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Abd Al-Rahman al-Nuaimi (Abderrahman Al Nuaimi), (born 1954) is a Qatari human rights advocate and co-founder of Alkarama accused of financing and aiding communication with terrorist groups including ISIS.
Abdel Bari Atwan (عبد الباري عطوان, Levantine pronunciation:; born 17 February 1950) is the editor-in-chief of Rai al-Youm, an Arab world digital news and opinion website.
Mullah Abdul Rauf Aliza, widely identified as Mullah Abdul Rauf Khadim, was an Afghan who was held in extrajudicial detention in the United States Guantanamo Bay detention camp, in Cuba, until 20 December 2007.
Adnan Ismail Najm al-Bilawi Al-Dulaimi (عدنان إسماعيل نجم البيلاوي الدليمي), better known by the nom de guerre Abu Abdulrahman al-Bilawi (أبو عبد الرحمن البيلاوي), was a top commander in the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant and the head of its Military Council, prior to his killing by Iraqi security forces on 4 June 2014.
Abdulrahman Mustafa al-Qaduli (1957/1959 – 25 March 2016) (عبد الرحمن مصطفى القادولي), better known by his noms de guerre Abu Ala al-Afri (أبو علاء العفري) and Abu Ali al-Anbari (أبو علي الأنباري), was the governor for territories held by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) in Syria.
Abu Ayyub al-Masri (أبو أيّوب المصري,; translation: "Father of Ayyub the Egyptian") (ca. 1968 – 18 April 2010), also known as (in Arabic), US Department of State.
Abū Bakr al-Baghdadi (أبو بكر البغدادي; born Ibrahim Awad Ibrahim al-Badri إبراهيم عواد إبراهيم علي محمد البدري السامرائي in 1971) is the leader of the Salafi jihadist militant terrorist organisation known as the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL),Rewards for Justice – Retrieved 25 January 2017 which controls territory in several countries.
Abu Basir al-Tartusi is the assumed name of Abd-al Mun'em Mustafa Halima, a Syrian cleric and jihadist theoretician.
Ni'ma Abd Nayef al-Jabouri (نعمة عبد نايف الجبوري), known by his nom de guerre Abu Fatima al-Jaheishi (أبو فاطمة الجحيشي) or Abu Fatima al-Jiburi, was initially in charge of the ISIS operations in southern Iraq before he moved to the northern city of Kirkuk.
Abu Ghraib prison (Arabic: سجن أبو غريب Sijn Abū Ghurayb; also Abu Ghuraib, lit. 'Father of Raven', or 'Place of Ravens'2) now known as The Baghdad Central Prison (Arabic: سجن بغداد المركزي Sijn Baġdād al-Markizī), was a prison complex in Abu Ghraib, an Iraqi city 32 km (20 mi) west of Baghdad that operated from its construction in the 1950s until its closure in the 2010s.
Abu Kamal or Al-Bukamal (البوكمال) is a city on the Euphrates river in the Deir ez-Zor Governorate of eastern Syria near the border with Iraq.
Taha Subhi Falaha (طه صبحي فلاحة; 1977 – 30 August 2016), known as Abu Muhammad al-Adnani al-Shami (أبو محمد العدناني), was the official spokesperson and a senior leader of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (also called the Islamic State or ISIS).
Ahmed Hussein al-Shar’a (أحمد حسين الشرع), known by the nom de guerre Abu Mohammad al-Julani (أبو محمد الجولاني), is the commander-in-chief of the Syrian militant group Tahrir al-Sham; he was also the emir of its predecessor organisation al-Nusra Front, the Syrian branch of al-Qaeda.
Adnan Latif Hamid al-Sweidawi al-Dulaimi (عدنان لطيف حامد السويداوي الدليمي, ‘Adnān Laṭīf Ḥāmid as-Suwaydāwī al-Dulaymī), also known by his noms de guerre Abu Mohannad al-Sweidawi, Abu Abdul Salem, Haji Dawūd and Abu Ayman al-Iraqi, was a top commander in the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) and the former head of its Military Council.
Abu Muhammad al-Maqdisi (أبو محمد المقدسي), or more fully Abu Muhammad Essam al-Maqdisi (أبو محمد عصام المقدسي), is the assumed name of Essam Muhammad Tahir al-Barqawi (عصام محمد طاهر البرقاوي), an Islamist Jordanian-Palestinian writer.
Abu Musab al-Zarqawi (أبو مصعب الزرقاوي,, Abu Musab from Zarqa;; October 20, 1966 – June 7, 2006), born Ahmad Fadeel al-Nazal al-Khalayleh (أحمد فضيل النزال الخلايلة), was a Jordanian jihadist who ran a paramilitary training camp in Afghanistan.
Fadel Ahmed Abdullah al-Hiyali (died 18 August 2015), better known by his noms de guerre Abu Muslim al-Turkmani (أبو مسلم التركماني), Haji Mutazz, or Abu Mutaz al-Qurashi, was the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) governor for territories held by the organization in Iraq.
Hamid Dawud Mohamed Khalil al-Zawi (حميد داود محمد خليل الزاوي, died 18 April 2010) — known as Abu Hamza al-Baghdadi, and Abu Omar al-Qurashi al-Baghdadi, Wimmera News.
Tarkhan Batirashvili (თარხან ბათირაშვილი; 11 February 1986 – 10 July 2016), known by his nom de guerre Abu Omar al-Shishani (أبو عمر الشيشاني, Abū ‘Umar ash-Shīshānī, "Abu Omar the Chechen") or Omar al-Shishani, was a Georgian Chechen (Kist) jihadist who served as a commander for the Islamic State in Syria, and previously as a sergeant in the Georgian Army.
Abu Sayyaf (جماعة أبو سياف;, ASG; Grupong Abu Sayyaf), unofficially known as the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant – Philippines Province, is a Jihadist militant and pirate group that follows the Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam based in and around Jolo and Basilan islands in the southwestern part of the Philippines, where for more than four decades, Moro groups have been engaged in an insurgency for an independent province in the country.
Abu Sayyaf is the nom de guerre of a senior leader of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) who was described as overseeing gas and oil operations.
Abubakar Shekau, also known by the alias Darul Akeem wa Zamunda Tawheed, or Darul Tawheed ("the abode of monotheism") (دار التوحيد), thought to be born between 1965 and 1975 is a Kanuri man known as the leader of Boko Haram, a Nigerian militant group that has declared loyalty to the Islamist militant group Islamic State of Iraq Syria (ISIS).
Abul-Hasan Al-Muhajir is the kunya of an anonymous Islamic militant, serving as the official spokesman of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant since 5 December 2016.
An acronym is a word or name formed as an abbreviation from the initial components in a phrase or a word, usually individual letters (as in NATO or laser) and sometimes syllables (as in Benelux).
Aden (عدن Yemeni) is a port city in Yemen, located by the eastern approach to the Red Sea (the Gulf of Aden), some east of Bab-el-Mandeb.
The main subdivision in Iraq is the 18 muhafazah, also known as governorates or provinces.
Adnan Mohammed al-Aroor (الشيخ عدنان محمد العرعور, born 1948) is a Salafi cleric from Hama, Syria.
Adultery (from Latin adulterium) is extramarital sex that is considered objectionable on social, religious, moral, or legal grounds.
Agence France-Presse (AFP) is an international news agency headquartered in Paris, France.
Ahmed Muhammad Ahmed el-Tayeb (أحمد محمد أحمد الطيب) (born January 6, 1946) is the current Grand Imam of al-Azhar and former president of al-Azhar University.
Harakat Ahrar al-Sham al-Islamiyya (lit), commonly referred to as Ahrar al-Sham, is a coalition of multiple Islamist and Salafist units that coalesced into a single brigade and later a division in order to fight against the Syrian Government led by Bashar al-Assad during the Syrian Civil War.
An airstrike or air strike is an offensive operation carried out by attack aircraft.
Ajdabiya (أجدابيا, Agedábia), previously known as Agedabia or Ajdabya, is a town in and capital of the Al Wahat District in northeastern Libya.
Al Anbar Governorate (محافظة الأنبار; muḥāfaẓat al-’Anbār), or Anbar Province, is the largest governorate in Iraq by area.
Al Arabiya (العربية, transliterated: or; meaning "The Arabic One" or "The Arab One") is a Saudi-owned pan-Arab television news channel broadcast in Modern Standard Arabic.
Al Arabiya English is the English language service of the Dubai-based regional Arab newscaster, Al-Arabiya News Channel.
Al Jazeera (translit,, literally "The Island", though referring to the Arabian Peninsula in context), also known as JSC (Jazeera Satellite Channel), is a state-funded broadcaster in Doha, Qatar, owned by the Al Jazeera Media Network.
Al-Alam (The Flag in English) is an arabophone Moroccan daily newspaper.
Al-Azhar University (1,, "the (honorable) Azhar University") is a university in Cairo, Egypt.
Al-Bayan (البيان.) is the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant's (ISIL's) official radio station, based in Iraq, owned and operated by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), which broadcasts at 92.5 on the FM dial.
Al-Hasakah Governorate (Muḥāfaẓat al-Ḥasakah, Parêzgeha Hesîçe, Huparkiyo d'Ḥasake, also known as Gozarto) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.
The Al-Khansaa Brigade (لواء الخنساء) is an all-women police or religious enforcement unit of the extremist self-proclaimed jihadist group Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), operating in its de facto capital of Raqqa and Mosul.
Al-Manar (Arabic:المنار al-Manār;English: the beacon) is a Lebanese satellite television station affiliated with Hezbollah, 21 November 2008, Ya Libnan broadcasting from Beirut, Lebanon.
Al-Nusra Front or Jabhat al-Nusra (جبهة النصرة.), known as Jabhat Fateh al-Sham (جبهة فتح الشام, transliteration: Jabhat Fataḥ al-Šām) after July 2016, and also described as al-Qaeda in Syria or al-Qaeda in the Levant, was a Salafist jihadist organization fighting against Syrian government forces in the Syrian Civil War.
Al-Qa'im (القائم) is an Iraqi town located nearly 400 km northwest of Baghdad near the Syrian border and situated along the Euphrates River, and located in the Al Anbar Governorate.
Al-Qaeda (القاعدة,, translation: "The Base", "The Foundation" or "The Fundament" and alternatively spelled al-Qaida, al-Qæda and sometimes al-Qa'ida) is a militant Sunni Islamist multi-national organization founded in 1988.
Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (lit or, Tanẓīm Qā‘idat al-Jihād fī Jazīrat al-‘Arab, "Organization of Jihad's Base in the Arabian Peninsula"), or AQAP, also known as Ansar al-Sharia in Yemen (جماعة أنصار الشريعة, Jamā‘at Anṣār ash-Sharī‘ah, "Group of the Helpers of the Sharia"), is a militant Islamist organization, primarily active in Yemen and Saudi Arabia.
Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (Tanẓīm al-Qā‘idah fī Bilād al-Maghrib al-Islāmī), or AQIM, is an Islamist militant organization (of al-Qaeda) which aims to overthrow the Algerian government and institute an Islamic state.
The Al-Qaida Sanctions Committee (officially Security Council Committee pursuant to resolutions 1267 (1999) and 1989 (2011) concerning Al-Qaida and associated individuals and entities) was established on 15 October 1999, pursuant to UN Security Council Resolution 1267.
Harakat al-Shabaab al-Mujahideen (HSM; حركة الشباب المجاهدين,; Xarakada Mujaahidiinta Alshabaab, lit. "Mujahideen Youth Movement" or "Movement of Striving Youth"), more commonly known as al-Shabaab (lit), is a jihadist fundamentalist group based in East Africa.
Al-Shaitat (الشعيطات transcription: aš-šuʿayṭāt), in Standard Arabic al-Shuʿaytāt, is a Sunni Arab tribe located in Deir ez-Zor Governorate in eastern Syria.
Al-Thawrah (الثورة), also known as al-Tabqah (الطبقة; Tebqa, ܛܒܩܗ; official name before 8 March 1967), is a city located in Raqqa Governorate (Syria), approximately west of Raqqa.
The Alawis, also rendered as Alawites (علوية Alawiyyah/Alawīyah), are a syncretic sect of the Twelver branch of Shia Islam, primarily centered in Syria.
Albu Nimr or al-Bu Nimr (البو نمر or البونمر) is a Sunni Arab tribe (عشيرة ashirah) of some 500,000 people living in the area of Ramadi in Anbar Province of Iraq.
Aleppo (ﺣﻠﺐ / ALA-LC) is a city in Syria, serving as the capital of the Aleppo Governorate, the most-populous Syrian governorate.
Aleppo Governorate (محافظة حلب / ALA-LC: Muḥāfaẓat Ḥalab /) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.
Sayyid Ali Hosseini Khamenei (سید علی حسینی خامنهای,; born 17 July 1939) is a ''marja'' and the second and current Supreme Leader of Iran, in office since 1989.
An American-led intervention in Iraq started on 15 June 2014, when President Barack Obama ordered United States forces to be dispatched to the region, in response to offensives in Iraq conducted by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL).
Amir al-Mu'minin (أمير المؤمنين), usually translated "Commander of the Faithful" or "Leader of the Faithful", is the Arabic style of some Caliphs and other independent sovereign Muslim rulers that claim legitimacy from a community of Muslims.
Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.
Beginning in December 2012, Sunnis in Iraq protested against the Maliki government.
Ansar al-Sharia in Tunisia ("Supporters of Islamic Law in Tunisia") is a radical Islamist group that operates in Tunisia.
Jama'at Ansar al-Shari'a (جماعة أنصار الشريعة), also known as Ansar al-Shari'a, is a Yemen-based umbrella organization which includes units from several militant Islamic groups of al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP).
Ansar Bait al-Maqdis (أَنْصَارُ بَيْتِ الْمَقْدِس Anṣār Bayt al-Maqdis, "Supporters of the Holy House"), or Ansar Jerusalem ("Supporters of Jerusalem") was the name of a jihadist extremist militant group based in Egypt.
Ansar Khalifa Philippines, also referred to as Ansar al-Khilafah in the Philippines and Ansarul Khilafah Philippines ("Supporters of the Caliphate in the Philippines") is a Philippine-based militant group that emerged in August 2014 when it released a video pledging allegiance to ISIS.
Apocalypticism is the religious belief that there will be an apocalypse, a term which originally referred to a revelation, but now usually refers to the belief that the end of the world is imminent, even within one's own lifetime.
Apostasy (ἀποστασία apostasia, "a defection or revolt") is the formal disaffiliation from, or abandonment or renunciation of a religion by a person.
Apostasy in Islam (ردة or ارتداد) is commonly defined as the conscious abandonment of Islam by a Muslim in word or through deed.
ARA News (آرانيوز) was an online news service focussed on the consequences of war in Syria and Iraq.
The Arab League (الجامعة العربية), formally the League of Arab States (جامعة الدول العربية), is a regional organization of Arab states in and around North Africa, the Horn of Africa and Arabia.
The Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Iraq Region (حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي في العراق Hizb Al-Baath Al-'Arabi Al-Ishtiraki fi Al-'Iraq), officially the Iraqi Regional Branch, is a regional branch of the Arab Ba'athist political party founded in 1951 by Fuad al-Rikabi.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
The Army of Conquest (جيش الفتح) or Jaish al-Fatah, abbreviated JaF, was a joint command center of Sunni Islamist Syrian rebel factions participating in the Syrian Civil War.
Army of Islam (جَيش الإسلام Jaysh al-Islām) is the name used by the Doghmush Hamula (clan) for their Islamic militant activities.
Asa'ib Ahl al-Haq (AAH; عصائب أهل الحق ‘Aṣayib Ahl al-Haq, "League of Righteous People"), also known as the Khazali Network, is an Iraqi Shi'a paramilitary group active in the Iraqi insurgency and Syrian Civil War. During the Iraq War it was known as Iraq's largest "Special Group" (the Americans' term for Iran-backed Shia paramilitaries in Iraq), and claimed responsibility for over 6,000 attacks on American and Coalition forces. The group is currently fighting against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant as part of the Popular Moblization Forces. The group is funded and trained by Iran's Quds Force., The Guardian, 12 March 2014.
Ashʿarism or Ashʿari theology (الأشعرية al-ʾAšʿarīyya or الأشاعرة al-ʾAšāʿira) is the foremost theological school of Sunni Islam which established an orthodox dogmatic guideline based on clerical authority, founded by Abu al-Hasan al-Ashʿari (d. AD 936 / AH 324).
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.
Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant.
The Assyrian International News Agency is a privately funded, independent news agency which provides news and analysis on Assyrian and Assyrian-related issues.
Assyrian people (ܐܫܘܪܝܐ), or Syriacs (see terms for Syriac Christians), are an ethnic group indigenous to the Middle East.
The Attorney-General for AustraliaThe title is officially "Attorney-General".
Ayman Mohammed Rabie al-Zawahiri (أيمن محمد ربيع الظواهري, born June 19, 1951) is the current leader of Al-Qaeda and a current or former member and senior official of Islamist organizations which have orchestrated and carried out attacks in North America, Asia, Africa, and the Middle East.
The Badr Organization (منظمة بدر Munaẓẓama Badr), previously known as the Badr Brigades or Badr Corps, is an Iraqi political party headed by Hadi Al-Amiri.
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
Baghdad Governorate (محافظة بغداد Muḥāfaẓät Baġdād), also known as the Baghdad Province, is the capital governorate of Iraq.
The baiji (Lipotes vexillifer, Lipotes meaning "left behind", vexillifer "flag bearer") is a functionally extinct species of freshwater dolphin formerly found only in the Yangtze River in China.
Ban Ki-moon (born 13 June 1944) is a South Korean politician and diplomat who was the eighth Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 2007 to December 2016.
The Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters (BIFF), also known as the Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Movement, is an Islamist militant organization based in Mindanao, the Philippines.
Baqubah (ܒܰܩܽܘܒܰܐ, بعقوبة; BGN: Ba‘qūbah; also spelled Baquba and Baqouba) is the capital of Iraq's Diyala Governorate.
Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from January 20, 2009, to January 20, 2017.
On 18 March 2015, three militants attacked the Bardo National Museum in the Tunisian capital city of Tunis, and took hostages.
Barelvi (بَریلوِی) is a movement following the Sunni Hanafi school of jurisprudence, with over 200 million followers in South Asia.
Bashar Hafez al-Assad (بشار حافظ الأسد, Levantine pronunciation:;; born 11 September 1965) is a Syrian politician who has been the 19th and current President of Syria since 17 July 2000.
The Battle of Al-Tabqa airbase refers to a series of clashes between the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) and the Syrian Arab Army in August 2014, during the Syrian Civil War.
The Battle of Benghazi (2014–2017) was a major battle of the Second Libyan Civil War that raged from October 2014 to December 2017, between the Islamic fundamentalist Shura Council of Benghazi Revolutionaries (supported by the LROR and Misrata Brigades), Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant in Libya, and the Libyan Army, and some people supporting the Libyan Army in the city.
The Fall of Fallujah (2014) also known as Battle of Fallujah (2014) was a battle that took place from late 2013 to early 2014, in which ISIL and other Sunni insurgents captured the city of Fallujah.
The Battle of Mosul (2016–2017) (معركة الموصل, Ma‘rakat al-Mawṣil; شەڕی مووسڵ, Şeriy Mûsil) was a major military campaign launched by the Iraqi Government forces with allied militias, the Kurdistan Regional Government, and international forces to retake the city of Mosul from the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), which had seized the city in June 2014.
The 2017 Battle of Raqqa was the fifth and final phase of the Raqqa campaign (2016–2017) launched by the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) against the Islamic State (ISIL) with an aim to seize the city of Raqqa, the de facto capital of ISIL since 2014.
The Battle of Sirte (2016) refers to the battle that started in the spring of 2016, in the region of Sirte, Libya, between the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) and the forces of the Government of National Accord (GNA) backed by United States of America.
Bayʿah (بَيْعَة, Pledge of allegiance"), in Islamic terminology, is an oath of allegiance to a leader.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Benghazi (بنغازي) is the second-most populous city in Libya and the largest in Cyrenaica.
Bernard Haykel (born 1968) is professor of Near Eastern Studies and the director of the Institute for Transregional Study of the Contemporary Middle East, North Africa and Central Asia at Princeton University.
The BGM-71 TOW ("Tube-launched, Optically tracked, Wire-guided") is an American anti-tank missile.
In Islam, bid‘ah (بدعة; innovation) refers to innovation in religious matters.
The Black Banner or Black Standard (الراية السوداء rāyat as-sawdāʾ, also known as راية العقاب. rāyat al-ʿuqāb "banner of the eagle" or simply as "the banner") is one of the flags flown by Muhammad in Islamic tradition.
The Islamic State in West Africa (abbreviated as ISWA or ISWAP), formerly known as Jamā'at Ahl as-Sunnah lid-Da'wah wa'l-Jihād (جماعة أهل السنة للدعوة والجهاد, "Group of the People of Sunnah for Preaching and Jihad") and commonly known as Boko Haram until March 2015, is a jihadist militant organization based in northeastern Nigeria, also active in Chad, Niger and northern Cameroon.
The Boko Haram insurgency began in 2009, when the jihadist rebel group Boko Haram started an armed rebellion against the government of Nigeria.
Business Insider is an American financial and business news website that also operates international editions in the UK, Australia, China, Germany, France, South Africa, India, Italy, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Netherlands, Nordics, Poland, Spanish and Singapore.
A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).
Camp Bucca (سجن بوكا) was a detention facility maintained by the United States military in the vicinity of Umm Qasr, Iraq.
Camp Speicher, officially known as the Tikrit Air Academy and formerly as FOB Speicher, COB Speicher, and Al Sahra Airfield (under Saddam Hussein) is an air installation near Tikrit in northern Iraq.
On 12 June 2014, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) killed at least 1,566 Shia Iraqi Air Force cadets in an attack on Camp Speicher in Tikrit.
Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime.
A car bomb, lorry bomb, or truck bomb, also known as a vehicle-borne improvised explosive device (VBIED), is an improvised explosive device placed inside a car or other vehicle and detonated.
The Caucasus Emirate (Имарат Кавказ Imarat Kavkaz (IK); Кавказский Эмират Kavkazskiy Emirat), also known as the Caucasian Emirate, was a militant Jihadist organisation active in the southwestern region of the Russian Federation.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
Chaldean Catholics, known simply as Chaldeans (Kaldāye; ܟܠܕܝ̈ܐ or ܟܲܠܕܵܝܹܐ), are Assyrian Syriac Christian adherents of the Chaldean Catholic Church which emerged from the Church of the East after the schism of 1552.
Channel NewsAsia (abbreviated CNA) is a 24-hour television news channel and news agency based in Singapore, broadcasting free-to-air domestically and by cable television and satellite television to 28 territories in Asia, the Middle East and Australia.
The Chechen Republic (tɕɪˈtɕɛnskəjə rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə; Нохчийн Республика, Noxçiyn Respublika), commonly referred to as Chechnya (p; Нохчийчоь, Noxçiyçö), is a federal subject (a republic) of Russia.
A chemical weapon (CW) is a specialized munition that uses chemicals formulated to inflict death or harm on humans.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Charles Timothy Hagel (born October 4, 1946), The Associated Press, published in The News-Times, December 17, 2012.
The Citizen Lab is an interdisciplinary laboratory based at the Munk School of Global Affairs at the University of Toronto, Canada.
Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.
Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.
The Combating Terrorism Center is an academic institution at the United States Military Academy (USMA) in West Point, New York that provides education, research and policy analysis in the specialty areas of terrorism, counterterrorism, homeland security and internal conflict.
Combined Joint Task Force – Operation Inherent Resolve (CJTF–OIR) is the Joint Task Force established by the US-led international coalition against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), set up by the US Central Command to coordinate military efforts against ISIL (Da'esh), and is composed of US military forces and personnel from over 30 countries.
The Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ) is an American independent non-profit, non-governmental organization, based in New York City, New York with correspondents around the world.
Conflict Armament Research (CAR) is a UK-based investigative organisation that tracks the supply of conventional weapons, ammunition, and related military materiel (such as IEDs) into conflict-affected areas.
The word contraband, reported in English since 1529, from Medieval French contrebande "a smuggling," denotes any item that, relating to its nature, is illegal to be possessed or sold.
The Cabinet of Syria is the chief executive body of the Syrian Arab Republic.
The Council of the European Union, referred to in the treaties and other official documents simply as the Council is the third of the seven Institutions of the European Union (EU) as listed in the Treaty on European Union.
The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR), founded in 1921, is a United States nonprofit think tank specializing in U.S. foreign policy and international affairs.
The Counter Extremism Project (CEP) is a nonprofit NGO that combats extremist groups "by pressuring financial support networks, countering the narrative of extremists and their online recruitment, and advocating for strong laws, policies and regulations.".
Crimes against humanity are certain acts that are deliberately committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack or individual attack directed against any civilian or an identifiable part of a civilian population.
Crucifixion is a method of capital punishment in which the victim is tied or nailed to a large wooden beam and left to hang for several days until eventual death from exhaustion and asphyxiation.
The term cult usually refers to a social group defined by its religious, spiritual, or philosophical beliefs, or its common interest in a particular personality, object or goal.
Cultural genocide or cultural cleansing is a concept that lawyer Raphael Lemkin distinguished in 1944 as a component of genocide.
Currency substitution, dollarization, or elminting (from el-, meaning foreign) is the use of a foreign currency in parallel to or instead of the domestic currency.
Cyrenaica (Cyrenaica (Provincia), Κυρηναία (ἐπαρχία) Kyrēnaíā (eparkhíā), after the city of Cyrene; برقة) is the eastern coastal region of Libya.
Dabiq (دابق) was an online magazine used by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) for Islamic radicalisation and recruitment.
Dabiq (دابق) is a town in northern Syria, about northeast of Aleppo and around south of Syria's border with Turkey.
The Republic of Dagestan (Респу́блика Дагеста́н), or simply Dagestan (or; Дагеста́н), is a federal subject (a republic) of Russia, located in the North Caucasus region.
Dalil Boubakeur (born 2 November 1940) is a physician, a Mufti, and current rector of the Great Mosque of Paris.
