128 relations: Aerial refueling, Aerial warfare, Air force, Air transports of heads of state and government, Air-to-surface missile, Aircraft pilot, Al Jazeera, Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran, Antonov, Antonov An-140, Associated Press, Attack aircraft, Bell 204/205, Bell 206, Bell 212, Bell 214, Bell AH-1 Cobra, Bell AH-1 SuperCobra, Bell Helicopter, Bell UH-1N Twin Huey, Boeing 707, Boeing 747, Boeing CH-47 Chinook, Bonanza, Brazil, CAC/PAC JF-17 Thunder, Camp Ashraf, Chengdu J-10, Chengdu J-7, China, Dassault Falcon 20, Dassault Falcon 50, Dassault Mirage F1, Debkafile, Dezful Airport, Dhofar Rebellion, Diyala Governorate, Eagle, F-14 Tomcat operational history, Fajr-3, Fighter aircraft, Flying ace, Fokker F27 Friendship, France, General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon, Grumman F-14 Tomcat, Gulf War, H-3 airstrike, Hamadan Airbase, Harbin Y-12, ..., Hassan Shahsafi, Helicopter, HESA Azarakhsh, HESA Saeqeh, HESA Shafaq, History of the Iranian Air Force, HuffPost, Hugo Chávez, Ilyushin Il-76, Ilyushin Il-78, Interceptor aircraft, International military intervention against ISIL, Iran–Iraq War, Iranian peoples, Iraq, Iraqi Air Force, Iraqi Kurdistan, Iraqi no-fly zones, Islamic Republic of Iran Army, Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, Italy, Jalil Zandi, Joint Operation Arvand, Kurdish separatism in Iran, List of aces of aces, List of Iranian aerial victories during the Iran–Iraq war, List of Iraqi aerial victories during the Iran–Iraq war, Lockheed C-130 Hercules, Lockheed JetStar, Lockheed P-3 Orion, Maritime patrol aircraft, McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II, Mehrabad International Airport, Middle East Institute, Mikoyan MiG-29, Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21, Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-23, Mil Mi-17, Military transport aircraft, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Moscow Defense Brief, Multirole combat aircraft, Netherlands, Northrop F-5, Operation Kaman 99, Operation Morvarid, Operation Scorch Sword, Operation Sultan 10, People's Mujahedin of Iran, Pilatus PC-6 Porter, Pilatus PC-7, Press TV, Reconnaissance aircraft, RIA Novosti, Russia, Saturn AL-31, Sean McCormack, Shiraz International Airport, Sikorsky CH-53 Sea Stallion, Sikorsky SH-3 Sea King, SOCATA TB family, STOL, Sukhoi Su-17, Sukhoi Su-24, Sukhoi Su-25, Sukhoi Su-30MKM, Switzerland, Tabriz International Airport, Tehran, Trainer aircraft, Ukraine, Ultramarine, United States, United States Department of State, Varamin, Venezuela, 2009 Iranian Air Force Ilyushin Il-76 accident. Expand index (78 more) » « Shrink index
Aerial refueling, also referred to as air refueling, in-flight refueling (IFR), air-to-air refueling (AAR), and tanking, is the process of transferring aviation fuel from one military aircraft (the tanker) to another (the receiver) during flight.
Aerial warfare is the battlespace use of military aircraft and other flying machines in warfare.
An air force, also known in some countries as an aerospace force or air army, is in the broadest sense, the national military branch that primarily conducts aerial warfare.
Air transports for heads of state and government are, in many countries, provided by the air force in specially equipped airliners or business jets.
An air-to-surface missile (ASM) or air-to-ground missile (AGM or ATGM) is a missile designed to be launched from military aircraft at targets on land or sea.
An aircraft pilot or aviator is a person who controls the flight of an aircraft by operating its directional flight controls.
Al Jazeera (translit,, literally "The Island", though referring to the Arabian Peninsula in context), also known as JSC (Jazeera Satellite Channel), is a state-funded broadcaster in Doha, Qatar, owned by the Al Jazeera Media Network.
The Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran, also known as Anglo-Soviet invasion of Persia, was the invasion of the Imperial State of Iran during the Second World War by Soviet, British and other Commonwealth armed forces.
Antonov State Company (Державне підприємство "Антонов"), formerly the Aeronautical Scientific-Technical Complex named Antonov (Antonov ASTC) (Авіаційний науково-технічний комплекс імені Антонова, (АНТК ім. Антонова)), and earlier the Antonov Design Bureau, is a Soviet, and later a Ukrainian aircraft manufacturing and services company.
The Antonov An-140 is a turboprop regional airliner, designed by the Ukrainian Antonov ASTC bureau as a successor to the Antonov An-24, with extended cargo capacity and the ability to use unprepared airstrips.
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.
An attack aircraft, strike aircraft, or attack bomber, is a tactical military aircraft that has a primary role of carrying out airstrikes with greater precision than bombers, and is prepared to encounter strong low-level air defenses while pressing the attack.
The Bell 204 and 205 are the civilian versions of the UH-1 Iroquois single-engine military helicopter of the Huey family of helicopters.
The Bell 206 is a family of two-bladed, single- and twin-engined helicopters, manufactured by Bell Helicopter at its Mirabel, Quebec plant.
The Bell 212 (also known as the Twin Two-Twelve) is a two-blade, twin-engine, medium helicopter that first flew in 1968.
The Bell 214 is a medium-lift helicopter derived from Bell Helicopter's ubiquitous UH-1 Huey series.
The Bell AH-1 Cobra is a two-blade, single-engine attack helicopter manufactured by Bell Helicopter. It was developed using the engine, transmission and rotor system of the Bell UH-1 Iroquois. A member of the prolific Huey family, the AH-1 is also referred to as the HueyCobra or Snake. The AH-1 was the backbone of the United States Army's attack helicopter fleet, but has been replaced by the AH-64 Apache in Army service. Upgraded versions continue to fly with the militaries of several other nations. The AH-1 twin-engine versions remain in service with United States Marine Corps (USMC) as the service's primary attack helicopter. Surplus AH-1 helicopters have been converted for fighting forest fires.
The Bell AH-1 SuperCobra is a twin-engine attack helicopter based on the United States Army's single-engine AH-1 Cobra.
Bell Helicopter Textron Inc. is an American aerospace manufacturer headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas.
The Bell UH-1N Twin Huey is a twin-engine medium military helicopter.
The Boeing 707 is a mid-sized, long-range, narrow-body, four-engine jet airliner built by Boeing Commercial Airplanes from 1958 to 1979.
The Boeing 747 is an American wide-body commercial jet airliner and cargo aircraft, often referred to by its original nickname, "Jumbo Jet".
The Boeing CH-47 Chinook is an American twin-engine, tandem-rotor, heavy-lift helicopter developed by American rotorcraft company Vertol and manufactured by Boeing Vertol (later known as Boeing Rotorcraft Systems).
Bonanza is an NBC television western series that ran from 1959 to 1973.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
The PAC JF-17 Thunder (جے ایف-١٧ گرج), or CAC FC-1 Xiaolong, is a lightweight, single-engine, multi-role combat aircraft developed jointly by the Pakistan Aeronautical Complex (PAC) and the Chengdu Aircraft Corporation (CAC) of China.
Camp Ashraf or Ashraf City was a camp in Iraq's Diyala province, having the character of a small city with all basic infrastructure, and headquarters of the exiled People's Mujahedin of Iran (PMOI/MEK).
The Chengdu J-10 (simplified Chinese: 歼-10; traditional Chinese: 殲-10; NATO reporting name: Firebird is a lightweight multirole fighter aircraft capable of all-weather operation, configured with a delta wing and canard design, with fly-by-wire flight controls, and produced by the People's Republic of China's Chengdu Aircraft Corporation (CAC) for the People's Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF).
The Chengdu J-7 (Chinese: 歼-7; third generation export version F-7; NATO reporting name: Fishcan) is a People's Republic of China license-built version of the Soviet Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The Dassault Falcon 20 is a French business jet developed and manufactured by Dassault Aviation.
