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Isaac Newton

Index Isaac Newton

Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution. [1]

327 relations: Abraham de la Pryme, Action at a distance, Adam Smith, Age of Enlightenment, Albert Einstein, Alchemy, Alexander Pope, An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture, Analytic geometry, Anglicanism, Anne, Queen of Great Britain, Anthony Hammond, Apple, Arianism, Aristotle, Arithmetica Universalis, Arius, Arthur Annesley, 5th Earl of Anglesey, Astronomer, Astronomer Royal, Astronomy, Athanasian Creed, Athanasius of Alexandria, Atheism, Augustin-Jean Fresnel, Author, Axial precession, Balseiro Institute, Bank of England, Banknotes of the pound sterling, Baruch Spinoza, Benjamin Pulleyn, Binomial series, Binomial theorem, Boyle's law, British Library, Calculus, Cambridge University (UK Parliament constituency), Cambridge University Botanic Garden, Cambridge University Press, Carl Sagan, Catherine Barton, Celestial mechanics, Chancellor of the Exchequer, Charles Hutton, Charles II of England, Charles Marie de La Condamine, Charles Montagu, 1st Earl of Halifax, Charlotte Mary Yonge, Christiaan Huygens, ..., Christian mysticism, Chromatic aberration, Chronology of the Bible, Church Fathers, Church of England, Classical mechanics, Collins English Dictionary, Comet, Comptroller, Continental Europe, Corpuscularianism, Counterfeit, Cranbury Park, Cubic plane curve, David Brewster, De analysi per aequationes numero terminorum infinitas, De Motu (Berkeley's essay), De motu corporum in gyrum, Debasement, Deism, Diffraction, Diophantine equation, Dispersion (optics), Dispersive prism, Dynamics (mechanics), E. T. Whittaker, Eamon Duffy, Earth, Eastern Orthodox Church, Edmond Halley, Eduardo Paolozzi, Edward Finch (composer), Electrostatic generator, Elements of the Philosophy of Newton, English law, Enthusiasm, Epitaph, Eric W. Weisstein, Euler–Maclaurin formula, Fellow of the Royal Society, Finite difference, Florian Cajori, Flower of Kent, Foundations of Science, Francis Bacon, French Academy of Sciences, Fritz Leiber, Galileo Galilei, Gauss–Newton algorithm, General election, General Scholium, George Herbert, Glossary of calculus, Godfrey Kneller, Gold standard, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Gravity, Great Apostasy, Great Plague of London, Great Recoinage of 1696, Gregorian calendar, Guinness World Records, Hamlet (place), Hanged, drawn and quartered, Hans Sloane, Harmonic series (mathematics), Harvard University Press, Heliocentrism, Henry Boyle, 1st Baron Carleton, Henry More, Heresy, Hermeticism, High treason in the United Kingdom, History of calculus, History of the telescope, Holy orders, Hopton Haynes, Hylozoism, I. Bernard Cohen, Idolatry, Immanence, Indiana University, Indiana University Bloomington, Industrial Revolution, Internet Archive, Intestacy, Isaac Barrow, Isaac Newton's occult studies, Ismaël Bullialdus, James Burnett, Lord Monboddo, James Clerk Maxwell, James Stirling (mathematician), Jermyn Street, Jesus, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johannes Kepler, John Collins (mathematician), John Conduitt, John Dollond, John Flamsteed, John Keble, John Locke, John Maynard Keynes, John Michael Rysbrack, John Somers, 1st Baron Somers, Joseph-Louis Lagrange, Julian calendar, Justice of the peace, Kensington, Kepler's laws of planetary motion, Kingdom of England, Knight, Knight Bachelor, Laser linewidth, Latitudinarian, Leibniz–Clarke correspondence, Leibniz–Newton calculus controversy, Lens (optics), Lincolnshire, Linda Hall Library, List of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1672, List of presidents of the Royal Society, List of things named after Isaac Newton, Logarithm, Lucasian Professor of Mathematics, Luminiferous aether, Macmillan Publishers, Manchester University Press, Master of the Mint, Mathematical notation, Mathematical proof, Mathematics, Mechanical philosophy, Mental breakdown, Mercury (element), Mercury poisoning, Metaphysics, Method of Fluxions, Michael Faraday, Middlesex, Minimum deviation, MIT Press, Monotheism, Multiple-prism dispersion theory, National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, Natural law, Natural philosophy, Nature, Newton (Blake), Newton (Paolozzi), Newton scale, Newton's identities, Newton's law of cooling, Newton's law of universal gravitation, Newton's laws of motion, Newton's method, Newton's rings, Newtonian fluid, Newtonian telescope, Nicolas Fatio de Duillier, Nontrinitarianism, Nova (TV series), Objective (optics), Occult, Old Style and New Style dates, Opticks, Optics, Oxford University Museum of Natural History, Oxford University Press, Pantheism, Parliament of England, Parliament of the United Kingdom, Patristics, Philosopher's stone, Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, Photon, Physics, Physiocracy, Pierre Louis Maupertuis, Pierre-Simon Laplace, Plagiarism, Planet, Polynomial, Power series, Preterm birth, Progress (history), Protestantism, Psychology, Putto, Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae, Quality (philosophy), Quantum mechanics, Quart, Rationalism, Reflecting telescope, Refracting telescope, Refraction, René Descartes, Rice University, Richard Baron (dissenting minister), Richard Bentley, Richard Mead, Richard S. Westfall, Robert Boyle, Robert Brady (writer), Robert Hooke, Robert Sawyer (Attorney General), Roger Cotes, Royal Mint, Royal Society, Samuel Clarke, Samuel Pepys, Scientific Revolution, Series (mathematics), Silver standard, Simon Stevin, Sinecure, Sir, Sir John Stanley, 1st Baronet, Sizar, Smallpox, Social order, Socinianism, Sociology, Solar System, South Sea Company, Speculum metal, Speed of sound, Spheroid, Standing on the shoulders of giants, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Stephen Hawking, Stephen Snobelen, Sundial, Superstition, Textual criticism, The American Genealogist, The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended, The King's School, Grantham, The New York Review of Books, Theology, Theory of Colours, Theosophy (Blavatskian), Thirty-nine Articles, Thomas Neale, Thomas Street, Thomas Young (scientist), Tide, Tract (literature), Trajectory, Trinity, Trinity College, Cambridge, Tunable laser, Undergraduate Texts in Mathematics, University of California Press, University of Cambridge, University of St Andrews, Valet, Variable (mathematics), Virginity, Visible spectrum, Voltaire, Warden of the Mint, Wave interference, Wave–particle duality, Westminster Abbey, Whigs (British political party), William Blake, William Kent, William R. Newman, William Stukeley, William Whiston, Winchester, Woolsthorpe Manor, Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth, Zero of a function, 1 John 5. Expand index (277 more) »

Abraham de la Pryme

Abraham de la Pryme (15 January 1671 – 12 June 1704) was an English antiquary.

