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Istanbul

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Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center. [1]

553 relations: Açık Radyo, Abdülaziz, Abdi İpekçi Arena, Abdi İpekçi Street, Abdul Hamid II, Abdulmejid I, Achaemenid Empire, Acropolis, African Plate, Ahmed III, Airports Council International, Akbil (smart ticket), Akmerkez, Alevism, Ali Sami Yen Stadium, Anadolu Agency, Anadolu Efes S.K., Anadoluhisarı, Anatolia, Anatolian High School, Ancient Greek architecture, Ancient Roman architecture, Andronikos II Palaiologos, Ankara, Ankara–Istanbul high-speed railway, Antalya, Aqueduct (water supply), Armenian Apostolic Church, Armenian Genocide, Armenians, Armenians in Istanbul, Arnavutköy, Arrondissements of Paris, Art Nouveau, Ashkenazi Jews, Asia, Ataşehir, Atatürk Olympic Stadium, ATV (Turkey), Autocephalous Turkish Orthodox Patriarchate, Çamlıca Hill, Çatalca, Çırağan Palace, Çengelköy, Çiçek Pasajı, Ülker Sports and Event Hall, Üsküdar, İDO, İstanbul Archaeology Museums, İstanbul Büyükşehir Belediyespor (basketball), ..., İstanbul Modern, İstiklal Avenue, İstinye, İstinye Park, İzmir, İzmit, Şükrü Saracoğlu Stadium, Şişli, Bağcılar, Bağdat Avenue, Başakşehir, Baghdad, Bakırköy, Balat, Fatih, Balyan family, Bankalar Caddesi, Baroque architecture, Basketbol Süper Ligi, Bayezid II, Bayezid II Mosque, Bayrampaşa, Büyükçekmece Basketbol, BBC, Beşiktaş, Beşiktaş J.K., Beşiktaş J.K. 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Açık Radyo

Açık Radyo (Open Radio 94.9) is an independent radio station broadcasting from Istanbul to metropolitan Istanbul and surrounding areas.

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Abdülaziz

Abdülaziz (Ottoman Turkish: عبد العزيز / `Abdü’l-`Azīz, Abdülaziz; 8 February 18304 June 1876) was the 32nd Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and reigned between 25 June 1861 and 30 May 1876.

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Abdi İpekçi Arena

Abdi İpekçi Arena, formerly known as Abdi İpekçi Sports Complex, was a multi-purpose indoor arena located in the Zeytinburnu district of Istanbul, Turkey, situated just outside the ancient city walls, in Yedikule.

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Abdi İpekçi Street

Abdi İpekçi Street or Abdi İpekçi Avenue (Abdi İpekçi Caddesi) is one of the premier shopping streets of İstanbul, Turkey, located in the Şişli district.

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Abdul Hamid II

Abdul Hamid II (عبد الحميد ثانی, `Abdü’l-Ḥamīd-i sânî; İkinci Abdülhamit; 21 September 184210 February 1918) was the 34th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and the last Sultan to exert effective control over the fracturing state.

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Abdulmejid I

Abdülmecid I (Ottoman Turkish: عبد المجيد اول ‘Abdü’l-Mecīd-i evvel; 23/25 April 182325 June 1861), also known as Abdulmejid and similar spellings, was the 31st Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and succeeded his father Mahmud II on 2 July 1839.

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Achaemenid Empire

The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.

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Acropolis

An acropolis (Ancient Greek: ἀκρόπολις, tr. Akrópolis; from ákros (άκρος) or ákron (άκρον) "highest, topmost, outermost" and pólis "city"; plural in English: acropoles, acropoleis or acropolises) is a settlement, especially a citadel, built upon an area of elevated ground—frequently a hill with precipitous sides, chosen for purposes of defense.

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African Plate

The African Plate is a major tectonic plate straddling the equator as well as the prime meridian.

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Ahmed III

Ahmed III (Ottoman Turkish: احمد ثالث, Aḥmed-i sālis) (30/31 December 16731 July 1736) was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and a son of Sultan Mehmed IV (r. 1648–87).

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Airports Council International

Airports Council International (ACI) is the only global trade representative of the world’s airport authorities.

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Akbil (smart ticket)

Akbil was an integrated electronic ticket system used for fare payment on public transport in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Akmerkez

Akmerkez is a shopping mall located in the Etiler quarter of Beşiktaş district in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Alevism

Alevism (Alevîlik or Anadolu Alevîliği/Alevileri, also called Qizilbash, or Shī‘ah Imāmī-Tasawwufī Ṭarīqah, or Shīʿah-ī Bāṭen’īyyah) is a syncretic, heterodox, and local tradition, whose adherents follow the mystical (''bāṭenī'') teachings of Ali, the Twelve Imams, and a descendant—the 13th century Alevi saint Haji Bektash Veli.