Daniel Benjamin (born October 16, 1961) is an American diplomat and journalist, and was the Coordinator for Counterterrorism at the United States Department of State from 2009 to 2012, appointed by Secretary Clinton.
Dar al-Islam is the title of a French-language online magazine produced by the Islamic State (ISIL/ISIS/IS).
Darwinism is a theory of biological evolution developed by the English naturalist Charles Darwin (1809–1882) and others, stating that all species of organisms arise and develop through the natural selection of small, inherited variations that increase the individual's ability to compete, survive, and reproduce.
David John Kilcullen FRGS (born 1967) is an Australian author, strategist and counterinsurgency expert and is currently the non-executive Chairman of Caerus Associates, a strategy and design consulting firm that he founded.
David Wright Miliband (born 15 July 1965) is a British Labour Party politician, charity chief executive and public policy analyst who was the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs from 2007 to 2010 and the Member of Parliament (MP) for South Shields from 2001 to 2013.
De-Ba'athification (Arabic: اجتثاث حزب البعث&lrm) refers to a policy undertaken in Iraq by the Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) and subsequent Iraqi governments to remove the Ba'ath Party's influence in the new Iraqi political system.
Decapitation is the complete separation of the head from the body.
Defense Update is an online defense magazine published by Lance & Shield Ltd.
Deir ez-Zor (دير الزور Dayr az-Zūr; Syriac: ܕܝܪܐ ܙܥܘܪܬܐ Dayrāʾ Zəʿōrtāʾ) is the largest city in eastern Syria and the seventh largest in the country.
Deir ez-Zor Governorate (مُحافظة دير الزور / ALA-LC: Muḥāfaẓat Dayr az-Zawr) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.
The Deir ez-Zor offensive (April–July 2014) was executed by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, also known as ISIS, against all other opposition forces in the Deir ez-Zor Governorate as part of the Inter-rebel conflict during the Syrian Civil War.
The Democratic Federation of Northern Syria (DFNS), commonly known as Rojava, is a de facto autonomous region in northern Syria.
This article is about the demographic features of the population of Iraq, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.
In October 2014, the self-declared Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) took control of numerous government buildings, security vehicles and local landmarks in the Eastern Libyan coastal city of Derna.
Derna (درنة) is a port city in eastern Libya.
Deliberate destruction and theft of cultural heritage has been conducted by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant since 2014 in Iraq, Syria, and to a lesser extent in Libya.
A (ذمي,, collectively أهل الذمة / "the people of the dhimma") is a historical term referring to non-Muslims living in an Islamic state with legal protection.
Diplomatic recognition in international law is a unilateral political act with domestic and international legal consequences, whereby a state acknowledges an act or status of another state or government in control of a state (may be also a recognized state).
The Diyala province campaign was a series of operations conducted by coalition forces against Iraqi insurgents and a number of bombing and guerrilla attacks against the security forces in Diyala Governorate of Iraq, with the purpose of control of the province.
Diyala Governorate (محافظة ديالى) or Diyala Province is a governorate in eastern Iraq.
A drone strike is typically where an unmanned combat aerial vehicle fires a missile at a target.
The Druze (درزي or, plural دروز; דרוזי plural דרוזים) are an Arabic-speaking esoteric ethnoreligious group originating in Western Asia who self-identify as unitarians (Al-Muwaḥḥidūn/Muwahhidun).
Commodore Dudley Wright Knox (21 June 1877 – 11 June 1960) was an officer in the United States Navy during the Spanish–American War and World War I. He was also a prominent naval historian, who for many years oversaw the Navy Department's historical office, now named the Naval History and Heritage Command.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
An emblem is an abstract or representational pictorial image that represents a concept, like a moral truth, or an allegory, or a person, like a king or saint.
An emir (أمير), sometimes transliterated amir, amier, or ameer, is an aristocratic or noble and military title of high office used in a variety of places in the Arab countries, West African, and Afghanistan.
Ethnic cleansing is the systematic forced removal of ethnic or racial groups from a given territory by a more powerful ethnic group, often with the intent of making it ethnically homogeneous.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
The European Union Agency for Law Enforcement Cooperation, better known under the name Europol, formerly the European Police Office and Europol Drugs Unit, is the law enforcement agency of the European Union (EU) formed in 1998 to handle criminal intelligence and combat serious international organised crime and terrorism through cooperation between competent authorities of EU member states.
The Fall of Mosul occurred between 410 June 2014, when Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) insurgents, initially led by Abu Abdulrahman al-Bilawi, defeated the Iraqi Army, led by Lieutenant General Mahdi Al-Gharrawi.
The Fall of Nofaliya refers to the takeover of the town of Nofaliya in Sirte District, Libya by the self-declared Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant in February 2015.
FallujahSometimes also transliterated as Falluja, Fallouja, or Falowja (الفلوجة, Iraqi pronunciation) is a city in the Iraqi province of Al Anbar, located roughly west of Baghdad on the Euphrates.
The Fars News Agency is a news agency in Iran.
A fatwā (فتوى; plural fatāwā فتاوى.) in the Islamic faith is a nonbinding but authoritative legal opinion or learned interpretation that the Sheikhul Islam, a qualified jurist or mufti, can give on issues pertaining to the Islamic law.
Fawaz A. Gerges (Lebanese pronunciation) is a Lebanese-American academic and author with expertise on the Middle East, U.S. foreign policy, international relations, Al Qaeda, and relations between the Islamic and Western worlds.
The February 2015 Egyptian airstrikes in Libya against Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) positions in Libya took place on February 16, 2015, and were triggered by a video released by ISIL in Libya a day earlier, depicting the beheading of 21 Coptic Christians from Egypt.
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), formerly the Bureau of Investigation (BOI), is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, and its principal federal law enforcement agency.
The federal government of Iraq is defined under the current Constitution, approved in 2005, as an Islamic, democratic, federal parliamentary republic.
Fezzan (ⴼⴻⵣⵣⴰⵏ, Fezzan; فزان, Fizzān; Fizan; Phasania) or Phazania is the southwestern region of modern Libya.
The Financial Action Task Force (on Money Laundering) (FATF), also known by its French name, Groupe d'action financière (GAFI), is an intergovernmental organization founded in 1989 on the initiative of the G7 to develop policies to combat money laundering.
Fiqh (فقه) is Islamic jurisprudence.
Fitna (or, pl.; فتنة, فتن: "temptation, trial; sedition, civil strife"Wehr (1976), p. 696.) is an Arabic word with extensive connotations of trial, affliction, or distress.
Forced marriage is a marriage in which one or more of the parties is married without his or her consent or against his or her will.
Foreign Affairs is an American magazine of international relations and U.S. foreign policy published by the Council on Foreign Relations, a nonprofit, nonpartisan, membership organization and think tank specializing in U.S. foreign policy and international affairs.
Foreign Policy is an American news publication, founded in 1970 and focused on global affairs, current events, and domestic and international policy.
Fox News (officially known as the Fox News Channel, commonly abbreviated to FNC) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel owned by the Fox Entertainment Group, a subsidiary of 21st Century Fox.
François Gérard Georges Nicolas Hollande (born 12 August 1954) is a French politician who served as President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra from 2012 to 2017.
Frankenstein's monster, often erroneously referred to as "Frankenstein", is a fictional character who first appeared in Mary Shelley's 1818 novel Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus.
The Free Sunnis of Baalbek Brigade, also known as the Ahrar al-Sunna Baalbek Brigade, is a Sunni jihadist group active in Lebanon.
The Free Syrian Army (al-Jaysh as-Sūrī al-Ḥurr; abbreviated FSA) is a loose faction in the Syrian Civil War founded on 29 July 2011 by officers of the Syrian Armed Forces who said their goal was to bring down the government of Bashar al-Assad.
The French Council of the Muslim Faith (Conseil français du culte musulman, usually abbreviated to CFCM), is a national elected body, to serve as an official interlocutor with the French state in the regulation of Muslim religious activities.
Frontline (styled by the program as FRONTLINE) is the flagship investigative journalism series of the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS), producing in-depth documentaries on a variety of domestic and international stories and issues, and broadcasting them on air and online.
The Gaza Strip (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p.761 "Gaza Strip /'gɑːzə/ a strip of territory under the control of the Palestinian National Authority and Hamas, on the SE Mediterranean coast including the town of Gaza...". قطاع غزة), or simply Gaza, is a self-governing Palestinian territory on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, that borders Egypt on the southwest for and Israel on the east and north along a border.
Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group) in whole or in part.
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL, calling itself Islamic State) is recognized by the United Nations as the perpetrator of a genocide of Yazidis in Iraq.
Georgia State University (commonly referred to as Georgia State, State, or GSU) is a public research university in downtown Atlanta, Georgia, United States.
The Georgian Ground Forces (საქართველოს სახმელეთო ძალები) are the land force component of the Georgian Armed Forces.
Gerd Müller (born 25 August 1955 as Gerhard Müller in the town of Krumbach, district of Günzburg, Bavaria, Germany) is a German politician and member of the Christian Social Union in Bavaria.
The gold dinar (ﺩﻳﻨﺎﺭ ذهبي) is an Islamic medieval gold coin first issued in AH 77 (696–697 CE) by Caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan.
The Government of National Accord (حكومة الوفاق الوطني) is an interim government for Libya that was formed under the terms of the Libyan Political Agreement, a United Nations-led initiative, signed on 17 December 2015.
Iraq consists of 19 governorates (muḥāfażah in Arabic), also known as "provinces".
Graeme Charles Arthur Wood (born August 21, 1979) is a Canadian-American journalist who has written for The New Yorker, The American Scholar, The New Republic, Bloomberg Businessweek, Culture+Travel, The Wall Street Journal and the International Herald Tribune.
The Grand Imam of al-Azhar (Arabic: الإمام الأكبر), also known as Grand Sheikh of al-Azhar (Arabic: شيخ الأزهر الشريف), currently Ahmed el-Tayeb, is a prestigious Sunni Islam title and a prominent official title in Egypt.
The Grande Mosquée de Paris (commonly known as The Paris Mosque or The Great Mosque of Paris in English), is located in the 5th arrondissement and is one of the largest mosques in France.
The Grand Mufti (مفتي عام, "general expounder" or كبير المفتين, "the great of expounders") is the highest official of religious law in a Sunni or Ibadi Muslim country.
The Grand National Assembly of Turkey (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi), usually referred to simply as the TBMM or Parliament (Meclis or Parlamento), is the unicameral Turkish legislature.
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
The Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (مجلس التعاون لدول الخليج العربية), originally (and still colloquially) known as the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC, مجلس التعاون الخليجي), is a regional intergovernmental political and economic union consisting of all Arab states of the Persian Gulf except Iraq.
Gulmurod Salimovich Khalimov (Гулмурод Салимович Ҳалимов) was a Tajik and Islamist military commander.
Hadhramaut or Hadramawt (حضرموت Ḥaḍramawt) is a governorate of Yemen.
Ḥadīth (or; حديث, pl. Aḥādīth, أحاديث,, also "Traditions") in Islam refers to the record of the words, actions, and the silent approval, of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
The hadith of the twelve successors, or twelve caliphs (ḥadīth al-ithnā ‘ashar khalīfah) is an Islamic prophecy, attributed to Muhammad.
Hafiz Saeed Khan (1972 – 26 July 2016) was an Islamic militant who served as the Islamic State emir for its Khorasan province, which is active in Afghanistan and Pakistan, from January 2015 until his death in July 2016.
Haider Jawad Kadhim al-Abadi (or al-'Ibadi; حيدر جواد كاظم العبادي, born 25 April 1952) is an Iraqi politician who has been the Prime Minister of Iraq since September 2014.
Samir Abd Muhammad al-Khlifawi, better known by the nom de guerre Haji Bakr, was a senior leader of the militant group Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), heading its Military Council and leading its operations in Syria, prior to his killing by Syrian rebels in January 2014.
Hama Governorate (مُحافظة حماة / ALA-LC: Muḥāfaẓat Ḥamā) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.
Hamas (Arabic: حماس Ḥamās, an acronym of حركة المقاومة الاسلامية Ḥarakat al-Muqāwamah al-ʾIslāmiyyah Islamic Resistance Movement) is a Palestinian Sunni-Islamist fundamentalist organization.
Harakat Hezbollah al-Nujaba (HHN; حركة حزب الله النجباء Ḥaraka Ḥizballāh an-Nujabā’, "Movement of the Party of God's Nobles") is an Iraqi Shi'ite paramilitary group.
Harchegan (also Romanized as Harchegān) is a village in Doab Rural District, Bazoft District, Kuhrang County, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province, Iran.
Hassan Rouhani (حسن روحانی,, Standard Persian:; born Hassan Fereydoun (حسن فریدون) on 12 November 1948) is an Iranian politician serving as the current and seventh President of Iran since 3 August 2013.
Hawija (Kurdish "hawij" for wild carrot) is the centre of Al-Hawija District in the Kirkuk province of Iraq, 45 km west of Kirkuk, and north of Baghdad.
The Hazaras (هزاره, آزره) are an ethnic group native to the region of Hazarajat in central Afghanistan, speaking the Hazaragi variant of Dari, itself an eastern variety of Persian and one of the two official languages of Afghanistan.
Hīt, also spelled Heet (هيت), ancient name Is, is an Iraqi city in Al-Anbar province.