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Action at a distance

In physics, action at a distance is the concept that an object can be moved, changed, or otherwise affected without being physically touched (as in mechanical contact) by another object.

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Adam Smith

Adam Smith (16 June 1723 NS (5 June 1723 OS) – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher and author as well as a moral philosopher, a pioneer of political economy and a key figure during the Scottish Enlightenment era.

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Age of Enlightenment

The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".

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Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).

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Alchemy is a philosophical and protoscientific tradition practiced throughout Europe, Africa, Brazil and Asia.

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Alexander Pope

Alexander Pope (21 May 1688 – 30 May 1744) was an 18th-century English poet.

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An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture

An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture is a dissertation by the English mathematician and scholar Sir Isaac Newton.

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Analytic geometry

In classical mathematics, analytic geometry, also known as coordinate geometry or Cartesian geometry, is the study of geometry using a coordinate system.

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Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition that evolved out of the practices, liturgy and identity of the Church of England following the Protestant Reformation.

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Anne, Queen of Great Britain

Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) was the Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland between 8 March 1702 and 1 May 1707.

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Anthony Hammond

Anthony Hammond (1668–1738) was an English politician and civil servant, known also as a poet and pamphleteer.

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An apple is a sweet, edible fruit produced by an apple tree (Malus pumila).

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Arianism is a nontrinitarian Christological doctrine which asserts the belief that Jesus Christ is the Son of God who was begotten by God the Father at a point in time, a creature distinct from the Father and is therefore subordinate to him, but the Son is also God (i.e. God the Son).

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Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.

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Arithmetica Universalis

Arithmetica Universalis ("Universal Arithmetic") is a mathematics text by Isaac Newton.

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Arius (Ἄρειος, 250 or 256–336) was a Christian presbyter and ascetic of Berber origin, and priest in Baucalis in Alexandria, Egypt.

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Arthur Annesley, 5th Earl of Anglesey

Arthur Annesley, 5th Earl of Anglesey PC, PC (Ire) (– 31 March 1737) was an Anglo-Irish politician.

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An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who concentrates their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of Earth.

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Astronomer Royal

Astronomer Royal is a senior post in the Royal Households of the United Kingdom.

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Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.

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Athanasian Creed

The Athanasian Creed, also known as Pseudo-Athanasian Creed or Quicunque Vult (also Quicumque Vult), is a Christian statement of belief focused on Trinitarian doctrine and Christology.

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Athanasius of Alexandria

Athanasius of Alexandria (Ἀθανάσιος Ἀλεξανδρείας; ⲡⲓⲁⲅⲓⲟⲥ ⲁⲑⲁⲛⲁⲥⲓⲟⲩ ⲡⲓⲁⲡⲟⲥⲧⲟⲗⲓⲕⲟⲥ or Ⲡⲁⲡⲁ ⲁⲑⲁⲛⲁⲥⲓⲟⲩ ⲁ̅; c. 296–298 – 2 May 373), also called Athanasius the Great, Athanasius the Confessor or, primarily in the Coptic Orthodox Church, Athanasius the Apostolic, was the 20th bishop of Alexandria (as Athanasius I).

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Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.

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Augustin-Jean Fresnel

Augustin-Jean Fresnel (10 May 178814 July 1827) was a French civil engineer and physicist whose research in optics led to the almost unanimous acceptance of the wave theory of light, excluding any remnant of Newton's corpuscular theory, from the late 1830s until the end of the 19th century.

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An author is the creator or originator of any written work such as a book or play, and is thus also a writer.

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Axial precession

In astronomy, axial precession is a gravity-induced, slow, and continuous change in the orientation of an astronomical body's rotational axis.

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Balseiro Institute

Balseiro Institute (Instituto Balseiro) is an academic institution chartered by the National University of Cuyo and the National Atomic Energy Commission.

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Bank of England

The Bank of England, formally the Governor and Company of the Bank of England, is the central bank of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the model on which most modern central banks have been based.

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Banknotes of the pound sterling

Sterling banknotes are the banknotes in circulation in the United Kingdom and its related territories, denominated in pounds sterling (symbol: £; ISO 4217 currency code GBP). Sterling banknotes are official currency in the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, British Antarctic Territory, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, and Tristan da Cunha in St Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha.

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Baruch Spinoza

Baruch Spinoza (born Benedito de Espinosa,; 24 November 1632 – 21 February 1677, later Benedict de Spinoza) was a Dutch philosopher of Sephardi/Portuguese origin.

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Benjamin Pulleyn

Benjamin Pulleyn (died 1690) was the Cambridge tutor of Isaac Newton.

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Binomial series

In mathematics, the binomial series is the Maclaurin series for the function f given by f(x).

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Binomial theorem

In elementary algebra, the binomial theorem (or binomial expansion) describes the algebraic expansion of powers of a binomial.

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Boyle's law

Boyle's law (sometimes referred to as the Boyle–Mariotte law, or Mariotte's law) is an experimental gas law that describes how the pressure of a gas tends to increase as the volume of the container decreases.

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British Library

The British Library is the national library of the United Kingdom and the largest national library in the world by number of items catalogued.

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Calculus (from Latin calculus, literally 'small pebble', used for counting and calculations, as on an abacus), is the mathematical study of continuous change, in the same way that geometry is the study of shape and algebra is the study of generalizations of arithmetic operations.

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Cambridge University (UK Parliament constituency)

Cambridge University was a university constituency electing two members to the British House of Commons, from 1603 to 1950.

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Cambridge University Botanic Garden

The Cambridge University Botanic Garden is a botanical garden located in Cambridge, England associated with the university Department of Plant Sciences (formerly Botany School).

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Carl Sagan

Carl Edward Sagan (November 9, 1934 – December 20, 1996) was an American astronomer, cosmologist, astrophysicist, astrobiologist, author, science popularizer, and science communicator in astronomy and other natural sciences.

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Catherine Barton

Catherine Barton (1679–1739) was Isaac Newton's half-niece, probable mistress of Charles Montagu and later, the wife of John Conduitt.

