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Islamic schools and branches

Index Islamic schools and branches

This article summarizes the different branches and schools in Islam. [1]

289 relations: Abdul Qadir Gilani, Abu al-Najib Suhrawardi, Abu Bakr, Abu Hanifa, Abu Ishaq Shami, Abu Mansur al-Maturidi, Abu Qurra, Abul A'la Maududi, Abul Hasan ash-Shadhili, African Americans, African-American Muslims, Ahkam, Ahl al-Bayt, Ahl-i Hadith, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Ahmad Yasawi, Ahmadiyya, Akhbari, Al-Ash`ari, Al-Harith ibn Surayj, Al-Qaeda, Al-Shafi‘i, Al-Tabarani, Alamut, Alavi Bohras, Alawites, Alevism, Ali, Ali al-Ridha, American Society of Muslims, Ancient Greek philosophy, Aqidah, Arabic, Asceticism, Ashʿari, Assassins, Azariqa, Azeemiyya, Azerbaijan, Ẓāhirī, Ba 'Alawiyya, Baha-ud-Din Naqshband Bukhari, Bahrain, Balım Sultan, Balkans, Bangladesh, Bangladesh Jamaat-e-Islami, Barelvi, Basra, Batin (Islam), ..., Batiniyya, Beirut, Bektashi Order, Bi-la kaifa, Bid‘ah, Black Muslims, Black nationalism, Brill Publishers, Bukhara, Caliphate, Camilla Adang, Central Asia, Charles Kurzman, Charter school, Chicago, Chiragh Ali, Chishti Order, Christopher Melchert, Civil and political rights, Creed, Dar al-Ulum, Dawoodi Bohra, Dawud al-Zahiri, Democracy, Deobandi, Determinism, Detroit, Dhikr, Dialectic, Druze, Dynasty, Egalitarianism, Elijah Muhammad, Emir, Evil, Family tree, Fatimid Caliphate, Fethullah Gülen, Fiqh, Five-Percent Nation, Fundamentalism, Gülen movement, Gülen movement schools, Ghulam Ahmed Perwez, Gilan Province, Gnosticism, God, Gudrun Krämer, Hadith, Hafizi, Haji Bektash Veli, Hanafi, Hanbali, Hasan al-Basri, Hassan al-Banna, Hebtiahs Bohra, Hell, Herat, House of Saud, Hurufism, Ibadi, Ibn Taymiyyah, Ideology, Idrisid dynasty, Ijtihad, Ikhwan, Imamah (Shia), Imamate (Twelver doctrine), India, Indian subcontinent, Interfaith dialogue, Iran, Iranian Revolution, Iraq, Islam, Islamic fundamentalism, Islamic Modernism, Islamic philosophy, Islamic studies, Islamism, Isma'ilism, Istanbul, Ja'fari jurisprudence, Jahm bin Safwan, Jahmi, Jamaat-e-Islami, Jamaat-e-Islami Hind, Jamaat-e-Islami Kashmir, Jamaat-e-Islami Pakistan, Javad Nurbakhsh, Jesus, Jon Kyl, Justanids, Kalam, Kashmir, Khalidiyya, Khawaja, Khawarij, Kubrawiya, Kuwait, Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement for the Propagation of Islam, Lebanon, Leiden, Liberalism and progressivism within Islam, List of extinct Shia sects, List of Mahdi claimants, Madhhab, Mahdavia, Mahdi, Malik ibn Anas, Maliki, Maruf Karkhi, Maturidi, Messiah, Mevlevi Order, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, Moinuddin Chishti, Moorish Science Temple of America, Mouride, Muʿtazila, Muhakkima, Muhammad, Muhammad al-Mahdi, Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab, Muhammad ibn Ali as-Senussi, Muhammad Jaunpuri, Muhammad Nurbakhsh Qahistani, Murid, Murji'ah, Muslim Brotherhood, Muslim world, Musta'li, Mysticism, Najdat, Najmuddin Kubra, Names of God in Islam, Naqshbandi, Nation of Islam, Nationalism, New Europe (newspaper), New York City, Ni'matullāhī, Nizari, Non-denominational Muslim, Noorbakshia Islam, Nukkari, Nur movement, Ottoman Empire, Oxford University Press, Pew Research Center, Plurality (voting), Political system, Preacher, Predestination in Islam, Principles of Islamic jurisprudence, Prophethood (Ahmadiyya), Qadariyah, Qadiriyya, Qarmatians, Qiyas, Quran, Quranic createdness, Quranism, Rashad Khalifa, Rashidun, Rationality, Religious denomination, Religious text, Sabine Schmidtke, Sahabah, Salaf, Salafi jihadism, Salafi movement, Süleymancılar, Schools of Islamic theology, Second Coming, Sect, Senegal, Senussi, September 11 attacks, Sevener, Shadhili, Shafi‘i, Shah Nimatullah Wali, Sharia, Shaykh Tusi, Shaykhism, Shia crescent, Shia Islam, Shia–Sunni relations, Shirk (Islam), Social progress, South Asia, Sri Lanka, Succession to Muhammad, Sufism, Sufri, Suhrawardiyya, Sulaymani, Sunnah, Sunni Islam, Taoism, Taqwa, Tariqa, Tawhid, Tayyibi Isma'ilism, The Economist, The Gambia, The Independent, The Twelve Imams, Tijaniyyah, Tolu-e-Islam, Touba, Traditionalist theology (Islam), Turkey, Twelver, Ulama, Umar, Umayyad Caliphate, Umbrella term, Ummah, United Nation of Islam, United Submitters International, University of Chicago Press, Usuli, Uthman, Uwais al-Qarani, Uwaisi, Uzbekistan, Wahhabism, Wallace Fard Muhammad, Warith Deen Mohammed, Wasil ibn Ata, West Africa, Yemen, Zahir (Islam), Zaidiyyah, Zayd ibn Ali, 8th century. Expand index (239 more) »

Abdul Qadir Gilani

Muḥyī-al-Dīn Abū Muḥammad b. Abū Sāleh ʿAbd al-Qādir al-Gīlānī (عبدالقادر گیلانی, عبدالقادر الجيلاني, Abdülkâdir Geylânî, Evdilqadirê Geylanî, عه‌بدوالقادری گه‌یلانی),B.

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Abu al-Najib Suhrawardi

Abū al-Najīb Abd al-Qādir Suhrawardī (ابوالنجیب عبدالقادر سهروردی) (1097–1168) was a Sunni Persian Sufi who was born in Sohrevard, near Zanjan, and founded the Suhrawardiyya Sufi order.

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Abu Bakr

Abū Bakr aṣ-Ṣiddīq ‘Abdallāh bin Abī Quḥāfah (أبو بكر الصديق عبد الله بن أبي قحافة; 573 CE23 August 634 CE), popularly known as Abu Bakr (أبو بكر), was a senior companion (Sahabi) and—through his daughter Aisha—the father-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Abu Bakr became the first openly declared Muslim outside Muhammad's family.Muhammad Mustafa Al-A'zami (2003), The History of The Qur'anic Text: From Revelation to Compilation: A Comparative Study with the Old and New Testaments, p.26, 59. UK Islamic Academy.. Abu Bakr served as a trusted advisor to Muhammad. During Muhammad's lifetime, he was involved in several campaigns and treaties.Tabqat ibn al-Saad book of Maghazi, page no:62 He ruled over the Rashidun Caliphate from 632 to 634 CE when he became the first Muslim Caliph following Muhammad's death. As caliph, Abu Bakr succeeded to the political and administrative functions previously exercised by Muhammad. He was commonly known as The Truthful (الصديق). Abu Bakr's reign lasted for 2 years, 2 months, 2 weeks and 1 day ending with his death after an illness.

