80 relations: Age of the Earth, Age of the universe, Alpha decay, Alpha particle, Atomic nucleus, Beta decay, Beta particle, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Carcinogen, Cluster decay, Contrast agent, Coral, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, CRC Press, Decay chain, Decay product, Earth, Electron capture, Electronvolt, Fertile material, Fissile material, Gamma ray, Gamma spectroscopy, Gas lighting, Gas mantle, Half-life, Internal conversion, Ionium–thorium dating, Isotope, Isotopes of actinium, Isotopes of bismuth, Isotopes of lead, Isotopes of oxygen, Isotopes of protactinium, Isotopes of radium, Isotopes of thorium, Laser, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Magnesium fluoride, Mass number, Mononuclidic element, National Nuclear Data Center, Nature (journal), Neutron, Neutron capture, Nuclear isomer, Nuclear medicine, Nuclear Physics (journal), Nuclear transmutation, ..., Nuclide, Ocean current, Physical Review, Physical Review Letters, Primordial nuclide, Protactinium, Proton, Pure and Applied Chemistry, Quantum computing, Qubit, Radioactive decay, Radionuclide, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Spontaneous fission, Suspension (chemistry), Thorium, Thorium dioxide, Thorium fuel cycle, Thorium-based nuclear power, Thorotrast, Ultraviolet, Unified atomic mass unit, Uranium, Uranium-232, Uranium-233, Uranium-235, Uranium-238, Uranium–thorium dating, World Nuclear Association, X-ray. Expand index (30 more) » « Shrink index
The age of the Earth is 4.54 ± 0.05 billion years This age may represent the age of the Earth’s accretion, of core formation, or of the material from which the Earth formed.
In physical cosmology, the age of the universe is the time elapsed since the Big Bang.
Alpha decay or α-decay is a type of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus emits an alpha particle (helium nucleus) and thereby transforms or 'decays' into an atom with a mass number that is reduced by four and an atomic number that is reduced by two.
Alpha particles consist of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium-4 nucleus.
The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.
In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.
A beta particle, also called beta ray or beta radiation, (symbol β) is a high-energy, high-speed electron or positron emitted by the radioactive decay of an atomic nucleus during the process of beta decay.
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory located in Upton, New York, on Long Island, and was formally established in 1947 at the site of Camp Upton, a former U.S. Army base.
A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer.
Cluster decay, also named heavy particle radioactivity or heavy ion radioactivity, is a type of nuclear decay in which an atomic nucleus emits a small "cluster" of neutrons and protons, more than in an alpha particle, but less than a typical binary fission fragment.
A contrast agent (or contrast medium) is a substance used to increase the contrast of structures or fluids within the body in medical imaging.
Corals are marine invertebrates in the class Anthozoa of phylum Cnidaria.
The CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics is a comprehensive one-volume reference resource for science research, currently in its 98th edition (with 2560 pages, June 23, 2017, Editor-in-Chief John R. Rumble).
The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group based in the United States that specializes in producing technical books.
In nuclear science, the decay chain refers to a series of radioactive decays of different radioactive decay products as a sequential series of transformations.
In nuclear physics, a decay product (also known as a daughter product, daughter isotope, radio-daughter, or daughter nuclide) is the remaining nuclide left over from radioactive decay.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Electron capture (K-electron capture, also K-capture, or L-electron capture, L-capture) is a process in which the proton-rich nucleus of an electrically neutral atom absorbs an inner atomic electron, usually from the K or L electron shell.
In physics, the electronvolt (symbol eV, also written electron-volt and electron volt) is a unit of energy equal to approximately joules (symbol J).
Fertile material is a material that, although not itself fissionable by thermal neutrons, can be converted into a fissile material by neutron absorption and subsequent nuclei conversions.
In nuclear engineering, fissile material is material capable of sustaining a nuclear fission chain reaction.
A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.
Gamma-ray spectroscopy is the quantitative study of the energy spectra of gamma-ray sources, in such as the nuclear industry, geochemical investigation, and astrophysics.
Gas lighting is production of artificial light from combustion of a gaseous fuel, such as hydrogen, methane, carbon monoxide, propane, butane, acetylene, ethylene, or natural gas.
An incandescent gas mantle, gas mantle or Welsbach mantle is a device for generating bright white light when heated by a flame.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
Internal conversion is a radioactive decay process wherein an excited nucleus interacts electromagnetically with one of the orbital electrons of the atom.
Ionium-thorium dating is a technique for determining the age of marine sediments based upon the quantities present of nearly stable thorium-232 and more radioactive thorium-230.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
Actinium (89Ac) has no stable isotopes and no characteristic terrestrial isotopic composition, thus a standard atomic weight cannot be given.
Bismuth (83Bi) has no stable isotopes, but does have one very long-lived isotope; thus, the standard atomic weight can be given as.
Lead (82Pb) has four stable isotopes: 204Pb, 206Pb, 207Pb, 208Pb.
There are three known stable isotopes of oxygen (8O): 16O, 17O, and 18O.
Protactinium (91Pa) has no stable isotopes.
Radium (88Ra) has no stable or nearly stable isotopes, and thus a standard atomic weight cannot be given.
Although thorium (90Th) has 6 naturally occurring isotopes, none of these isotopes are stable; however, one isotope, 232Th, is relatively stable, with a half-life of 1.405×1010 years, considerably longer than the age of the Earth, and even slightly longer than the generally accepted age of the universe.
A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), commonly referred to as Berkeley Lab, is a United States national laboratory located in the Berkeley Hills near Berkeley, California that conducts scientific research on behalf of the United States Department of Energy (DOE).
Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich (also referred to as LMU or the University of Munich, in German: Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München) is a public research university located in Munich, Germany.
Magnesium fluoride is an inorganic compound with the formula MgF2.
The mass number (symbol A, from the German word Atomgewichte (atomic weight), also called atomic mass number or nucleon number, is the total number of protons and neutrons (together known as nucleons) in an atomic nucleus. It determines the atomic mass of atoms. Because protons and neutrons both are baryons, the mass number A is identical with the baryon number B as of the nucleus as of the whole atom or ion. The mass number is different for each different isotope of a chemical element. This is not the same as the atomic number (Z) which denotes the number of protons in a nucleus, and thus uniquely identifies an element. Hence, the difference between the mass number and the atomic number gives the number of neutrons (N) in a given nucleus:. The mass number is written either after the element name or as a superscript to the left of an element's symbol. For example, the most common isotope of carbon is carbon-12, or, which has 6 protons and 6 neutrons. The full isotope symbol would also have the atomic number (Z) as a subscript to the left of the element symbol directly below the mass number:. This is technically redundant, as each element is defined by its atomic number, so it is often omitted.
A mononuclidic element or monotopic element is one of the 22 chemical elements that is found naturally on Earth essentially as a single nuclide (which may, or may not, be a stable nuclide).
The National Nuclear Data Center is an organization based in the Brookhaven National Laboratory that acts as a repository for data regarding nuclear chemistry, such as nuclear structure, decay, and reaction data, as well as historical information regarding previous experiments and literature.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Neutron capture is a nuclear reaction in which an atomic nucleus and one or more neutrons collide and merge to form a heavier nucleus.
A nuclear isomer is a metastable state of an atomic nucleus caused by the excitation of one or more of its nucleons (protons or neutrons).
Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty involving the application of radioactive substances in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.
Nuclear Physics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Elsevier.
Nuclear transmutation is the conversion of one chemical element or an isotope into another chemical element.
A nuclide (from nucleus, also known as nuclear species) is an atomic species characterized by the specific constitution of its nucleus, i.e., by its number of protons Z, its number of neutrons N, and its nuclear energy state.
An ocean current is a seasonal directed movement of sea water generated by forces acting upon this mean flow, such as wind, the Coriolis effect, breaking waves, cabbing, temperature and salinity differences, while tides are caused by the gravitational pull of the Sun and Moon.
Physical Review is an American peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1893 by Edward Nichols.
Physical Review Letters (PRL), established in 1958, is a peer-reviewed, scientific journal that is published 52 times per year by the American Physical Society.
In geochemistry, geophysics and geonuclear physics, primordial nuclides, also known as primordial isotopes, are nuclides found on Earth that have existed in their current form since before Earth was formed.
Protactinium (formerly protoactinium) is a chemical element with symbol Pa and atomic number 91.
Pure and Applied Chemistry (abbreviated Pure Appl. Chem.) is the official journal for the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC).
Quantum computing is computing using quantum-mechanical phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement.
In quantum computing, a qubit or quantum bit (sometimes qbit) is a unit of quantum information—the quantum analogue of the classical binary bit.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.
The Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) is one of the national scientific research laboratories in the UK operated by the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC).
Spontaneous fission (SF) is a form of radioactive decay that is found only in very heavy chemical elements.
In chemistry, a suspension is a heterogeneous mixture that contains solid particles sufficiently large for sedimentation.
Thorium is a weakly radioactive metallic chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90.
Thorium dioxide (ThO2), also called thorium(IV) oxide, is a crystalline solid, often white or yellow in color.
The thorium fuel cycle is a nuclear fuel cycle that uses an isotope of thorium,, as the fertile material.
Thorium-based nuclear power is nuclear reactor-based, fueled primarily by the nuclear fission of the isotope uranium-233 produced from the fertile element thorium.
Thorotrast is a suspension containing particles of the radioactive compound thorium dioxide, ThO2, that was used as a radiocontrast agent in medical radiography in the 1930s and 1940s.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
The unified atomic mass unit or dalton (symbol: u, or Da) is a standard unit of mass that quantifies mass on an atomic or molecular scale (atomic mass).
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
Uranium-232 (U-232) is an isotope of uranium.
Uranium-233 is a fissile isotope of uranium that is bred from thorium-232 as part of the thorium fuel cycle.
Uranium-235 (235U) is an isotope of uranium making up about 0.72% of natural uranium.
Uranium-238 (238U or U-238) is the most common isotope of uranium found in nature, with a relative abundance of 99%.
Uranium–thorium dating, also called thorium-230 dating, uranium-series disequilibrium dating or uranium-series dating, is a radiometric dating technique established in the 1960s which has been used since the 1970s to determine the age of calcium carbonate materials such as speleothem or coral.
The World Nuclear Association (WNA) is the international organization that promotes nuclear power and supports the companies that comprise the global nuclear industry.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
Aero-Ektar, Ionium, Lowest-energy nuclear isomer, Radiothorium, Th 232, Th-227, Th-228, Th-230, Thorium isotopes, Thorium-209, Thorium-210, Thorium-211, Thorium-212, Thorium-213, Thorium-214, Thorium-215, Thorium-216, Thorium-217, Thorium-218, Thorium-219, Thorium-220, Thorium-221, Thorium-222, Thorium-223, Thorium-224, Thorium-225, Thorium-226, Thorium-227, Thorium-228, Thorium-229, Thorium-229m, Thorium-230, Thorium-231, Thorium-232, Thorium-233, Thorium-234, Thorium-235, Thorium-236, Thorium-237, Thorium-238.