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Islamic Golden Age

Index Islamic Golden Age

The Islamic Golden Age is the era in the history of Islam, traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 14th century, during which much of the historically Islamic world was ruled by various caliphates, and science, economic development and cultural works flourished. [1]

311 relations: 'Adud al-Dawla, 'Aql, A. I. Sabra, Abbasid Caliphate, Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi, Abu Mansur al-Maturidi, Academy of Gondishapur, Agnivesa, Ahl al-Hadith, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Ahmad Y. al-Hassan, Al-Andalus, Al-Ash`ari, Al-Azhar Mosque, Al-Azhar University, Al-Biruni, Al-Ghazali, Al-Hakim Mosque, Al-Jahiz, Al-Kindi, Al-Ma'mun, Al-Mansur, Al-Mansur Qalawun, Al-Mu'tasim, Al-Zahrawi, Al-Zarnuji, Alchemy, Aleppo, Algebra, Alhambra, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek medicine, Ancient Greek philosophy, Andromeda (constellation), Andromeda Galaxy, Arabesque, Arabic, Arabic numerals, Arabic Sciences and Philosophy, Arabs, Archimedes, Aristotle, Arithmetic, Ashʿari, Assyrian people, Astronomy in the medieval Islamic world, Atreya, Autodidacticism, Automaton, ..., Averroes, Avicenna, Ayurveda, Azerbaijan International, Baghdad, Baghdad School, Banū Mūsā, BBC, Berlin State Library, Bernard Lewis, Book of Fixed Stars, Book of Ingenious Devices, Borax, Breast cancer, Bukhtishu, Buyid dynasty, Byzantine medicine, Caliphate, Calligraphy, Cambridge University Press, Caravel, Córdoba, Spain, Central Asia, Charaka, Christendom, Christian, Christian influences in Islam, Christianity, Church of the East, Circulatory system, Classical element, Commentary on Anatomy in Avicenna's Canon, Conway Zirkle, Copernican heliocentrism, Cranial nerves, Crusades, Damascus, Decagon, Demography, Desert island, Donald Hill, Ductility, Earth radius, Economics, Ectopic pregnancy, Emirate of Sicily, Emission theory, Encyclopædia Iranica, Epistemology, Equant, Euclid, Euphrates, Eutychius of Alexandria, Evolution, Fatimah, Fatimid architecture, Fatimid Caliphate, Fatwa, Feral child, Fiqh, First Fitna, Floating man, Flute, Foundation (nonprofit), Galen, Gaston Wiet, Genghis Khan, Geocentric model, George Saliba, Girih tiles, Golden age (metaphor), Golden age of Jewish culture in Spain, Granada, Great Mosque of Kairouan, Great Mosque of Samarra, Greater Iran, Haemophilia, Harun al-Rashid, Hayy ibn Yaqdhan, Heliocentrism, Hexagon, Hippocrates, Historiography, History of China, History of India, History of Islam, History of paper, History of science in classical antiquity, History of scientific method, Hospital, Hossein Nasr, House of Wisdom, Hulagu Khan, Humorism, Hunayn ibn Ishaq, Hypoglossal nerve, Hypostyle, Iberian Peninsula, Ibn al-Haytham, Ibn al-Nafis, Ibn al-Shatir, Ibn Khaldun, Ibn Khaldun International Institute of Advanced Research, Ibn Muʿādh al-Jayyānī, Ibn Na'ima al-Himsi, Ibn Sina Academy of Medieval Medicine and Sciences, Ibn Tufail, Ibn Zuhr, Ijazah, Ijma, Ijtihad, Infobase Publishing, Internal medicine, Iraq, Islam during the Song dynasty, Islamic geometric patterns, Islamic studies, Jabril ibn Bukhtishu, Jim Al-Khalili, Kievan Rus', Kitāb al-Hayawān, Latin translations of the 12th century, Law of sines, Library, List of contemporary Muslim scholars of Islam, List of nearest galaxies, List of pre-modern Iranian scientists and scholars, Lumbar nerves, Madhhab, Madrasa, Mahābhūta, Marcello Malpighi, Masawaiyh, Maturidi, Measles, Medical Research Council (United Kingdom), Medieval Islamic civilization: an encyclopedia, Mediterranean Sea, Michael Servetus, Mihna, Minaret, Mongol Empire, Mongol invasions and conquests, Mongols, Moroccan architecture, Mosque–Cathedral of Córdoba, Motor neuron, Muʿtazila, Mufti, Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi, Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi, Muhtasib, Muqaddimah, Muqarnas, Muslim world, Mysticism, Nader El-Bizri, Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, Naskh (tafsir), National Institutes of Health, Natural selection, Nerve, Nervous system, Nestorianism, New York University Press, Nicolaus Copernicus, Nile, Obstetrics, Occasionalism, Oliver Leaman, Oneworld Publications, Ophthalmology, Ophthalmology in medieval Islam, Optic nerve, Optics, Orientalism, Ottoman–Mamluk War (1516–17), Papyrus, Paraboloid, Parchment, Paul Steinhardt, Penrose tiling, Pentagon, Persian Empire, Persian miniature, Peter Lu, Philosophy, Phoenicia, Physician, Plato, Poetry, Principles of Islamic jurisprudence, Program (machine), Prophetic traditions, Ptolemy, Pulmonary artery, Pulmonary circulation, Pulmonary vein, Qadi, Qalawun complex, Qiyas, Quasicrystal, Quran, Qusta ibn Luqa, Radian, Rash, Rashidun, Renaissance, Rhombus, Right triangle, Rumi, Salt (chemistry), Sarcoptes scabiei, Sasanian Empire, Scabies, School of Edessa, School of Nisibis, Science, Science (journal), Science and Islam (TV series), Science in the medieval Islamic world, Self-awareness, Sensory neuron, Sextant, Siege of Baghdad (1258), Smallpox, Socialization, Sociology, Song dynasty, Spinal nerve, Spontaneous generation, Springer Science+Business Media, St Thomas' Hospital, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Steam engine, Strapwork, Sushruta, Syed Nomanul Haq, Syriac language, Tafsir, Thābit ibn Qurra, The Canon of Medicine, The Twelve Imams, Theologus Autodidactus, Theology, Thyroidectomy, Tigris, Timeline of science and engineering in the Islamic world, Translation Movement, Tunisia, Tusi couple, Twelver, Ulama, Umar, Umayyad Caliphate, University of Al Quaraouiyine, Vitriol, Waqf, Writing system, Yusuf Al-Khuri, Zellige. Expand index (261 more) »

'Adud al-Dawla

Fannā (Panāh) Khusraw (فنا خسرو), better known by his laqab of ʿAḍud al-Dawla (عضد الدولة, "Pillar of the Dynasty") (September 24, 936 – March 26, 983) was an emir of the Buyid dynasty, ruling from 949 to 983, and at his height of power ruling an empire stretching from Makran as far to Yemen and the shores of the Mediterranean Sea.

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'Aql

‘Aql (عقل, meaning "intellect"), is an Arabic language term used in Islamic philosophy or theology for the intellect or the rational faculty of the soul or mind.

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A. I. Sabra

Abdelhamid I. Sabra (1924-2013) was a professor of the history of science specializing in the history of optics and science in medieval Islam.

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Abbasid Caliphate

The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi

'Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi (عبدالرحمن صوفی (December 7, 903 in Rey, Iran – May 25, 986 in Shiraz, Iran) was a Persian astronomer also known as 'Abd ar-Rahman as-Sufi, 'Abd al-Rahman Abu al-Husayn, 'Abdul Rahman Sufi, or 'Abdurrahman Sufi and, historically, in the West as Azophi and Azophi Arabus. The lunar crater Azophi and the minor planet 12621 Alsufi are named after him. Al-Sufi published his famous Book of Fixed Stars in 964, describing much of his work, both in textual descriptions and pictures. Al-Biruni reports that his work on the ecliptic was carried out in Shiraz. He lived at the Buyid court in Isfahan.