Heresy is any belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs, in particular the accepted beliefs of a church or religious organization.
Hezbollah (pronounced; حزب الله, literally "Party of Allah" or "Party of God")—also transliterated Hizbullah, Hizballah, etc.
Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton (born October 26, 1947) is an American politician and diplomat who served as the First Lady of the United States from 1993 to 2001, U.S. Senator from New York from 2001 to 2009, 67th United States Secretary of State from 2009 to 2013, and the Democratic Party's nominee for President of the United States in the 2016 election.
The Home Office (HO) is a ministerial department of Her Majesty's Government of the United Kingdom, responsible for immigration, security and law and order.
A hookah (from Hindustani: हुक़्क़ा (Devanagari), (Nastaleeq), IPA:; also see other names), also known as the ḡalyān (Persian: قلیان), is a single- or multi-stemmed instrument for vaporizing and smoking flavored tobacco (often Mu‘assel), or sometimes cannabis or opium, whose vapor or smoke is passed through a water basin—often glass-based—before inhalation.
The Houthis (الحوثيون al-Ḥūthiyyūn), officially called Ansar Allah (أنصار الله "Supporters of God"), are members of an Islamic religious-political-armed movement that emerged from Sa'dah in northern Yemen in the 1990s.
Hudud (Arabic: حدود Ḥudūd, also transliterated hadud, hudood; plural of hadd, حد) is an Arabic word meaning "borders, boundaries, limits".
HuffPost (formerly The Huffington Post and sometimes abbreviated HuffPo) is a liberal American news and opinion website and blog that has both localized and international editions.
Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.
The state of human rights in territories controlled by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) is considered to be amongst one of the worst in modern history, and has been criticised by many political, religious and other organisations and individuals.
Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.
Human shield is a military and political term describing the deliberate placement of non-combatants in or around combat targets to deter the enemy from attacking these combat targets.
Ibadah (عبادة., ‘ibādah, also spelled ibada) is an Arabic word meaning service or servitude.
Idlib Governorate (مُحافظة ادلب / ALA-LC: Muḥāfaẓat Idlib) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.
Idolatry literally means the worship of an "idol", also known as a cult image, in the form of a physical image, such as a statue or icon.
Imam (إمام; plural: أئمة) is an Islamic leadership position.
An improvised explosive device (IED) is a bomb constructed and deployed in ways other than in conventional military action.
Infidel (literally "unfaithful") is a term used in certain religions for those accused of unbelief in the central tenets of their own religion, for members of another religion, or for the irreligious.
The Institute for the Study of War (ISW) is a United States–based think tank founded in 2007 by Kimberly Kagan.
The Intelligence and Terrorism Information Center (ITIC), also known as Meir Amit Intelligence and Terrorism Information Center in honor of Meir Amit, is an Israeli-based research group with close ties to the Israel Defense Forces and the American Jewish Congress.
The International Business Times is an American online news publication that publishes seven national editions and four languages.
In response to rapid territorial gains made by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) during the first half of 2014, and its universally-condemned executions, reported human rights abuses and the fear of further spillovers of the Syrian Civil War, many states began to intervene against it in both the Syrian Civil War and the Iraqi Civil War (2014–present).
The International Criminal Police Organization (Organisation internationale de police criminelle; ICPO-INTERPOL), more commonly known as Interpol, is an international organization that facilitates international police cooperation.
Following the advance of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) into northern Iraq in mid-2014, Iran began to provide military aid to counter the militant advance.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, and Gulf War II.
In the context of the Iraq War, the surge refers to United States President George W. Bush's 2007 increase in the number of American troops in order to provide security to Baghdad and Al Anbar Province.
The Saudi–Iraq border stretches from Turaif near the Jordanian border in the West to Hafar Al-Batin near the Kuwaiti border in the East.
The Iraqi Air Force (IQAF or IrAF; Arabic: القوات الجوية العراقية, Al Quwwat al Jawwiya al Iraqiya) is the aerial warfare service branch of the Iraqi Armed Forces, responsible for the policing of international borders and surveillance of national assets.
The Iraqi Civil War is an armed conflict which began in January 2014.
The Iraqi Institute for Economic Reform (IIER) is a non-profit, non-governmental research institute based in Baghdad, Iraq.
An insurgency began in Iraq after the 2003 US-led invasion, and lasted throughout the ensuing Iraq War (2003–2011).
The Iraqi insurgency, later referred to as the Iraq Crisis, escalated after the withdrawal of U.S. troops in 2011, resulting in violent conflict with the central government, as well as sectarian violence among Iraq's religious groups.
The Iraqi Intelligence Service (Jihaz Al-Mukhabarat Al-Amma), also known as the Mukhabarat, General Directorate of Intelligence, or Party Intelligence, was the main state intelligence organization in Iraq under Saddam Hussein.
Iraqi Kurdistan, officially called the Kurdistan Region of Iraq (Herêmî Kurdistan) by the Iraqi constitution, is an autonomous region located in northern Iraq.
The Iraqi National Intelligence Service (INIS) is an intelligence agency of the Iraqi government that was created in April 2004 on the authority of the Coalition Provisional Authority.
Iraqi security forces (ISF) is a term used by the United States Department of Defense (DoD) to describe law enforcement and military forces of the federal government of the Republic of Iraq.
The Iraqi Turkmens (also spelled Turcomans, Turkomens, and Turkmans; Irak Türkmenleri), also referred to as Iraqi Turks, or Turks of Iraq (تركمان العراق, Irak Türkleri), are Iraqi citizens of Turkic origin who mostly adhere to a Turkish heritage and identity.
Irina Georgieva Bokova (Ирина Георгиева Бокова; born 12 July 1952) is a Bulgarian politician and the former Director-General of UNESCO (2009-2017).
Beginning in 2014, a number of people from various countries were beheaded by Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), a radical Sunni Islamist group operating in Iraq and parts of Syria.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Blasphemy in Islam is impious utterance or action concerning God, Muhammad or anything considered sacred in Islam.
Islamic eschatology is the branch of Islamic theology concerning the end of the world, and the "Day of resurrection" after that, known as Yawm al-Qiyāmah (يوم القيامة,, "the Day of Resurrection") or Yawm ad-Dīn (يوم الدين,, "the Day of Judgment").
The Islamic Front (الجبهة الإسلامية, al-Jabhat al-Islāmiyyah) was a Sunni Islamist rebel group involved in the Syrian Civil War, which was formed by the merger of seven separate groups on 22 November 2013.
Islamic fundamentalism has been defined as a movement of Muslims who think back to earlier times and seek to return to the fundamentals of the religion and live similarly to how the prophet Muhammad and his companions lived.
The Islamic Military Counter Terrorism Coalition (IMCTC), and also formerly referred to as the Islamic Military Alliance to Fight Terrorism (IMAFT), is an intergovernmental counter-terrorist alliance of countries in the Muslim world, united around military intervention against ISIL and other counter-terrorist activities.
The Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU, Ўзбекистон исломий ҳаракати/Oʻzbekiston islomiy harakati) was a militant Islamist group formed in 1998 by the Islamic ideologue Tahir Yuldashev, and former Soviet paratrooper Juma Namangani—both ethnic Uzbeks from the Fergana Valley.
Islamic religious leaders have traditionally been people who, as part of the clerisy, mosque, or government, performed a prominent role within their community or nation.
The Islamic religious police (مطوع muṭawwiʿ, plural مطوعون muṭawwiʿūn – derived from classical Arabic: mutaṭawwiʿa/muṭṭawwiʿa) is the official vice squad of some Islamic states, who on behalf of the state, enforces Sharia law in respect to religious behavior (morality), or the precepts of Wahhabism.
The Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) (lit or Sepâh for short) is a branch of Iran's Armed Forces founded after 1979 Revolution on 22 April 1979 by order of Ayatollah Khomeini.IISS Military Balance 2006, Routledge for the IISS, London, 2006, p. 187 Whereas the regular military (or Artesh) defends Iran's borders and maintains internal order, according to the Iranian constitution, the Revolutionary Guard (pasdaran) is intended to protect the country's Islamic Republic system. The Revolutionary Guards state that their role in protecting the Islamic system is preventing foreign interference as well as coups by the military or "deviant movements". The Revolutionary Guards have roughly 125,000 military personnel including ground, aerospace and naval forces. Its naval forces are now the primary forces tasked with operational control of the Persian Gulf. GlobalBearings.net, 15 December 2011. It also controls the paramilitary Basij militia which has about 90,000 active personnel.Abrahamian, Ervand, History of Modern Iran, Columbia University Press, 2008 pp. 175–76 Its media arm is Sepah News. Since its origin as an ideologically driven militia, the Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution has taken a greater role in nearly every aspect of Iranian society. Its expanded social, political, military and economic role under President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's administration—especially during the 2009 presidential election and post-election suppression of protest—has led many Western analysts to argue that its political power has surpassed even that of the Shia clerical system. The Chief Commander of the Guardians since 2007 is Mohammad Ali Jafari, who was preceded by Yahya Rahim Safavi from 1997.
An Islamic state (دولة إسلامية, dawlah islāmiyyah) is a type of government primarily based on the application of shari'a (Islamic law), dispensation of justice, maintenance of law and order.
The Islamic State in Somalia (short: ISS) or Abnaa ul-Calipha is an Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant-affiliated group that primarily operates in the mountainous areas of Puntland, though has also claimed responsibility for several terrorist attacks throughout the rest of Somalia.
The Islamic State of Iraq (ISI; دولة العراق الإسلامية) (commonly referred to as al-Qaeda in Iraq) was a militant Salafist jihadist group that aimed to establish an Islamic state in Sunni, Arab-majority areas of Iraq during the Iraq War and later in Syria during the Syrian Civil War.
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria or Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS), Islamic State (IS) and by its Arabic language acronym Daesh (داعش dāʿish), is a Salafi jihadist terrorist organisation and former unrecognised proto-state that follows a fundamentalist, Salafi/Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam.
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant – Algeria Province (الدولة الإسلامية في العراق والشام – ولاية الجزائر, ad-Dawlah al-Islāmiyah fī 'l-ʿIrāq wa-sh-Shām – Wilayah al-Jazā’er), or ISIL-AP, is a branch of the militant Islamist group Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), active in Algeria.
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant – Caucasus Province (الدولة الإسلامية في العراق والشام - ولاية القوقاز, ad-Dawlah al-Islāmiyah fī 'l-ʿIrāq wa-sh-Shām – Wilayah al-Qawqaz Вилаят Кавказ Исламского государство Ирака и Леванта, Vilayat Kavkaz Islamskogo gosudarstvo Iraka i Levanta), also known as ISIL-CP or Vilayat Kavkaz, is a branch of the militant Islamist group Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), active in the North Caucasus region of Russia.
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant – Khorasan Province (الدولة الإسلامية في العراق والشام – ولاية خراسان, ad-Dawlah al-Islāmiyah fī 'l-ʿIrāq wa-sh-Shām – Wilayah Khorasan), or ISIL-KP, is a branch of the militant Islamist group Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), active in Afghanistan and Pakistan.
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant – Sinai Province (الدولة الإسلاميةولاية سيناء, ad-Dawlah al-Islāmiyah fī 'l-ʿIrāq wa-sh-Shām – Wilayah Sīnāʼ), or ISIL-SP, is a militant Islamist group active in the Sinai Peninsula of Egypt.
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant – Yemen Province (الدولة الإسلامية في العراق والشام – ولاية اليَمَن, ad-Dawlah al-Islāmiyah fī 'l-ʿIrāq wa-sh-Shām – Wilayah al-Yaman), or ISIL-YP, is a branch of the militant Islamist group Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), active in Yemen.
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant is a militant Islamist group active in Libya under three branches: Fezzan Province (ولاية الفزان, Wilayah al-Fizan) in the desert south, Cyrenaica Province (ولاية البرقة, Wilayah al-Barqah) in the east, and Tripolitania Province (ولاية الطرابلس, Wilayah al-Tarabulus) in the west.
Isnilon Totoni Hapilon (March 18, 1966 or March 10, 1968 – October 16, 2017), also known by the nom de guerre Abu Abdullah al-Filipini ("Abu Abdullah the Filipino"), was a Filipino Islamist militant affiliated with ISIS.
At 01:15 am local time on 1 January 2017 a gunman shot and killed at least 39 people and wounded at least 70 others at the Reina nightclub in the Ortaköy neighbourhood of Istanbul, where hundreds had been celebrating the new year.
Major General Jaafar Mohammed Saad (died 6 December 2015) was a Yemeni politician and soldier.
Jaish al-Muhajireen wal-Ansar (JMA or JAMWA, جيش المهاجرين والأنصار Army of Emigrants and Supporters), formerly known as the Muhajireen Brigade (Katibat al-Muhajireen), is a jihadist group made up of Arabs that has been active in the Syrian Civil War against the Syrian Government.
Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad (Organization of Monotheism and Jihad), which may be abbreviated as JTJ or Jama'at, was a militant Jihadist group that was led by the Jordanian national Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, who formed the group in Jordan in 1999, until his death in June 2006.
Jamaah Ansharut Tauhid, Jemaah Anshorut Tauhid, or (JAT) is a splinter cell of the Jemaah Islamiyah (JI) designated as a terrorist organization by the United Nations and the United States.