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Abu Hanifa

Abū Ḥanīfa al-Nuʿmān b. Thābit b. Zūṭā b. Marzubān (أبو حنيفة نعمان بن ثابت بن زوطا بن مرزبان; c. 699 – 767 CE), known as Abū Ḥanīfa for short, or reverently as Imam Abū Ḥanīfa by Sunni Muslims, was an 8th-century Sunni Muslim theologian and jurist of Persian origin,Pakatchi, Ahmad and Umar, Suheyl, “Abū Ḥanīfa”, in: Encyclopaedia Islamica, Editors-in-Chief: Wilferd Madelung and, Farhad Daftary.

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Abu Ishaq Shami

Abu Ishaq Shami (died 940) was a Muslim scholar who is often regarded as the founder of the Sufi Chishti Order (چشتی - Čištī) (ششتى - Shishti).

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Abu Mansur al-Maturidi

Abū Manṣūr Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. Maḥmūd al-Samarḳandī (853-944 CE; محمد بن محمد بن محمود أبو منصور ماتریدی سمرقندی حنفی), often referred to as Abū Manṣūr al-Māturīdī for short, or reverently as Imam Māturīdī by Sunni Muslims, was a Sunni Hanafi jurist, theologian, and scriptural exegete from ninth-century Samarkand who became the eponymous codifier of one of the principal orthodox schools of Sunni theology, the Maturidi school, which became the dominant theological school for Sunni Muslims in Central Asia and later enjoyed a preeminent status as the school of choice for both the Ottoman Empire and the Mughal Empire.

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Abu Qurra

For the Melkite theologian, Theodore Abu Qurrah Abu Qurra, a member of the Sufrite tribe Banu Ifran of Tlemcen, was the founder of the indigenous Berber Muslim movement with Kharijite tendencies in North Africa after the overthrow of the Umayyad dynasty.

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Abul A'la Maududi

Syed Abul A'la Maududi Chishti (ابو الاعلی مودودی – alternative spellings of last name Maudoodi, Mawdudi, also known as Abul Ala Maududi; –) was a Muslim philosopher, jurist, journalist and imam.

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Abul Hasan ash-Shadhili

Abu al-Hasan ash-Shadhili (أبو الحسن الشاذلي) (full name: Abu al-Hasan ʿAli ibn ʿAbd Allaah ibn ʿAbd al-Jabbaar al-Hasanī wal-Husaynī ash-Shadhili) also known as Sheikh al-Shadhili is an influential Moroccan Islamic scholar and Sufi, founder of the Shadhili Sufi order.

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African Americans

African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa.

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African-American Muslims

African-American Muslims, also colloquially known as Black Muslims, are a religious minority among both the larger African American and Muslim population of the United States.

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Ahkam

Ahkam (أحكام "provisions", plural of (حُكْم)) is an Islamic term with several meanings.

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Ahl al-Bayt

Ahl al-Bayt (أهل البيت, اهلِ بیت), also Āl al-Bayt, is a phrase meaning, literally, "People of the House" or "Family of the House".

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Ahl-i Hadith

Ahl-i Hadith or Ahl-e-Hadith (اهل حدیث, اہل حدیث, people of hadith) is a religious movement that emerged in Northern India in the mid-nineteenth century from the teachings of Syed Nazeer Husain and Siddiq Hasan Khan.

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Ahmad ibn Hanbal

Aḥmad bin Muḥammad bin Ḥanbal Abū ʿAbd Allāh al-Shaybānī (احمد بن محمد بن حنبل ابو عبد الله الشيباني; 780–855 CE/164–241 AH), often referred to as Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal or Ibn Ḥanbal for short, or reverentially as Imam Aḥmad by Sunni Muslims, was an Arab Muslim jurist, theologian, ascetic, and hadith traditionist.

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Ahmad Yasawi

Khawaja Ahmad Yasawi or Ahmed Yesevi (Qoja Axmet Yasawï, قوجا احمەت ياساۋٸ; ’Ahmad Yasawī; 1093–1166) was a Turkic poet and Sufi, an early mystic who exerted a powerful influence on the development of Sufi orders throughout the Turkic-speaking world.

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Ahmadiyya

Ahmadiyya (officially, the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community or the Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama'at; الجماعة الإسلامية الأحمدية, transliterated: al-Jamā'ah al-Islāmiyyah al-Aḥmadiyyah; احمدیہ مسلم جماعت) is an Islamic religious movement founded in Punjab, British India, in the late 19th century.

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Akhbari

The Akhbaris (اخباري) are Twelver Shia Muslims who reject the use of reasoning in deriving verdicts, and believe Quran and hadith (sayings of Prophet Muhammad and Twelve Shia Imams) as the only source of law.

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Al-Ash`ari

Al-Ashʿarī (الأشعري.; full name: Abū al-Ḥasan ʿAlī ibn Ismāʿīl ibn Isḥāq al-Ashʿarī; c. 874–936 (AH 260–324), reverentially Imām al-Ashʿarī) was an Arab Sunni Muslim scholastic theologian and eponymous founder of Ashʿarism or Asharite theology, which would go on to become "the most important theological school in Sunni Islam".

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Al-Harith ibn Surayj

Abu Hatim al-Harith ibn Surayj ibn Yazid ibn Sawa ibn Ward ibn Murra ibn Sufyan ibn Mujashi (أبو حاتم الحارث بن سريج) was an Arab leader of a large-scale social rebellion against the Umayyad Caliphate in Khurasan and Transoxiana.

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Al-Qaeda

Al-Qaeda (القاعدة,, translation: "The Base", "The Foundation" or "The Fundament" and alternatively spelled al-Qaida, al-Qæda and sometimes al-Qa'ida) is a militant Sunni Islamist multi-national organization founded in 1988.

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Al-Shafi‘i

Abū ʿAbdullāh Muhammad ibn Idrīs al-Shāfiʿī (أبـو عـبـد الله مـحـمـد ابـن إدريـس الـشـافـعيّ) (767-820 CE, 150-204 AH) was an Arab Muslim theologian, writer, and scholar, who was the first contributor of the principles of Islamic jurisprudence (Uṣūl al-fiqh).

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Al-Tabarani

Abu ’l-Qāsim Sulaymān ibn Ayyūb ibn Muṭayyir al-Lakhmī al-Ṭabarānī was one of the most important hadith scholars of his age.

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Alamut

The Alamut geographic region (الموت; Alamūt) is a region in Iran including western and eastern parts in the western edge of the Alborz (Elburz) range, between the dry and barren plain of Qazvin in the south and the densely forested slopes of the Mazandaran province in the north.

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Alavi Bohras

The Alavi Bohras (علوي بھرۃ) are a Taiyebi Musta'alavi Isma'ili Shi'i Muslim community from Gujarat, India.

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Alawites

The Alawis, also rendered as Alawites (علوية Alawiyyah/Alawīyah), are a syncretic sect of the Twelver branch of Shia Islam, primarily centered in Syria.

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Alevism

Alevism (Alevîlik or Anadolu Alevîliği/Alevileri, also called Qizilbash, or Shī‘ah Imāmī-Tasawwufī Ṭarīqah, or Shīʿah-ī Bāṭen’īyyah) is a syncretic, heterodox, and local tradition, whose adherents follow the mystical (''bāṭenī'') teachings of Ali, the Twelve Imams, and a descendant—the 13th century Alevi saint Haji Bektash Veli.