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Ali Sami Yen Stadium

Ali Sami Yen Stadium (Ali Sami Yen Stadyumu) was the home of the football club Galatasaray S.K. in Istanbul, Turkey, from 1964 to 2010.

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Anadolu Agency

Anadolu Agency (Anadolu Ajansı, abbreviated AA) is a state-run international news agency of the Turkish government headquartered in Ankara, Turkey.

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Anadolu Efes S.K.

Anadolu Efes Spor Kulübü (Anadolu Efes Sports Club), formerly known as Efes Pilsen, is a Turkish professional basketball team that is based in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Anadoluhisarı

Anadoluhisarı (Anatolian Castle), known historically as Güzelce Hisar ("the Beauteous Castle") is a medieval fortress located in Istanbul, Turkey on the Anatolian (Asian) side of the Bosporus.

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Anatolia

Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.

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Anatolian High School

Anatolian High School or Anadolu High School (Anadolu Lisesi), refers to public high schools in Turkey that admits their students according to high nationwide standardized test (TEOG) scores.

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Ancient Greek architecture

The architecture of ancient Greece is the architecture produced by the Greek-speaking people (Hellenic people) whose culture flourished on the Greek mainland, the Peloponnese, the Aegean Islands, and in colonies in Anatolia and Italy for a period from about 900 BC until the 1st century AD, with the earliest remaining architectural works dating from around 600 BC.

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Ancient Roman architecture

Ancient Roman architecture adopted the external language of classical Greek architecture for the purposes of the ancient Romans, but differed from Greek buildings, becoming a new architectural style.

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Andronikos II Palaiologos

Andronikos II Palaiologos (Ἀνδρόνικος Βʹ Παλαιολόγος; 25 March 1259 – 13 February 1332), usually Latinized as Andronicus II Palaeologus, was Byzantine emperor from 11 December 1282 to 23 or 24 May 1328.

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Ankara

Ankara (English; Turkish Ottoman Turkish Engürü), formerly known as Ancyra (Ἄγκυρα, Ankyra, "anchor") and Angora, is the capital of the Republic of Turkey.

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Ankara–Istanbul high-speed railway

The Ankara–Istanbul high-speed railway (Ankara–İstanbul yüksek hızlı demiryolu), is a long high-speed railway currently running between Ankara and Pendik (a suburb of Istanbul), with the Pendik-Central İstanbul part under construction.

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Antalya

Antalya is the fifth-most populous city in Turkey and the capital of its eponymous province.

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Aqueduct (water supply)

An aqueduct is a watercourse constructed to convey water.

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Armenian Apostolic Church

The Armenian Apostolic Church (translit) is the national church of the Armenian people.

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Armenian Genocide

The Armenian Genocide (Հայոց ցեղասպանություն, Hayots tseghaspanutyun), also known as the Armenian Holocaust, was the Ottoman government's systematic extermination of 1.5 million Armenians, mostly citizens within the Ottoman Empire.

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Armenians

Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.

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Armenians in Istanbul

Armenians in Istanbul (Bolsahayer; İstanbul Ermenileri) are historically one of the largest ethnic minorities of Istanbul, Turkey.

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Arnavutköy

Arnavutköy (meaning "Albanian village" in Turkish; known in Greek as Mega Rhevma (Μέγα Ῥεύμα), meaning "great current") is a historic neighbourhood in Istanbul, Turkey, famous for its wooden Ottoman mansions and seafood restaurants, as well as the campus of the prestigious Robert College with its centennial buildings.

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Arrondissements of Paris

The city of Paris is divided into twenty arrondissements municipaux, administrative districts, more simply referred to as arrondissements (pronounced in French).

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Art Nouveau

Art Nouveau is an international style of art, architecture and applied art, especially the decorative arts, that was most popular between 1890 and 1910.

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Ashkenazi Jews

Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or simply Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכְּנַזִּים, Ashkenazi Hebrew pronunciation:, singular:, Modern Hebrew:; also), are a Jewish diaspora population who coalesced in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the first millennium.

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Asia

Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.

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Ataşehir

Ataşehir is a modern suburban district of Istanbul, Turkey.

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Atatürk Olympic Stadium

The Atatürk Olympic Stadium (Atatürk Olimpiyat Stadı) located in İkitelli, a district in the western outskirts of Istanbul, is the largest-capacity stadium of Turkey.

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ATV (Turkey)

ATV (stylized as atv) is a nationwide TV channel in Turkey, began broadcasting in September 1993.

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Autocephalous Turkish Orthodox Patriarchate

The Autocephalous Turkish Orthodox Patriarchate (Bağımsız Türk Ortodoks Patrikhanesi), also referred to as the Turkish Orthodox Church (Türk Ortodoks Kilisesi), is an unrecognised Orthodox Christian denomination, with strong influences from Turkish nationalist ideology.

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Çamlıca Hill

Çamlıca Hill (Çamlıca Tepesi), aka Big Çamlıca Hill (Büyük Çamlıca Tepesi) to differentiate from the nearby Little Çamlıca Hill (Küçük Çamlıca Tepesi), is a hill in Üsküdar district of Istanbul, Turkey.