James Brien Comey Jr. (born December 14, 1960) is an American lawyer who was the 7th Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) from 2013 until his dismissal in May 2017.
James Wright Foley (October 18, 1973 – August 19, 2014) was an American journalist and video reporter.
Terry W. Duke is a Lieutenant General (Ret) in the United States Army.
Jane's Defence Weekly (abbreviated as JDW) is a weekly magazine reporting on military and corporate affairs, edited by Peter Felstead.
On 12 January 2016, a suicide attack in Istanbul's historic Sultanahmet district killed 13 people, all foreigners, and injured 14 others.
Jason Burke (born 1970) is a British journalist and the author of several non-fiction books.
Jaysh al-Islam (جيش الإسلام, meaning Army of Islam), formerly known as Liwa al-Islam (لواء الإسلام, Brigade of Islam), is a coalition of Islamist rebel units involved in the Syrian Civil War.
Jürgen Todenhöfer (born 12 November 1940) is a German author, journalist, politician, and executive.
Jemaah Islamiyah (الجماعة الإسلامية, al-Jamāʿah al-Islāmiyyah, meaning "Islamic Congregation", frequently abbreviated JI) is a Southeast Asian militant extremist Islamist rebel group dedicated to the establishment of an Islamic state in Southeast Asia.
Jihad (جهاد) is an Arabic word which literally means striving or struggling, especially with a praiseworthy aim.
The term "Jihadism" (also "jihadist movement", "jihadi movement" and variants) is a 21st-century neologism found in Western languages to describe Islamist militant movements perceived as military movements "rooted in Islam" and "existentially threatening" to the West.
Jizya or jizyah (جزية; جزيه) is a per capita yearly tax historically levied on non-Muslim subjects, called the dhimma, permanently residing in Muslim lands governed by Islamic law.
Joseph Robinette Biden Jr. (born November 20, 1942) is an American politician who served as the 47th Vice President of the United States from 2009 to 2017.
John Henry Cantlie (born 1970) is a British war photographer and correspondent who was kidnapped in Syria with James Foley in November 2012 and remains a hostage.
John Forbes Kerry (born December 11, 1943) is an American politician who served as the 68th United States Secretary of State from 2013 to 2017.
John David Podesta Jr. (born January 8, 1949) is an American political consultant who served as White House Chief of Staff to President Bill Clinton from October 20, 1998 until January 20, 2001 and as Counselor to President Barack Obama from January 1, 2014 until February 13, 2015.
John R. Allen (born December 15, 1953) is the president of the Brookings Institution, a retired United States Marine Corps four-star general, and former commander of the NATO International Security Assistance Force and U.S. Forces - Afghanistan (USFOR-A).
Jonah or Jonas is the name given in the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh/Old Testament) to a prophet of the northern kingdom of Israel in about the 8th century BCE.
On 23 July 2016 a twin bombing occurred in the vicinity of Deh Mazang square in Kabul, capital of Afghanistan, when the #Enlightenment_Movement protesters, mostly from the Hazara ethnic, were marching against a decision to bypass their region in the development of the TUTAP mega power project.
Jundallah (جندالله, lit. "Soldiers of God") is a militant group associated with the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (TTP).
Kafir (كافر; plural كَافِرُونَ, كفّار or كَفَرَة; feminine كافرة) is an Arabic term (from the root K-F-R "to cover") meaning "unbeliever", or "disbeliever".
ʿIlm al-Kalām (عِلْم الكَلام, literally "science of discourse"),Winter, Tim J. "Introduction." Introduction.
Kata'ib Hezbollah (كتائب حزب الله, Brigades of the Party of God) or Hezbollah Brigades is an Iraqi Shia paramilitary group that is supported by Iran.
The Martyrs of Sayyid Battalions, or Kata'ib Sayyid al-Shuhada (KSS) (كتائب سيد الشهداء), are an Iraqi Shia militia formed in 2013 to protect "(Shia) shrines across the globe", preserve "Iraqi unity" and to "put an end to the sectarian conflict".
Kayla Jean Mueller (August 14, 1988 – February 6, 2015) was a Christian human rights activist and humanitarian aid worker from Prescott, Arizona.
was a Japanese freelance video journalist covering wars and conflicts, refugees, poverty, AIDS, and child education around the world.
Khalid bin Mohammad Al Attiyah (خالد بن محمد العطية, born 9 March 1967) is a Qatari politician who was Minister of Foreign Affairs of Qatar from June 2013 to January 2016.
Field Marshal Khalifa Belqasim Haftar (خليفة بلقاسم حفتر; born c. 1943) is a Libyan military officer and the head of the Libyan National Army, currently engaged in the Second Libyan Civil War.
Khalifa Islamiyah Mindanao (KIM) was a dedicated organization that sought to establish an independent state in Mindanao, Philippines.
The Khawarij (الخوارج, al-Khawārij, singular خارجي, khāriji), Kharijites, or the ash-Shurah (ash-Shurāh "the Exchangers") are members of a school of thought, that appeared in the first century of Islam during the First Fitna, the crisis of leadership after the death of Muhammad.
In Islamic tradition, khums (خمس, literally 'one fifth') refers to the historically required religious obligation of any Muslim army to pay one-fifth of the spoils of war, the money collected from non-believers after a military campaign; this tax was paid to the caliph or sultan, representing the state of Islam.
The King of Saudi Arabia is Saudi Arabia's absolute monarch who serves as head of state and head of government.
Kobanî (also rendered Kobanê, كوباني, ܟܘܒܐܢܝ), officially Ayn al-Arab (عين العرب), is a city in the Aleppo Governorate in northern Syria, lying immediately south of the border with Turkey.
Konstantiniyye is a Turkish language online magazine published online by the Islamic State (ISIL/ISIS/IS), and released by al-Hayat Media Center.
Kurdistan (کوردستان; lit. "homeland of the Kurds") or Greater Kurdistan is a roughly defined geo-cultural historical region wherein the Kurdish people form a prominent majority population and Kurdish culture, languages and national identity have historically been based.
The Kurdistan Communities Union or KCK (Koma Civakên Kurdistan) is a Kurdish political organization committed to implementing Abdullah Öcalan's ideology of Democratic Confederalism.
The Kurdistan Workers' Party or PKK (Partiya Karkerên Kurdistanê) is an organization based in Turkey and Iraq.
The Kurds (rtl, Kurd) or the Kurdish people (rtl, Gelî kurd), are an ethnic group in the Middle East, mostly inhabiting a contiguous area spanning adjacent parts of southeastern Turkey (Northern Kurdistan), northwestern Iran (Eastern Kurdistan), northern Iraq (Southern Kurdistan), and northern Syria (Western Kurdistan).
La Stampa (meaning The Press in English) is an Italian daily newspaper published in Turin, Italy.
Latakia Governorate (مُحافظة اللاذقية / ALA-LC: Muḥāfaẓat al-Lādhiqīyah) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.
Laurent Fabius (born 20 August 1946) is a French Socialist politician who served as Prime Minister of France from 17 July 1984 to 20 March 1986.
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.
The Libya Shield Force is an armed organisation formed in 2012 out of anti-Gaddafi armed groups spread throughout Libya.
The Libyan Air Force (القوات الجوية الليبية) is the branch of the Libyan military responsible for aerial warfare.
The second Libyan Civil War is an ongoing conflict among rival factions seeking control of the territory and oil of Libya.
The Libyan National Army is the national armed force of Libya, comprising the ground forces, the air force and the navy.
This article is a list of armed groups involved in the Iraqi Civil War.
A number of armed groups have involved themselves in the ongoing Syrian Civil War.
This is a list of designated terrorist groups by national governments, former governments, and inter-governmental organizations, where the proscription has a significant effect on the group's activities.
The first Iranian newspapers appeared in the mid-19th century during the reign of Nasir al Din Shah.
The timeline list of terrorist incidents which took place in 2015, including attacks by violent non-state actors for political motives, is split by month.
This is a timeline of incidents in Syria that have been labelled as terrorism and are not believed to have been carried out by a government or its forces (see state terrorism and state-sponsored terrorism).
The following is a list of conflicts involving the militant group commonly known as the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL/ISIS), throughout its various incarnations.
The London Review of Books (LRB) is a British journal of literary essays.
FDD's Long War Journal (LWJ) is an American news website, also described as a blog, which reports on the war on terror.
The Mahdi (مهدي, ISO 233:, literally "guided one") is an eschatological redeemer of Islam who will appear and rule for five, seven, nine or nineteen years (according to differing interpretations)Martin 2004: 421 before the Day of Judgment (literally "the Day of Resurrection") and will rid the world of evil.
Management of Savagery: The Most Critical Stage Through Which the Islamic Nation Will Pass (إدارة التوحش: أخطر مرحلة ستمر بها الأمة, Idārat at-Tawaḥḥuš: Akhṭar marḥalah satamurru bihā l 'ummah), also translated as Administration of Savagery, is a book by the Islamist strategist Abu Bakr Naji, published on the Internet in 2004.
The Manchester Arena bombing was a suicide bombing attack in Manchester, United Kingdom on 22 May 2017.
Mandaeans (aṣ-Ṣābi'a al-Mandā'iyūn) are an ethnoreligious group indigenous to the alluvial plain of southern Mesopotamia and are followers of Mandaeism, a Gnostic religion.
Marawi (Maranao: Inged san Marawi; Arabic: مدينة مراوي; Lungsod Islamiko ng Marawi) is the capital city of Lanao del Sur province in the Philippines.
This article lists the Mass executions in ISIL occupied Mosul.
The Maute Group, also known as the Islamic State of Lanao, is a radical Islamist group composed of former Moro Islamic Liberation Front guerrillas and foreign fighters led by Abdullah Bahugduga, the alleged founder of a Dawlah Islamiya, or Islamic state based in Lanao del Sur, Mindanao, Philippines.
Mayadin (الميادين/ALA-LC: al-Miyādīn) is a town in eastern Syria.
Mehdi Raza Hasan (born July 1979) is a British political journalist, broadcaster and author.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
Metrojet Flight 9268 was an international chartered passenger flight, operated by Russian airline Kogalymavia (branded as Metrojet).
Michael F. Scheuer (born 1952) is a former intelligence officer for the Central Intelligence Agency, American blogger, author, foreign policy critic, and political analyst.
The military of ISIL is the fighting force of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL).
A militia is generally an army or some other fighting organization of non-professional soldiers, citizens of a nation, or subjects of a state, who can be called upon for military service during a time of need, as opposed to a professional force of regular, full-time military personnel, or historically, members of a warrior nobility class (e.g., knights or samurai).
Mindanao is the second largest island in the Philippines.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Kementerian Luar Negeri), abbreviated KLN, is a ministry of the Government of Malaysia that is responsible for foreign affairs, Malaysian diaspora, foreigners in Malaysia, diplomacy, foreign relations, counter terrorism, bilateral affairs, multilateral affairs, ASEAN, international protocol, consular services, maritime affairs, chemical weapons.
The Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) or Home Ministry (IAST: Gṛha Maṃtrālaya) is a ministry of the Government of India.
The Ministry of Human Rights was a cabinet-level ministry within the government of Iraq between 2003 and 2015.
The Ministry of Interior and Narcotics Control (وزارت داخلہ, abbreviated as MoI) is a Cabinet-level ministry of the Government of Pakistan, tasked and primarily responsible for implementing the internal policies, state security, administration of internal affairs involving the state, and assisting the government on territorial affairs of Federally Administered Tribal Areas (Fata), and insular areas of Provincially Administered Tribal Areas (PATA).
The Ministry of Internal Affairs, also called the Ministry of the Interior, abbreviated VKD, is the interior ministry of the government of Tajikistan.
The Ministry of Public Security (MPS) is the principal police and security authority of the People's Republic of China and the government ministry that exercises oversight over and is ultimately responsible for day-to-day law enforcement.
The modern Islamic gold dinar (sometimes referred as Islamic dinar or Gold dinar) is a projected bullion gold coin, so far not issued as official currency by any national state.
Mona Siddiqui, OBE, FRSE, FRSA (born 3 May 1963) is a British academic.
The mosques and shrines of Mosul, Iraq are of varied ages, the oldest being the Umayyad Mosque from 640 AD.
Mosul (الموصل, مووسڵ, Māwṣil) is a major city in northern Iraq. Located some north of Baghdad, Mosul stands on the west bank of the Tigris, opposite the ancient Assyrian city of Nineveh on the east bank. The metropolitan area has grown to encompass substantial areas on both the "Left Bank" (east side) and the "Right Bank" (west side), as the two banks are described by the locals compared to the flow direction of Tigris. At the start of the 21st century, Mosul and its surrounds had an ethnically and religiously diverse population; the majority of Mosul's population were Arabs, with Assyrians, Armenians, Turkmens, Kurds, Yazidis, Shabakis, Mandaeans, Kawliya, Circassians in addition to other, smaller ethnic minorities. In religious terms, mainstream Sunni Islam was the largest religion, but with a significant number of followers of the Salafi movement and Christianity (the latter followed by the Assyrians and Armenians), as well as Shia Islam, Sufism, Yazidism, Shabakism, Yarsanism and Mandaeism. Mosul's population grew rapidly around the turn of the millennium and by 2004 was estimated to be 1,846,500. In 2014, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant seized control of the city. The Iraqi government recaptured it in the 2016–2017 Battle of Mosul. Historically, important products of the area include Mosul marble and oil. The city of Mosul is home to the University of Mosul and its renowned Medical College, which together was one of the largest educational and research centers in Iraq and the Middle East. Mosul, together with the nearby Nineveh plains, is one of the historic centers for the Assyrians and their churches; the Assyrian Church of the East; its offshoot, the Chaldean Catholic Church; and the Syriac Orthodox Church, containing the tombs of several Old Testament prophets such as Jonah, some of which were destroyed by ISIL in July 2014.