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Ali

Ali (ʿAlī) (15 September 601 – 29 January 661) was the cousin and the son-in-law of Muhammad, the last prophet of Islam.

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Ali al-Ridha

'Alī ibn Mūsā ar-Riḍā (علي ابن موسى الرّضا), also called Abu al-Hasan, Ali al-Reza (29 December 765 – 23 August 818) or in Iran (Persia) as Imam Reza (امام رضا), was a descendant of the Prophet Muhammad and the eighth Shi'ite Imam, after his father Musa al-Kadhim, and before his son Muhammad al-Jawad.

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American Society of Muslims

The American Society of Muslims was a predominantly African-American association of Muslims which was the direct descendent of the original Nation of Islam.

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Ancient Greek philosophy

Ancient Greek philosophy arose in the 6th century BC and continued throughout the Hellenistic period and the period in which Ancient Greece was part of the Roman Empire.

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Aqidah

Aqidah (ʿaqīdah, plural عقائد ʿaqāʾid, also rendered ʿaqīda, aqeeda etc.) is an Islamic term meaning "creed" p. 470.

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Arabic

Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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Asceticism

Asceticism (from the ἄσκησις áskesis, "exercise, training") is a lifestyle characterized by abstinence from sensual pleasures, often for the purpose of pursuing spiritual goals.

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Ashʿari

Ashʿarism or Ashʿari theology (الأشعرية al-ʾAšʿarīyya or الأشاعرة al-ʾAšāʿira) is the foremost theological school of Sunni Islam which established an orthodox dogmatic guideline based on clerical authority, founded by Abu al-Hasan al-Ashʿari (d. AD 936 / AH 324).

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Assassins

Order of Assassins or simply Assassins (أساسين asāsīn, حشاشین Hashâshīn) is the common name used to refer to an Islamic sect formally known as the Nizari Ismailis.

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Azariqa

Azariqa (Arabic الأزارقة, al-azāriqa), The strongest and the most extremist branch of Khawarij, who follow the leadership of Nafi ibn al-Azraq al-Hanafî al-Handhalî. Category:Kharijism.

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Azeemiyya

The Silsila-e-Azeemiyya is a Muslim Sufi order based in Pakistan with a following in the UK, the US, Austria, Serbia, Russia, Australia, Canada & various countries of the Middle East.

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Azerbaijan

No description.

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Ẓāhirī

Ẓāhirī (ظاهري) madhhab or al-Ẓāhirīyyah (الظاهرية) is a school of thought in Islamic jurisprudence founded by Dawud al-Zahiri in the 9th century CE, characterised by reliance on the manifest (zahir) meaning of expressions in the Qur'an and hadith, as well as rejection of analogical deduction (qiyas).

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Ba 'Alawiyya

The Ba'Alawi tariqa (طريقة آل باعلوي), also known as the Tariqa Alawiyya is a Sufi order centered in Hadhramawt, Yemen, but now spread across the Indian Ocean rim along with the Hadhrami diaspora.

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Baha-ud-Din Naqshband Bukhari

Baha-ud-Din Naqshband Bukhari (بهاءالدین محمد نقشبند بخاری) (1318–1389) was the founder of what would become one of the largest and most influential Sufi Muslim orders, the Naqshbandi.

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Bahrain

Bahrain (البحرين), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain (مملكة البحرين), is an Arab constitutional monarchy in the Persian Gulf.

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Balım Sultan

Balım Sultan is the greatest personality in the Bektashi Order after Hacı Bektaş-ı Veli (Haji Bektash) and he is regarded as the “Second Pir”.

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Balkans

The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.

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Bangladesh

Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.

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Bangladesh Jamaat-e-Islami

Bangladesh Jamaat-e-Islami (বাংলাদেশ জামায়াতে ইসলামী), previously known as Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh, or Jamaat for short, is the largest Islamist political party in Bangladesh.

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Barelvi

Barelvi (بَریلوِی) is a movement following the Sunni Hanafi school of jurisprudence, with over 200 million followers in South Asia.

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Basra

Basra (البصرة al-Baṣrah), is an Iraqi city located on the Shatt al-Arab between Kuwait and Iran.

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Batin (Islam)

Bāṭin (باطن) literally means "inner", "inward", "hidden", etc.

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Batiniyya

Batiniyya (Bāṭiniyyah) refers to groups that distinguish between an outer, exoteric (zāhir) and an inner, esoteric (bāṭin) meaning in Islamic scriptures.

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Beirut

Beirut (بيروت, Beyrouth) is the capital and largest city of Lebanon.

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Bektashi Order

Bektashi Order or Shī‘ah Imāmī Alevī-Bektāshī Ṭarīqah (Tarikati Bektashi; Bektaşi Tarîkatı) is a dervish order (tariqat) named after the 13th century Alevi Wali (saint) Haji Bektash Veli from Khorasan, but founded by Balım Sultan.

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Bi-la kaifa

The Arabic phrase bi-la kayfa, also bilā kaifa, (بلا كيف) is roughly translated as "without asking how", or "without how" which means without modality.

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Bid‘ah

In Islam, bid‘ah (بدعة; innovation) refers to innovation in religious matters.

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Black Muslims

Black Muslims may describe any black people who are Muslim, but historically has been specifically used to refer to African-American Black nationalist organizations that describe themselves as Muslim.

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Black nationalism

Black nationalism is a type of nationalism which espouses the belief that black people are a nation and seeks to develop and maintain a black identity.

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Brill Publishers

Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is a Dutch international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands.

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Bukhara

Bukhara (Uzbek Latin: Buxoro; Uzbek Cyrillic: Бухоро) is a city in Uzbekistan.

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Caliphate

A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).

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Camilla Adang

Camilla Adang is a Dutch associate professor of Islamic studies at Tel Aviv University in Tel Aviv, Israel.

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Central Asia

Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.

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Charles Kurzman

Charles Kurzman is a Professor of Sociology at University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill who specializes in Middle East and Islamic studies.

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Charter school

A charter school is a school that receives government funding but operates independently of the established state school system in which it is located.

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Chicago

Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third most populous city in the United States, after New York City and Los Angeles.

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Chiragh Ali

Moulví Cherágh Ali (1844-1895) (also spelled Chirágh) was an Indian Muslim scholar of the late 19th century.

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Chishti Order

The Chishtī Order (چشتی chishtī) is a Sunni Sufi order within the mystic Sufi tradition of Islam.

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Christopher Melchert

Christopher Melchert is an American professor and scholar of Islam, specialising in Islamic movements and institutions, especially in the ninth and tenth centuries C.E. A prolific author, he is University Lecturer in Arabic and Islam at the University of Oxford's Oriental Institute, and is a Fellow in Arabic at Pembroke College, Oxford.

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Civil and political rights

Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from infringement by governments, social organizations, and private individuals.

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Creed

A creed (also known as a confession, symbol, or statement of faith) is a statement of the shared beliefs of a religious community in the form of a fixed formula summarizing core tenets.

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Dar al-Ulum

Dar al-Ulum (كلية دار العلوم, kullīya dār al-ʿulūm), is an educational institution designed to produce students with both an Islamic and modern secondary education.

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Dawoodi Bohra

The Dawoodi Bohras are a sect within the Ismā'īlī branch of Shia Islam.

