64 relations: Acrylamide, Active site, Allele, Alloenzyme, Amino acid, Aspartic acid, Assay, Beta cell, Biochemistry, Catalysis, Chemical reaction, Clement Markert, Cofactor (biochemistry), Cytochrome P450, DNA, DNA sequencing, Douglas E. Soltis, Dye, Electric charge, Enzyme, Enzyme kinetics, Fitness (biology), Formazan, Gel electrophoresis, Gene, Gene duplication, Gene expression, Genetic drift, Glucokinase, Glucose 6-phosphate, Glutamic acid, Glycogen, Hexokinase, Homology (biology), Insulin, Lactate dehydrogenase, Liver, Locus (genetics), Mating system, Metabolism, Michaelis–Menten kinetics, Microsatellite, Molecular marker, Mutation, Natural selection, Neutral theory of molecular evolution, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, Nucleic acid hybridization, Pamela S. Soltis, ..., Pancreas, Phosphodiesterase, Point mutation, Polyploid, Population genetics, Potato starch, Precipitation (chemistry), Protein isoform, Pseudogene, Redox, Single-nucleotide polymorphism, Steroid, Substrate (chemistry), Twelvefold way. Expand index (14 more) » « Shrink index
Acrylamide (or acrylic amide) is a chemical compound with the chemical formula C3H5NO.
In biology, the active site is the region of an enzyme where substrate molecules bind and undergo a chemical reaction.
An allele is a variant form of a given gene.
Alloenzymes (or also called allozymes) are variant forms of an enzyme which differs structurally but not functionally from other allozymes coded for by different alleles at the same locus.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Aspartic acid (symbol Asp or D; salts known as aspartates), is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
An assay is an investigative (analytic) procedure in laboratory medicine, pharmacology, environmental biology and molecular biology for qualitatively assessing or quantitatively measuring the presence, amount, or functional activity of a target entity (the analyte).
Beta cells (β cells) are a type of cell found in the pancreatic islets of the pancreas.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.
Clement Lawrence Markert (April 11, 1917 – October 1, 1999) was an American biologist credited with the discovery of isozymes (different forms of enzymes that catalyze the same reaction).
A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound or metallic ion that is required for an enzyme's activity.
Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are proteins of the superfamily containing heme as a cofactor and, therefore, are hemoproteins.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule.
Douglas Soltis is a Distinguished Professor in the Laboratory of Molecular Systematics & Evolutionary Genetics, (Soltis lab.) Florida Museum of Natural History and Department of Biology at the University of Florida.
A dye is a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied.
Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Enzyme kinetics is the study of the chemical reactions that are catalysed by enzymes.
Fitness (often denoted w or ω in population genetics models) is the quantitative representation of natural and sexual selection within evolutionary biology.
Formazan dyes are artificial chromogenic products of the reduction of tetrazolium salts by dehydrogenases and reductases.
Gel electrophoresis is a method for separation and analysis of macromolecules (DNA, RNA and proteins) and their fragments, based on their size and charge.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Gene duplication (or chromosomal duplication or gene amplification) is a major mechanism through which new genetic material is generated during molecular evolution.
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.
Genetic drift (also known as allelic drift or the Sewall Wright effect) is the change in the frequency of an existing gene variant (allele) in a population due to random sampling of organisms.
Glucokinase is an enzyme that facilitates phosphorylation of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate.
Glucose 6-phosphate (sometimes called the Robison ester) is a glucose sugar phosphorylated at the hydroxy group on carbon 6.
Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.
Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in humans, animals, fungi, and bacteria.
A hexokinase is an enzyme that phosphorylates hexoses (six-carbon sugars), forming hexose phosphate.
In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.
Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.
Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH or LD) is an enzyme found in nearly all living cells (animals, plants, and prokaryotes).
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
A locus (plural loci) in genetics is a fixed position on a chromosome, like the position of a gene or a marker (genetic marker).
A mating system is a way in which a group is structured in relation to sexual behaviour.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
Michaelis–Menten saturation curve for an enzyme reaction showing the relation between the substrate concentration and reaction rate. In biochemistry, Michaelis–Menten kinetics is one of the best-known models of enzyme kinetics.
A microsatellite is a tract of repetitive DNA in which certain DNA motifs (ranging in length from 1–6 or more base pairs) are repeated, typically 5–50 times.
A molecular marker is a molecule contained within a sample taken from an organism (biological markers) or other matter.
In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.
The neutral theory of molecular evolution holds that at the molecular level most evolutionary changes and most of the variation within and between species is not caused by natural selection but by genetic drift of mutant alleles that are neutral.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a coenzyme found in all living cells.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, abbreviated NADP or, in older notation, TPN (triphosphopyridine nucleotide), is a cofactor used in anabolic reactions, such as lipid and nucleic acid synthesis, which require NADPH as a reducing agent.
In molecular biology, hybridization (or hybridisation) is a phenomenon in which single-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules anneal to complementary DNA or RNA.
Pamela Soltis is an American botanist.
The pancreas is a glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates.
A phosphodiesterase (PDE) is an enzyme that breaks a phosphodiester bond.
A point mutation is a genetic mutation where a single nucleotide base is changed, inserted or deleted from a sequence of DNA or RNA.
Polyploid cells and organisms are those containing more than two paired (homologous) sets of chromosomes.
Population genetics is a subfield of genetics that deals with genetic differences within and between populations, and is a part of evolutionary biology.
Potato starch is starch extracted from potatoes.
Precipitation is the creation of a solid from a solution.
A protein isoform, or "protein variant" is a member of a set of highly similar proteins that originate from a single gene or gene family and are the result of genetic differences.
Pseudogenes are segments of DNA that are related to real genes.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
A single-nucleotide polymorphism, often abbreviated to SNP (plural), is a variation in a single nucleotide that occurs at a specific position in the genome, where each variation is present to some appreciable degree within a population (e.g. > 1%).
A steroid is a biologically active organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific molecular configuration.
In chemistry, a substrate is typically the chemical species being observed in a chemical reaction, which reacts with a reagent to generate a product.
In combinatorics, the twelvefold way is a systematic classification of 12 related enumerative problems concerning two finite sets, which include the classical problems of counting permutations, combinations, multisets, and partitions either of a set or of a number.