The Mosul Museum is the second largest museum in Iraq after the National Museum of Iraq in Baghdad.
Muammar Mohammed Abu Minyar Gaddafi (20 October 2011), commonly known as Colonel Gaddafi, was a Libyan revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
A mufti (مفتي) is an Islamic scholar who interprets and expounds Islamic law (Sharia and fiqh).
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
Muhammad Abul Huda al-Yaqoubi (محمد أبو الهدى اليعقوبي; born May 7, 1963) is a Syrian Islamic scholar and religious leader.
Mujahideen (مجاهدين) is the plural form of mujahid (مجاهد), the term for one engaged in Jihad (literally, "holy war").
The Mujahideen Shura Council (MSC), (مجلس شورى المجاهدين في العراق), was an umbrella organization of at least six Sunni Islamic insurgent groups taking part in the Iraqi insurgency against U.S. and coalition and Iraqi forces: Tanzim Qaidat al-Jihad fi Bilad al-Rafidayn ('al-Qaeda in Iraq'), Jaish al-Ta'ifa al-Mansurah, Katbiyan Ansar Al-Tawhid wal Sunnah, Saray al-Jihad Group, al-Ghuraba Brigades, and al-Ahwal Brigades.
The Mujahideen Shura Council in the Environs of Jerusalem or simply the Mujahideen Shura Council (also known as the Mujahideen Shura Council of Jerusalem, in Arabic: Majlis Shura Al-Mujahideen, Magles Shoura al-Mujahedeen, and other names) is an armed Salafi jihadist group linked to al-QaedaThomas Joscelyn,, Long War Journal (Foundation for the Defense of Democracies) 19-06-2012 that is active in Egypt's Sinai Peninsula and in the Gaza Strip.
The East Indonesia Mujahideen (Mujahidin Indonesia Timur; abbreviated MIT) is a terrorist group operating out of Poso, Sulawesi in Indonesia.
The Multi-National Force – Iraq (MNF–I), often referred to as the coalition forces, was a military command during the 2003 invasion of Iraq and much of the ensuing Iraq War, led by the United States of America (Operation Iraqi Freedom), United Kingdom (Operation TELIC), Australia, Spain and Poland, responsible for conducting and handling military operations.
Murder is the unlawful killing of another human without justification or valid excuse, especially the unlawful killing of another human being with malice aforethought.
The Society of the Muslim Brothers (جماعة الإخوان المسلمين), better known as the Muslim Brotherhood (الإخوان المسلمون), is a transnational Sunni Islamist organization founded in Egypt by Islamic scholar and schoolteacher Hassan al-Banna in 1928.
The name of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant has been subject of debate and controversy since 2013.
A nasheed (Arabic: singular نشيد, plural أناشيد, meaning: "chants"; also nasyid in Malaysia and Indonesia, and neşid in Turkey) is a work of vocal music that is either sung acappella or accompanied by percussion instruments such as the daf.
The National Coalition for Syrian Revolution and Opposition Forces (الائتلاف الوطني لقوى الثورة والمعارضة السورية), commonly named the Syrian National Coalition (الائتلاف الوطني السوري), is a coalition of opposition groups in the Syrian Civil War that was founded in Doha, Qatar, in November 2012.
The National Intelligence Organization (Millî İstihbarat Teşkilatı, MİT) is the governmental intelligence organization of Turkey.
The National Museum of Iraq (Arabic: المتحف العراقي) is a museum located in Baghdad, Iraq.
The National Security Bureau of the Republic of China (NSB) is the principal intelligence (including military intelligence) agency of the Republic of China.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
Nazand Begikhani is a contemporary British writer, poet and academic researcher of Kurdish origin, and an active advocate of human rights.
NBC News is the news division of the American broadcast television network NBC, formerly known as the National Broadcasting Company when it was founded on radio.
The New Statesman is a British political and cultural magazine published in London.
Newsweek is an American weekly magazine founded in 1933.
Nimrud (النمرود) is the name that Carsten NiebuhrNiebuhr wrote on:: "Bei Nimrud, einem verfallenen Castell etwa 8 Stunden von Mosul, findet man ein merkwürdigeres Werk.
Nineveh (𒌷𒉌𒉡𒀀 URUNI.NU.A Ninua); ܢܝܼܢܘܹܐ was an ancient Assyrian city of Upper Mesopotamia, located on the outskirts of Mosul in modern-day northern Iraq.
Nineveh Governorate (محافظة نينوى) (ܗܘܦܲܪܟܝܵܐ ܕܢܝܼܢܘܹܐ) is a governorate in northern Iraq that contains the ancient Assyrian city of Nineveh.
In international relations, non-state actors (NSAs) are individuals and groups that hold influence and which are wholly or partly independent of state governments.
Between 1 and 15 August 2014, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) expanded northern Iraqi territories under their control.
Nouri Kamil Mohammed Hasan al-Maliki (نوري كامل محمد حسن المالكي.; born 20 June 1950), also known as Jawad al-Maliki (جواد المالكي) or Abu Esraa (أبو إسراء), is an Iraqi politician who was Prime Minister of Iraq from 2006 to 2014.
The November 2015 Paris attacks were a series of coordinated terrorist attacks that occurred on Friday, 13 November 2015 in Paris, France and the city's northern suburb, Saint-Denis.
OMON (ОМОН — Отряд Мобильный Особого Назначения, previously Отряд Милиции Особого Назначения, Otryad Militsii Osobogo Naznacheniya, Special Purpose Police Unit) is a system of special police units of Federal Police within the National Guard of Russia, and previously Soviet and Russian Ministries of Internal Affairs.
An open letter is a letter that is intended to be read by a wide audience, or a letter intended for an individual, but that is nonetheless widely distributed intentionally.
Operation Inherent Resolve (OIR) is the U.S. military's operational name for the military intervention against the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIL, in the vernacular, Daesh), including both the campaign in Iraq and the campaign in Syria.
Usama ibn Mohammed ibn Awad ibn Ladin (أسامة بن محمد بن عوض بن لادن), often anglicized as Osama bin Laden (March 10, 1957 – May 2, 2011), was a founder of, the organization responsible for the September 11 attacks in the United States and many other mass-casualty attacks worldwide.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Ottoman Turkish (Osmanlı Türkçesi), or the Ottoman language (Ottoman Turkish:, lisân-ı Osmânî, also known as, Türkçe or, Türkî, "Turkish"; Osmanlıca), is the variety of the Turkish language that was used in the Ottoman Empire.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Palmyra (Palmyrene: Tadmor; تَدْمُر Tadmur) is an ancient Semitic city in present-day Homs Governorate, Syria.
The Palmyra offensive of May 2015 was a military operation launched during the Syrian Civil War by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) on May 13–26, 2015, in an attempt to capture the government-held Tadmur District of the Homs Governorate, including the administrative centre of Tadmur, known in English as Palmyra.
Pankaj Mishra (born 1969) is an Indian essayist and novelist.
The Parliament of Canada (Parlement du Canada) is the federal legislature of Canada, seated at Parliament Hill in Ottawa, the national capital.
Patrick Oliver Cockburn (born 5 March 1950) is an Irish journalist who has been a Middle East correspondent for the Financial Times since 1979 and, from 1990, The Independent.
The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.
Peshmerga (lit, or Those who face death') are the military forces of the federal region of Iraqi Kurdistan.
The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan American fact tank based in Washington, D.C. It provides information on social issues, public opinion, and demographic trends shaping the United States and the world.
The President of the Philippines (Pangulo ng Pilipinas, informally referred to as Presidente ng Pilipinas; or in Presidente de Filipinas) is the head of state and head of government of the Philippines.
Press TV (stylised as PRESSTV) is a 24-hour English- and French-language news and documentary network affiliated with Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB).
Profetens Ummah ("The Prophet's Ummah"., '''أمة النبي'''.) is a Salafi-jihadist Islamist organisation based in Norway.
Propaganda is information that is not objective and is used primarily to influence an audience and further an agenda, often by presenting facts selectively to encourage a particular synthesis or perception, or using loaded language to produce an emotional rather than a rational response to the information that is presented.
A proto-state, also known as a quasi-state, is a political entity that does not represent a fully institutionalized or autonomous sovereign state.
Major General Qasem Soleimani (قاسم سلیمانی, born 11 March 1957) is an Iranian senior military officer in the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) and since 1998 commander of its Quds Force—a division primarily responsible for extraterritorial military and clandestine operations.
Qatar (or; قطر; local vernacular pronunciation), officially the State of Qatar (دولة قطر), is a sovereign country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula.
Quartz (qz.com) is a news website owned by Atlantic Media.
Quilliam is a London-based left-of-centre think tank that focuses on counter-extremism, specifically against Islamism, which it argues represents a desire to impose a given interpretation of Islam on society.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
Ramadi (الرمادي Ar-Ramādī; also formerly rendered as Rumadiyah or Rumadiya) is a city in central Iraq, about west of Baghdad and west of Fallujah.
RAND Corporation ("Research ANd Development") is an American nonprofit global policy think tank created in 1948 by Douglas Aircraft Company to offer research and analysis to the United States Armed Forces.
Randal Howard "Rand" Paul (born January 7, 1963) is an American politician and physician serving as the junior United States Senator from Kentucky since 2011, alongside Majority Leader Mitch McConnell.
Rape is a type of sexual assault usually involving sexual intercourse or other forms of sexual penetration carried out against a person without that person's consent.
During the Syrian civil war, there have been severe human rights violations, including rape which has been used as a strategy throughout the conflict, by pro government supporters, members of the Free Syrian Army and militants fighting for the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant(IS).
Raqqa (الرقة; Kurdish: Reqa) also called Raqa, Rakka and Al-Raqqah is a city in Syria located on the northeast bank of the Euphrates River, about east of Aleppo.
Raqqa Governorate (Muḥāfaẓat ar-Raqqah) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.
Raqqa Is Being Slaughtered Silently (RSS or RBSS) is a citizen journalist group reporting Syrian war news and human rights abuses by Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) and other forces occupying the northern Syrian city of Raqqa which ISIL used as its de facto capital.
Rawa (راوة) or Rawah is an Iraqi town on the Euphrates river.
Raymond Thomas "Ray" Odierno (born 8 September 1954) is a retired United States Army General who served as the 38th Chief of Staff of the Army.
Refuting ISIS: A Rebuttal Of Its Religious And Ideological Foundations is a 2015 book by Muhammad al-Yaqoubi, a Syrian Islamic scholar and one of the 500 most influential Muslims in the world according to a ranking published by the Royal Islamic Strategic Studies Centre, that presents a response to ISIS' beliefs and crimes.
A religious war or holy war (bellum sacrum) is a war primarily caused or justified by differences in religion.
Reporters Without Borders (RWB), or Reporters Sans Frontières (RSF), is an international non-profit, non-governmental organization that promotes and defends freedom of information and freedom of the press.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
Sir Richard Billing Dearlove (born 23 January 1945) was head of the British Secret Intelligence Service (MI6), a role fictionally known as "M" and actually, though informally, as "C", from 1999 until 6 May 2004.
Rodrigo Roa Duterte (born March 28, 1945), also known as Digong and Rody, is a Filipino politician who is the 16th and current President of the Philippines and the first from Mindanao, the southernmost island of the country to hold the office.
RT (formerly Russia Today) is a Russian international television network funded by the Russian government.
Rukmini Maria Callimachi (born 25 June 1973) is a Romanian-American journalist who currently works for The New York Times.
Rumiyah (Rome) was an online magazine used by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) for propaganda and recruitment.
The Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War began in September 2015, after an official request by the Syrian government for military aid against rebel and jihadist groups.
Rustam Asildarov (Aselderov) (9 March 1981 – 3 December 2016), also known as Emir Abu Muhammad Kadarsky, was the leader of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) North Caucasus branch, and a former leader of the militant Caucasus Emirate's Vilayat Dagestan wing.
Saad Eskander (سعد اسکندر; born 1962) is a contemporary Iraqi Kurdish academic and researcher.
Sabha, or Sebha (سبها Sabhā), is an oasis city in southwestern Libya, approximately south of Tripoli.
Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (Arabic: صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي; 28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was President of Iraq from 16 July 1979 until 9 April 2003.
Saint George (Γεώργιος, Geṓrgios; Georgius;; to 23 April 303), according to legend, was a Roman soldier of Greek origin and a member of the Praetorian Guard for Roman emperor Diocletian, who was sentenced to death for refusing to recant his Christian faith.
Salafi jihadism or jihadist-Salafism is a transnational religious-political ideology based on a belief in "physical" jihadism and the Salafi movement of returning to what adherents believe to be true Sunni Islam.