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Dawud al-Zahiri

Dawud bin Ali bin Khalaf al-Zahiri (815–883/4 CE) was a Muslim scholar of Islamic law during the Islamic Golden Age, specializing in the fields of Hermeneutics, Biographical evaluation, and historiography.

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Democracy

Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.

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Deobandi

Deobandi (Pashto and دیو بندی, دیو بندی, দেওবন্দী, देवबन्दी) is a revivalist movement within Sunni (primarily Hanafi) Islam.

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Determinism

Determinism is the philosophical theory that all events, including moral choices, are completely determined by previously existing causes.

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Detroit

Detroit is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Michigan, the largest city on the United States–Canada border, and the seat of Wayne County.

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Dhikr

Dhikr (also Zikr, Zekr, Zikir, Jikir, and variants; ḏikr; plural أذكار aḏkār, meaning "mentioning") is the name of devotional acts in Islam in which short phrases or prayers are repeatedly recited silently within the mind or aloud.

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Dialectic

Dialectic or dialectics (διαλεκτική, dialektikḗ; related to dialogue), also known as the dialectical method, is at base a discourse between two or more people holding different points of view about a subject but wishing to establish the truth through reasoned arguments.

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Druze

The Druze (درزي or, plural دروز; דרוזי plural דרוזים) are an Arabic-speaking esoteric ethnoreligious group originating in Western Asia who self-identify as unitarians (Al-Muwaḥḥidūn/Muwahhidun).

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Dynasty

A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family,Oxford English Dictionary, "dynasty, n." Oxford University Press (Oxford), 1897.

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Egalitarianism

Egalitarianism – or equalitarianism – is a school of thought that prioritizes equality for all people.

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Elijah Muhammad

Elijah Muhammad (born Elijah Robert Poole; October 7, 1897 – February 25, 1975) was a black religious leader, who led the Nation of Islam (NOI) from 1934 until his death in 1975.

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Emir

An emir (أمير), sometimes transliterated amir, amier, or ameer, is an aristocratic or noble and military title of high office used in a variety of places in the Arab countries, West African, and Afghanistan.

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Evil

Evil, in a colloquial sense, is the opposite of good, the word being an efficient substitute for the more precise but religion-associated word "wickedness." As defined in philosophy it is the name for the psychology and instinct of individuals which selfishly but often necessarily defends the personal boundary against deadly attacks and serious threats.

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Family tree

A family tree, or pedigree chart, is a chart representing family relationships in a conventional tree structure.

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Fatimid Caliphate

The Fatimid Caliphate was an Islamic caliphate that spanned a large area of North Africa, from the Red Sea in the east to the Atlantic Ocean in the west.

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Fethullah Gülen

Muhammed Fethullah Gülen Hocaefendi (– the honorific Hoca Efendi, used among followers, translates to "respected teacher"); born 27 April 1941 is a Turkish preacher, former imam,Helen Rose Fuchs Ebaugh, The Gülen Movement: A Sociological Analysis of a Civic Movement Rooted in Moderate Islam, p 26.

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Fiqh

Fiqh (فقه) is Islamic jurisprudence.

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Five-Percent Nation

The Five-Percent Nation, sometimes referred to as NGE or NOGE, the Nation of Gods and Earths, or the Five Percenters, is a movement founded in 1964 in the Harlem section of the borough of Manhattan, New York City, by a former member of the Nation of Islam (NOI), Clarence 13X, who was named Clarence Edward Smith at birth, and who ultimately came to be known as Allah the Father.

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Fundamentalism

Fundamentalism usually has a religious connotation that indicates unwavering attachment to a set of irreducible beliefs.

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Gülen movement

The Gülen movement (Gülen hareketi, in Turkish) is a transnational Islamic social movement that professes advocation of universal access to education, civil society, and peace, inspired by the religious teachings of Fethullah Gülen, a Turkish preacher who has lived in the United States since 1999.

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Gülen movement schools

Gülen Movement Schools are a network of private or semi-private schools founded by the members of the Gülen (Fethullah Gülen) movement.

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Ghulam Ahmed Perwez

Ghulam Ahmad Parwez (غلام احمد پرویز; 1903–1985) was a Muslim socialist from pre-Independence India and later Pakistan.

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Gilan Province

Gilan Province (اُستان گیلان, Ostān-e Gīlān, also Latinized as Guilan) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.

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Gnosticism

Gnosticism (from γνωστικός gnostikos, "having knowledge", from γνῶσις, knowledge) is a modern name for a variety of ancient religious ideas and systems, originating in Jewish-Christian milieus in the first and second century AD.

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God

In monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the Supreme Being and the principal object of faith.

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Gudrun Krämer

Gudrun Krämer (born 1953) is a German scholar of Islamic history and co-editor of the third edition of the Encyclopaedia of Islam.

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Hadith

Ḥadīth (or; حديث, pl. Aḥādīth, أحاديث,, also "Traditions") in Islam refers to the record of the words, actions, and the silent approval, of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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Hafizi

The Hafizi was a branch of Mustaali Ismailism that believed the current ruler of the Fatimid Caliphate after the reign of Al-Amir Bi-Ahkamillah, Al-Hafiz was also the Imam of the Time as well as his descendants.

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Haji Bektash Veli

Haji Bektash Veli or Ḥājī Baktāsh Walī (حاجی بکتاش ولی Ḥājī Baktāš Walī; Hacı Bektaş-ı Veli) was an Alevi Muslim mystic, saint, Sayyid, humanist, and philosopher, who lived from 1209 to 1271.

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Hanafi

The Hanafi (حنفي) school is one of the four religious Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence (fiqh).

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Hanbali

The Hanbali school (المذهب الحنبلي) is one of the four traditional Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence (fiqh).

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Hasan al-Basri

Abū Saʿīd b. Abi ’l-Ḥasan Yasār al-Baṣrī, often referred to as Ḥasan of Basra (Arabic: حسن البصري, Ḥasan al-Baṣrī; 642 - 15 October 728) for short, or reverentially as Imam Ḥasan al-Baṣrī in Sunni Islam, was an early Muslim preacher, ascetic, theologian, exegete, scholar, judge, and mystic.

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Hassan al-Banna

Sheikh Hassan Ahmed Abdel Rahman Muhammed al-Banna (حسن أحمد عبد الرحمن محمد البنا; 14 October 1906 – 12 February 1949), known as Hassan al-Banna, was an Egyptian schoolteacher and imam, best known for founding the Muslim Brotherhood, one of the largest and most influential Islamic revivalist organizations.

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Hebtiahs Bohra

The Hebtiahs Bohra are a branch of Mustaali Ismaili Shi'a Islam that broke off from the mainstream Dawoodi Bohra after the death of the 39th Da'i al-Mutlaq in 1754.

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Hell

Hell, in many religious and folkloric traditions, is a place of torment and punishment in the afterlife.

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Herat

Herat (هرات,Harât,Herât; هرات; Ἀλεξάνδρεια ἡ ἐν Ἀρίοις, Alexándreia hē en Aríois; Alexandria Ariorum) is the third-largest city of Afghanistan.

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House of Saud

The House of Saud (Āl Suʻūd) is the ruling royal family of Saudi Arabia.

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Hurufism

Hurufism (حروفية hurufiyya, adjective form hurufi literal meaning "letters") was a Sufi doctrine, which was born in Astrabad and spread in areas of western Persia and Anatolia in later 14th – early 15th century.

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Ibadi

The Ibāḍī movement, Ibadism or Ibāḍiyya, also known as the Ibadis (الاباضية, al-Ibāḍiyyah), is a school of Islam dominant in Oman.