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Abu Mansur al-Maturidi

Abū Manṣūr Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. Maḥmūd al-Samarḳandī (853-944 CE; محمد بن محمد بن محمود أبو منصور ماتریدی سمرقندی حنفی), often referred to as Abū Manṣūr al-Māturīdī for short, or reverently as Imam Māturīdī by Sunni Muslims, was a Sunni Hanafi jurist, theologian, and scriptural exegete from ninth-century Samarkand who became the eponymous codifier of one of the principal orthodox schools of Sunni theology, the Maturidi school, which became the dominant theological school for Sunni Muslims in Central Asia and later enjoyed a preeminent status as the school of choice for both the Ottoman Empire and the Mughal Empire.

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Academy of Gondishapur

The Academy of Gondishapur (فرهنگستان گندی‌شاپور, Farhangestân-e Gondišâpur), also known as The Jondishapur University (دانشگاه جندی‌شاپور Dânešgâh-e Jondišapur), was one of the three Sasanian centers of education (Ctesiphon, Resaina, Gundeshapur) and academy of learning in the city of Gundeshapur, Iran during late antiquity, the intellectual center of the Sasanian Empire.

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Agnivesa

Agnivesha (अग्निवेश) is a legendary rishi (sage), reputedly one of the earliest authors on ayurveda (Indian medicine).

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Ahl al-Hadith

Ahl al-Hadith (أهل الحديث, "The people of hadith"; also Așḥāb al-ḥadīṯ; أصحاب الحديث, "The adherents of hadith") first emerged in the 2nd/3rd Islamic centuries as a movement of hadith scholars who considered the Quran and authentic hadith to be the only authority in matters of law and creed.

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Ahmad ibn Hanbal

Aḥmad bin Muḥammad bin Ḥanbal Abū ʿAbd Allāh al-Shaybānī (احمد بن محمد بن حنبل ابو عبد الله الشيباني; 780–855 CE/164–241 AH), often referred to as Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal or Ibn Ḥanbal for short, or reverentially as Imam Aḥmad by Sunni Muslims, was an Arab Muslim jurist, theologian, ascetic, and hadith traditionist.

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Ahmad Y. al-Hassan

Ahmad Yousef Al-Hassan (أحمد يوسف الحسن) (June 25, 1925 – April 28, 2012) was a Palestinian/Syrian/Canadian historian of Arabic and Islamic science and technology, educated in Jerusalem, Cairo, and London with a PhD in Mechanical engineering from University College London.

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Al-Andalus

Al-Andalus (الأنْدَلُس, trans.; al-Ándalus; al-Ândalus; al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus), also known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal.

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Al-Ash`ari

Al-Ashʿarī (الأشعري.; full name: Abū al-Ḥasan ʿAlī ibn Ismāʿīl ibn Isḥāq al-Ashʿarī; c. 874–936 (AH 260–324), reverentially Imām al-Ashʿarī) was an Arab Sunni Muslim scholastic theologian and eponymous founder of Ashʿarism or Asharite theology, which would go on to become "the most important theological school in Sunni Islam".

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Al-Azhar Mosque

Al-Azhar Mosque (جامع الأزهر, الأزهر, "mosque of the most resplendent") is an Egyptian mosque in Islamic Cairo.

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Al-Azhar University

Al-Azhar University (1,, "the (honorable) Azhar University") is a university in Cairo, Egypt.

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Al-Biruni

Abū Rayḥān Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Al-Bīrūnī (Chorasmian/ابوریحان بیرونی Abū Rayḥān Bērōnī; New Persian: Abū Rayḥān Bīrūnī) (973–1050), known as Al-Biruni (البيروني) in English, was an IranianD.J. Boilot, "Al-Biruni (Beruni), Abu'l Rayhan Muhammad b. Ahmad", in Encyclopaedia of Islam (Leiden), New Ed., vol.1:1236–1238.

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Al-Ghazali

Al-Ghazali (full name Abū Ḥāmid Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad al-Ghazālī أبو حامد محمد بن محمد الغزالي; latinized Algazelus or Algazel, – 19 December 1111) was one of the most prominent and influential philosophers, theologians, jurists, and mysticsLudwig W. Adamec (2009), Historical Dictionary of Islam, p.109.

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Al-Hakim Mosque

The Mosque of al-Hakim (Masjid al-Ḥākim bi Amr Allāh), nicknamed al-Anwar (lit), is a major Islamic religious site in Cairo, Egypt.

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Al-Jahiz

al-Jāḥiẓ (الجاحظ) (full name Abū ʿUthman ʿAmr ibn Baḥr al-Kinānī al-Baṣrī أبو عثمان عمرو بن بحر الكناني البصري) (born 776, in Basra – December 868/January 869) was an Arab prose writer and author of works of literature, Mu'tazili theology, and politico-religious polemics.

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Al-Kindi

Abu Yūsuf Yaʻqūb ibn ʼIsḥāq aṣ-Ṣabbāḥ al-Kindī (أبو يوسف يعقوب بن إسحاق الصبّاح الكندي; Alkindus; c. 801–873 AD) was an Arab Muslim philosopher, polymath, mathematician, physician and musician.

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Al-Ma'mun

Abu al-Abbas al-Maʾmūn ibn Hārūn al-Rashīd (أبو العباس المأمون; September 786 – 9 August 833) was the seventh Abbasid caliph, who reigned from 813 until his death in 833.

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Al-Mansur

Al-Mansur or Abu Ja'far Abdallah ibn Muhammad al-Mansur (95 AH – 158 AH (714 AD– 6 October 775 AD); أبو جعفر عبدالله بن محمد المنصور) was the second Abbasid Caliph reigning from 136 AH to 158 AH (754 AD – 775 AD)Axworthy, Michael (2008); A History of Iran; Basic, USA;.

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Al-Mansur Qalawun

Qalāwūn aṣ-Ṣāliḥī (قلاوون الصالحي, c. 1222 – November 10, 1290) was the seventh Bahri Mamluk sultan; he ruled Egypt from 1279 to 1290.

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Al-Mu'tasim

Abū Isḥāq Muḥammad ibn Hārūn al-Rashīd (أبو إسحاق محمد بن هارون الرشيد; October 796 – 5 January 842), better known by his regnal name al-Muʿtaṣim bi’llāh (المعتصم بالله, "he who seeks refuge in God"), was the eighth Abbasid caliph, ruling from 833 to his death in 842.

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Al-Zahrawi

Abū al-Qāsim Khalaf ibn al-‘Abbās al-Zahrāwī al-Ansari (أبو القاسم خلف بن العباس الزهراوي;‎ 936–1013), popularly known as Al-Zahrawi (الزهراوي), Latinised as Abulcasis (from Arabic Abū al-Qāsim), was an Arab Muslim physician, surgeon and chemist who lived in Al-Andalus.

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Al-Zarnuji

Burhan al-Din or Burhan al-Islam al-Zarnuji also spelled az-Zarnuji was a Muslim scholar and the author of the celebrated pedagogical work Ta'līm al-Muta'allim-Ṭarīq at-Ta'-allum (Instruction of the Student: The Method of Learning).

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Alchemy

Alchemy is a philosophical and protoscientific tradition practiced throughout Europe, Africa, Brazil and Asia.

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Aleppo

Aleppo (ﺣﻠﺐ / ALA-LC) is a city in Syria, serving as the capital of the Aleppo Governorate, the most-populous Syrian governorate.

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Algebra

Algebra (from Arabic "al-jabr", literally meaning "reunion of broken parts") is one of the broad parts of mathematics, together with number theory, geometry and analysis.

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Alhambra

The Alhambra (الْحَمْرَاء, Al-Ḥamrā, lit. "The Red One",The "Al-" in "Alhambra" means "the" in Arabic, but this is ignored in general usage in both English and Spanish, where the name is normally given the definite articleالْحَمْرَاء, trans.; literally "the red one", feminine; in colloquial Arabic: the complete Arabic form of which was Qalat Al-Hamra)الْقَلْعَةُ ٱلْحَمْرَاءُ, trans.

