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Irving Langmuir

Index Irving Langmuir

Irving Langmuir (January 31, 1881 – August 16, 1957) was an American chemist and physicist. [1]

105 relations: Acid, Aircraft pilot, Alcohol, Aliphatic compound, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, American Chemical Society, Argon, Atmospheric sciences, Atomic hydrogen welding, Bernard Vonnegut, Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society, Blood plasma, Brooklyn, Cat's Cradle, Chemistry, Chestnut Hill Academy, Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia, Classical music, Cloud seeding, Cold fusion, Columbia University, Cubical atom, Deer botfly, Deicing, Diffusion pump, Dry ice, Electron shell, Extrasensory perception, Faraday Lectureship Prize, Faraday Medal, Flying saucer, Franklin Medal, Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science, Gas tungsten arc welding, Göttingen, General Electric, Gilbert N. Lewis, Hobby, Hoboken, New Jersey, Hughes Medal, Hydrogen, Hydrophile, Hydrophobe, Ice-nine, Incandescent light bulb, Inert gas, Institute of Radio Engineers, Iodide, Irving Langmuir House, Isotope, ..., John J. Carty Award for the Advancement of Science, Katharine Burr Blodgett, Kurt Vonnegut, Langmuir (journal), Langmuir adsorption model, Langmuir circulation, Langmuir Laboratory for Atmospheric Research, Langmuir probe, Langmuir states, Langmuir–Blodgett film, Langmuir–Blodgett trough, Langmuir–Taylor detector, Lewi Tonks, Metallurgy, Meteorology, Monolayer, Mountaineering, National Academy of Sciences, National Historic Landmark, Nernst glower, New York (state), Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Pathological science, Perkin Medal, Physics, Plasma (physics), Plasma oscillation, Polywater, Pseudoscience, Royal Society, Sargasso Sea, Schenectady, New York, Science History Institute, Scientific method, Skiing, Socorro, New Mexico, Sonar, Space charge, Spectroscopy, Stevens Institute of Technology, Stony Brook University, Surface science, The New York Times, Thermionic emission, Tungsten, University of Göttingen, Walther Kossel, Walther Nernst, Willard Gibbs Award, William Comings White, Windrow, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, World War I, World War II, 18-electron rule. Expand index (55 more) »


An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).

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Aircraft pilot

An aircraft pilot or aviator is a person who controls the flight of an aircraft by operating its directional flight controls.

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In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.

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Aliphatic compound

In organic chemistry, hydrocarbons (compounds composed of carbon and hydrogen) are divided into two classes: aromatic compounds and aliphatic compounds (G. aleiphar, fat, oil) also known as non-aromatic compounds.

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American Academy of Arts and Sciences

The American Academy of Arts and Sciences is one of the oldest learned societies in the United States of America.

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American Chemical Society

The American Chemical Society (ACS) is a scientific society based in the United States that supports scientific inquiry in the field of chemistry.

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Argon is a chemical element with symbol Ar and atomic number 18.

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Atmospheric sciences

Atmospheric science is the study of the Earth's atmosphere, its processes, the effects other systems have on the atmosphere, and the effects of the atmosphere on these other systems.

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Atomic hydrogen welding

Atomic hydrogen welding (AHW) is an arc welding process that uses an arc between two tungsten electrodes in a shielding atmosphere of hydrogen.

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Bernard Vonnegut

Bernard Vonnegut (August 29, 1914 – April 25, 1997) was an American atmospheric scientist credited with discovering that silver iodide could be used effectively in cloud seeding to produce snow and rain.

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Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society

The Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society is an academic journal on the history of science published annually by the Royal Society.

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Blood plasma

Blood plasma is a yellowish coloured liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension; this makes plasma the extracellular matrix of blood cells.

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Brooklyn is the most populous borough of New York City, with a census-estimated 2,648,771 residents in 2017.

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Cat's Cradle

Cat's Cradle is the fourth novel by American writer Kurt Vonnegut, first published in 1963.