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Ibn Taymiyyah

Taqī ad-Dīn Ahmad ibn Taymiyyah (Arabic: تقي الدين أحمد ابن تيمية, January 22, 1263 - September 26, 1328), known as Ibn Taymiyyah for short, was a controversial medieval Sunni Muslim theologian, jurisconsult, logician, and reformer.

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Ideology

An Ideology is a collection of normative beliefs and values that an individual or group holds for other than purely epistemic reasons.

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Idrisid dynasty

The Idrisids (الأدارسة) were an Arab-Berber Zaydi-Shia dynasty of Morocco, ruling from 788 to 974.

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Ijtihad

Ijtihad (اجتهاد, lit. effort, physical or mental, expended in a particular activity) is an Islamic legal term referring to independent reasoning or the thorough exertion of a jurist's mental faculty in finding a solution to a legal question.

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Ikhwan

The Ikhwan (الإخوان, (The) Brethren), also Akhwan, was the first Saudi army made up of traditionally nomadic tribesmen which formed a significant military force of the ruler Ibn Saud and played an important role in establishing him as ruler of most of the Arabian Peninsula in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

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Imamah (Shia)

In Shia Islam, the imamah (إمامة) is the doctrine that the figures known as imams are rightfully the central figures of the ummah; the entire Shi'ite system of doctrine focuses on the imamah.

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Imamate (Twelver doctrine)

Imāmah (اٍمامة) means "leadership" and is a concept in Twelver theology.

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India

India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Indian subcontinent

The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.

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Interfaith dialogue

Interfaith dialogue refers to cooperative, constructive, and positive interaction between people of different religious traditions (i.e., "faiths") and/or spiritual or humanistic beliefs, at both the individual and institutional levels.

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Iran

Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Iranian Revolution

The Iranian Revolution (Enqelāb-e Iran; also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution), Iran Chamber.

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Iraq

Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.

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Islam

IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).

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Islamic fundamentalism

Islamic fundamentalism has been defined as a movement of Muslims who think back to earlier times and seek to return to the fundamentals of the religion and live similarly to how the prophet Muhammad and his companions lived.

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Islamic Modernism

Islamic Modernism, also sometimes referred to as Modernist Salafism, is a movement that has been described as "the first Muslim ideological response" attempting to reconcile Islamic faith with modern Western values such as nationalism, democracy, civil rights, rationality, equality, and progress.

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Islamic philosophy

In the religion of Islam, two words are sometimes translated as philosophy—falsafa (literally "philosophy"), which refers to philosophy as well as logic, mathematics, and physics; and Kalam (literally "speech"), which refers to a rationalist form of Islamic philosophy and theology based on the interpretations of Aristotelianism and Neoplatonism as developed by medieval Muslim philosophers.

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Islamic studies

Islamic studies refers to the study of Islam.

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Islamism

Islamism is a concept whose meaning has been debated in both public and academic contexts.

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Isma'ilism

Ismāʿīlism (الإسماعيلية al-Ismāʿīliyya; اسماعیلیان; اسماعيلي; Esmāʿīliyān) is a branch of Shia Islam.

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Istanbul

Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.

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Ja'fari jurisprudence

Jaʿfari jurisprudence, (Persian: فقه جعفری) Jaʿfari school of thought, Jaʿfarite School, or Jaʿfari Fiqh is the school of jurisprudence of most Shia Muslims, derived from the name of Ja'far al-Sadiq, the 6th Shia Imam.

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Jahm bin Safwan

Jahm ibn Ṣafwān (جَهْم بن صَفْوان) was an Islamic theologian who attached himself to Al-Harith ibn Surayj, a dissident in Khurasan towards the end of the Umayyad period, and who was put to death in 746 by Salm b. Aḥwaz.

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Jahmi

Jahmī (جهمي) was a pejorative term used especially by early Hanbalites to refer to the followers of Jahm ibn Safwan (d. 128/746).

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Jamaat-e-Islami

Jamaat-e-Islami (Urdu: جماعتِ اسلامی) is an Islamic political organisation and social conservative movement founded in 1941 in British India by the Islamist theologian and socio-political philosopher, Abul Ala Maududi.

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Jamaat-e-Islami Hind

Jamaat-e-Islami Hind (JIH) is an Islamic organisation in India, founded as an offshoot of the Jamaat-e-Islami, which split into separate independent organisations in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Jammu & Kashmir following the Partition of India in 1947.

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Jamaat-e-Islami Kashmir

The Jamaat-e-Islami Kashmir or Jamaat-e-Islami Jammu and Kashmir (JIJK) is a cadre-based religio-political organisation in Jammu and Kashmir (J & K), distinct from the Jamaat-e-Islami Hind (the Indian branch of the Jamaat).

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Jamaat-e-Islami Pakistan

Jamaat-e-Islami, (Urdu:; meaning "Islamic Congress") abbreviated JI, is a socially conservative and Islamist political party based in Pakistan.

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Javad Nurbakhsh

Dr.

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Jesus

Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.

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Jon Kyl

Jon Llewellyn Kyl (born April 25, 1942) is an American attorney and politician.

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Justanids

The Justanids or Jostanids (جستانیان) were the rulers of a part of Daylam (the mountainous district of Gilan) from 791 to the late 11th-century.

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Kalam

ʿIlm al-Kalām (عِلْم الكَلام, literally "science of discourse"),Winter, Tim J. "Introduction." Introduction.

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Kashmir

Kashmir is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent.

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Khalidiyya

Naqshbandiyya Khalidiyya, Khalidiyya or Khalidi is the title of a branch of the Naqshbandiyya Sufi lineage, from the time of Khalid al-Baghdadi until the time of Shaykh Ismail ash-Shirwani.

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Khawaja

Khawaja or khwaja (خواجه) is an honorific title used across the Middle East, South Asia, Southeast Asia and Central Asia, particularly towards Sufi teachers.

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Khawarij

The Khawarij (الخوارج, al-Khawārij, singular خارجي, khāriji), Kharijites, or the ash-Shurah (ash-Shurāh "the Exchangers") are members of a school of thought, that appeared in the first century of Islam during the First Fitna, the crisis of leadership after the death of Muhammad.

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Kubrawiya

The Kubrawiya order (سلسلة کبرویة) or Kubrawi order, also known as Firdausia Silsila, is a Sufi order that traces its spiritual lineage (Silsilah) to prophet Muhammad through Ali, Muhammad's cousin, son-in-law and the First Imam.

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Kuwait

Kuwait (الكويت, or), officially the State of Kuwait (دولة الكويت), is a country in Western Asia.

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Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement for the Propagation of Islam

The Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement for the Propagation of Islam, (احمدیہ انجمنِ اشاعتِ اسلام لاہور; Aḥmadiyyah Anjuman-i Ishāʿat-i Islām, Lāhawr) is a separatist group within the Ahmadiyya movement that formed in 1914 as a result of ideological and administrative differences following the demise of Hakim Nur-ud-Din, the first Caliph after Mirza Ghulam Ahmad.

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Lebanon

Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.

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Leiden

Leiden (in English and archaic Dutch also Leyden) is a city and municipality in the province of South Holland, Netherlands.

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Liberalism and progressivism within Islam

Liberalism and progressivism within Islam involve professed Muslims who have produced a considerable body of liberal thought on the re-interpretation and reform of Islamic understanding and practice.

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List of extinct Shia sects

The following is a list of extinct sects of Shia Islam.