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Celestial mechanics

Celestial mechanics is the branch of astronomy that deals with the motions of celestial objects.

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Chancellor of the Exchequer

The Chancellor and Under-Treasurer of Her Majesty's Exchequer, commonly known as the Chancellor of the Exchequer, or simply the Chancellor, is a senior official within the Government of the United Kingdom and head of Her Majesty's Treasury.

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Charles Hutton

Charles Hutton FRS FRSE LLD (14 August 1737 – 27 January 1823) was a British mathematician and surveyor.

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Charles II of England

Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was king of England, Scotland and Ireland.

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Charles Marie de La Condamine

Charles Marie de La Condamine (28 January 1701 – 4 February 1774) was a French explorer, geographer, and mathematician.

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Charles Montagu, 1st Earl of Halifax

Charles Montagu, 1st Earl of Halifax (16 April 1661 – 19 May 1715) was an English poet and statesman.

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Charlotte Mary Yonge

Charlotte Mary Yonge (1823–1901) was an English novelist who wrote to the service of the church.

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Christiaan Huygens

Christiaan Huygens (Hugenius; 14 April 1629 – 8 July 1695) was a Dutch physicist, mathematician, astronomer and inventor, who is widely regarded as one of the greatest scientists of all time and a major figure in the scientific revolution.

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Christian mysticism

Christian mysticism refers to the development of mystical practices and theory within Christianity.

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Chromatic aberration

In optics, chromatic aberration (abbreviated CA; also called chromatic distortion and spherochromatism) is an effect resulting from dispersion in which there is a failure of a lens to focus all colors to the same convergence point.

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Chronology of the Bible

The chronology of the Bible is an elaborate system of lifespans, "generations," and other means by which the passage of events is measured, beginning with Creation and extending through other significant events.

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Church Fathers

The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers, Christian Fathers, or Fathers of the Church are ancient and influential Christian theologians and writers.

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Church of England

The Church of England (C of E) is the state church of England.

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Classical mechanics

Classical mechanics describes the motion of macroscopic objects, from projectiles to parts of machinery, and astronomical objects, such as spacecraft, planets, stars and galaxies.

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Collins English Dictionary

The Collins English Dictionary is a printed and online dictionary of English.

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A comet is an icy small Solar System body that, when passing close to the Sun, warms and begins to release gases, a process called outgassing.

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A comptroller is a management level position responsible for supervising the quality of accounting and financial reporting of an organization.

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Continental Europe

Continental or mainland Europe is the continuous continent of Europe excluding its surrounding islands.

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Corpuscularianism is a physical theory that supposes all matter to be composed of minute particles.

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The counterfeit means to imitate something.

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Cranbury Park

Cranbury Park is a stately home and country estate situated in the parish of Hursley, near Winchester, England.

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Cubic plane curve

In mathematics, a cubic plane curve is a plane algebraic curve C defined by a cubic equation applied to homogeneous coordinates for the projective plane; or the inhomogeneous version for the affine space determined by setting in such an equation.

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David Brewster

Sir David Brewster KH PRSE FRS FSA(Scot) FSSA MICE (11 December 178110 February 1868) was a British scientist, inventor, author, and academic administrator.

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De analysi per aequationes numero terminorum infinitas

De analysi per aequationes numero terminorum infinitas (or On analysis by infinite series, On Analysis by Equations with an infinite number of terms, On the Analysis by means of equations of an infinite number of terms,About completely loosening infinity by way of number equalisations limits) cf. (aequatio, analysi.

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De Motu (Berkeley's essay)

De motu: Sive; de motu principio et natura, et de causa communicationis motuum (On Motion: or The Principle and Nature of Motion and the Cause of the Communication of Motions), or simply De Motu, is an essay written by George Berkeley and published in 1721.

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De motu corporum in gyrum

De motu corporum in gyrum ("On the motion of bodies in an orbit") is the presumed title of a manuscript by Isaac Newton sent to Edmond Halley in November 1684.

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Debasement is the practice of lowering the value of currency.

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Deism (or; derived from Latin "deus" meaning "god") is a philosophical belief that posits that God exists and is ultimately responsible for the creation of the universe, but does not interfere directly with the created world.

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--> Diffraction refers to various phenomena that occur when a wave encounters an obstacle or a slit.

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Diophantine equation

In mathematics, a Diophantine equation is a polynomial equation, usually in two or more unknowns, such that only the integer solutions are sought or studied (an integer solution is a solution such that all the unknowns take integer values).

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Dispersion (optics)

In optics, dispersion is the phenomenon in which the phase velocity of a wave depends on its frequency.

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Dispersive prism

In optics, a dispersive prism is an optical prism, usually having the shape of a geometrical triangular prism, used as a spectroscopic component.

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Dynamics (mechanics)

Dynamics is the branch of applied mathematics (specifically classical mechanics) concerned with the study of forces and torques and their effect on motion, as opposed to kinematics, which studies the motion of objects without reference to these forces.

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E. T. Whittaker

Edmund Taylor Whittaker FRS FRSE (24 October 1873 – 24 March 1956) was an English mathematician who contributed widely to applied mathematics, mathematical physics, and the theory of special functions.

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Eamon Duffy

Eamon Duffy (born 9 February 1947) is an Irish historian and academic.

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Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.

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Eastern Orthodox Church

The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.

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Edmond Halley

Edmond (or Edmund) Halley, FRS (–) was an English astronomer, geophysicist, mathematician, meteorologist, and physicist.

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Eduardo Paolozzi

Sir Eduardo Luigi Paolozzi (7 March 1924 – 22 April 2005) was a Scottish sculptor and artist.

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Edward Finch (composer)

Edward Finch (1664–1738) was an English composer.

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Electrostatic generator

An electrostatic generator, or electrostatic machine, is an electromechanical generator that produces static electricity, or electricity at high voltage and low continuous current.

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Elements of the Philosophy of Newton

Elements of the Philosophy of Newton (Éléments de la philosophie de Newton) is a book written by the philosopher Voltaire in 1738 that helped to popularize the theories and thought of Isaac Newton.

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English law

English law is the common law legal system of England and Wales, comprising mainly criminal law and civil law, each branch having its own courts and procedures.

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Enthusiasm is intense enjoyment, interest, or approval.

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An epitaph (from Greek ἐπιτάφιος epitaphios "a funeral oration" from ἐπί epi "at, over" and τάφος taphos "tomb") is a short text honoring a deceased person.