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Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.

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Chestnut Hill Academy

Chestnut Hill Academy (CHA) is an all-male Pre-K through 12 independent college preparatory school located in northwest Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

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Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia

Chestnut Hill is a neighborhood in the Northwest Philadelphia section of the United States city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

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Classical music

Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture, including both liturgical (religious) and secular music.

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Cloud seeding

Cloud seeding is a form of weather modification that changes the amount or type of precipitation that falls from clouds, by dispersing substances into the air that serve as cloud condensation or ice nuclei, which alter the microphysical processes within the cloud.

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Cold fusion

Cold fusion is a hypothesized type of nuclear reaction that would occur at, or near, room temperature.

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Columbia University

Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.

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Cubical atom

The cubical atom was an early atomic model in which electrons were positioned at the eight corners of a cube in a non-polar atom or molecule.

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Deer botfly

The name deer botfly (also deer nose bot) refers to any species in the genus Cephenemyia (sometimes misspelled as Cephenomyia or Cephenemya), within the family Oestridae.

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De-icing is the process of removing snow, ice or frost from a surface.

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Diffusion pump

Diffusion pumps use a high speed jet of vapor to direct gas molecules in the pump throat down into the bottom of the pump and out the exhaust.

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Dry ice

Dry ice, sometimes referred to as "cardice" (chiefly by British chemists), is the solid form of carbon dioxide.

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Electron shell

In chemistry and atomic physics, an electron shell, or a principal energy level, may be thought of as an orbit followed by electrons around an atom's nucleus.

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Extrasensory perception

Extrasensory perception or ESP, also called sixth sense or second sight, includes claimed reception of information not gained through the recognized physical senses, but sensed with the mind.

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Faraday Lectureship Prize

The Faraday Lectureship Prize, previously known simply as the Faraday Lectureship is awarded once every three years (approximately) by the Royal Society of Chemistry for "exceptional contributions to physical or theoretical chemistry".

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Faraday Medal

The Faraday Medal is the top medal awarded by the Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET) (previously called the Institution of Electrical Engineers).

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Flying saucer

A flying saucer (also referred to as "a flying disc") is a descriptive term for a supposed type of flying craft having a disc or saucer-shaped body, commonly used generically to refer to an anomalous flying object.

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Franklin Medal

The Franklin Medal was a science award presented from 1915 through 1997 by the Franklin Institute located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S. It was founded in 1914 by Samuel Insull.

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Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science

The Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science (popularly known as SEAS or Columbia Engineering) is the engineering and applied science school of Columbia University.

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Gas tungsten arc welding

Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), also known as tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding, is an arc welding process that uses a non-consumable tungsten electrode to produce the weld.

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Göttingen (Low German: Chöttingen) is a university city in Lower Saxony, Germany.

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General Electric

General Electric Company (GE) is an American multinational conglomerate incorporated in New York and headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts.

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Gilbert N. Lewis

Gilbert Newton Lewis (October 25 (or 23), 1875 – March 23, 1946) was an American physical chemist known for the discovery of the covalent bond and his concept of electron pairs; his Lewis dot structures and other contributions to valence bond theory have shaped modern theories of chemical bonding.

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A hobby is a regular activity that is done for enjoyment, typically during one's leisure time.

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Hoboken, New Jersey

Hoboken (Unami: Hupokàn) is a city in Hudson County, New Jersey, United States.

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Hughes Medal

The Hughes Medal is awarded by the Royal Society of London "in recognition of an original discovery in the physical sciences, particularly electricity and magnetism or their applications".

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Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.

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A hydrophile is a molecule or other molecular entity that is attracted to water molecules and tends to be dissolved by water.

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In chemistry, hydrophobicity is the physical property of a molecule (known as a hydrophobe) that is seemingly repelled from a mass of water.

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Ice-nine is a fictional material that appears in Kurt Vonnegut's novel Cat's Cradle.