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List of Mahdi claimants

In Muslim eschatology, the Mahdi is a Messianic figure who, it is believed, will appear on Earth before the Day of Judgment, and will rid the world of wrongdoing, injustice and tyranny.

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Madhhab

A (مذهب,, "way to act"; pl. مذاهب) is a school of thought within fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence).

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Mahdavia

Mahdavia (مهدوي. mahdawi) or Mahdavism, is a Mahdiist Muslim sect founded by Syed Muhammad Jaunpuri in India in the late 15th century.

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Mahdi

The Mahdi (مهدي, ISO 233:, literally "guided one") is an eschatological redeemer of Islam who will appear and rule for five, seven, nine or nineteen years (according to differing interpretations)Martin 2004: 421 before the Day of Judgment (literally "the Day of Resurrection") and will rid the world of evil.

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Malik ibn Anas

Mālik b. Anas b. Mālik b. Abī ʿĀmir b. ʿAmr b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲ b. G̲h̲aymān b. K̲h̲ut̲h̲ayn b. ʿAmr b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲ al-Aṣbaḥī, often referred to as Mālik ibn Anas (Arabic: مالك بن أنس‎; 711–795 CE / 93–179 AH) for short, or reverently as Imam Mālik by Sunni Muslims, was an Arab Muslim jurist, theologian, and hadith traditionist.

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Maliki

The (مالكي) school is one of the four major madhhab of Islamic jurisprudence within Sunni Islam.

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Maruf Karkhi

Maruf Karkhi (معروف کرخی), known also by his full name Abu Mahfuz Maruf Ibn Firuz al-Karkhi, was a Sufi Saint who is a pivotal figure in Sufism.

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Maturidi

In Islam, a Maturidi (ماتريدي) is one who follows Abu Mansur Al Maturidi's systematic theology (kalam), which is a school of theology within Sunni Islam.

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Messiah

In Abrahamic religions, the messiah or messias is a saviour or liberator of a group of people.

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Mevlevi Order

The Mawlaw'īyya / Mevlevi Order (Mevlevilik or Mevleviyye طریقت مولویه) is a Sufi order in Konya (modern day Turkey) (capital of the Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate) founded by the followers of Jalal ad-Din Muhammad Balkhi-Rumi, a 13th-century Persian poet, Islamic theologian and Sufi mystic.

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Mirza Ghulam Ahmad

Mirzā Ghulām Ahmad (13 February 1835 – 26 May 1908) was an Indian religious leader and the founder of the Ahmadiyya Movement in Islam.

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Moinuddin Chishti

Chishtī Muʿīn al-Dīn Ḥasan Sijzī (1142–1236 CE), known more commonly as Muʿīn al-Dīn Chishtī or Moinuddin Chishti,Blain Auer, “Chishtī Muʿīn al-Dīn Ḥasan”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE, Edited by: Kate Fleet, Gudrun Krämer, Denis Matringe, John Nawas, Everett Rowson.

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Moorish Science Temple of America

The Moorish Science Temple of America is an American national and religious organization founded by Noble Drew Ali.

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Mouride

The Mouride brotherhood (yoonu murit, الطريقة المريدية aṭ-Ṭarīqat al-Murīdiyyah or simply المريدية, al-Murīdiyyah) is a large tariqa (Sufi order) most prominent in Senegal and the Gambia with headquarters in the city of Touba, Senegal, which is a holy city for the order.

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Muʿtazila

Muʿtazila (المعتزلة) is a rationalist school of Islamic theology"", Encyclopaedia Britannica.

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Muhakkima

Muhakkima (محكمة) and al-Haruriyya (الحرورية) refer to the Muslims who rejected arbitration between Ali ibn Abi Talib and Mu'awiya at the Battle of Siffin in 657 CE.

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Muhammad

MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.

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Muhammad al-Mahdi

Muhammad ibn Hasan al-Mahdī (محمد بن الحسن المهدي), also known as Imam Zaman (امام زمان), is believed by Twelver Shī‘a Muslims to be the Mahdī, an eschatological redeemer of Islam and ultimate savior of humankind and the final Imām of the Twelve Imams who will emerge with Isa (Jesus Christ) in order to fulfill their mission of bringing peace and justice to the world.

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Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab

Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab (محمد بن عبد الوهاب; 1703 – 22 June 1792) was a religious leader, theologian and reformer from Najd in central Arabia who founded the movement now called Wahhabism.

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Muhammad ibn Ali as-Senussi

Muhammad ibn Ali as-Senussi (1787–1859) was the founder of the Senussi order in 1837.

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Muhammad Jaunpuri

Syed Muhammad Jaunpuri (سید محمد جونپورى) (September 9, 1443 – April 23, 1505 AD), claimed to be Imam Mahdi at Mecca in the Hijri year 901, and is revered as such by Mahdavia.

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Muhammad Nurbakhsh Qahistani

Mir Sayyid Muhammad Nurbakhsh Qahistani (1392-1464; محمد بن عبد الله الموسوئی قہستانی) was a mystic (Sufi) who gave name to the Noorbakshia school of Islam.

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Murid

Murid (مُرِيد) is a Sufi term meaning "committed one" from the root meaning "willpower" or "self-esteem".

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Murji'ah

Murji'ah (Arabic المرجئة) is an early Islamic school of divinity, whose followers are known in English language as Murjites or Murji'ites (Arabic المرجئون).

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Muslim Brotherhood

The Society of the Muslim Brothers (جماعة الإخوان المسلمين), better known as the Muslim Brotherhood (الإخوان المسلمون), is a transnational Sunni Islamist organization founded in Egypt by Islamic scholar and schoolteacher Hassan al-Banna in 1928.

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Muslim world

The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the unified Islamic community (Ummah), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced.

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Musta'li

The Musta‘lī (مستعلي) are a sect of Isma'ilism named for their acceptance of al-Musta'li as the legitimate nineteenth Fatimid caliph and legitimate successor to his father, al-Mustansir Billah.

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Mysticism

Mysticism is the practice of religious ecstasies (religious experiences during alternate states of consciousness), together with whatever ideologies, ethics, rites, myths, legends, and magic may be related to them.

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Najdat

The Najdat were the sub-sect of the Kharijite movement that followed Najda ibn 'Amir al-Hanafi in the late 7th century and briefly ruled over the historical provinces of Yamamah and Bahrayn in central and eastern Arabia.

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Najmuddin Kubra

Najmuddīn-e Kubrā (نجم‌الدین کبری) was a 13th-century Khwarezmian Sufi from Khwarezm and the founder of the Kubrawiya, influential in the Ilkhanate and Timurid dynasty.

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Names of God in Islam

According to a hadith, there are at least 99 names of God in Islam, known as the (Beautiful Names of God).

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Naqshbandi

The Naqshbandi (نقشبندی) or Naqshbandiyah is a major Sunni spiritual order of Sufism.

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Nation of Islam

The Nation of Islam, abbreviated as NOI, is an African American political and religious movement, founded in Detroit, Michigan, United States, by Wallace D. Fard Muhammad on July 4, 1930.

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Nationalism

Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.

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New Europe (newspaper)

New Europe is a weekly newspaper published in English founded in 1993.

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New York City

The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.

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Ni'matullāhī

The Ni'matullāhī or Ne'matollāhī (نعمت‌اللهی) (also spelled as "Nimatollahi", "Nematollahi" or "Ni'matallahi) is a Sufi order (or tariqa) originating in Iran.

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Nizari

The Nizaris (النزاريون al-Nizāriyyūn) are the largest branch of the Ismaili Shi'i Muslims, the second-largest branch of Shia Islam (the largest being the Twelver).