The Dassault Falcon 50 is a French super mid-sized, long-range business jet, featuring a trijet layout with an S-duct air intake for the central engine.
The Dassault Mirage F1 is a French fighter and attack aircraft designed and manufactured by Dassault Aviation.
DEBKAfile (תיק דבקה) is an Israeli military intelligence website based in Jerusalem, providing commentary and analyses on terrorism, intelligence, national security, military and international relations, with a particular focus on the Middle East.
Dezful Airport is located on Andimeshk road in the city of Dezful, Iran.
The Dhofar Rebellion (ثورة ظفار), also known as the War in Dhofar (الحرب في ظفار) or the Omani Civil War (الحرب الأهلية العمانية), was launched in the province of Dhofar against the Sultanate of Muscat and Oman, which had Iranian and British support, from 1962 to 1976.
Diyala Governorate (محافظة ديالى) or Diyala Province is a governorate in eastern Iraq.
Eagle is the common name for many large birds of prey of the family Accipitridae.
The Grumman F-14 Tomcat has served with the United States Navy and the Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force (IRIAF).
The Fajr-3 Artillery Rocket (فجر-۳) is an Iranian multiple-launch artillery rocket, a third-generation Katyusha rocket.
A fighter aircraft is a military aircraft designed primarily for air-to-air combat against other aircraft, as opposed to bombers and attack aircraft, whose main mission is to attack ground targets.
A flying ace, fighter ace or air ace is a military aviator credited with shooting down several enemy aircraft during aerial combat.
The Fokker F27 Friendship is a turboprop airliner developed and manufactured by the Dutch aircraft manufacturer Fokker.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
The General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon is a single-engine supersonic multirole fighter aircraft originally developed by General Dynamics (now Lockheed Martin) for the United States Air Force (USAF).
The Grumman F-14 Tomcat is an American supersonic, twin-engine, two-seat, twin-tail, variable-sweep wing fighter aircraft.
The Gulf War (2 August 199028 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 199017 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 199128 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.
The H-3 airstrike (Persian: عملیات اچ۳) was a surprise air attack by the Iranian Air Force during the Iran–Iraq War on 4 April 1981 against the airbases of the Iraqi Air Force at the H-3 complex in western Iraq.
Hamadan Airbase or Shahrokhi Airbase or Noje Airbase (پایگاه هوایی شهید نوژه) is an Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force base located 47km north of Hamadan in the Hamadān Province.
The Harbin Y-12 is a high wing twin-engine turboprop utility aircraft built by Harbin Aircraft Industry Group (HAIG).
Amir Brigadier General Hassan Shahsafi (حسن شاهصفی) is the current commander of the Iranian Air Force since August, 2008.
A helicopter is a type of rotorcraft in which lift and thrust are supplied by rotors.
The HESA Azarakhsh (آذرخش Āzaraxš, "lightning") is a jet fighter aircraft supposedly manufactured by the Iran Aircraft Manufacturing Industrial Company (HESA).
The HESA Saeqeh (صاعقه, "thunderbolt"), alternatively spelt Sa'eqeh; Saegheh, or Saeqeh-80, is an Iranian built single-seat jet fighter, derived from the American Northrop F-5.
The HESA Shafaq or Shafagh (هواپیمای شفق, "Twilight" or "Aurora") is an Iranian subsonic stealth aircraft project being developed by the Iran Aircraft Manufacturing Industrial Company (HESA).
The history of the Iranian Air Force can be divided into two phases—before the Islamic Revolution, and after it.
HuffPost (formerly The Huffington Post and sometimes abbreviated HuffPo) is a liberal American news and opinion website and blog that has both localized and international editions.
Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (28 July 1954 – 5 March 2013) was a Venezuelan politician who was President of Venezuela from 1999 to 2013.
The Ilyushin Il-76 (Илью́шин Ил-76; NATO reporting name: Candid) is a multi-purpose four-engine turbofan strategic airlifter designed by the Soviet Union's Ilyushin design bureau.
The Ilyushin Il-78 (Илью́шин Ил-78; NATO reporting name Midas) is a Soviet four-engined aerial refueling tanker based on the Il-76.