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Incandescent light bulb

An incandescent light bulb, incandescent lamp or incandescent light globe is an electric light with a wire filament heated to such a high temperature that it glows with visible light (incandescence).

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Inert gas

An inert gas/noble gas is a gas which does not undergo chemical reactions under a set of given conditions.

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Institute of Radio Engineers

The Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE) was a professional organization which existed from 1912 until December 31, 1962.

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An iodide ion is the ion I−.

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Irving Langmuir House

The Irving Langmuir House was the home of physicist-chemist Irving Langmuir, winner of the 1932 Nobel Prize during his research career with General Electric.

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Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.

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John J. Carty Award for the Advancement of Science

The John J. Carty Award for the Advancement of Science is awarded by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences "for noteworthy and distinguished accomplishments in any field of science within the charter of the Academy".

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Katharine Burr Blodgett

Katharine Burr Blodgett (January 10, 1898 – October 12, 1979) was an American physicist and chemist known for her work on surface chemistry, in particular her invention of "invisible" or nonreflective glass while working at General Electric. She was the first woman to be awarded a Ph.D. in physics from the University of Cambridge, in 1926.

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Kurt Vonnegut

Kurt Vonnegut Jr. (November 11, 1922April 11, 2007) was an American writer.

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Langmuir (journal)

Langmuir is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 1985 and is published by the American Chemical Society.

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Langmuir adsorption model

The Langmuir adsorption model explains adsorption by assuming an adsorbate behaves as an ideal gas at isothermal conditions.

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Langmuir circulation

In physical oceanography, Langmuir circulation consists of a series of shallow, slow, counter-rotating vortices at the ocean's surface aligned with the wind.

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Langmuir Laboratory for Atmospheric Research

The Langmuir Laboratory for Atmospheric Research is a scientific laboratory studying the cloud processes that produce lightning, hail, and rain, located in the Magdalena Mountains of central New Mexico in the United States.

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Langmuir probe

A Langmuir probe is a device used to determine the electron temperature, electron density, and electric potential of a plasma.

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Langmuir states

In quantum mechanics Langmuir states are certain quantum states of Helium that in the classical limit correspond to two parallel circular orbits of electrons one above the other and with the nucleus in between.

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Langmuir–Blodgett film

A Langmuir–Blodgett film contains one or more monolayers of an organic material, deposited from the surface of a liquid onto a solid by immersing (or emersing) the solid substrate into (or from) the liquid.

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Langmuir–Blodgett trough

A Langmuir–Blodgett trough (LB trough) is a laboratory apparatus that is used to compress monolayers of molecules on the surface of a given subphase (usually water) and measures surface phenomena due to this compression.

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Langmuir–Taylor detector

A Langmuir–Taylor detector, also called surface ionization detector or hot wire detector, is a kind of detector developed by Taylor based on the work of Langmuir and Kingdon.

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Lewi Tonks

Lewi Tonks (1897–1971) was an American quantum physicist noted for his discovery (with Marvin D. Girardeau) of the Tonks-Girardeau gas.

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Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their inter-metallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys.

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Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with a major focus on weather forecasting.

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A monolayer is a single, closely packed layer of atoms, molecules, or cells.

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Mountaineering is the sport of mountain climbing.

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National Academy of Sciences

The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a United States nonprofit, non-governmental organization.

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National Historic Landmark

A National Historic Landmark (NHL) is a building, district, object, site, or structure that is officially recognized by the United States government for its outstanding historical significance.

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Nernst glower

The Nernst glower is an obsolete device for providing a continuous source of (near) infrared radiation for use in spectroscopy.

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New York (state)

New York is a state in the northeastern United States.

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Nobel Prize in Chemistry

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry (Nobelpriset i kemi) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry.

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Pathological science

Pathological science is an area of research where "people are tricked into false results...

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Perkin Medal

The Perkin Medal is an award given annually by the Society of Chemical Industry (American Section) to a scientist residing in America for an "innovation in applied chemistry resulting in outstanding commercial development." It is considered the highest honor given in the US chemical industry.