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Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.

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Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).

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Ancient Greek medicine

Ancient Greek medicine was a compilation of theories and practices that were constantly expanding through new ideologies and trials.

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Ancient Greek philosophy

Ancient Greek philosophy arose in the 6th century BC and continued throughout the Hellenistic period and the period in which Ancient Greece was part of the Roman Empire.

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Andromeda (constellation)

Andromeda is one of the 48 constellations listed by the 2nd-century Greco-Roman astronomer Ptolemy and remains one of the 88 modern constellations.

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Andromeda Galaxy

The Andromeda Galaxy, also known as Messier 31, M31, or NGC 224, is a spiral galaxy approximately 780 kiloparsecs (2.5 million light-years) from Earth, and the nearest major galaxy to the Milky Way.

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Arabesque

The arabesque is a form of artistic decoration consisting of "surface decorations based on rhythmic linear patterns of scrolling and interlacing foliage, tendrils" or plain lines, often combined with other elements.

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Arabic

Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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Arabic numerals

Arabic numerals, also called Hindu–Arabic numerals, are the ten digits: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, based on the Hindu–Arabic numeral system, the most common system for the symbolic representation of numbers in the world today.

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Arabic Sciences and Philosophy

Arabic Sciences and Philosophy, subtitled A Historical Journal, is a peer-reviewed academic journal published by Cambridge University Press.

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Arabs

Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.

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Archimedes

Archimedes of Syracuse (Ἀρχιμήδης) was a Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, and astronomer.

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Aristotle

Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.

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Arithmetic

Arithmetic (from the Greek ἀριθμός arithmos, "number") is a branch of mathematics that consists of the study of numbers, especially the properties of the traditional operations on them—addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.

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Ashʿari

Ashʿarism or Ashʿari theology (الأشعرية al-ʾAšʿarīyya or الأشاعرة al-ʾAšāʿira) is the foremost theological school of Sunni Islam which established an orthodox dogmatic guideline based on clerical authority, founded by Abu al-Hasan al-Ashʿari (d. AD 936 / AH 324).

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Assyrian people

Assyrian people (ܐܫܘܪܝܐ), or Syriacs (see terms for Syriac Christians), are an ethnic group indigenous to the Middle East.

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Astronomy in the medieval Islamic world

Islamic astronomy comprises the astronomical developments made in the Islamic world, particularly during the Islamic Golden Age (9th–13th centuries), and mostly written in the Arabic language.

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Atreya

Atreya (आत्रेय) Rishi, or Atreya Punarvasu, was a descendant of Atri, one of the great Hindu sages (rishis) whose accomplishments are detailed in the Puranas.

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Autodidacticism

Autodidacticism (also autodidactism) or self-education (also self-learning and self-teaching) is education without the guidance of masters (such as teachers and professors) or institutions (such as schools).

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Automaton

An automaton (plural: automata or automatons) is a self-operating machine, or a machine or control mechanism designed to automatically follow a predetermined sequence of operations, or respond to predetermined instructions.

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Averroes

Ibn Rushd (ابن رشد; full name; 1126 – 11 December 1198), often Latinized as Averroes, was an Andalusian philosopher and thinker who wrote about many subjects, including philosophy, theology, medicine, astronomy, physics, Islamic jurisprudence and law, and linguistics.

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Avicenna

Avicenna (also Ibn Sīnā or Abu Ali Sina; ابن سینا; – June 1037) was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age.

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Ayurveda

Ayurveda is a system of medicine with historical roots in the Indian subcontinent.

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Azerbaijan International

Azerbaijan International is a magazine that discusses issues related to Azerbaijanis around the world.

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Baghdad

Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.

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Baghdad School

The Baghdad School was a relatively short-lived yet influential school of Islamic art developed during the late 12th century in the capital Baghdad of the ruling Abbasid Caliphate.

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Banū Mūsā

The Banū Mūsā brothers ("Sons of Moses"), namely Abū Jaʿfar, Muḥammad ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir (before 803 – February 873), Abū al‐Qāsim, Aḥmad ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir (d. 9th century) and Al-Ḥasan ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir (d. 9th century), were three 9th-century scholars who lived and worked in Baghdad.

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BBC

The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.

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Berlin State Library

The Berlin State Library (Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin; officially abbreviated as SBB, colloquially Stabi) is a universal library in Berlin, Germany and a property of the Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation.

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Bernard Lewis

Bernard Lewis, FBA (31 May 1916 – 19 May 2018) was a British American historian specializing in oriental studies.

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Book of Fixed Stars

The Book of Fixed Stars (كتاب صور الكواكب) is an astronomical text written by Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi (Azophi) around 964.

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Book of Ingenious Devices

The Book of Ingenious Devices (Arabic: كتاب الحيل Kitab al-Hiyal, literally: "The Book of Tricks") was a large illustrated work on mechanical devices, including automata, published in 850 by the three Iraqi brothers of Persian descent, known as the Banu Musa (Ahmad, Muhammad and Hasan bin Musa ibn Shakir) working at the House of Wisdom (Bayt al-Hikma) in Baghdad, Iraq, under the Abbasid Caliphate.

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Borax

Borax, also known as sodium borate, sodium tetraborate, or disodium tetraborate, is an important boron compound, a mineral, and a salt of boric acid.

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Breast cancer

Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue.

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Bukhtishu

Bakhtshooa Gondishapoori (also spelled Bukhtishu and Bukht-Yishu in literature) were Persian or Assyrian Nestorian Christian physicians from the 7th, 8th, and 9th centuries, spanning 6 generations and 250 years.

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Buyid dynasty

The Buyid dynasty or the Buyids (آل بویه Āl-e Buye), also known as Buwaihids, Bowayhids, Buyahids, or Buyyids, was an Iranian Shia dynasty of Daylamite origin.

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Byzantine medicine

Byzantine medicine encompasses the common medical practices of the Byzantine Empire from about 400 AD to 1453 AD.

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Caliphate

A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).

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Calligraphy

Calligraphy (from Greek: καλλιγραφία) is a visual art related to writing.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Caravel

A caravel (Portuguese: caravela) is a small, highly maneuverable sailing ship developed in the 15th century by the Portuguese to explore along the West African coast and into the Atlantic Ocean.

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Córdoba, Spain

Córdoba, also called Cordoba or Cordova in English, is a city in Andalusia, southern Spain, and the capital of the province of Córdoba.

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Central Asia

Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.

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Charaka

Charaka (चरक) (~6th – 2nd century BCE) was one of the principal contributors to Ayurveda, a system of medicine and lifestyle developed in Ancient India.

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Christendom

Christendom has several meanings.

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Christian

A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.

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Christian influences in Islam

Christian influences in Islam could be traced back to the Eastern Christianity, which surrounded the origins of Islam.

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Christianity

ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.

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Church of the East

The Church of the East (ܥܕܬܐ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ Ēdṯāʾ d-Maḏenḥā), also known as the Nestorian Church, was an Eastern Christian Church with independent hierarchy from the Nestorian Schism (431–544), while tracing its history to the late 1st century AD in Assyria, then the satrapy of Assuristan in the Parthian Empire.

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Circulatory system

The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.

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Classical element

Classical elements typically refer to the concepts in ancient Greece of earth, water, air, fire, and aether, which were proposed to explain the nature and complexity of all matter in terms of simpler substances.

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Commentary on Anatomy in Avicenna's Canon

The Commentary on Anatomy in Avicenna's Canon is a manuscript written in the 13th century by the Arab physician Ibn al-Nafis.

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Conway Zirkle

Conway Zirkle (October 28, 1895 – March 28, 1972), was an American botanist and historian of science.

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Copernican heliocentrism

Copernican heliocentrism is the name given to the astronomical model developed by Nicolaus Copernicus and published in 1543.