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Eric W. Weisstein

Eric Wolfgang Weisstein (born March 18, 1969) is an encyclopedist who created and maintains MathWorld and Eric Weisstein's World of Science (ScienceWorld).

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Euler–Maclaurin formula

In mathematics, the Euler–Maclaurin formula provides a powerful connection between integrals (see calculus) and sums.

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Fellow of the Royal Society

Fellowship of the Royal Society (FRS, ForMemRS and HonFRS) is an award granted to individuals that the Royal Society judges to have made a "substantial contribution to the improvement of natural knowledge, including mathematics, engineering science and medical science".

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Finite difference

A finite difference is a mathematical expression of the form.

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Florian Cajori

Florian Cajori (February 28, 1859 – August 14 or 15, 1930) was a Swiss-American historian of mathematics.

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Flower of Kent

The Flower of Kent is a green cultivar of cooking apple.

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Foundations of Science

Foundations of Science is a peer-reviewed interdisciplinary academic journal focussing on methodological and philosophical topics concerning the structure and the growth of science.

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Francis Bacon

Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Alban, (22 January 15619 April 1626) was an English philosopher, statesman, scientist, jurist, orator, and author.

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French Academy of Sciences

The French Academy of Sciences (French: Académie des sciences) is a learned society, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV at the suggestion of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research.

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Fritz Leiber

Fritz Reuter Leiber Jr. (December 24, 1910 – September 5, 1992) was an American writer of fantasy, horror, and science fiction.

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Galileo Galilei

Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564Drake (1978, p. 1). The date of Galileo's birth is given according to the Julian calendar, which was then in force throughout Christendom. In 1582 it was replaced in Italy and several other Catholic countries with the Gregorian calendar. Unless otherwise indicated, dates in this article are given according to the Gregorian calendar. – 8 January 1642) was an Italian polymath.

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Gauss–Newton algorithm

The Gauss–Newton algorithm is used to solve non-linear least squares problems.

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General election

A general election is an election in which all or most members of a given political body are chosen.

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General Scholium

The General Scholium is an essay written by Isaac Newton, appended to his work of Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, known as the Principia.

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George Herbert

George Herbert (3 April 1593 – 1 March 1633) was a Welsh-born poet, orator, and priest of the Church of England.

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Glossary of calculus

Most of the terms listed in Wikipedia glossaries are already defined and explained within Wikipedia itself.

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Godfrey Kneller

Sir Godfrey Kneller, 1st Baronet (born Gottfried Kniller; 8 August 1646 – 19 October 1723), was the leading portrait painter in England during the late 17th and early 18th centuries, and was court painter to English and British monarchs from Charles II to George I. His major works include The Chinese Convert (1687; Royal Collection, London); a series of four portraits of Isaac Newton painted at various junctures of the latter's life; a series of ten reigning European monarchs, including King Louis XIV of France; over 40 "kit-cat portraits" of members of the Kit-Cat Club; and ten "beauties" of the court of William III, to match a similar series of ten beauties of the court of Charles II painted by his predecessor as court painter, Sir Peter Lely.

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Gold standard

A gold standard is a monetary system in which the standard economic unit of account is based on a fixed quantity of gold.

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Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz (or; Leibnitz; – 14 November 1716) was a German polymath and philosopher who occupies a prominent place in the history of mathematics and the history of philosophy.

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Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.

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Great Apostasy

In Protestant Christianity, the Great Apostasy is the perceived fallen state of traditional Christianity, especially the Catholic Church, because they claim it allowed traditional Greco-Roman culture (i.e.Greco-Roman mysteries, deities of solar monism such as Mithras and Sol Invictus, pagan festivals and Mithraic sun worship and idol worship) into the church.

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Great Plague of London

The Great Plague, lasting from 1665 to 1666, was the last major epidemic of the bubonic plague to occur in England.

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Great Recoinage of 1696

The Great Recoinage of 1696 was an attempt by the English Government under King William III to replace the hammered silver that made up most of the coinage in circulation, much of it being clipped and badly worn.

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Gregorian calendar

The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used civil calendar in the world.

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Guinness World Records

Guinness World Records, known from its inception in 1955 until 2000 as The Guinness Book of Records and in previous United States editions as The Guinness Book of World Records, is a reference book published annually, listing world records both of human achievements and the extremes of the natural world.

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Hamlet (place)

A hamlet is a small human settlement.

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Hanged, drawn and quartered

To be hanged, drawn and quartered was from 1352 a statutory penalty in England for men convicted of high treason, although the ritual was first recorded during the reign of King Henry III (1216–1272).

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Hans Sloane

Sir Hans Sloane, 1st Baronet, (16 April 1660 – 11 January 1753) was an Irish physician, naturalist and collector noted for bequeathing his collection to the British nation, thus providing the foundation of the British Museum.

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Harmonic series (mathematics)

In mathematics, the harmonic series is the divergent infinite series: Its name derives from the concept of overtones, or harmonics in music: the wavelengths of the overtones of a vibrating string are,,, etc., of the string's fundamental wavelength.

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Harvard University Press

Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.

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Heliocentrism is the astronomical model in which the Earth and planets revolve around the Sun at the center of the Solar System.

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Henry Boyle, 1st Baron Carleton

Henry Boyle, 1st Baron Carleton, (12 July 1669 – 31 March 1725) was an Anglo-Irish politician of the early eighteenth century.

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Henry More

Henry More (12 October 1614 – 1 September 1687) was an English philosopher of the Cambridge Platonist school.

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Heresy is any belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs, in particular the accepted beliefs of a church or religious organization.

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Hermeticism, also called Hermetism, is a religious, philosophical, and esoteric tradition based primarily upon writings attributed to Hermes Trismegistus ("Thrice Great").

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High treason in the United Kingdom

Under the law of the United Kingdom, high treason is the crime of disloyalty to the Crown.

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History of calculus

Calculus, known in its early history as infinitesimal calculus, is a mathematical discipline focused on limits, functions, derivatives, integrals, and infinite series.

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History of the telescope

The earliest known telescope appeared in 1608 in the Netherlands when an eyeglass maker named Hans Lippershey tried to obtain a patent on one.

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Holy orders

In the Christian churches, Holy Orders are ordained ministries such as bishop, priest or deacon.

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Hopton Haynes

Hopton Haynes (1672?–1749) was an English employee of the Royal Mint and theological writer.

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Hylozoism is the philosophical point of view that matter is in some sense alive.

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I. Bernard Cohen

Ierome Bernard Cohen (1 March 1914 – 20 June 2003) was the Victor S. Thomas Professor of the history of science at Harvard University and the author of many books on the history of science and, in particular, Isaac Newton.