The Salafi movement or Salafist movement or Salafism is a reform branch or revivalist movement within Sunni Islam that developed in Egypt in the late 19th century as a response to European imperialism.
Salah ("worship",; pl.; also salat), or namāz (نَماز) in some languages, is one of the Five Pillars in the faith of Islam and an obligatory religious duty for every Muslim.
Saleh Al-Fawzan (Arabic: صالح بن فوزان الفوزان), born 1933, is an Islamic scholar and has been a member of several high religious bodies in Saudi Arabia.
Salim Idris (سلیم ادریس Salīm Idrīs) (born 1957) is the former Chief of Staff of the Supreme Military Council (SMC) of the Free Syrian Army, which is the main Syrian armed opposition group.
Sana'a (صنعاء, Yemeni Arabic), also spelled Sanaa or Sana, is the largest city in Yemen and the centre of Sana'a Governorate.
The Save the Children Fund, commonly known as Save the Children, is an international non-governmental organisation that promotes children's rights, provides relief and helps support children in developing countries.
Schools of Islamic theology are various Islamic schools and branches in different schools of thought regarding aqidah (creed).
The Seal of Muhammad (Turkish Mühr-ü Saadet or Mühr-ü Şerif; Arabic ختم الرسول) is one of the relics of Muhammad kept in the Topkapı Palace by the Ottoman Sultans as part of the Sacred Relics collection.
The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), commonly known as MI6, is the foreign intelligence service of the government of the United Kingdom, tasked mainly with the covert overseas collection and analysis of human intelligence (HUMINT) in support of the UK's national security.
A secret service is a government agency, intelligence agency, or the activities of a government agency, concerned with the gathering of intelligence data.
The Secretary-General of the United Nations (UNSG or just SG) is the head of the United Nations Secretariat, one of the six principal organs of the United Nations.
Sexual abuse, also referred to as molestation, is usually undesired sexual behavior by one person upon another.
Sexual jihad (جهاد النكاح, jihad al-nikah) refers to the purported practice in which Sunni women sympathetic to Salafi jihadism travel to warzones such as Syria and voluntarily offer themselves to be "married" to jihadist militants, often repeatedly and in temporary marriages, serving sexual comfort roles to help boost the fighters' morale.
Sexual slavery and sexual exploitation is attaching the right of ownership over one or more persons with the intent of coercing or otherwise forcing them to engage in one or more sexual activities.
The Shabak people (الشبك, شەبەک) are a group in Iraq, who speak Shabaki, a Northwestern Iranian language of the Kurdish Zaza–Gorani group.
Shabwah (شبوة) is a governorate (province) of Yemen.
The Shahada (الشهادة,"the testimony").
Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.
The Islamist militant group "Sheikh Omar Hadid Brigade"(لواء الشيخ عمر حديد in Arabic), previously known (although still referred to) as a brigade of "Ansar Bait al-Maqdis" (a group more recently calling itself "al-Dawlat al-Islamiya", as of late 2014) is a known affiliate of the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant, active in the Gaza Strip.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
Shura (شورى shūrā) is an Arabic word for "consultation".
The Shura Council of Benghazi Revolutionaries (مجلس شورى ثوار بنغازي, Majlis Shura Thuwar Benghazi) is a military coalition in Benghazi composed of Islamist and jihadist militias, including Ansar al-Sharia, Libya Shield 1, and several other groups.
The Shura Council of Mujahideen in Derna is a coalition of Islamist militias that advocate the implementation of Sharia law within Derna, Libya.
Sinjar, also known as Shingal (Şengal/Şingal/Şingar/شنگار/ شنگال., Ancient: Singara) is a town in Shingal District, Nineveh Province, Iraq near Mount Shingal.
The Sinjar massacre was the genocidal killing and abduction of thousands of Yazidi men in Sinjar (شنگال Şingal) city and Sinjar District in Iraq's Nineveh Governorate by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) in August 2014.
The Sinjar Mountains (Çiyayên Şengalê چیای شەنگال/شەنگار; جبل سنجار; also Shingal\Shengar Mountains) are a mountain range that runs east to west, rising above the surrounding alluvial steppe plains in northwestern Iraq to an elevation of.
Sirte (سرت,; from Σύρτις), also spelled Sirt, Surt, Sert or Syrte, is a city in Libya.
SITE Intelligence Group is an American company that tracks online activity of white supremacist and jihadist organizations.
Sky News is a 24-hour international multimedia news organisation based in the UK that started as a 24-hour television news channel.
Social control is a concept within the disciplines of the social sciences.
Social media are computer-mediated technologies that facilitate the creation and sharing of information, ideas, career interests and other forms of expression via virtual communities and networks.
A sodomy law is a law that defines certain sexual acts as crimes.
The Sons of Iraq (أبناء العراق. Abnāʼ al-ʻIrāq) were coalitions between tribal Sheikhs in the Al Anbar province in Iraq as well as former Saddam Hussein's Iraqi military officers that united to maintain stability in their communities.
Stabbing attacks became an increasingly common form of terrorist attack on random civilians in the 2010s.
A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory.
Steven Alan Hassan (born 1954) is an American mental health counselor who has written on the subject of mind control and how to help people who have been harmed by the experience.
Steven Joel Sotloff (סטיבן סוטלוף; May 11, 1983 – September 2, 2014) was an American-Israeli journalist.
Stoning, or lapidation, is a method of capital punishment whereby a group throws stones at a person until the subject dies.
Strafgesetzbuch, abbreviated to StGB, is the German penal code.
The German Strafgesetzbuch (Criminal Code) in § 86a outlaws "use of symbols of unconstitutional organizations" outside the contexts of "art or science, research or teaching".
Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.
A suicide attack is any violent attack in which the attacker expects their own death as a direct result of the method used to harm, damage or destroy the target.
The Sukhoi Su-25 Grach (Грач (rook); NATO reporting name: Frogfoot) is a single-seat, twin-engine jet aircraft developed in the Soviet Union by Sukhoi.
The Sukhoi Su-30 (Сухой Су-30; NATO reporting name: Flanker-C) is a twin-engine, two-seat supermaneuverable fighter aircraft developed by Russia's Sukhoi Aviation Corporation.
Sulfur mustard, commonly known as mustard gas, is the prototypical substance of the sulfur-based family of cytotoxic and vesicant chemical warfare agents known as the sulfur mustards which have the ability to form large blisters on exposed skin and in the lungs.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
The Supreme Court of the Russian Federation (Russian: Верховный Суд Российской Федерации) is a court within the judiciary of Russia and the court of last resort in Russian administrative law, civil law and criminal law cases.
The Supreme Leader of Iran (rahbar-e mo'azzam-e irān), also called the Supreme Leader of the Islamic Revolution (رهبر معظم انقلاب اسلامی), officially in Iran, called the Supreme Leadership Authority (مقام معظم رهبری), is the head of state and highest ranking political and religious authority in the Islamic Republic of Iran.
The Supreme Revolutionary Committee, sometimes referred to as the Revolutionary Council or the Revolutionary Committee, is an interim body in Yemen formed by the Zaidiyyah Shia group Ansar Allah (more commonly known as the Houthis).
The Sykes–Picot Agreement, officially known as the Asia Minor Agreement, was a secret 1916 agreement between the United Kingdom and France, to which the Russian Empire assented.
The historic region of Syria (ash-Shām, Hieroglyphic Luwian: Sura/i; Συρία; in modern literature called Greater Syria, Syria-Palestine, or the Levant) is an area located east of the Mediterranean sea.
Syriac Christianity (ܡܫܝܚܝܘܬܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܬܐ / mšiḥāiūṯā suryāiṯā) refers to Eastern Christian traditions that employs Syriac language in their liturgical rites.
The Syriac Military Council (translit, MFS for short; المجلس العسكري السرياني السوري) is an Assyrian/Syriac military organisation in Syria.
The Syrian Army, officially the Syrian Arab Army (SAA) (al-Jayš al-ʿArabī as-Sūrī), is the land force branch of the Syrian Armed Forces.
The Syrian Civil War (الحرب الأهلية السورية, Al-ḥarb al-ʼahliyyah as-sūriyyah) is an ongoing multi-sided armed conflict in Syria fought primarily between the Ba'athist Syrian Arab Republic led by President Bashar al-Assad, along with its allies, and various forces opposing both the government and each other in varying combinations.
Between 2011 and 2017, fighting from the Syrian Civil War spilled over into Lebanon as opponents and supporters of the Syrian rebels travelled to Lebanon to fight and attack each other on Lebanese soil.
The Syrian Democratic Forces (translit, Hêzên Sûriya Demokratîk, translit), commonly abbreviated as SDF, HSD or QSD, are a multi-ethnic and multi-religious alliance of predominantly Kurdish, but also Arab and Assyrian/Syriac militias, as well as some smaller Turkmen, Armenian, Circassian and Chechen groups/participation in the Syrian Civil War. The SDF is mostly composed of, and militarily led by, the People's Protection Units (YPG), a mostly Kurdish militia. Founded in October 2015, the SDF states its mission as fighting to create a secular, democratic and federal Syria, along the lines of the Rojava Revolution in northern Syria. The updated December 2016 constitution of the Democratic Federation of Northern Syria names the SDF as its official defence force. The primary opponents of the SDF and their allies are the Salafist and Islamic fundamentalist groups involved in the civil war, in particular the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), Turkey-backed Syrian opposition groups, al-Qaeda affiliates, and their allies. The SDF has focused primarily on ISIL, successfully driving them from important strategic areas, such as Al-Hawl, Shaddadi, Tishrin Dam, Manbij, al-Tabqah, Tabqa Dam, Baath Dam, and ISIL's former capital of Raqqa.
The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (also known as SOHR; المرصد السوري لحقوق الإنسان), founded in May 2006, is a UK-based information office whose stated aim is to document human rights abuses in Syria; it has focused since 2011 on the Syrian Civil War.
The Syrian opposition (المعارضة السورية) is an umbrella term for the political structure represented by the Syrian National Coalition and associated anti-government Syrian groups with certain territorial control in the form of a proto-state as an alternative Syrian government, claiming to be the legitimate Syrian Arab Republic and also sometimes known just as the Republic of Syria.
Hay'at Tahrir al-Sham (transliteration:, "Organization for the Liberation of the Levant" or "Levant Liberation Committee"), commonly referred to as Tahrir al-Sham and abbreviated HTS, also known as al-Qaeda in Syria, is an active Salafist jihadist militant group involved in the Syrian Civil War.
Taji (التاجي) is a rural district north of the city of Baghdad, within Baghdad Province and Saladin Province.
Tajikistan (or; Тоҷикистон), officially the Republic of Tajikistan (Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон, Jumhuriyi Tojikiston), is a mountainous, landlocked country in Central Asia with an estimated population of million people as of, and an area of.
Takfir or takfeer (تكفير) is a controversial concept in Islamist discourse, denoting excommunication, as one Muslim declaring another Muslim as a non-believer (kafir).
A takfiri (تكفيري) is a Muslim who accuses another Muslim (or an adherent of another Abrahamic faith) of apostasy.
Tal Afar (تلعفر,, Telafer) is a city and district in the Nineveh Governorate of northwestern Iraq, 63 km west of Mosul, 52 km east of Sinjar.
The Taliban (طالبان "students"), alternatively spelled Taleban, which refers to itself as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (IEA), is a Sunni Islamic fundamentalist political movement in Afghanistan currently waging war (an insurgency, or jihad) within that country.
Tanzim Qaidat al-Jihad fi Bilad al-Rafidayn (TQJBR; (Jihad's Base in Mesopotamia", tanẓīm qā‘idat al-jihād fī bilād ar-rāfidayn), also referred to as Al-Qaeda in Iraq (AQI) or Al-Qaeda in Mesopotamia, was an Iraqi Sunni Islamic Jihadist organization affiliated with al-Qaeda.
Tasnim News Agency is a private news agency in Iran launched in 2012.
Telegram is a cloud-based instant messaging and voice over IP service developed by Telegram Messenger LLP, a privately held company registered in London, United Kingdom, founded by the Russian entrepreneur Pavel Durov.
Tell Tamer (تل تمر, ܬܠ ܬܡܪ, Girê Xurma) also known as Tal Tamr or Tal Tamir, is a small town in western al-Hasakah Governorate, northeastern Syria.
The Terrorism Research & Analysis Consortium (TRAC) is a digital intelligence repository of research and analysis covering terrorism and political violence.
A terrorist training camp is a facility established to train individuals in the ways of terrorism, often without the consent of the trainees.
The Atlantic is an American magazine and multi-platform publisher, founded in 1857 as The Atlantic Monthly in Boston, Massachusetts.
"The Beatles", dubbed as such by their hostages because of their English accents, was an Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) militant group.
The Citizen is a tabloid-style newspaper distributed nationally in South Africa.
The Daily Star is a pan–Middle East newspaper in English that is edited in Beirut, Lebanon but deals with the whole Middle East.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
The Intercept is an online news publication dedicated to what it describes as "adversarial journalism".
The International Centre for the Study of Radicalisation and Political Violence (ICSR) is a non-profit, non-governmental think tank based in the Department of War Studies at King’s College London whose mission is to educate the public and help policymakers and practitioners find more intelligent solutions in dealing with radicalisation and political violence.