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Cranial nerves

Cranial nerves are the nerves that emerge directly from the brain (including the brainstem), in contrast to spinal nerves (which emerge from segments of the spinal cord).

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Crusades

The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.

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Damascus

Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.

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Decagon

In geometry, a decagon is a ten-sided polygon or 10-gon.

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Demography

Demography (from prefix demo- from Ancient Greek δῆμος dēmos meaning "the people", and -graphy from γράφω graphō, implies "writing, description or measurement") is the statistical study of populations, especially human beings.

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Desert island

A deserted island or uninhabited island is an island that is not permanently populated by humans.

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Donald Hill

Donald Routledge Hill (August 6, 1922 – May 30, 1994)D.

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Ductility

Ductility is a measure of a material's ability to undergo significant plastic deformation before rupture, which may be expressed as percent elongation or percent area reduction from a tensile test.

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Earth radius

Earth radius is the approximate distance from Earth's center to its surface, about.

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Economics

Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.

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Ectopic pregnancy

Ectopic pregnancy is a complication of pregnancy in which the embryo attaches outside the uterus.

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Emirate of Sicily

The Emirate of Sicily (إِمَارَةُ صِقِلِّيَة) was an emirate on the island of Sicily which existed from 831 to 1091.

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Emission theory

Emission theory, also called emitter theory or ballistic theory of light, was a competing theory for the special theory of relativity, explaining the results of the Michelson–Morley experiment of 1887.

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Encyclopædia Iranica

Encyclopædia Iranica is a project whose goal is to create a comprehensive and authoritative English language encyclopedia about the history, culture, and civilization of Iranian peoples from prehistory to modern times.

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Epistemology

Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.

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Equant

Equant (or punctum aequans) is a mathematical concept developed by Claudius Ptolemy in the 2nd century AD to account for the observed motion of the planets.

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Euclid

Euclid (Εὐκλείδης Eukleidēs; fl. 300 BC), sometimes given the name Euclid of Alexandria to distinguish him from Euclides of Megara, was a Greek mathematician, often referred to as the "founder of geometry" or the "father of geometry".

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Euphrates

The Euphrates (Sumerian: Buranuna; 𒌓𒄒𒉣 Purattu; الفرات al-Furāt; ̇ܦܪܬ Pǝrāt; Եփրատ: Yeprat; פרת Perat; Fırat; Firat) is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia.

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Eutychius of Alexandria

Eutychius of Alexandria (Arabic: Sa'id ibn Batriq or Bitriq; 10 September 877 – 12 May 940) was the Melkite Patriarch of Alexandria.

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Evolution

Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.

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Fatimah

Fatimah bint Muhammad (فاطمة;; especially colloquially: born c. 609 (or 20 Jumada al-Thani 5 BH ?) – died 28 August 632) was the youngest daughter and according to Shia Muslims, the only child of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and Khadijah who lived to adulthood, and therefore part of Muhammad's household.

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Fatimid architecture

The Fatimid architecture that developed in the Fatimid Caliphate (909–1167 CE) of North Africa combined elements of eastern and western architecture, drawing on Abbasid architecture, Byzantine, Ancient Egyptian, Coptic architecture and North African traditions; it bridged early Islamic styles and the medieval architecture of the Mamluks of Egypt, introducing many innovations.

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Fatimid Caliphate

The Fatimid Caliphate was an Islamic caliphate that spanned a large area of North Africa, from the Red Sea in the east to the Atlantic Ocean in the west.

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Fatwa

A fatwā (فتوى; plural fatāwā فتاوى.) in the Islamic faith is a nonbinding but authoritative legal opinion or learned interpretation that the Sheikhul Islam, a qualified jurist or mufti, can give on issues pertaining to the Islamic law.

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Feral child

A feral child (also called wild child) is a human child who has lived isolated from human contact from a very young age, where they have little or no experience of human care, behavior, or, crucially, of human language.

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Fiqh

Fiqh (فقه) is Islamic jurisprudence.

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First Fitna

The First Fitna (فتنة مقتل عثمان fitnat maqtal ʿUthmān "strife/sedition of the killing of Uthman") was a civil war within the Rashidun Caliphate which resulted in the overthrowing of the Rashidun caliphs and the establishment of the Umayyad dynasty.

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Floating man

Floating man, flying man or man suspended in air is a thought experiment by Avicenna (Ibn Sina, d. 1037) to argue for the existence of the soul.

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Flute

The flute is a family of musical instruments in the woodwind group.

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Foundation (nonprofit)

A foundation (also a charitable foundation) is a legal category of nonprofit organization that will typically either donate funds and support to other organizations, or provide the source of funding for its own charitable purposes.

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Galen

Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 AD – /), often Anglicized as Galen and better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire.

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Gaston Wiet

Gaston Wiet (18 December 1887, Paris – 20 April 1971, Neuilly-sur-Seine) was a 20th-century French orientalist.

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Genghis Khan

Genghis Khan or Temüjin Borjigin (Чингис хаан, Çingis hán) (also transliterated as Chinggis Khaan; born Temüjin, c. 1162 August 18, 1227) was the founder and first Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death.

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Geocentric model

In astronomy, the geocentric model (also known as geocentrism, or the Ptolemaic system) is a superseded description of the universe with Earth at the center.

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George Saliba

George Saliba is Professor of Arabic and Islamic Science at the Department of Middle Eastern, South Asian, and African Studies, Columbia University, New York, USA, where he has been since 1979.

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Girih tiles

Girih tiles are a set of five tiles that were used in the creation of Islamic geometric patterns using strapwork (girih) for decoration of buildings in Islamic architecture.

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Golden age (metaphor)

A golden age is a period in a field of endeavor when great tasks were accomplished.

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Golden age of Jewish culture in Spain

The golden age of Jewish culture in Spain coincided with the Middle Ages in Europe, a period of Muslim rule throughout much of the Iberian Peninsula.

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Granada

Granada is the capital city of the province of Granada, in the autonomous community of Andalusia, Spain.

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Great Mosque of Kairouan

The Great Mosque of Kairouan (جامع القيروان الأكبر), also known as the Mosque of Uqba (جامع عقبة بن نافع), is a mosque in Tunisia, situated in the UNESCO World Heritage town of Kairouan.

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Great Mosque of Samarra

The Great Mosque of Samarra is a ninth-century mosque located in Samarra, Iraq.

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Greater Iran

Greater Iran (ایران بزرگ) is a term used to refer to the regions of the Caucasus, West Asia, Central Asia, and parts of South Asia that have significant Iranian cultural influence due to having been either long historically ruled by the various imperial dynasties of Persian Empire (such as those of the Medes, Achaemenids, Parthians, Sassanians, Samanids, Safavids, and Afsharids and the Qajars), having considerable aspects of Persian culture due to extensive contact with the various imperial dynasties of Iran (e.g., those regions and peoples in the North Caucasus that were not under direct Iranian rule), or are simply nowadays still inhabited by a significant amount of Iranic peoples who patronize their respective cultures (as it goes for the western parts of South Asia, Bahrain and Tajikistan).

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Haemophilia

Haemophilia, also spelled hemophilia, is a mostly inherited genetic disorder that impairs the body's ability to make blood clots, a process needed to stop bleeding.