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Idolatry literally means the worship of an "idol", also known as a cult image, in the form of a physical image, such as a statue or icon.

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The doctrine or theory of immanence holds that the divine encompasses or is manifested in the material world.

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Indiana University

Indiana University (IU) is a multi-campus public university system in the state of Indiana, United States.

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Indiana University Bloomington

Indiana University Bloomington (abbreviated "IU Bloomington" and colloquially referred to as "IU" or simply "Indiana") is a public research university in Bloomington, Indiana, United States.

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Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.

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Internet Archive

The Internet Archive is a San Francisco–based nonprofit digital library with the stated mission of "universal access to all knowledge." It provides free public access to collections of digitized materials, including websites, software applications/games, music, movies/videos, moving images, and nearly three million public-domain books.

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Intestacy is the condition of the estate of a person who dies without having made a valid will or other binding declaration.

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Isaac Barrow

Isaac Barrow (October 1630 – 4 May 1677) was an English Christian theologian and mathematician who is generally given credit for his early role in the development of infinitesimal calculus; in particular, for the discovery of the fundamental theorem of calculus.

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Isaac Newton's occult studies

English physicist and mathematician Isaac Newton produced many works that would now be classified as occult studies.

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Ismaël Bullialdus

Ismaël Bullialdus (born Ismaël Boulliau,; 28 September 1605 – 25 November 1694) was a 17th-century French astronomer and mathematician who was also interested in history, theology, classical studies, and philology.

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James Burnett, Lord Monboddo

James Burnett, Lord Monboddo (baptised 25 October 1714; died 26 May 1799), was a Scottish judge, scholar of linguistic evolution, philosopher and deist.

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James Clerk Maxwell

James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish scientist in the field of mathematical physics.

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James Stirling (mathematician)

James Stirling (May 1692, Garden, Stirlingshire – 5 December 1770, Edinburgh) was a Scottish mathematician.

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Jermyn Street

Jermyn Street is a one-way street in the St James's area of the City of Westminster in London, England.

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Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.

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Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German writer and statesman.

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Johannes Kepler

Johannes Kepler (December 27, 1571 – November 15, 1630) was a German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer.

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John Collins (mathematician)

John Collins FRS (25 March 1625 – 10 November 1683) was an English mathematician.

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John Conduitt

John Conduitt (c. 8 March 1688 – 23 May 1737) was a British Member of Parliament and Master of the Mint who married Sir Isaac Newton's niece.

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John Dollond

John Dollond FRS (10 June O.S. (21 June N.S.) 170630 November 1761) was an English optician, known for his successful optics business and his patenting and commercialization of achromatic doublets.

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John Flamsteed

John Flamsteed FRS (19 August 1646 – 31 December 1719) was an English astronomer and the first Astronomer Royal.

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John Keble

John Keble (25 April 1792 – 29 March 1866) was an English churchman and poet, one of the leaders of the Oxford Movement.

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John Locke

John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".

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John Maynard Keynes

John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes (5 June 1883 – 21 April 1946), was a British economist whose ideas fundamentally changed the theory and practice of macroeconomics and the economic policies of governments.

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John Michael Rysbrack

Johannes Michel or John Michael Rysbrack, original name Jan Michiel Rijsbrack (27 June 1694 – 8 January 1770), was an 18th-century Flemish sculptor.

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John Somers, 1st Baron Somers

John Somers, 1st Baron Somers, (4 March 1651 – 26 April 1716) was an English Whig jurist and statesman.

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Joseph-Louis Lagrange

Joseph-Louis Lagrange (or;; born Giuseppe Lodovico Lagrangia, Encyclopædia Britannica or Giuseppe Ludovico De la Grange Tournier, Turin, 25 January 1736 – Paris, 10 April 1813; also reported as Giuseppe Luigi Lagrange or Lagrangia) was an Italian Enlightenment Era mathematician and astronomer.

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Julian calendar

The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC (708 AUC), was a reform of the Roman calendar.

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Justice of the peace

A justice of the peace (JP) is a judicial officer, of a lower or puisne court, elected or appointed by means of a commission (letters patent) to keep the peace.

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Kensington is a district in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, West London, England.

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Kepler's laws of planetary motion

In astronomy, Kepler's laws of planetary motion are three scientific laws describing the motion of planets around the Sun.

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Kingdom of England

The Kingdom of England (French: Royaume d'Angleterre; Danish: Kongeriget England; German: Königreich England) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century—when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms—until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.

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A knight is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch, bishop or other political leader for service to the monarch or a Christian Church, especially in a military capacity.

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Knight Bachelor

The dignity of Knight Bachelor is the most basic and lowest rank of a man who has been knighted by the monarch but not as a member of one of the organised orders of chivalry; it is a part of the British honours system.

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Laser linewidth

Laser linewidth is the spectral linewidth of a laser beam.

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Latitudinarians, or latitude men were initially a group of 17th-century English theologiansclerics and academicsfrom the University of Cambridge in Cambridge, England, who were moderate Anglicans (members of the Church of England, which was Protestant).

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Leibniz–Clarke correspondence

The Leibniz–Clarke correspondence was a scientific, theological and philosophical debate conducted in an exchange of letters between the German thinker Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz and Samuel Clarke, an English supporter of Isaac Newton during the years 1715 and 1716.

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Leibniz–Newton calculus controversy

The calculus controversy (often referred to with the German term Prioritätsstreit, meaning "priority dispute") was an argument between 17th-century mathematicians Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz (begun or fomented in part by their disciples and associates) over who had first invented the mathematical study of change, calculus.

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Lens (optics)

A lens is a transmissive optical device that focuses or disperses a light beam by means of refraction.

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Lincolnshire (abbreviated Lincs) is a county in east central England.

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Linda Hall Library

The Linda Hall Library is a privately endowed American library of science, engineering and technology located in Kansas City, Missouri, sitting "majestically on a urban arboretum." It is the "largest independently funded public library of science, engineering and technology in North America" and "among the largest science libraries in the world.".

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List of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1672

This is a list of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in its 13th year, 1672.

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List of presidents of the Royal Society

The President of the Royal Society (PRS) is the elected Head of the Royal Society of London who presides over meetings of the society's council.

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List of things named after Isaac Newton

This is a list of things named after Isaac Newton.

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In mathematics, the logarithm is the inverse function to exponentiation.

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Lucasian Professor of Mathematics

The Lucasian Chair of Mathematics is a mathematics professorship in the University of Cambridge, England; its holder is known as the Lucasian Professor.

