.
Parietaria is a genus of flowering plants in the family Urticaceae, native to temperate and tropical regions across the world.
Patient education is the process by which health professionals and others impart information to patients and their caregivers that will alter their health behaviors or improve their health status.
Peppermint extract is an herbal extract of peppermint (Mentha x piperita) made from the essential oils of peppermint leaves.
Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is damage to or disease affecting nerves, which may impair sensation, movement, gland or organ function, or other aspects of health, depending on the type of nerve affected.
Physical dependence is a physical condition caused by chronic use of a tolerance forming drug, in which abrupt or gradual drug withdrawal causes unpleasant physical symptoms.
Poaceae or Gramineae is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as grasses, commonly referred to collectively as grass.
Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a polyether compound with many applications from industrial manufacturing to medicine.
A polyol is an organic compound containing multiple hydroxyl groups.
Probiotics are microorganisms that are claimed to provide health benefits when consumed.
The prostaglandins (PG) are a group of physiologically active lipid compounds having diverse hormone-like effects in animals.
Prostaglandin D2 (or PGD2) is a prostaglandin that binds to the receptor PTGDR (DP1), as well as CRTH2 (DP2).
The prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) receptors are G protein-coupled receptors that bind and are activated by prostaglandin D2.
Protease activated receptor 2 (PAR2) also known as coagulation factor II (thrombin) receptor-like 1 (F2RL1) or G-protein coupled receptor 11 (GPR11) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the F2RL1 gene.
Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) are a group of drugs whose main action is a pronounced and long-lasting reduction of stomach acid production.
Protozoa (also protozoan, plural protozoans) is an informal term for single-celled eukaryotes, either free-living or parasitic, which feed on organic matter such as other microorganisms or organic tissues and debris.
Psychotherapy is the use of psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction, to help a person change behavior and overcome problems in desired ways.
Psyllium, or ispaghula, is the common name used for several members of the plant genus Plantago whose seeds are used commercially for the production of mucilage.
The mineral pyrope is a member of the garnet group.
Quality of life (QOL) is the general well-being of individuals and societies, outlining negative and positive features of life.
A randomized controlled trial (or randomized control trial; RCT) is a type of scientific (often medical) experiment which aims to reduce bias when testing a new treatment.
A rash is a change of the human skin which affects its color, appearance, or texture.
Rectal tenesmus (tēnesmus, from Greek τεινεσμός teinesmos, from τείνω teínō to stretch, strain) is a feeling of incomplete defecation.
Rhinitis, also known as coryza, is irritation and inflammation of the mucous membrane inside the nose.
Rifaximin, sold under the trade name Xifaxan among others, is an antibiotic used to treat traveler's diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, and hepatic encephalopathy.
The Rome process and Rome criteria are an international effort to create scientific data to help in the diagnosis and treatment of functional gastrointestinal disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome, functional dyspepsia and rumination syndrome.
Saccharomyces boulardii is a tropical species of yeast first isolated from lychee and mangosteen fruit in 1923 by French scientist Henri Boulard.
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand reality.
A sedative or tranquilliser is a substance that induces sedation by reducing irritability or excitement.
SeHCAT (23-seleno-25-homotaurocholic acid, selenium homocholic acid taurine, or tauroselcholic acid) is a drug used in a clinical test to diagnose bile acid malabsorption.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of drugs that are typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders.
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
Shellfish is a food source and fisheries term for exoskeleton-bearing aquatic invertebrates used as food, including various species of molluscs, crustaceans, and echinoderms.
Small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), also termed bacterial overgrowths, or small bowel bacterial overgrowth syndrome (SBBOS), is a disorder of excessive bacterial growth in the small intestine.
The small intestine or small bowel is the part of the gastrointestinal tract between the stomach and the large intestine, and is where most of the end absorption of food takes place.
Sorbitol, less commonly known as glucitol, is a sugar alcohol with a sweet taste which the human body metabolizes slowly.
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
A stool test involves the collection and analysis of fecal matter to diagnose the presence or absence of a medical condition.
Physiological or biological stress is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition.
A structural analog, also known as a chemical analog or simply an analog, is a compound having a structure similar to that of another compound, but differing from it in respect to a certain component.
A substance use disorder (SUD), also known as a drug use disorder, is a condition in which the use of one or more substances leads to a clinically significant impairment or distress.
The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system.
Symptomatic treatment is any medical therapy of a disease that only affects its symptoms, not its cause, i.e., its etiology.
Tai chi (taiji), short for T'ai chi ch'üan, or Taijiquan (pinyin: tàijíquán; 太极拳), is an internal Chinese martial art practiced for both its defense training and its health benefits.
Tegaserod is a 5-HT4 agonist manufactured by Novartis and sold under the names Zelnorm and Zelmac for the management of irritable bowel syndrome and constipation.
The thyroid gland, or simply the thyroid, is an endocrine gland in the neck, consisting of two lobes connected by an isthmus.
Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are a class of medications that are used primarily as antidepressants.
Tropical sprue is a malabsorption disease commonly found in tropical regions, marked with abnormal flattening of the villi and inflammation of the lining of the small intestine.
Tryptase is the most abundant secretory granule-derived serine proteinase contained in mast cells and has been used as a marker for mast cell activation.
Tryptophan (symbol Trp or W) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Ultrasound is sound waves with frequencies higher than the upper audible limit of human hearing.
Visceral pain is pain that results from the activation of nociceptors of the thoracic, pelvic, or abdominal viscera (organs).
Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and multiple other biological effects.
Vitamin D deficiency, or hypovitaminosis D, most commonly results from inadequate sunlight exposure (in particular sunlight with adequate ultraviolet B rays).
Wheat allergy is an allergy to wheat which typically presents itself as a food allergy, but can also be a contact allergy resulting from occupational exposure.
The World Gastroenterology Organisation (WGO) is an international federation of over 100 national GI societies and 4 regional associations of gastroenterology representing over 50,000 individual members.
Yoga (Sanskrit, योगः) is a group of physical, mental, and spiritual practices or disciplines which originated in ancient India.
Yogurt, yoghurt, or yoghourt (or; from yoğurt; other spellings listed below) is a food produced by bacterial fermentation of milk.
The 5-HT3 receptor belongs to the Cys-loop superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs) and therefore differs structurally and functionally from all other 5-HT receptors (5-hydroxytryptamine, or serotonin) receptors which are G protein-coupled receptors.
Colon irritable, IBS syndrome, IBS-A, IBS-C, IBS-D, IBS-M, IBS-PI, IBS-U, Irritable Bowel Disease, Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Irritable bowel, Irritable bowel disease, Mucous colitis, Nervous colon syndrome, Postinfectious IBS, Rome II Conference, Spastic Bowel Syndrome, Spastic bowel syndrome, Spastic colon, Splenic flexure syndrome, Splenic-flexure syndrome.