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Harun al-Rashid

Harun al-Rashid (هَارُون الرَشِيد Hārūn Ar-Rašīd; "Harun the Orthodox" or "Harun the Rightly-Guided," 17 March 763 or February 766 — 24 March 809 (148–193 Hijri) was the fifth Abbasid Caliph. His birth date is debated, with various sources giving dates from 763 to 766. His epithet "al-Rashid" translates to "the Orthodox," "the Just," "the Upright," or "the Rightly-Guided." Al-Rashid ruled from 786 to 809, during the peak of the Islamic Golden Age. His time was marked by scientific, cultural, and religious prosperity. Islamic art and music also flourished significantly during his reign. He established the legendary library Bayt al-Hikma ("House of Wisdom") in Baghdad in present-day Iraq, and during his rule Baghdad began to flourish as a center of knowledge, culture and trade. During his rule, the family of Barmakids, which played a deciding role in establishing the Abbasid Caliphate, declined gradually. In 796, he moved his court and government to Raqqa in present-day Syria. A Frankish mission came to offer Harun friendship in 799. Harun sent various presents with the emissaries on their return to Charlemagne's court, including a clock that Charlemagne and his retinue deemed to be a conjuration because of the sounds it emanated and the tricks it displayed every time an hour ticked. The fictional The Book of One Thousand and One Nights is set in Harun's magnificent court and some of its stories involve Harun himself. Harun's life and court have been the subject of many other tales, both factual and fictitious. Some of the Twelver sect of Shia Muslims blame Harun for his supposed role in the murder of their 7th Imam (Musa ibn Ja'far).

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Hayy ibn Yaqdhan

Ḥayy ibn Yaqẓān (ar. حي بن يقظان Alive, son of Awake) is an Arabic philosophical novel and an allegorical tale written by Ibn Tufail in the early 12th century.

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Heliocentrism

Heliocentrism is the astronomical model in which the Earth and planets revolve around the Sun at the center of the Solar System.

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Hexagon

In geometry, a hexagon (from Greek ἕξ hex, "six" and γωνία, gonía, "corner, angle") is a six-sided polygon or 6-gon.

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Hippocrates

Hippocrates of Kos (Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.

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Historiography

Historiography is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic discipline, and by extension is any body of historical work on a particular subject.

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History of China

The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC,William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol.

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History of India

The history of India includes the prehistoric settlements and societies in the Indian subcontinent; the advancement of civilisation from the Indus Valley Civilisation to the eventual blending of the Indo-Aryan culture to form the Vedic Civilisation; the rise of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism;Sanderson, Alexis (2009), "The Śaiva Age: The Rise and Dominance of Śaivism during the Early Medieval Period." In: Genesis and Development of Tantrism, edited by Shingo Einoo, Tokyo: Institute of Oriental Culture, University of Tokyo, 2009.

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History of Islam

The history of Islam concerns the political, social,economic and cultural developments of the Islamic civilization.

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History of paper

Paper, a thin unwoven material made from milled plant fibers, is primarily used for writing, artwork, and packaging; it is commonly white.

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History of science in classical antiquity

The history of science in classical antiquity encompasses both those inquiries into the workings of the universe aimed at such practical goals as establishing a reliable calendar or determining how to cure a variety of illnesses and those abstract investigations known as natural philosophy.

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History of scientific method

The history of scientific method considers changes in the methodology of scientific inquiry, as distinct from the history of science itself.

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Hospital

A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treatment with specialized medical and nursing staff and medical equipment.

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Hossein Nasr

Hossein Nasr (سید حسین نصر, born April 7, 1933) is an Iranian professor emeritus of Islamic studies at George Washington University, and an Islamic philosopher.

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House of Wisdom

The House of Wisdom (بيت الحكمة; Bayt al-Hikma) refers either to a major Abbasid public academy and intellectual center in Baghdad or to a large private library belonging to the Abbasid Caliphs during the Islamic Golden Age.

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Hulagu Khan

Hulagu Khan, also known as Hülegü or Hulegu (ᠬᠦᠯᠡᠭᠦ|translit.

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Humorism

Humorism, or humoralism, was a system of medicine detailing the makeup and workings of the human body, adopted by Ancient Greek and Roman physicians and philosophers, positing that an excess or deficiency of any of four distinct bodily fluids in a person—known as humors or humours—directly influences their temperament and health.

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Hunayn ibn Ishaq

Hunayn ibn Ishaq al-Ibadi (also Hunain or Hunein) (أبو زيد حنين بن إسحاق العبادي;, Iohannitius, ܚܢܝܢ ܒܪ ܐܝܣܚܩ) (809 – 873) was an influential Arab Nestorian Christian translator, scholar, physician, and scientist.

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Hypoglossal nerve

The hypoglossal nerve is the twelfth cranial nerve, and innervates all the extrinsic and intrinsic muscles of the tongue, except for the palatoglossus which is innervated by the vagus nerve.

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Hypostyle

In architecture, a hypostyle hall has a roof which is supported by columns.

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Iberian Peninsula

The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.

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Ibn al-Haytham

Hasan Ibn al-Haytham (Latinized Alhazen; full name أبو علي، الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم) was an Arab mathematician, astronomer, and physicist of the Islamic Golden Age.

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Ibn al-Nafis

Ala-al-din abu Al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi (Arabic: علاء الدين أبو الحسن عليّ بن أبي حزم القرشي الدمشقي), known as Ibn al-Nafis (Arabic: ابن النفيس), was an Arab physician mostly famous for being the first to describe the pulmonary circulation of the blood.

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Ibn al-Shatir

ʿAlāʾ al‐Dīn ʿAlī ibn Ibrāhīm known as Ibn al-Shatir or Ibn ash-Shatir (ابن الشاطر; 1304–1375) was an Arab astronomer, mathematician and engineer.

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Ibn Khaldun

Ibn Khaldun (أبو زيد عبد الرحمن بن محمد بن خلدون الحضرمي.,; 27 May 1332 – 17 March 1406) was a fourteenth-century Arab historiographer and historian.

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Ibn Khaldun International Institute of Advanced Research

The Ibn Khaldun International Institute of Advanced Research (abbreviated ISLAH; formerly known as International Institute of Islamic Thought and Civilisation) is a research and postgraduate institution of the International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) located at Pesiaran Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin off Jalan Duta, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

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Ibn Muʿādh al-Jayyānī

Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad ibn Muʿādh al-Jayyānī (989, Cordova, Al-Andalus – 1079, Jaén, Al-Andalus) was a mathematician, Islamic scholar, and Qadi from Al-Andalus (in present-day Spain).

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Ibn Na'ima al-Himsi

Ibn Na‘ima al-Himsi (Arabic: ابن ناعمة الحمصي) (dates unknown; early ninth century) was a Syrian Christian who belonged to the Al-Kindi circle of translators who rendered Greek texts into Arabic.

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Ibn Sina Academy of Medieval Medicine and Sciences

Ibn Sina Academy of Medieval Medicine and Sciences (IAMMS) (ابن سینا اکاڈمی آف میڈیول میڈیسین اینڈ سائنسیز.) is a trust registered under the Indian Trusts Act, 1882.

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Ibn Tufail

Ibn Tufail (c. 1105 – 1185) (full Arabic name: أبو بكر محمد بن عبد الملك بن محمد بن طفيل القيسي الأندلسي Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Abd al-Malik ibn Muhammad ibn Tufail al-Qaisi al-Andalusi; Latinized form: Abubacer Aben Tofail; Anglicized form: Abubekar or Abu Jaafar Ebn Tophail) was an Arab Andalusian Muslim polymath: a writer, novelist, Islamic philosopher, Islamic theologian, physician, astronomer, vizier, and court official.

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Ibn Zuhr

Ibn Zuhr (ابن زهر; 1094–1162), traditionally known by his Latinized name of Avenzoar, was an Arab physician, surgeon, and poet.

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Ijazah

An ijazah (الإِجازَة., "permission", "authorization", "license") is a license authorizing its holder to transmit a certain text or subject, which is issued by someone already possessing such authority.

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Ijma

Ijmāʿ (إجماع) is an Arabic term referring to the consensus or agreement of the Muslim scholars basically on religious issues.

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Ijtihad

Ijtihad (اجتهاد, lit. effort, physical or mental, expended in a particular activity) is an Islamic legal term referring to independent reasoning or the thorough exertion of a jurist's mental faculty in finding a solution to a legal question.

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Infobase Publishing

Infobase Publishing is an American publisher of reference book titles and textbooks geared towards the North American library, secondary school, and university-level curriculum markets.