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Luminiferous aether

In the late 19th century, luminiferous aether or ether ("luminiferous", meaning "light-bearing"), was the postulated medium for the propagation of light.

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Macmillan Publishers

Macmillan Publishers Ltd (occasionally known as the Macmillan Group) is an international publishing company owned by Holtzbrinck Publishing Group.

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Manchester University Press

Manchester University Press is the university press of the University of Manchester, England and a publisher of academic books and journals.

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Master of the Mint

Master of the Mint was an important office in the governments of Scotland and England, and later Great Britain, between the 16th and 19th centuries.

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Mathematical notation

Mathematical notation is a system of symbolic representations of mathematical objects and ideas.

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Mathematical proof

In mathematics, a proof is an inferential argument for a mathematical statement.

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Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.

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Mechanical philosophy

The mechanical philosophy is a natural philosophy describing the universe as similar to a large-scale mechanism.

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Mental breakdown

A mental breakdown (also known as a nervous breakdown) is an acute, time-limited mental disorder that manifests primarily as severe stress-induced depression, anxiety, Paranoia, or dissociation in a previously functional individual, to the extent that they are no longer able to function on a day-to-day basis until the disorder is resolved.

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Mercury (element)

Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.

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Mercury poisoning

Mercury poisoning is a type of metal poisoning due to mercury exposure.

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Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.

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Method of Fluxions

Method of Fluxions is a book by Isaac Newton.

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Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday FRS (22 September 1791 – 25 August 1867) was an English scientist who contributed to the study of electromagnetism and electrochemistry.

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Middlesex (abbreviation: Middx) is an historic county in south-east England.

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Minimum deviation

As a ray of light enters the transparent material, the ray's direction is deflected, based on both the entrance angle (typically measured relative to the perpendicular to the surface) and the material's refractive index, and according to Snell's Law.

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MIT Press

The MIT Press is a university press affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States).

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Monotheism has been defined as the belief in the existence of only one god that created the world, is all-powerful and intervenes in the world.

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Multiple-prism dispersion theory

The first description of multiple-prism arrays, and multiple-prism dispersion, was given by Newton in his book Opticks.

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National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty

The National Trust, formally the National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, is a conservation organisation in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, and the largest membership organisation in the United Kingdom.

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Natural law

Natural law (ius naturale, lex naturalis) is a philosophy asserting that certain rights are inherent by virtue of human nature, endowed by nature—traditionally by God or a transcendent source—and that these can be understood universally through human reason.

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Natural philosophy

Natural philosophy or philosophy of nature (from Latin philosophia naturalis) was the philosophical study of nature and the physical universe that was dominant before the development of modern science.

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Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, or material world or universe.

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Newton (Blake)

Newton is a monotype by the English poet, painter and printmaker William Blake first completed in 1795, but reworked and reprinted in 1805.

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Newton (Paolozzi)

Newton, sometimes known as Newton after Blake, is a work of 1995 by the sculptor Eduardo Paolozzi.

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Newton scale

The Newton scale is a temperature scale devised by Isaac Newton in 1701.

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Newton's identities

In mathematics, Newton's identities, also known as the Newton–Girard formulae, give relations between two types of symmetric polynomials, namely between power sums and elementary symmetric polynomials.

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Newton's law of cooling

Newton's law of cooling states that the rate of heat loss of a body is directly proportional to the difference in the temperatures between the body and its surroundings provided the temperature difference is small and the nature of radiating surface remains same. As such, it is equivalent to a statement that the heat transfer coefficient, which mediates between heat losses and temperature differences, is a constant.

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Newton's law of universal gravitation

Newton's law of universal gravitation states that a particle attracts every other particle in the universe with a force which is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centers.

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Newton's laws of motion

Newton's laws of motion are three physical laws that, together, laid the foundation for classical mechanics.

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Newton's method

In numerical analysis, Newton's method (also known as the Newton–Raphson method), named after Isaac Newton and Joseph Raphson, is a method for finding successively better approximations to the roots (or zeroes) of a real-valued function.

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Newton's rings

Newton's rings is a phenomenon in which an interference pattern is created by the reflection of light between two surfaces—a spherical surface and an adjacent touching flat surface.

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Newtonian fluid

In continuum mechanics, a Newtonian fluid is a fluid in which the viscous stresses arising from its flow, at every point, are linearly proportional to the local strain rate—the rate of change of its deformation over time.

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Newtonian telescope

The Newtonian telescope, also called the Newtonian reflector or just the Newtonian, is a type of reflecting telescope invented by the English scientist Sir Isaac Newton (1642–1727), using a concave primary mirror and a flat diagonal secondary mirror.

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Nicolas Fatio de Duillier

Nicolas Fatio de Duillier (also spelled Faccio or Facio; 16 February 1664 – 12 May 1753) was a Swiss-born mathematician, natural philosopher, inventor, and religious campaigner.

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Nontrinitarianism is a form of Christianity that rejects the mainstream Christian doctrine of the Trinity—the teaching that God is three distinct hypostases or persons who are coeternal, coequal, and indivisibly united in one being, or essence (from the Greek ousia).

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Nova (TV series)

Nova (stylized NOVΛ) is an American popular science television series produced by WGBH Boston.

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Objective (optics)

In optical engineering, the objective is the optical element that gathers light from the object being observed and focuses the light rays to produce a real image.

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The term occult (from the Latin word occultus "clandestine, hidden, secret") is "knowledge of the hidden".

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Old Style and New Style dates

Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) are terms sometimes used with dates to indicate that the calendar convention used at the time described is different from that in use at the time the document was being written.

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Opticks: or, A Treatise of the Reflexions, Refractions, Inflexions and Colours of Light is a book by English natural philosopher Isaac Newton that was published in English in 1704.

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Optics is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.

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Oxford University Museum of Natural History

The Oxford University Museum of Natural History, sometimes known simply as the Oxford University Museum or OUMNH, is a museum displaying many of the University of Oxford's natural history specimens, located on Parks Road in Oxford, England.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Pantheism is the belief that reality is identical with divinity, or that all-things compose an all-encompassing, immanent god.

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Parliament of England

The Parliament of England was the legislature of the Kingdom of England, existing from the early 13th century until 1707, when it became the Parliament of Great Britain after the political union of England and Scotland created the Kingdom of Great Britain.

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Parliament of the United Kingdom

The Parliament of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the UK Parliament or British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and overseas territories.