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Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

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Plasma (physics)

Plasma (Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek English Lexicon, on Perseus) is one of the four fundamental states of matter, and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir in the 1920s.

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Plasma oscillation

Plasma oscillations, also known as Langmuir waves (after Irving Langmuir), are rapid oscillations of the electron density in conducting media such as plasmas or metals in the ultraviolet region.

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Polywater was a hypothesized polymerized form of water that was the subject of much scientific controversy during the late 1960s.

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Pseudoscience consists of statements, beliefs, or practices that are claimed to be both scientific and factual, but are incompatible with the scientific method.

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Royal Society

The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.

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Sargasso Sea

The Sargasso Sea is a region of the North Atlantic Ocean bounded by four currents forming an ocean gyre.

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Schenectady, New York

Schenectady is a city in Schenectady County, New York, United States, of which it is the county seat.

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Science History Institute

The Science History Institute is an institution that preserves and promotes understanding of the history of science.

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Scientific method

Scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition, which has characterized the development of natural science since at least the 17th century, involving careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what one observes, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept; formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental testing and measurement of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.

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Skiing can be a means of transport, a recreational activity or a competitive winter sport in which the participant uses skis to glide on snow.

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Socorro, New Mexico

Socorro is a city in Socorro County in the U.S. state of New Mexico.

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Sonar (originally an acronym for SOund Navigation And Ranging) is a technique that uses sound propagation (usually underwater, as in submarine navigation) to navigate, communicate with or detect objects on or under the surface of the water, such as other vessels.

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Space charge

Space charge is a concept in which excess electric charge is treated as a continuum of charge distributed over a region of space (either a volume or an area) rather than distinct point-like charges.

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Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.

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Stevens Institute of Technology

Stevens Institute of Technology (SIT) is a private, coeducational research university located in Hoboken, New Jersey, United States.

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Stony Brook University

The State University of New York at Stony Brook (also known as Stony Brook University or SUNY Stony Brook) is a public sea-grant and space-grant research university in the eastern United States.

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Surface science

Surface science is the study of physical and chemical phenomena that occur at the interface of two phases, including solid–liquid interfaces, solid–gas interfaces, solid–vacuum interfaces, and liquid–gas interfaces.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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Thermionic emission

Thermionic emission is the thermally induced flow of charge carriers from a surface or over a potential-energy barrier.

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Tungsten, or wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W (referring to wolfram) and atomic number 74.

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University of Göttingen

The University of Göttingen (Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, GAU, known informally as Georgia Augusta) is a public research university in the city of Göttingen, Germany.

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Walther Kossel

Walther Ludwig Julius Kossel (4 January 1888 in Berlin, Germany – 22 May 1956 in Tübingen, Germany) was a German physicist known for his theory of the chemical bond (ionic bond/octet rule), Sommerfeld–Kossel displacement law of atomic spectra, the Kossel-Stranski model for crystal growth, and the Kossel effect.

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Walther Nernst

Walther Hermann Nernst, (25 June 1864 – 18 November 1941) was a German chemist who is known for his work in thermodynamics; his formulation of the Nernst heat theorem helped pave the way for the third law of thermodynamics, for which he won the 1920 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

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Willard Gibbs Award

The Willard Gibbs Award, presented by the of the American Chemical Society, was established in 1910 by William A. Converse (1862–1940), a former Chairman and Secretary of the Chicago Section of the society and named for Professor Josiah Willard Gibbs (1839–1903) of Yale University.

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William Comings White

William Comings White (1890–1965) was an electrical engineer.

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A windrow is a row of cut (mown) hay or small grain crop.

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Woods Hole, Massachusetts

Woods Hole is a census-designated place in the town of Falmouth in Barnstable County, Massachusetts, United States.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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18-electron rule

The 18-electron rule is a rule used primarily for predicting and rationalizing formulae for stable metal complexes, especially organometallic compounds.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irving_Langmuir

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