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Internal medicine

Internal medicine or general medicine (in Commonwealth nations) is the medical specialty dealing with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of adult diseases.

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Iraq

Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.

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Islam during the Song dynasty

The transition from the Tang to the Song dynasty (960–1279) in China did not greatly interrupt the trends of Muslims established during the Tang.

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Islamic geometric patterns

Islamic decoration, which tends to avoid using figurative images, makes frequent use of geometric patterns which have developed over the centuries.

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Islamic studies

Islamic studies refers to the study of Islam.

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Jabril ibn Bukhtishu

Jabril ibn Bukhtishu, (Jibril ibn Bakhtisha) also written as Bakhtyshu, was an 8-9th century physician from the Bukhtishu family of Assyrian Nestorian physicians from the Academy of Gundishapur.

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Jim Al-Khalili

Jameel Sadik Al-Khalili (born 20 September 1962) is a British theoretical physicist, author and broadcaster.

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Kievan Rus'

Kievan Rus' (Рѹ́сь, Рѹ́сьскаѧ землѧ, Rus(s)ia, Ruscia, Ruzzia, Rut(h)enia) was a loose federationJohn Channon & Robert Hudson, Penguin Historical Atlas of Russia (Penguin, 1995), p.16.

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Kitāb al-Hayawān

The Kitāb al-Hayawān (كتاب الحيوان; English: Book of Animals) is an Arabic translation in 19 treatises (maqālāt) of the following zoological texts by Aristotle: Historia Animalium: treatises 1-10 De Partibus Animalium: treatises 11-14 De Generatione Animalium: treatises 15-19 While the book is often attributed to Yahyà bin al-Bitrīq, the translator is unknown.

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Latin translations of the 12th century

Latin translations of the 12th century were spurred by a major search by European scholars for new learning unavailable in western Europe at the time; their search led them to areas of southern Europe, particularly in central Spain and Sicily, which recently had come under Christian rule following their reconquest in the late 11th century.

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Law of sines

In trigonometry, the law of sines, sine law, sine formula, or sine rule is an equation relating the lengths of the sides of a triangle (any shape) to the sines of its angles.

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Library

A library is a collection of sources of information and similar resources, made accessible to a defined community for reference or borrowing.

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List of contemporary Muslim scholars of Islam

This article is an incomplete list of noted modern-era (20th to 21st century) Islamic scholars.

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List of nearest galaxies

This is a list of known galaxies within 3.59 megaparsecs (11.7 million light-years) of the Solar System, in ascending order of distance.

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List of pre-modern Iranian scientists and scholars

The following is a non-comprehensive list of Iranian scientists and engineers who lived from antiquity up until the beginning of the modern age.

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Lumbar nerves

The lumbar nerves are the five pairs of spinal nerves emerging from the lumbar vertebrae.

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Madhhab

A (مذهب,, "way to act"; pl. مذاهب) is a school of thought within fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence).

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Madrasa

Madrasa (مدرسة,, pl. مدارس) is the Arabic word for any type of educational institution, whether secular or religious (of any religion), and whether a school, college, or university.

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Mahābhūta

Mahābhūta is Sanskrit and Pāli for "great element.".

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Marcello Malpighi

Marcello Malpighi (10 March 1628 – 29 November 1694) was an Italian biologist and physician, who is referred to as the "Father of microscopical anatomy, histology, physiology and embryology".

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Masawaiyh

Yuhanna ibn Masawaih (circa 777–857), (يوحنا بن ماسويه), also written Ibn Masawaih, Masawaiyh, and in Latin Mesue, Masuya, Mesue Major, Msuya, and Mesue the Elder was a Persian or Assyrian Nestorian Christian physician from the Academy of Gundishapur.

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Maturidi

In Islam, a Maturidi (ماتريدي) is one who follows Abu Mansur Al Maturidi's systematic theology (kalam), which is a school of theology within Sunni Islam.

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Measles

Measles is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by the measles virus.

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Medical Research Council (United Kingdom)

The Medical Research Council (MRC) is responsible for co-coordinating and funding medical research in the United Kingdom.

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Medieval Islamic civilization: an encyclopedia

Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia is an encyclopedia in the English language about culture of the Islamic world in Middle Ages.

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Mediterranean Sea

The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.

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Michael Servetus

Michael Servetus (Miguel Serveto, Michel Servet), also known as Miguel Servet, Miguel Serveto, Michel Servet, Revés, or Michel de Villeneuve (29 September 1509 or 1511 – 27 October 1553), was a Spanish (then French) theologian, physician, cartographer, and Renaissance humanist.

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Mihna

The Mihna (محنة خلق القرآن, Miḥnat Ḵẖalaq al-Qurʾān "Ordeal the creation of the Qur'an") refers to the period of religious persecution instituted by the 'Abbasid Caliph al-Ma'mun in 833 AD in which religious scholars were punished, imprisoned, or even killed unless they conformed to Muʿtazila doctrine.

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Minaret

Minaret (مناره, minarə, minare), from منارة, "lighthouse", also known as Goldaste (گلدسته), is a distinctive architectural structure akin to a tower and typically found adjacent to mosques.

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Mongol Empire

The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн;; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.

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Mongol invasions and conquests

Mongol invasions and conquests took place throughout the 13th century, resulting in the vast Mongol Empire, which by 1300 covered much of Asia and Eastern Europe.

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Mongols

The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.

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Moroccan architecture

Moroccan architecture dates from 110 BCE with the massive pisé (mud brick) buildings.

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Mosque–Cathedral of Córdoba

The Mosque–Cathedral of Córdoba (Mezquita-Catedral de Córdoba), also known as the Great Mosque of Córdoba (Mezquita de Córdoba) and the Mezquita, whose ecclesiastical name is the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Assumption (Catedral de Nuestra Señora de la Asunción), is the Catholic cathedral of the Diocese of Córdoba dedicated to the Assumption of the Virgin Mary and located in the Spanish region of Andalusia.

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Motor neuron

A motor neuron (or motoneuron) is a neuron whose cell body is located in the motor cortex, brainstem or the spinal cord, and whose axon (fiber) projects to the spinal cord or outside of the spinal cord to directly or indirectly control effector organs, mainly muscles and glands.

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Muʿtazila

Muʿtazila (المعتزلة) is a rationalist school of Islamic theology"", Encyclopaedia Britannica.

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Mufti

A mufti (مفتي) is an Islamic scholar who interprets and expounds Islamic law (Sharia and fiqh).

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Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi

There is some confusion in the literature on whether al-Khwārizmī's full name is ابو عبد الله محمد بن موسى الخوارزمي or ابو جعفر محمد بن موسی الخوارزمی.

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Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi

Abū Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyyā al-Rāzī (Abūbakr Mohammad-e Zakariyyā-ye Rāzī, also known by his Latinized name Rhazes or Rasis) (854–925 CE), was a Persian polymath, physician, alchemist, philosopher, and important figure in the history of medicine.

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Muhtasib

A muḥtasib (محتسب) was a supervisor of bazaars and trade in the medieval Islamic countries.

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Muqaddimah

The Muqaddimah, also known as the Muqaddimah of Ibn Khaldun (مقدّمة ابن خلدون) or Ibn Khaldun's Prolegomena (Προλεγόμενα), is a book written by the Arab historian Ibn Khaldun in 1377 which records an early view of universal history.

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Muqarnas

Muqarnas (مقرنص; مقرنس) is a form of ornamented vaulting in Islamic architecture, the "geometric subdivision of a squinch, or cupola, or corbel, into a large number of miniature squinches, producing a sort of cellular structure", sometimes also called a "honeycomb" vault.

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Muslim world

The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the unified Islamic community (Ummah), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced.

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Mysticism

Mysticism is the practice of religious ecstasies (religious experiences during alternate states of consciousness), together with whatever ideologies, ethics, rites, myths, legends, and magic may be related to them.