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Patristics or patrology is the study of the early Christian writers who are designated Church Fathers.

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Philosopher's stone

The philosopher's stone, or stone of the philosophers (lapis philosophorum) is a legendary alchemical substance capable of turning base metals such as mercury into gold (from the Greek χρυσός khrusos, "gold", and ποιεῖν poiēin, "to make") or silver.

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Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica

Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Latin for Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy), often referred to as simply the Principia, is a work in three books by Isaac Newton, in Latin, first published 5 July 1687.

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The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).

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Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

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Physiocracy (from the Greek for "government of nature") is an economic theory developed by a group of 18th century Enlightenment French economists who believed that the wealth of nations was derived solely from the value of "land agriculture" or "land development" and that agricultural products should be highly priced.

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Pierre Louis Maupertuis

Pierre Louis Moreau de Maupertuis (1698 – 27 July 1759) was a French mathematician, philosopher and man of letters.

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Pierre-Simon Laplace

Pierre-Simon, marquis de Laplace (23 March 1749 – 5 March 1827) was a French scholar whose work was important to the development of mathematics, statistics, physics and astronomy.

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Plagiarism is the "wrongful appropriation" and "stealing and publication" of another author's "language, thoughts, ideas, or expressions" and the representation of them as one's own original work.

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A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.

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In mathematics, a polynomial is an expression consisting of variables (also called indeterminates) and coefficients, that involves only the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and non-negative integer exponents of variables.

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Power series

In mathematics, a power series (in one variable) is an infinite series of the form where an represents the coefficient of the nth term and c is a constant.

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Preterm birth

Preterm birth, also known as premature birth, is the birth of a baby at fewer than 37 weeks gestational age.

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Progress (history)

In historiography, progress (from Latin progressus, "advance", "(a) step onwards") is the study of how specific societies improved over time in terms of science, technology, modernization, liberty, democracy, longevity, quality of life, freedom from pollution and so on.

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Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.

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Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.

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A putto (plural putti) is a figure in a work of art depicted as a chubby male child, usually naked and sometimes winged.

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Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae

Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae (Certain philosophical questions) is the name given to a set of notes that Isaac Newton kept for himself during his earlier years in Cambridge.

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Quality (philosophy)

In philosophy, a quality is an attribute or a property characteristic of an object.

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Quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.

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The quart (abbreviation qt.) is an English unit of volume equal to a quarter gallon.

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In philosophy, rationalism is the epistemological view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification".

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Reflecting telescope

A reflecting telescope (also called a reflector) is a telescope that uses a single or a combination of curved mirrors that reflect light and form an image.

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Refracting telescope

A refracting telescope (also called a refractor) is a type of optical telescope that uses a lens as its objective to form an image (also referred to a dioptric telescope).

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Refraction is the change in direction of wave propagation due to a change in its transmission medium.

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René Descartes

René Descartes (Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.

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Rice University

William Marsh Rice University, commonly known as Rice University, is a private research university located on a 300-acre (121 ha) campus in Houston, Texas, United States.

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Richard Baron (dissenting minister)

Richard Baron (c.1700-1768) was a dissenting minister, Whig pamphleteer, and editor of Locke, Milton and others.

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Richard Bentley

Richard Bentley (27 January 1662 – 14 July 1742) was an English classical scholar, critic, and theologian.

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Richard Mead

Richard Mead (11 August 1673 – 16 February 1754) was an English physician.

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Richard S. Westfall

Richard S. Westfall (April 22, 1924 – August 21, 1996) was an American academic, biographer and historian of science.

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Robert Boyle

Robert Boyle (25 January 1627 – 31 December 1691) was an Anglo-Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, and inventor.

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Robert Brady (writer)

Robert Brady MD (1627–1700) was an English academic and historical writer supporting the royalist position in the reigns of Charles II of England and James II of England.

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Robert Hooke

Robert Hooke FRS (– 3 March 1703) was an English natural philosopher, architect and polymath.

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Robert Sawyer (Attorney General)

Sir Robert Sawyer, of Highclere (1633–1692) was the Attorney General for England and Wales (1681–1687) and, briefly, Speaker of the English House of Commons.

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Roger Cotes

Roger Cotes FRS (10 July 1682 – 5 June 1716) was an English mathematician, known for working closely with Isaac Newton by proofreading the second edition of his famous book, the Principia, before publication.

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Royal Mint

The Royal Mint is a government-owned mint that produces coins for the United Kingdom.

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Royal Society

The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.

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Samuel Clarke

Samuel Clarke (11 October 1675 – 17 May 1729) was an English philosopher and Anglican clergyman.

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Samuel Pepys

Samuel Pepys (23 February 1633 – 26 May 1703) was an administrator of the navy of England and Member of Parliament who is most famous for the diary he kept for a decade while still a relatively young man.

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Scientific Revolution

The Scientific Revolution was a series of events that marked the emergence of modern science during the early modern period, when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology (including human anatomy) and chemistry transformed the views of society about nature.

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Series (mathematics)

In mathematics, a series is, roughly speaking, a description of the operation of adding infinitely many quantities, one after the other, to a given starting quantity.

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Silver standard

The silver standard is a monetary system in which the standard economic unit of account is a fixed weight of silver.

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Simon Stevin

Simon Stevin (1548–1620), sometimes called Stevinus, was a Flemish mathematician, physicist and military engineer.

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A sinecure (from Latin sine.

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Sir is an honorific address used in a number of situations in many anglophone cultures.

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Sir John Stanley, 1st Baronet

Sir John Stanley, 1st Baronet (1663 – 30 November 1744) of Grangegorman, Co.

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At Trinity College, Dublin and the University of Cambridge, a sizar is an undergraduate who receives some form of assistance such as meals, lower fees or lodging during his or her period of study, in some cases in return for doing a defined job.

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Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.

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Social order

The term social order can be used in two senses.

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Socinianism is a system of Christian doctrine named for Fausto Sozzini (Latin: Faustus Socinus), which was developed among the Polish Brethren in the Minor Reformed Church of Poland during the 16th and 17th centuries and embraced by the Unitarian Church of Transylvania during the same period.

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Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture.

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Solar System

The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.

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South Sea Company

The South Sea Company (officially The Governor and Company of the merchants of Great Britain, trading to the South Seas and other parts of America, and for the encouragement of fishing) was a British joint-stock company founded in 1711, created as a public-private partnership to consolidate and reduce the cost of national debt.

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Speculum metal

Speculum metal is a mixture of around two-thirds copper and one-third tin making a white brittle alloy that can be polished to make a highly reflective surface.