An interceptor aircraft, or simply interceptor, is a type of fighter aircraft designed specifically to attack enemy aircraft, particularly bombers and reconnaissance aircraft, as they approach.
In response to rapid territorial gains made by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) during the first half of 2014, and its universally-condemned executions, reported human rights abuses and the fear of further spillovers of the Syrian Civil War, many states began to intervene against it in both the Syrian Civil War and the Iraqi Civil War (2014–present).
The Iran–Iraq War was an armed conflict between Iran and Iraq, beginning on 22 September 1980, when Iraq invaded Iran, and ending on 20 August 1988, when Iran accepted the UN-brokered ceasefire.
The Iranian peoples, or Iranic peoples, are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group that comprise the speakers of the Iranian languages.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
The Iraqi Air Force (IQAF or IrAF; Arabic: القوات الجوية العراقية, Al Quwwat al Jawwiya al Iraqiya) is the aerial warfare service branch of the Iraqi Armed Forces, responsible for the policing of international borders and surveillance of national assets.
Iraqi Kurdistan, officially called the Kurdistan Region of Iraq (Herêmî Kurdistan) by the Iraqi constitution, is an autonomous region located in northern Iraq.
The Iraqi no-fly zones were a set of two separate no-fly zones (NFZs), and were proclaimed by the United States, United Kingdom, and France after the Gulf War of 1991 to protect the Kurds in northern Iraq and Shiite Muslims in the south.
The Islamic Republic of Iran Army (ارتش جمهوری اسلامی ایران), acronymed AJA (آجا), simply known as the Iranian Army or Artesh (Arteš), is the "conventional military of Iran" and part of Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
The Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) (lit or Sepâh for short) is a branch of Iran's Armed Forces founded after 1979 Revolution on 22 April 1979 by order of Ayatollah Khomeini.IISS Military Balance 2006, Routledge for the IISS, London, 2006, p. 187 Whereas the regular military (or Artesh) defends Iran's borders and maintains internal order, according to the Iranian constitution, the Revolutionary Guard (pasdaran) is intended to protect the country's Islamic Republic system. The Revolutionary Guards state that their role in protecting the Islamic system is preventing foreign interference as well as coups by the military or "deviant movements". The Revolutionary Guards have roughly 125,000 military personnel including ground, aerospace and naval forces. Its naval forces are now the primary forces tasked with operational control of the Persian Gulf. GlobalBearings.net, 15 December 2011. It also controls the paramilitary Basij militia which has about 90,000 active personnel.Abrahamian, Ervand, History of Modern Iran, Columbia University Press, 2008 pp. 175–76 Its media arm is Sepah News. Since its origin as an ideologically driven militia, the Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution has taken a greater role in nearly every aspect of Iranian society. Its expanded social, political, military and economic role under President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's administration—especially during the 2009 presidential election and post-election suppression of protest—has led many Western analysts to argue that its political power has surpassed even that of the Shia clerical system. The Chief Commander of the Guardians since 2007 is Mohammad Ali Jafari, who was preceded by Yahya Rahim Safavi from 1997.
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria or Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS), Islamic State (IS) and by its Arabic language acronym Daesh (داعش dāʿish), is a Salafi jihadist terrorist organisation and former unrecognised proto-state that follows a fundamentalist, Salafi/Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Brig. General Jalil Zandi (جلیل زندی) (1951–2001) was a fighter pilot in the Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force who served during all of the Iran–Iraq War.
The Joint Operation Arvand (عملیات مشترک اروند, more known by its Persian acronym AMA, عما) was a show of force operation orchestrated in April 1969 by the Imperial Iranian Armed Forces following Iraqi claim for the sovereign right to Shatt al-Arab/Arvand Rud and threatening to block passage of vessels unless they fly Iraqi flag.
Kurdish separatism in Iran or the Kurdish–Iranian conflict is an ongoing, long running, separatist dispute between the Kurdish opposition in Western Iran and the governments of Iran, lasting since the emergence of Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1918.
Ace of aces is a title accorded to the top active ace within a branch of service in a nation's military in time of war. The title is most closely associated with fighter aces, though there are other types, such as tank aces and submarine aces.