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Non-denominational Muslim

Non-denominational Muslims is an umbrella term that has been used for and by Muslims who do not belong to or do not self-identify with a specific Islamic denomination.

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Noorbakshia Islam

Noorbakhshia Islam, also called Sufia Noorbakhshia, is one of the Sufi sects of Islam.

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Nukkari

The Nukkari (also Nakkari or Nakkariyah; in Latin sources named Canarii) are one of the main branches of the North African Ibadi, founded in 784 by Abu Qudama Yazid ben Fendin al-Ifreni.

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Nur movement

The Nur movement (Nurculuk, also known as Nurcu) is a religious movement in Turkey based on the writings of Said Nursi (d. 1960), which promoted the concept of the "Quran" as a "living document" which needed to be continually re-interpreted.

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Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Pew Research Center

The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan American fact tank based in Washington, D.C. It provides information on social issues, public opinion, and demographic trends shaping the United States and the world.

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Plurality (voting)

A plurality vote (in North America) or relative majority (in the United Kingdom) describes the circumstance when a candidate or proposition polls more votes than any other, but does not receive a majority.

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Political system

A political system is a system of politics and government.

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Preacher

A preacher is a person who delivers sermons or homilies on religious topics to an assembly of people.

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Predestination in Islam

Qadar (قدر, transliterated qadar, meaning "fate", "divine fore-ordainment", "predestination", "Yes God Knows where one will lead themselves, either heaven or hell, but the individual is held responsible according to their actions and choices for the outcome".)J.

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Principles of Islamic jurisprudence

Principles of Islamic jurisprudence otherwise known as Uṣūl al-fiqh (أصول الفقه) is the study and critical analysis of the origins, sources, and principles upon which Islamic jurisprudence is based.

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Prophethood (Ahmadiyya)

The view on the Prophets of God (Arabic: نبي) in Ahmadiyya theology differs significantly from Orthodox Islam.

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Qadariyah

Qadariyah (or Qadariya) is an originally derogatory term designating early Islamic theologians who asserted that humans possess free will, whose exercise makes them responsible for their actions, justifying divine punishment and absolving God of responsibility for evil in the world.

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Qadiriyya

The Qadiriyya (القادريه, قادریه, also transliterated Qadri, Qadriya, Kadri, Elkadri, Elkadry, Aladray, Alkadrie, Adray, Kadray, Qadiri,"Quadri" or Qadri) are members of the Qadiri tariqa (Sufi order).

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Qarmatians

The Qarmatians (قرامطة Qarāmita; also transliterated Carmathians, Qarmathians, Karmathians) were a syncretic branch of Sevener Ismaili Shia Islam that combined elements of Zoroastrianism.

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Qiyas

In Islamic jurisprudence, qiyās (قياس) is the process of deductive analogy in which the teachings of the Hadith are compared and contrasted with those of the Qur'an, in order to apply a known injunction (nass) to a new circumstance and create a new injunction.

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Quran

The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).

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Quranic createdness

Createdness refers to the doctrinal position that the Qur’an was created, rather than having always existed and thus being "uncreated".

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Quranism

Quranism (القرآنية; al-Qur'āniyya) describes any form of Islam that accepts the Qur'an as the only sacred text through which Allah revealed himself to mankind, but rejects the religious authority, reliability, and/or authenticity of the Hadith collections.

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Rashad Khalifa

Rashad Khalifa (رشاد خليفة; November 19, 1935 – January 30, 1990) was an Egyptian-American biochemist, closely associated with the United Submitters International, a reform branch of Islam.

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Rashidun

The Rashidun Caliphs (Rightly Guided Caliphs; الخلفاء الراشدون), often simply called, collectively, "the Rashidun", is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the 30-year reign of the first four caliphs (successors) following the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, namely: Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman ibn Affan, and Ali of the Rashidun Caliphate, the first caliphate.

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Rationality

Rationality is the quality or state of being rational – that is, being based on or agreeable to reason.

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Religious denomination

A religious denomination is a subgroup within a religion that operates under a common name, tradition, and identity.

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Religious text

Religious texts (also known as scripture, or scriptures, from the Latin scriptura, meaning "writing") are texts which religious traditions consider to be central to their practice or beliefs.

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Sabine Schmidtke

Sabine Schmidtke is an Islamic scholar from Germany.

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Sahabah

The term (الصحابة meaning "the companions", from the verb صَحِبَ meaning "accompany", "keep company with", "associate with") refers to the companions, disciples, scribes and family of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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Salaf

Salaf (سلف, "ancestors" or "predecessors"), also often referred to with the honorific expression of "al-salaf al-ṣāliḥ" (السلف الصالح, "the pious predecessors") are often taken to be the first three generations of Muslims, that is the generations of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad and his companions (the Sahabah), their successors (the Tabi‘un), and the successors of the successors (the Taba Tabi‘in).

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Salafi jihadism

Salafi jihadism or jihadist-Salafism is a transnational religious-political ideology based on a belief in "physical" jihadism and the Salafi movement of returning to what adherents believe to be true Sunni Islam.

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Salafi movement

The Salafi movement or Salafist movement or Salafism is a reform branch or revivalist movement within Sunni Islam that developed in Egypt in the late 19th century as a response to European imperialism.

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Süleymancılar

The Sūlaimānī Jamia (Jamia-e Sūlaymānīyyā / Süleyman Efendi Cemaati) or Süleymancılar (Sūlaymanites) is a Muslim Sunni-Hanafi jamia based in Turkey.

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Schools of Islamic theology

Schools of Islamic theology are various Islamic schools and branches in different schools of thought regarding aqidah (creed).

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Second Coming

The Second Coming (sometimes called the Second Advent or the Parousia) is a Christian and Islamic belief regarding the future (or past) return of Jesus Christ after his incarnation and ascension to heaven about two thousand years ago.

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Sect

A sect is a subgroup of a religious, political, or philosophical belief system, usually an offshoot of a larger group.

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Senegal

Senegal (Sénégal), officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country in West Africa.

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Senussi

The Senussi, or Sanussi (السنوسية), are a Muslim political-religious tariqa (Sufi order) and clan in colonial Libya and the Sudan region founded in Mecca in 1837 by the Grand Senussi (السنوسي الكبير), the Algerian Muhammad ibn Ali as-Senussi.

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September 11 attacks

The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.

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Sevener

al-Ismāʿīliyya al-khāliṣa / al-Ismāʿīliyya al-wāqifa or Seveners (سبعية) was a branch of Ismā'īlī Shīʻa.

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Shadhili

The Shadhili Tariqa (الطريقة الشاذلية) is a Sufi order of Sunni Islam founded by Abul Hasan Ali ash-Shadhili of Morocco.

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Shafi‘i

The Shafi‘i (شافعي, alternative spelling Shafei) madhhab is one of the four schools of Islamic law in Sunni Islam.

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Shah Nimatullah Wali

Shāh Nimatullāh or Shāh Ni'matullāh Wali, (شاه نعمت‌الله ولی Shāh Ni'matullāh-i Valī), also spelled as Ne'matollah, Ni'matallah and Ni'mat Allāh, was a Persian Sufi Master and poet from the 14th and 15th centuries.

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Sharia

Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.

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Shaykh Tusi

Shaykh Tusi (شیخ طوسی), full name Abu Jafar Muhammad Ibn Hassan Tusi (ابوجعفر محمد بن حسن طوسی), known as Shaykh al-Taʾifah (شيخ الطائفة) was a prominent Persian scholar of the Twelver school of Shia Islam.