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Nader El-Bizri

Nader El-Bizri (نادر البزري, nādir al-bizrĩ) is a professor of philosophy and civilization studies at the American University of Beirut, where he also serves as associate dean of the faculty of arts and sciences, and as the director of the general education program.

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Nasir al-Din al-Tusi

Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Tūsī (محمد بن محمد بن حسن طوسی‎ 18 February 1201 – 26 June 1274), better known as Nasir al-Din Tusi (نصیر الدین طوسی; or simply Tusi in the West), was a Persian polymath, architect, philosopher, physician, scientist, and theologian.

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Naskh (tafsir)

Naskh (نسخ) is an Arabic word usually translated as "abrogation"; It is a term used in Islamic legal exegesis for seemingly contradictory material within, or between, the two primary sources of Islamic law: the Quran and the Sunna.

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National Institutes of Health

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and public health research, founded in the late 1870s.

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Natural selection

Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.

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Nerve

A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons (nerve fibers, the long and slender projections of neurons) in the peripheral nervous system.

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Nervous system

The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.

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Nestorianism

Nestorianism is a Christological doctrine that emphasizes a distinction between the human and divine natures of the divine person, Jesus.

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New York University Press

New York University Press (or NYU Press) is a university press that is part of New York University.

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Nicolaus Copernicus

Nicolaus Copernicus (Mikołaj Kopernik; Nikolaus Kopernikus; Niklas Koppernigk; 19 February 1473 – 24 May 1543) was a Renaissance-era mathematician and astronomer who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at the center of the universe, likely independently of Aristarchus of Samos, who had formulated such a model some eighteen centuries earlier.

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Nile

The Nile River (النيل, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew:, Ha-Ye'or or, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest.

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Obstetrics

Obstetrics is the field of study concentrated on pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period.

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Occasionalism

Occasionalism is a philosophical theory about causation which says that created substances cannot be efficient causes of events.

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Oliver Leaman

Oliver Leaman is a Professor of Philosophy and Zantker Professor of Judaic Studies.

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Oneworld Publications

Oneworld Publications is a British independent publishing firm founded in 1986 by Novin Doostdar and Juliet Mabey originally to publish accessible non-fiction by experts and academics for the general market.

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Ophthalmology

Ophthalmology is a branch of medicine and surgery (both methods are used) that deals with the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eyeball and orbit.

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Ophthalmology in medieval Islam

Ophthalmology was one of the foremost branches in medieval Islamic medicine.

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Optic nerve

The optic nerve, also known as cranial nerve II, is a paired nerve that transmits visual information from the retina to the brain.

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Optics

Optics is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.

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Orientalism

Orientalism is a term used by art historians and literary and cultural studies scholars for the imitation or depiction of aspects in Middle Eastern, South Asian, and East Asian cultures (Eastern world).

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Ottoman–Mamluk War (1516–17)

The Ottoman–Mamluk War of 1516–1517 was the second major conflict between the Egypt-based Mamluk Sultanate and the Ottoman Empire, which led to the fall of the Mamluk Sultanate and the incorporation of the Levant, Egypt and the Hejaz as provinces of the Ottoman Empire.

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Papyrus

Papyrus is a material similar to thick paper that was used in ancient times as a writing surface.

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Paraboloid

In geometry, a paraboloid is a quadric surface that has (exactly) one axis of symmetry and no center of symmetry.

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Parchment

Parchment is a writing material made from specially prepared untanned skins of animals—primarily sheep, calves, and goats.

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Paul Steinhardt

Paul Joseph Steinhardt (born December 25, 1952) is an American theoretical physicist and cosmologist who is currently the Albert Einstein Professor in Science at Princeton University.

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Penrose tiling

A Penrose tiling is an example of non-periodic tiling generated by an aperiodic set of prototiles.

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Pentagon

In geometry, a pentagon (from the Greek πέντε pente and γωνία gonia, meaning five and angle) is any five-sided polygon or 5-gon.

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Persian Empire

The Persian Empire (شاهنشاهی ایران, translit., lit. 'Imperial Iran') refers to any of a series of imperial dynasties that were centred in Persia/Iran from the 6th-century-BC Achaemenid Empire era to the 20th century AD in the Qajar dynasty era.

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Persian miniature

A Persian miniature (Persian:نگارگری ایرانی) is a small painting on paper, whether a book illustration or a separate work of art intended to be kept in an album of such works called a muraqqa.

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Peter Lu

Peter James Lu, PhD (陸述義) is a post-doctoral research fellow in the Department of Physics and the School of Engineering and Applied Sciences at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

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Philosophy

Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.

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Phoenicia

Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη, meaning "purple country") was a thalassocratic ancient Semitic civilization that originated in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the west of the Fertile Crescent.

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Physician

A physician, medical practitioner, medical doctor, or simply doctor is a professional who practises medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments.

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Plato

Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.

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Poetry

Poetry (the term derives from a variant of the Greek term, poiesis, "making") is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, and metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning.

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Principles of Islamic jurisprudence

Principles of Islamic jurisprudence otherwise known as Uṣūl al-fiqh (أصول الفقه) is the study and critical analysis of the origins, sources, and principles upon which Islamic jurisprudence is based.

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Program (machine)

A program is a set of instructions used to control the behavior of a machine, often a computer (in this case it is known as a computer program).

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Prophetic traditions

Prophetic traditions refers to any written or oral prophecies within a culture, usually of religious nature.

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Ptolemy

Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.

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Pulmonary artery

A pulmonary artery is an artery in the pulmonary circulation that carries deoxygenated blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs.

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Pulmonary circulation

The pulmonary circulation is the portion of the circulatory system which carries deoxygenated blood away from the right ventricle of the heart, to the lungs, and returns oxygenated blood to the left atrium and ventricle of the heart.

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Pulmonary vein

The pulmonary veins are the veins that transfer oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart.

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Qadi

A qadi (قاضي; also cadi, kadi or kazi) is the magistrate or judge of the Shariʿa court, who also exercises extrajudicial functions, such as mediation, guardianship over orphans and minors, and supervision and auditing of public works.

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Qalawun complex

The Qalawun complex (مجمع قلاون) is a massive complex in Cairo, Egypt that includes a madrasa, a hospital and a mausoleum.

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Qiyas

In Islamic jurisprudence, qiyās (قياس) is the process of deductive analogy in which the teachings of the Hadith are compared and contrasted with those of the Qur'an, in order to apply a known injunction (nass) to a new circumstance and create a new injunction.

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Quasicrystal

A quasiperiodic crystal, or quasicrystal, is a structure that is ordered but not periodic.

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Quran

The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).

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Qusta ibn Luqa

Qusta ibn Luqa (820–912) (Costa ben Luca, Constabulus) was a Syrian Melkite physician, scientist and translator.

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Radian

The radian (SI symbol rad) is the SI unit for measuring angles, and is the standard unit of angular measure used in many areas of mathematics.

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Rash

A rash is a change of the human skin which affects its color, appearance, or texture.

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Rashidun

The Rashidun Caliphs (Rightly Guided Caliphs; الخلفاء الراشدون), often simply called, collectively, "the Rashidun", is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the 30-year reign of the first four caliphs (successors) following the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, namely: Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman ibn Affan, and Ali of the Rashidun Caliphate, the first caliphate.

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Renaissance

The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.

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Rhombus

In plane Euclidean geometry, a rhombus (plural rhombi or rhombuses) is a simple (non-self-intersecting) quadrilateral whose four sides all have the same length.

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Right triangle

A right triangle (American English) or right-angled triangle (British English) is a triangle in which one angle is a right angle (that is, a 90-degree angle).