The Iran–Iraq War was an armed conflict between the Islamic Republic of Iran and the Republic of Iraq lasting from September 1980 to August 1988.
The Iran–Iraq War was an armed conflict between the Islamic Republic of Iran and the Republic of Iraq lasting from September 1980 to August 1988.
The Lockheed C-130 Hercules is a four-engine turboprop military transport aircraft designed and built originally by Lockheed (now Lockheed Martin).
The Lockheed JetStar (company designations L-329 and L-1329; designated C-140 in US military service) is a business jet produced from the early 1960s to the 1970s.
The Lockheed P-3 Orion is a four-engine turboprop anti-submarine and maritime surveillance aircraft developed for the United States Navy and introduced in the 1960s.
A maritime patrol aircraft (MPA), also known as a patrol aircraft, maritime reconnaissance aircraft, or by the older American term patrol bomber, is a fixed-wing aircraft designed to operate for long durations over water in maritime patrol roles — in particular anti-submarine warfare (ASW), anti-ship warfare (AShW), and search and rescue (SAR).
The McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II is a tandem two-seat, twin-engine, all-weather, long-range supersonic jet interceptor and fighter-bomber originally developed for the United States Navy by McDonnell Aircraft.
Tehran Mehrabad International Airport (فرودگاه بین المللی مهرآباد), is a joint airport and one of the two international airports serving Tehran, the largest city in Iran.
The Middle East Institute (MEI) is a non-profit, non-partisan think tank and cultural center in Washington, D.C., founded in 1946.
The Mikoyan MiG-29 (Микоян МиГ-29; NATO reporting name: Fulcrum) is a twin-engine jet fighter aircraft designed in the Soviet Union.
The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21 (Микоян и Гуревич МиГ-21; NATO reporting name: Fishbed) is a supersonic jet fighter and interceptor aircraft, designed by the Mikoyan-Gurevich Design Bureau in the Soviet Union.
The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-23 (Микоян и Гуревич МиГ-23; NATO reporting name: Flogger) is a variable-geometry fighter aircraft, designed by the Mikoyan-Gurevich design bureau in the Soviet Union.
The Mil Mi-17 (NATO reporting name: Hip) is a Russian helicopter in production at two factories in Kazan and Ulan-Ude.
Military transport aircraft or military cargo aircraft are typically fixed wing and rotary wing cargo aircraft which are used to airlift troops, weapons and other military equipment by a variety of methods to any area of military operations around the surface of the planet, usually outside the commercial flight routes in uncontrolled airspace.
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (Mohammad Reza Pahlavi,; 26 October 1919 – 27 July 1980), also known as Mohammad Reza Shah (Mohammad Rezā Šāh), was the last Shah of Iran from 16 September 1941 until his overthrow by the Iranian Revolution on 11 February 1979.
Moscow Defense Brief is an English-language defense magazine published by Centre for Analysis of Strategies and Technologies (CAST), an independent defense think-tank located in Moscow, Russia.
A multirole combat aircraft (MRCA) is a combat aircraft intended to perform different roles in combat.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
The Northrop F-5A and F-5B Freedom Fighter and the F-5E and F-5F Tiger II are part of a supersonic light fighter family, initially designed in the late 1950s by Northrop Corporation.
Operation Alborz (عملیات البرز), more commonly known by the code-name Operation Kaman 99 (عملیات کمان 99), was an operation launched by the Iranian Air Force in retaliation to Iraqi surprise aerial attacks on Iran the day before which marked the beginning of the 8-year-long Iran–Iraq War.
Operation Morvarid (عملیات مروارید, meaning "Pearl") was an operation launched by the Iranian Navy and Air Force against the Iraqi Air Defence sites on 28 November 1980 in response to Iraq positioning radar and monitoring equipment on the Al-Bakr and Khor-al-Amaya oil rigs to counter Iranian air operations.
Operation Scorch Sword (عملیات شمشیر سوزان) was a surprise airstrike carried out by Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force (IRIAF) on 30 September 1980, that damaged an almost-complete nuclear reactor 17 km south-east of Baghdad, Iraq.
