35 relations: Age of the universe, Alpha decay, Beta decay, Bismuth-209, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Cluster decay, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, CRC Press, Decay chain, Decay product, Deuterium, Electron capture, Half-life, Isotope, Isotopes of polonium, Isotopes of thallium, Isotopes of thorium, Lead, Lead-cooled fast reactor, Lead–lead dating, National Nuclear Data Center, Neutron, Nuclear isomer, Nuclear Physics (journal), Primordial nuclide, Proton, Pure and Applied Chemistry, Radiogenic nuclide, Radionuclide, Sedimentation, Stable nuclide, Standard atomic weight, Uranium-235, Uranium-238, Uranium–lead dating.
In physical cosmology, the age of the universe is the time elapsed since the Big Bang.
Alpha decay or α-decay is a type of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus emits an alpha particle (helium nucleus) and thereby transforms or 'decays' into an atom with a mass number that is reduced by four and an atomic number that is reduced by two.
In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.
Bismuth-209 is the "quasi-stable" isotope of bismuth with the longest known half-life of any radioisotope that undergoes α-decay (alpha decay).
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory located in Upton, New York, on Long Island, and was formally established in 1947 at the site of Camp Upton, a former U.S. Army base.
Cluster decay, also named heavy particle radioactivity or heavy ion radioactivity, is a type of nuclear decay in which an atomic nucleus emits a small "cluster" of neutrons and protons, more than in an alpha particle, but less than a typical binary fission fragment.
The CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics is a comprehensive one-volume reference resource for science research, currently in its 98th edition (with 2560 pages, June 23, 2017, Editor-in-Chief John R. Rumble).
The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group based in the United States that specializes in producing technical books.
In nuclear science, the decay chain refers to a series of radioactive decays of different radioactive decay products as a sequential series of transformations.
In nuclear physics, a decay product (also known as a daughter product, daughter isotope, radio-daughter, or daughter nuclide) is the remaining nuclide left over from radioactive decay.
Deuterium (or hydrogen-2, symbol or, also known as heavy hydrogen) is one of two stable isotopes of hydrogen (the other being protium, or hydrogen-1).
Electron capture (K-electron capture, also K-capture, or L-electron capture, L-capture) is a process in which the proton-rich nucleus of an electrically neutral atom absorbs an inner atomic electron, usually from the K or L electron shell.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
Polonium (84Po) has 33 isotopes, all of which are radioactive, with between 186 and 227 nucleons.
Thallium (81Tl) has 37 isotopes with atomic masses that range from 176 to 212.
Although thorium (90Th) has 6 naturally occurring isotopes, none of these isotopes are stable; however, one isotope, 232Th, is relatively stable, with a half-life of 1.405×1010 years, considerably longer than the age of the Earth, and even slightly longer than the generally accepted age of the universe.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
The lead-cooled fast reactor is a nuclear reactor design that features a fast neutron spectrum and molten lead or lead-bismuth eutectic coolant.
Lead–lead dating is a method for dating geological samples, normally based on 'whole-rock' samples of material such as granite.
The National Nuclear Data Center is an organization based in the Brookhaven National Laboratory that acts as a repository for data regarding nuclear chemistry, such as nuclear structure, decay, and reaction data, as well as historical information regarding previous experiments and literature.
A nuclear isomer is a metastable state of an atomic nucleus caused by the excitation of one or more of its nucleons (protons or neutrons).
Nuclear Physics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Elsevier.
In geochemistry, geophysics and geonuclear physics, primordial nuclides, also known as primordial isotopes, are nuclides found on Earth that have existed in their current form since before Earth was formed.
Pure and Applied Chemistry (abbreviated Pure Appl. Chem.) is the official journal for the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC).
A radiogenic nuclide is a nuclide that is produced by a process of radioactive decay.
A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.
Sedimentation is the tendency for particles in suspension to settle out of the fluid in which they are entrained and come to rest against a barrier.
Stable nuclides are nuclides that are not radioactive and so (unlike radionuclides) do not spontaneously undergo radioactive decay.
The standard atomic weight (Ar, standard, a relative atomic mass) is the atomic weight (Ar) of a chemical element, as appearing and met in the earthly environment.
Uranium-235 (235U) is an isotope of uranium making up about 0.72% of natural uranium.
Uranium-238 (238U or U-238) is the most common isotope of uranium found in nature, with a relative abundance of 99%.
Uranium–lead dating, abbreviated U–Pb dating, is one of the oldestBoltwood, B.B., 1907, On the ultimate disintegration products of the radio-active elements.
Lead-178, Lead-179, Lead-180, Lead-181, Lead-182, Lead-183, Lead-184, Lead-185, Lead-186, Lead-187, Lead-188, Lead-189, Lead-190, Lead-191, Lead-192, Lead-193, Lead-194, Lead-195, Lead-196, Lead-197, Lead-198, Lead-199, Lead-200, Lead-201, Lead-202, Lead-203, Lead-204, Lead-205, Lead-206, Lead-207, Lead-208, Lead-209, Lead-210, Lead-211, Lead-212, Lead-213, Lead-214, Lead-215, Pb-208, Pb-210.