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Rumi

Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Rūmī (جلال‌الدین محمد رومی), also known as Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Balkhī (جلال‌الدین محمد بلخى), Mevlânâ/Mawlānā (مولانا, "our master"), Mevlevî/Mawlawī (مولوی, "my master"), and more popularly simply as Rumi (30 September 1207 – 17 December 1273), was a 13th-century PersianRitter, H.; Bausani, A. "ḎJ̲alāl al-Dīn Rūmī b. Bahāʾ al-Dīn Sulṭān al-ʿulamāʾ Walad b. Ḥusayn b. Aḥmad Ḵh̲aṭībī." Encyclopaedia of Islam.

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Salt (chemistry)

In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.

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Sarcoptes scabiei

Sarcoptes scabiei or the itch mite is a parasitic mite (an arthropod) that burrows into skin and causes scabies.

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Sasanian Empire

The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.

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Scabies

Scabies, also known as the seven-year itch, is a contagious skin infestation by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei.

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School of Edessa

The School of Edessa (ܐܣܟܘܠܐ ܕܐܘܪܗܝ), often confused with the School of Nisibis, was a theological school of great importance to the Syriac-speaking world.

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School of Nisibis

The School of Nisibis (ܐܣܟܘܠܐ ܕܢܨܝܒܝܢ), for a time absorbed into the School of Edessa, was an educational establishment in Nisibis (now Nusaybin, Turkey).

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Science

R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.

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Science (journal)

Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.

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Science and Islam (TV series)

Science and Islam (2009) is a three-part BBC documentary about the history of science in medieval Islamic civilization presented by Jim Al-Khalili.

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Science in the medieval Islamic world

Science in the medieval Islamic world was the science developed and practised during the Islamic Golden Age under the Umayyads of Córdoba, the Abbadids of Seville, the Samanids, the Ziyarids, the Buyids in Persia, the Abbasid Caliphate and beyond, spanning the period c. 800 to 1250.

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Self-awareness

Self-awareness is the capacity for introspection and the ability to recognize oneself as an individual separate from the environment and other individuals.

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Sensory neuron

Sensory neurons also known as afferent neurons are neurons that convert a specific type of stimulus, via their receptors, into action potentials or graded potentials.

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Sextant

A sextant is a doubly reflecting navigation instrument that measures the angular distance between two visible objects.

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Siege of Baghdad (1258)

The Siege of Baghdad, which lasted from January 29 until February 10, 1258, entailed the investment, capture, and sack of Baghdad, the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate, by Ilkhanate Mongol forces and allied troops.

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Smallpox

Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.

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Socialization

In sociology, socialization is the process of internalizing the norms and ideologies of society.

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Sociology

Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture.

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Song dynasty

The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.

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Spinal nerve

A spinal nerve is a mixed nerve, which carries motor, sensory, and autonomic signals between the spinal cord and the body.

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Spontaneous generation

Spontaneous generation refers to an obsolete body of thought on the ordinary formation of living organisms without descent from similar organisms.

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Springer Science+Business Media

Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.

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St Thomas' Hospital

St Thomas' Hospital is a large NHS teaching hospital in Central London, England.

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Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP) combines an online encyclopedia of philosophy with peer-reviewed publication of original papers in philosophy, freely accessible to Internet users.

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Steam engine

A steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid.

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Strapwork

In the history of art and design, strapwork is the use of stylised representations in ornament of ribbon-like forms.

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Sushruta

Sushruta, or Suśruta (Sanskrit: सुश्रुत, lit. "well heard") was an ancient Indian physician during 1500 BCE to 1000 BCE, known as the main author of the treatise The Compendium of Suśruta (Sanskrit: ''Suśruta-saṃhitā'').

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Syed Nomanul Haq

Syed Nomanul Haq (Nu'man al-Haqq) (سید نعمان الحق; born February 15, 1948 in Karachi, Pakistan) is an international Pakistani scholar and intellectual historian noted especially for his contributions to the fields of Islamic history and Islamic philosophy.

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Syriac language

Syriac (ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ), also known as Syriac Aramaic or Classical Syriac, is a dialect of Middle Aramaic.

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Tafsir

Tafsir (lit) is the Arabic word for exegesis, usually of the Qur'an.

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Thābit ibn Qurra

(ثابت بن قره, Thebit/Thebith/Tebit; 826 – February 18, 901) was a Syrian Arab Sabian mathematician, physician, astronomer, and translator who lived in Baghdad in the second half of the ninth century during the time of Abbasid Caliphate.

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The Canon of Medicine

The Canon of Medicine (القانون في الطب al-Qānūn fī al-Ṭibb) is an encyclopedia of medicine in five books compiled by Persian philosopher Avicenna (Ibn Sina) and completed in 1025.

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The Twelve Imams

The Twelve Imams are the spiritual and political successors to the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the Twelver or Athnā‘ashariyyah branch of Shia Islam, including that of the Alawite and the Alevi sects.

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Theologus Autodidactus

Theologus Autodidactus ("The Self-taught Theologian"), originally titled The Treatise of Kāmil on the Prophet's Biography (الرسالة الكاملية في السيرة النبوية), also known as Risālat Fādil ibn Nātiq ("The Book of Fādil ibn Nātiq"), was the first theological novel, written by Ibn al-Nafis.

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Theology

Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine.

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Thyroidectomy

A thyroidectomy is an operation that involves the surgical removal of all or part of the thyroid gland.

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Tigris

Batman River The Tigris (Sumerian: Idigna or Idigina; Akkadian: 𒁇𒄘𒃼; دجلة Dijlah; ܕܹܩܠܵܬ.; Տիգրիս Tigris; Դգլաթ Dglatʿ;, biblical Hiddekel) is the eastern member of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia, the other being the Euphrates.

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Timeline of science and engineering in the Islamic world

This timeline of science and engineering in the Islamic world covers the time period from the eighth century AD to the introduction of European science to the Islamic world in the nineteenth century.

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Translation Movement

The Translation Movement was a movement started in the House of Wisdom in Baghdad which translated many Greek classics into Arabic.

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Tunisia

Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.

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Tusi couple

The Tusi couple is a mathematical device in which a small circle rotates inside a larger circle twice the diameter of the smaller circle.

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Twelver

Twelver (translit; شیعه دوازده‌امامی) or Imamiyyah (إمامية) is the largest branch of Shia Islam.

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Ulama

The Arabic term ulama (علماء., singular عالِم, "scholar", literally "the learned ones", also spelled ulema; feminine: alimah and uluma), according to the Encyclopedia of Islam (2000), in its original meaning "denotes scholars of almost all disciplines".

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Umar

Umar, also spelled Omar (عمر بن الخطاب, "Umar, Son of Al-Khattab"; c. 584 CE 3 November 644 CE), was one of the most powerful and influential Muslim caliphs in history.

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Umayyad Caliphate

The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.

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University of Al Quaraouiyine

The University of al-Qarawiyyin, also written Al Quaraouiyine or Al-Karaouine (Université Al Quaraouiyine), is a university located in Fez, Morocco.

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Vitriol

In chemistry, vitriol is an archaic name for a sulfate, and vitriol names have the obvious meaning: for example, vitriol of lead is lead sulfate, and so on.

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Waqf

A waqf (وقف), also known as habous or mortmain property, is an inalienable charitable endowment under Islamic law, which typically involves donating a building, plot of land or other assets for Muslim religious or charitable purposes with no intention of reclaiming the assets.

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Writing system

A writing system is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication.

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Yusuf Al-Khuri

Yusuf Al-Khuri, also known as Yusuf Al-Khuri al-Qass (Joseph the Priest) (d. 912), was an ancient Christian priest, physician, mathematician, and translator.

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Zellige

Zellige (الزليج; also zelige or zellij) is mosaic tilework made from individually chiseled geometric tiles set into a plaster base.

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Arab Civilization, Classical Islam, Golden Age in Islam, Golden Age of Islam, Golden age of Islam, Golden age of islam, Islamic Scientific Renaissance, Islamic golden age, Islamic renaissance, Islamic reneissance, Muslim Golden Age, Pax Islamica, The golden age of Islam.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islamic_Golden_Age

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