Operation Sultan 10 (عملیات سلطان ١٠) was an operation of the Iranian Air Force on 29 October 1980, the beginning of the Iran-Iraq War.
The People's Mojahedin Organization of Iran or the Mojahedin-e Khalq (Sāzmān-e mojāhedin-e khalq-e irān, abbreviated MEK, PMOI or MKO), commonly known in Iran as Munafiqin ("hypocrites"), is an Iranian political–militant organization in exile that advocates the violent overthrow of the current government in Iran, while claiming itself as the replacing government in exile.
The Pilatus PC-6 Porter is a single-engined STOL utility aircraft designed by Pilatus Aircraft of Switzerland.
The Pilatus PC-7 Turbo Trainer is a low-wing tandem-seat training aircraft, manufactured by Pilatus Aircraft of Switzerland.
Press TV (stylised as PRESSTV) is a 24-hour English- and French-language news and documentary network affiliated with Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB).
A reconnaissance aircraft is a military aircraft designed or adapted to perform aerial reconnaissance.
RIA Novosti (РИА Новости), sometimes RIA (РИА) for short, was Russia's international news agency until 2013 and continues to be the name of a state-operated domestic Russian-language news agency.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Saturn AL-31 is a family of military turbofan engines.
Sean McCormack is a former United States Assistant Secretary of State.
Shiraz Shahid Dastgheib International Airport (فرودگاه بین المللی شیراز) is an international airport located in Shiraz, Iran that is the main international airport of Fars province and southern region of Iran.
The CH-53 Sea Stallion is the most common name for the Sikorsky S-65 family of heavy-lift transport helicopters.
The Sikorsky SH-3 Sea King (company designation S-61) is an American twin-engined anti-submarine warfare (ASW) helicopter designed and built by Sikorsky Aircraft.
The Socata TB is a series of light single engine piston aircraft developed and manufactured by French aircraft company SOCATA.
STOL is an acronym for a short takeoff and landing aircraft, which have short runway requirements for takeoff and landing.
The Sukhoi Su-17 (NATO reporting name: Fitter) is a Soviet variable-sweep wing fighter-bomber developed from the Sukhoi Su-7.
The Sukhoi Su-24 (NATO reporting name: Fencer) is a supersonic, all-weather attack aircraft developed in the Soviet Union.
The Sukhoi Su-25 Grach (Грач (rook); NATO reporting name: Frogfoot) is a single-seat, twin-engine jet aircraft developed in the Soviet Union by Sukhoi.
The Sukhoi Su-30MKM (Russian: Модернизированный Коммерческий Малайзийский/Modernizirovannyi Kommercheskiy Malayziyskiy – Modernized Export Malaysia; NATO reporting name: Flanker-H) is a supermaneuverable fighter of the Royal Malaysian Air Force.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
Tabriz International Airport (فرودگاه بین المللی تبریز) is an airport that serves Tabriz, Iran.
Tehran (تهران) is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province.
A trainer is a class of aircraft designed specifically to facilitate flight training of pilots and aircrews.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
Ultramarine is a deep blue color and a pigment which was originally made by grinding lapis lazuli into a powder.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
Varamin (ورامين, also Romanized as Varāmīn and Verāmin; anciently known as Varna and Varena) is a city and capital of Varamin County, Tehran Province, Iran.
Venezuela, officially denominated Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela),Previously, the official name was Estado de Venezuela (1830–1856), República de Venezuela (1856–1864), Estados Unidos de Venezuela (1864–1953), and again República de Venezuela (1953–1999).
The 2009 Iranian Air Force Il-76MD Adnan 2 accident of 22 September 2009 resulted in the destruction of Iran's only functional airborne early warning and control (AWACS) aircraft, an Ilyushin Il-76MD Adnan 2.
Air Force of Iran, Iran Air Force, Iranian Air Force, Iranian Air force, Iranian Air-Force, Iranian Airforce, Iranian air force, Islamic Republic of Iran Air force, Islamic Republic of Iran Airforce, List of senior officers of the Iranian Air Force, Peace Net, Peace Ruby, Persian Air Force.