The Japan Times is Japan's largest and oldest English-language daily newspaper.
The New York Review of Books (or NYREV or NYRB) is a semi-monthly magazine with articles on literature, culture, economics, science and current affairs.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.
The Washington Institute for Near East Policy (WINEP) is an American think tank based in Washington, D.C., focused on the foreign policy of the United States as it pertains to the countries in the Near East.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
Theocracy is a form of government in which a deity is the source from which all authority derives.
A think tank, think factory or policy institute is a research institute/center and organisation that performs research and advocacy concerning topics such as social policy, political strategy, economics, military, technology, and culture.
Karl Ernst Thomas de Maizière (born 21 January 1954) is a German politician of the Christian Democratic Union serving as the Federal Minister of the Interior since 17 December 2013 as part of the third cabinet of Chancellor Angela Merkel.
Tikrit (تكريت Tikrīt, ܬܓܪܝܬ) sometimes transliterated as Takrit or Tekrit, is a city in Iraq, located northwest of Baghdad and southeast of Mosul on the Tigris River.
Timber Sycamore was a classified weapons supply and training program run by the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and supported by Arab intelligence services, such as the security service in Saudi Arabia.
This article contains a timeline of events from January 2015 to December 2015 related to the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL/ISIS).
For complete overview, see Timeline of ISIL-related events.
Torture (from the Latin tortus, "twisted") is the act of deliberately inflicting physical or psychological pain in order to fulfill some desire of the torturer or compel some action from the victim.
Tripoli (طرابلس,; Berber: Oea, or Wy't) is the capital city and the largest city of Libya, with a population of about 1.1 million people in 2015.
Tripolitania or Tripolitana (طرابلس, Berber: Ṭrables, from Vulgar Latin *Trapoletanius, from Latin Regio Tripolitana, from Greek Τριπολιτάνια) is a historic region and former province of Libya.
The Turkish Armed Forces (TAF; Türk Silahlı Kuvvetleri, TSK) are the military forces of the Republic of Turkey.
Twitter is an online news and social networking service on which users post and interact with messages known as "tweets".
The Arabic term ulama (علماء., singular عالِم, "scholar", literally "the learned ones", also spelled ulema; feminine: alimah and uluma), according to the Encyclopedia of Islam (2000), in its original meaning "denotes scholars of almost all disciplines".
The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.
Nasrin As'ad Ibrahim, better known by the nom de guerre Umm Sayyaf, is the widow of Abu Sayyaf, captured in May 2015 by US Delta Force soldiers on the mission where they killed her husband, a suspected leader of the Islamic State.
(أمة) is an Arabic word meaning "community".
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Commission on Human Rights (UNCHR) was a functional commission within the overall framework of the United Nations from 1946 until it was replaced by the United Nations Human Rights Council in 2006.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
United Nations Security Council resolution 1267 was adopted unanimously on 15 October 1999.
The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America.
The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The Department of the Treasury (USDT) is an executive department and the treasury of the United States federal government.
The United States Intelligence Community (IC) is a federation of 16 separate United States government agencies that work separately and together to conduct intelligence activities to support the foreign policy and national security of the United States.
The Secretary of State is a senior official of the federal government of the United States of America, and as head of the U.S. Department of State, is principally concerned with foreign policy and is considered to be the U.S. government's equivalent of a Minister for Foreign Affairs.
The United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM or SOCOM) is the Unified Combatant Command charged with overseeing the various Special Operations Component Commands of the Army, Marine Corps, Navy, and Air Force of the United States Armed Forces.
The University of Mosul is a public university located in Mosul.
USA Today is an internationally distributed American daily, middle-market newspaper that serves as the flagship publication of its owner, the Gannett Company.
A USB flash drive, also variously known as a thumb drive, pen drive, gig stick, flash stick, jump drive, disk key, disk on key (after the original M-Systems DiskOnKey drive from 2000), flash-drive, memory stick (not to be confused with the Sony Memory Stick), USB stick or USB memory, is a data storage device that includes flash memory with an integrated USB interface.
Wāli or vali (from Arabic والي Wāli) is an administrative title that was used during the Caliphate and Ottoman Empire to designate governors of administrative divisions.
A vehicle-ramming attack is a form of mass murder in which a perpetrator deliberately rams a motor vehicle into a building, crowd of people, or another vehicle.
Vice News (stylized as VICE News) is Vice Media, Inc.'s current affairs channel, producing daily documentary essays and video through its website and YouTube channel.
Violence against women (VAW), also known as gender-based violence and sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) is, collectively, violent acts that are primarily or exclusively committed against women and girls.
Violent extremism refers to the beliefs and actions of people who support or use ideologically motivated violence to achieve radical ideological, religious or political views.
Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (a; born 7 October 1952) is a Russian statesman and former intelligence officer serving as President of Russia since 2012, previously holding the position from 2000 until 2008.
Vox Media is an American digital media company founded on July 14, 2005 as SportsBlogs Inc.
Wahhabism (الوهابية) is an Islamic doctrine and religious movement founded by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab.
Walī (ولي, plural أولياء) is an Arabic word whose literal meanings include "custodian", "protector", "helper", and "friend".
A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the laws of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility.
The War in Afghanistan (or the U.S. War in Afghanistan; code named Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan (2001–2014) and Operation Freedom's Sentinel (2015–present)) followed the United States invasion of Afghanistan of October 7, 2001.
The War in North-West Pakistan, also known as the War in Waziristan, is an armed conflict involving Pakistan, and armed militant groups such as the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (TTP), Jundallah, Lashkar-e-Islam (LeI), TNSM, al-Qaeda, and their Central Asian allies such as the ISIL–Khorasan (ISIL), Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan, East Turkistan Movement, Emirate of Caucasus, and elements of organized crime.
West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa.
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
WikiLeaks is an international non-profit organisation that publishes secret information, news leaks, and classified media provided by anonymous sources.
A wilayah (ولاية; Urdu and ولایت; vilayet) is an administrative division, usually translated as "state", "province", or occasionally as "governorate".
Will McCants (born 1975), also known as William Faizi McCants, is a scholar of militant Islamism.
William Jefferson Hague, Baron Hague of Richmond, (born 26 March 1961), is a British Conservative politician and life peer.
Witchcraft or witchery broadly means the practice of and belief in magical skills and abilities exercised by solitary practitioners and groups.
The Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars (or Wilson Center), located in Washington, D.C., is a United States Presidential Memorial that was established as part of the Smithsonian Institution by an act of Congress in 1968.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
A worldwide caliphate is the concept of a single one-world government, supported in particular by Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, a leader of the Islamic fundamentalist militant group the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant.
Yahya Muhammad Hamid ed-Din (or Imam Yahya) (18 June 1869 – 17 February 1948) became Imam of the Zaydis in 1904 after the death of his father, Muhammad Al-Mansur, and Imam of Yemen in 1918.
The Yarsan or Ahl-e Haqq (Kurdish:, Yarsan, اهل حق Ahl-e Haqq "People of Truth"), is a syncretic religion founded by Sultan Sahak in the late 14th century in western Iran.
The Yazidis, or Yezidis (Êzidî), are a Kurdish-speaking people, indigenous to a region of northern Mesopotamia (known natively as Ezidkhan) who are strictly endogamous.
The Yemeni Civil War is an ongoing conflict that began in 2015 between two factions, each claiming to constitute the Yemeni government, along with their supporters and allies.
Yusuf al-Qaradawi (translit; or Yusuf al-Qardawi; born 9 September 1926) is an Egyptian Islamic theologian based in Doha, Qatar, and chairman of the International Union of Muslim Scholars.
Zaidiyyah or Zaidism (الزيدية az-zaydiyya, adjective form Zaidi or Zaydi) is one of the Shia sects closest in terms of theology to Hanafi Sunni Islam.
Zummar (زمار), also spelled Zemar or Zumar, is both the name of an Iraqi subdistrict located in north Nineveh Governorate and of its seat, the town of Zummar.
The 2003 invasion of Iraq was the first stage of the Iraq War (also called Operation Iraqi Freedom).
The 2005 Amman bombings were a series of coordinated bomb attacks on three hotel lobbies in Amman, Jordan, on 9 November 2005.
The 2013 Latakia offensive, (called The Descendants of Aisha, Mother of the Believers by Salafist jihadists, and the Operation Liberation of the Coast by the Free Syrian Army and its supporters) was a campaign during the Syrian civil war launched by Salafist jihadist groups andrebel forces in the Latakia Governorate.
On 10 October 2015 at 10:04 local time (EEST) in Ankara, the capital city of Turkey, two bombs were detonated outside Ankara Central railway station.
On 12 November 2015, two suicide bombers detonated explosives in Bourj el-Barajneh, a southern suburb of Beirut, Lebanon, that is inhabited mostly by Shia Muslims.
On February 12, 2015, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) released a report in their online magazine Dabiq showing photos of 21 Egyptian Coptic Christian construction workers that they had kidnapped in the city of Sirte, Libya, and whom they threatened to kill to "avenge the kidnapping of Muslim women by the Egyptian Coptic Church".
The 2015 Sana'a mosque bombings were four suicide attacks on 20 March 2015 in Sana'a, Yemen.
On 26 June 2015, a mass shooting occurred at the tourist resort at Port El Kantaoui, about 10 kilometres north of the city of Sousse, Tunisia.
The 2015 Suruç bombing took place in the Suruç district of Şanlıurfa Province in Turkey at approximately 12:00 local time on 20 July 2015, outside the Amara Culture Centre.
On 19 December 2016, a truck was deliberately driven into the Christmas market next to the Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Church at Breitscheidplatz in Berlin, leaving 12 people dead and 56 others injured.
On the morning of 22 March 2016, three coordinated suicide bombings occurred in Belgium: two at Brussels Airport in Zaventem, and one at Maalbeek metro station in central Brussels.
On the evening of 14 July 2016, a 19 tonne cargo truck was deliberately driven into crowds of people celebrating Bastille Day on the Promenade des Anglais in Nice, France, resulting in the deaths of 86 people and the injury of 458 others.
On 3 June 2017, a terrorist attack involving vehicle-ramming and stabbing took place in London, England.
On 3 April 2017, a terrorist attack using an explosive device took place on the Saint Petersburg Metro between Sennaya Ploshchad and Tekhnologichesky Institut stations.
On 7 June 2017, two terrorist attacks were simultaneously carried out by five terrorists belonging to the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) against the Iranian Parliament building and the Mausoleum of Ruhollah Khomeini, both in Tehran, Iran, leaving 17 civilians dead and 43 wounded.
AQIZ, Ad-Dawla al-Islamiyya fi al-’Iraq wa-sh-Sham, Ad-Dawlah al-Islamiyah, Ad-Dawlah al-Islamiyah fi al-‘Iraq wash-Sham, Al Furqan Media Foundation, Al Furqan Media Productions, Al Hayat Media Center, Al qaeda in iraq, Al-Furqan Media Productions, Al-Hayat Media Center, Al-Hayat Media Group, Al-Qaeda in Iraq and Greater Syria, Al-Qaeda in Iraq and Syria, Al-Qaeda in Iraq and the Levant, Al-qaeda in iraq, Al-qaida in iraq, Caliphate of ISIL, Caliphate of ISIS, Counter-ISIL Coalition, Criticism of ISIL, Criticism of the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant, Criticism of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, DAESH, DAISH, DAʿESH, DA’ESH, Da'ash, Da'esh, Da'ish, Da-ish, Daech, Daesh, Daish, Dawla al Islamiya, Dawlat al Islamiya fi Iraq wa al Sham, Daʿesh, Da‘ish, Deash, DĀʻiSh, Dāʻish, Emirate of Iraq and Sham, Hilf al-Mutayibeen, History of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, ISIL, ISIL (militant group), ISIL (terrorist organization), ISIL (unrecognized state), ISIL Caliphate, ISIL propaganda and social media, ISIL-kun, ISIS, ISIS (militant group), ISIS (terrorist organization), ISIS 2.0, ISIS/ISIL, Isil, Islamic State (IS), Islamic State (group), Islamic State (militant group), Islamic State (organization), Islamic State (terrorist organization), Islamic State (unrecognized state), Islamic State group, Islamic State in Iraq and Greater Syria, Islamic State in Iraq and Sham, Islamic State in Iraq and Syria, Islamic State in Iraq and al-Sham, Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant, Islamic State in the Greater Sahara, Islamic State militant group, Islamic State of Iraq and Greater Syria, Islamic State of Iraq and Levant, Islamic State of Iraq and Sham, Islamic State of Iraq and Syria, Islamic State of Iraq and al-Shaam, Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham, Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham, Islamic State of Iraq and of Syria, Islamic State of Iraq and of the Levant, Islamic State of Iraq and syria, Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (country), Islamic state of iraq and the levant, Islamist State in Iraq and al-Sham, Islamist State of Iraq and Sham, Islamist State of Iraq and al-Sham, IŞİD, Khilafah.is, Penal Code of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, QSIS, The Islamic State of Iraq and Syria, The Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham, The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, UINS, Un-Islamic Non-State, Un-Islamic Non-state, War crimes commited by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, الدولة الإسلامية في العراق والشام, داعش.