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Shaykhism

Shaykhism (الشيخية) is an Islamic religious movement founded by Shaykh Ahmad in early 19th century Qajar Iran.

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Shia crescent

The Shia Crescent (or Shiite Crescent) is the notionally crescent-shaped region of the Middle East where the majority population is Shia or where there is a strong Shia minority in the population.

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Shia Islam

Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.

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Shia–Sunni relations

Sunni Islam and Shia Islam are the two major denominations of Islam.

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Shirk (Islam)

In Islam, shirk (شرك širk) is the sin of practicing idolatry or polytheism, i.e. the deification or worship of anyone or anything besides the singular God, i.e. Allah.

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Social progress

Social progress is the idea that societies can or do improve in terms of their social, political, and economic structures.

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South Asia

South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.

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Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්‍රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.

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Succession to Muhammad

The succession to Muhammad is the central issue that divided the Muslim community into several divisions in the first century of Muslim history.

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Sufism

Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.

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Sufri

The Sufris (الصفرية aṣ-Ṣufriyya) were Khariji Muslims in the seventh and eighth centuries.

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Suhrawardiyya

Suhrawardy redirects here.

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Sulaymani

Sulaymani Bohras (Sulaymanis) are a Musta‘lī Ismaili community that predominantly reside in Saudi Arabia (Najran), Yemen, Pakistan and India.

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Sunnah

Sunnah ((also sunna) سنة,, plural سنن) is the body of traditional social and legal custom and practice of the Islamic community, based on the verbally transmitted record of the teachings, deeds and sayings, silent permissions (or disapprovals) of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, as well as various reports about Muhammad's companions.

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Sunni Islam

Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.

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Taoism

Taoism, also known as Daoism, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (also romanized as ''Dao'').

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Taqwa

Taqwa (تقوى /) is an Islamic term for being conscious and cognizant of Allah, of truth, of the rational reality, "piety, fear of God".

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Tariqa

A tariqa (or tariqah; طريقة) is a school or order of Sufism, or specifically a concept for the mystical teaching and spiritual practices of such an order with the aim of seeking Haqiqa, which translates as "ultimate truth".

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Tawhid

Tawhid (توحيد, meaning "oneness " also romanized as tawheed, touheed, or tevhid) is the indivisible oneness concept of monotheism in Islam.

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Tayyibi Isma'ilism

ayyibi Ismā‘īlism is the only surviving sect of the Musta'li branch of Isma'ilism, the other being Hafizi Isma'ilism.

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The Economist

The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.

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The Gambia

No description.

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The Independent

The Independent is a British online newspaper.

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The Twelve Imams

The Twelve Imams are the spiritual and political successors to the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the Twelver or Athnā‘ashariyyah branch of Shia Islam, including that of the Alawite and the Alevi sects.

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Tijaniyyah

The Tijāniyyah (The Tijānī Path) is a sufi tariqa (order, path) within Sunni Islam, originating in North Africa but now more widespread in West Africa, particularly in Senegal, The Gambia, Mauritania, Mali, Guinea, Niger, Chad, Ghana, Northern and South-western Nigeria and some part of Sudan.

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Tolu-e-Islam

Tolu-e-Islam (Resurgence of Islam), also known as Bazm-e-Tolu-e-Islam, is an organization which focuses on understanding the Quran via logic, empiricism, and the appropriate application of the rules of Classical Arabic.

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Touba

Touba (Hassaniya: Ṭūbā "Felicity") is a city in central Senegal, part of Diourbel Region and Mbacké district.

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Traditionalist theology (Islam)

Traditionalist theology is a movement of Islamic scholars who reject rationalistic Islamic theology (kalam) in favor of strict textualism in interpreting the Quran and hadith.

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Turkey

Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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Twelver

Twelver (translit; شیعه دوازده‌امامی) or Imamiyyah (إمامية) is the largest branch of Shia Islam.

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Ulama

The Arabic term ulama (علماء., singular عالِم, "scholar", literally "the learned ones", also spelled ulema; feminine: alimah and uluma), according to the Encyclopedia of Islam (2000), in its original meaning "denotes scholars of almost all disciplines".

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Umar

Umar, also spelled Omar (عمر بن الخطاب, "Umar, Son of Al-Khattab"; c. 584 CE 3 November 644 CE), was one of the most powerful and influential Muslim caliphs in history.

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Umayyad Caliphate

The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.

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Umbrella term

An umbrella term is a word or phrase that covers a wide range of concepts belonging to a common category.

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Ummah

(أمة) is an Arabic word meaning "community".

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United Nation of Islam

The United Nation of Islam (UNOI) is a group based in Kansas City, Kansas.

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United Submitters International

United Submitters International (also called the Submitters) is a reformist moderate Islamic religious community, and is a branch of Quraniyoon.

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University of Chicago Press

The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.

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Usuli

Usulis (الاصولية) are the majority Twelver Shi'a Muslim group.

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Uthman

Uthman ibn Affan (ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān), also known in English by the Turkish and Persian rendering, Osman (579 – 17 June 656), was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the third of the Rashidun, or "Rightly Guided Caliphs".

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Uwais al-Qarani

Uwais ibn ʻAmir ibn Harb al-Qarni (أويس ابن أنيس القرني), was a Muslim from Yemen who lived during the lifetime of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad.

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Uwaisi

The Uwaisī is a form of spiritual transmission in the vocabulary of Islamic mysticism that was named after Awais Malik ''(Owais al-Qarni)''.

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Uzbekistan

Uzbekistan, officially also the Republic of Uzbekistan (Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi), is a doubly landlocked Central Asian Sovereign state.

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Wahhabism

Wahhabism (الوهابية) is an Islamic doctrine and religious movement founded by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab.

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Wallace Fard Muhammad

Wallace D. Fard, also known as Wallace Fard Muhammad (Arabic: ولي فرض محمد) (born February 26, 1877 - Unknown), was a co-founder of the Nation of Islam.

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Warith Deen Mohammed

Warith Deen Mohammed (born Wallace D. Muhammad; October 30, 1933 – September 9, 2008), also known as W. Deen Mohammed, Imam W. Deen Muhammad and Imam Warith Deen, was a progressive African American Muslim leader, theologian, philosopher, Muslim revivalist, and Islamic thinker (1975–2008) who disbanded the original Nation of Islam (NOI) in 1976 and transformed it into an orthodox mainstream Islamic movement, the World Community of Al-Islam in the West which later became the American Society of Muslims.

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Wasil ibn Ata

Wāṣil ibn ʿAtāʾ (700–748) (واصل بن عطاء) was an important Muslim theologian and jurist of his time, and by many accounts is considered to be the founder of the Muʿtazilite school of Kalam.

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West Africa

West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa.

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Yemen

Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.

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Zahir (Islam)

Ẓāhir (ظاهر) is an Arabic term in some tafsir (interpretations of the Quran) for what is external and manifest.

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Zaidiyyah

Zaidiyyah or Zaidism (الزيدية az-zaydiyya, adjective form Zaidi or Zaydi) is one of the Shia sects closest in terms of theology to Hanafi Sunni Islam.

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Zayd ibn Ali

Zayd ibn 'Alī (زيد بن علي, also spelled Zaid, Zayyed; 695–740) was the grandson of Husayn ibn Ali, and great-grandson of Ali.

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8th century

The 8th century is the period from 701 to 800 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Common Era.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islamic_schools_and_branches

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