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Speed of sound

The speed of sound is the distance travelled per unit time by a sound wave as it propagates through an elastic medium.

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A spheroid, or ellipsoid of revolution, is a quadric surface obtained by rotating an ellipse about one of its principal axes; in other words, an ellipsoid with two equal semi-diameters.

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Standing on the shoulders of giants

The metaphor of dwarfs standing on the shoulders of giants (nanos gigantum humeris insidentes) expresses the meaning of "discovering truth by building on previous discoveries".

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Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP) combines an online encyclopedia of philosophy with peer-reviewed publication of original papers in philosophy, freely accessible to Internet users.

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Stephen Hawking

Stephen William Hawking (8 January 1942 – 14 March 2018) was an English theoretical physicist, cosmologist, and author, who was director of research at the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology at the University of Cambridge at the time of his death.

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Stephen Snobelen


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A sundial is a device that tells the time of day when there is sunlight by the apparent position of the Sun in the sky.

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Superstition is a pejorative term for any belief or practice that is considered irrational: for example, if it arises from ignorance, a misunderstanding of science or causality, a positive belief in fate or magic, or fear of that which is unknown.

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Textual criticism

Textual criticism is a branch of textual scholarship, philology, and literary criticism that is concerned with the identification of textual variants in either manuscripts or printed books.

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The American Genealogist

The American Genealogist is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal which focuses on genealogy and family history.

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The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended

The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended is an approximately 87,000-word composition written by Sir Isaac Newton, first published posthumously in 1728 in limited supply.

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The King's School, Grantham

The King's School is a British grammar school with academy status for boys, in the market town of Grantham, in Lincolnshire, England.

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The New York Review of Books

The New York Review of Books (or NYREV or NYRB) is a semi-monthly magazine with articles on literature, culture, economics, science and current affairs.

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Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine.

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Theory of Colours

Theory of Colours (German: Zur Farbenlehre) is a book by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe about the poet's views on the nature of colours and how these are perceived by humans.

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Theosophy (Blavatskian)

Theosophy is an esoteric religious movement established in the United States during the late nineteenth century.

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Thirty-nine Articles

The Thirty-nine Articles of Religion (commonly abbreviated as the Thirty-nine Articles or the XXXIX Articles) are the historically defining statements of doctrines and practices of the Church of England with respect to the controversies of the English Reformation.

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Thomas Neale

Thomas Neale (1641–1699) was an English project-manager and politician who was also the first person to hold a position equivalent to postmaster-general of the North American colonies.

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Thomas Street

Thomas Street (also spelled Streete) (1621–1689) was an English astronomer, known for his writings on celestial motions.

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Thomas Young (scientist)

Thomas Young FRS (13 June 1773 – 10 May 1829) was a British polymath and physician.

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Tides are the rise and fall of sea levels caused by the combined effects of the gravitational forces exerted by the Moon and the Sun and the rotation of Earth.

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Tract (literature)

A tract is a literary work, and in current usage, usually religious in nature.

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A trajectory or flight path is the path that a massive object in motion follows through space as a function of time.

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The Christian doctrine of the Trinity (from Greek τριάς and τριάδα, from "threefold") holds that God is one but three coeternal consubstantial persons or hypostases—the Father, the Son (Jesus Christ), and the Holy Spirit—as "one God in three Divine Persons".

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Trinity College, Cambridge

Trinity College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in England.

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Tunable laser

A tunable laser is a laser whose wavelength of operation can be altered in a controlled manner.

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Undergraduate Texts in Mathematics

Undergraduate Texts in Mathematics (UTM) is a series of undergraduate-level textbooks in mathematics published by Springer-Verlag.

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University of California Press

University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.

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University of Cambridge

The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.

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University of St Andrews

The University of St Andrews (informally known as St Andrews University or simply St Andrews; abbreviated as St And, from the Latin Sancti Andreae, in post-nominals) is a British public research university in St Andrews, Fife, Scotland.

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Valet and varlet are terms for male servants who serve as personal attendants to their employer.

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Variable (mathematics)

In elementary mathematics, a variable is a symbol, commonly an alphabetic character, that represents a number, called the value of the variable, which is either arbitrary, not fully specified, or unknown.

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Virginity is the state of a person who has never engaged in sexual intercourse.

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Visible spectrum

The visible spectrum is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye.

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François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on Christianity as a whole, especially the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech and separation of church and state.

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Warden of the Mint

Warden of the Mint was a high-ranking position at the Royal Mint in England from 1216–1829.

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Wave interference

In physics, interference is a phenomenon in which two waves superpose to form a resultant wave of greater, lower, or the same amplitude.

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Wave–particle duality

Wave–particle duality is the concept in quantum mechanics that every particle or quantic entity may be partly described in terms not only of particles, but also of waves.

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Westminster Abbey

Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic abbey church in the City of Westminster, London, England, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster.

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Whigs (British political party)

The Whigs were a political faction and then a political party in the parliaments of England, Scotland, Great Britain, Ireland and the United Kingdom.

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William Blake

William Blake (28 November 1757 – 12 August 1827) was an English poet, painter, and printmaker.

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William Kent

William Kent (c. 1685 – 12 April 1748) was an eminent English architect, landscape architect and furniture designer of the early 18th century.

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William R. Newman

William R. Newman (born March 13, 1955) is Distinguished Professor and Ruth N. Halls Professor in the Department of History and Philosophy of Science at Indiana University.

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William Stukeley

William Stukeley (7 November 1687 – 3 March 1765) was an English antiquarian, physician, and Anglican clergyman.

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William Whiston

William Whiston (9 December 1667 – 22 August 1752) was an English theologian, historian, and mathematician, a leading figure in the popularisation of the ideas of Isaac Newton.

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Winchester is a city and the county town of Hampshire, England.

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Woolsthorpe Manor

Woolsthorpe Manor in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth, near Grantham, Lincolnshire, England, is the birthplace and was the family home of Sir Isaac Newton.

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Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth (to distinguish it from Woolsthorpe-by-Belvoir in the same county) is a hamlet in the South Kesteven district of Lincolnshire, England.

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Zero of a function

In mathematics, a zero, also sometimes called a root, of a real-, complex- or generally vector-valued function f is a member x of the domain of f such that f(x) vanishes at x; that is, x is a solution of the equation f(x).

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1 John 5

1 John 5 is the fifth and the last chapter of the First Epistle of John in the New Testament of the Christian Bible.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isaac_Newton

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