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Çatalca

Çatalca (Metrae, Μέτραι in Ancient Greek) is a city and a rural district in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Çırağan Palace

Çırağan Palace (Çırağan Sarayı), a former Ottoman palace, is now a five-star hotel in the Kempinski Hotels chain.

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Çengelköy

Çengelköy is a neighborhood in the Üsküdar district on the Asian shore of the Bosphorus, in Istanbul, Turkey, between the neighborhoods of Beylerbeyi and Kuleli.

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Çiçek Pasajı

Çiçek Pasajı (literally Flower Passage in Turkish), originally called the Cité de Péra, is a famous historic passage (galleria or arcade) on İstiklal Avenue in the Beyoğlu district of Istanbul, Turkey.

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Ülker Sports and Event Hall

Fenerbahçe International Sports Complex Ülker Sports Arena (Fenerbahçe Uluslararası Spor Kompleksi Ülker Spor Arena) is a multi-purpose indoor arena that is located in Ataşehir, Istanbul, Turkey.

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Üsküdar

Üsküdar, traditionally known in Italian and English as Scutari (Σκουτάριον in Greek), is a large and densely populated district and municipality of Istanbul, Turkey, on the Anatolian shore of the Bosphorus.

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İDO

İDO Istanbul Fast Ferries Co.

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İstanbul Archaeology Museums

The Istanbul Archaeology Museums (İstanbul Arkeoloji Müzeleri) is a group of three archeological museums located in the Eminönü district of Istanbul, Turkey, near Gülhane Park and Topkapı Palace.

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İstanbul Büyükşehir Belediyespor (basketball)

İstanbul Büyükşehir Belediyespor, also known simply as İstanbul BŞB or Istanbul BB, is a professional basketball club based in İstanbul, Turkey that plays in the Turkish Basketball Super League.

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İstanbul Modern

İstanbul Modern, a.k.a. Istanbul Museum of Modern Art, (İstanbul Modern Sanat Müzesi) is a museum of contemporary art in the Beyoğlu district of Istanbul, Turkey.

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İstiklal Avenue

İstiklal Avenue or Istiklal Street (Turkish: İstiklâl Caddesi, Greek: Μεγάλη Οδός του Πέραν, French: Grande Rue de Péra, English: Independence Avenue) is one of the most famous avenues in Istanbul, Turkey, visited by nearly 3 million people in a single day over the course of weekends.

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İstinye

İstinye is a neighbourhood in Istanbul, on the European side of the city.

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İstinye Park

Istinye Park is a shopping center in the İstinye quarter of Istanbul, Turkey with 291 stores, 85,250 m2 of retail area, and four levels of underground parking.

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İzmir

İzmir is a metropolitan city in the western extremity of Anatolia and the third most populous city in Turkey, after Istanbul and Ankara.

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İzmit

İzmit, known as Nicomedia in antiquity, is a city in Turkey, the administrative center of the Kocaeli Province as well as the Metropolitan Municipality.

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Şükrü Saracoğlu Stadium

The Şükrü Saracoğlu Stadium, also officially known as Ülker Stadium Fenerbahçe Şükrü Saracoğlu Sports Complex or simply Ülker Stadium due to sponsorship reasons, is a football stadium in the Kadıköy district of Istanbul, Turkey.

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Şişli

Şişli is one of 39 districts of Istanbul, Turkey.

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Bağcılar

Bağcılar is a working class suburban district of Istanbul, Turkey.

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Bağdat Avenue

Bağdat Avenue (Bağdat Caddesi, literally Baghdad Avenue) or simply Avenue (Cadde) is a notable high street located on the Anatolian side of Istanbul, Turkey.

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Başakşehir

Başakşehir is one of the 39 second-level districts in Greater Istanbul, Turkey.

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Baghdad

Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.

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Bakırköy

Bakırköy is a neighbourhood, municipality (belediye) and district on the European side of Istanbul, Turkey.

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Balat, Fatih

Balat is the traditional Jewish quarter in the Fatih district of Istanbul.

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Balyan family

The Balyan family (Western Պալեաններ; Balyan ailesi or Palyan ailesi) was a prominent Ottoman Armenian family of court architects in the service of Ottoman sultans and other members of the Ottoman dynasty during the 18th and 19th centuries.

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Bankalar Caddesi

Bankalar Caddesi (English: Banks Street), alternatively known as Voyvoda Caddesi (English: Voivode Street), located in the historic Galata quarter (present-day Karaköy) within the district of Beyoğlu (Pera) in Istanbul, Turkey, was the financial center of the Ottoman Empire.

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Baroque architecture

Baroque architecture is the building style of the Baroque era, begun in late 16th-century Italy, that took the Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical and theatrical fashion, often to express the triumph of the Catholic Church.

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Basketbol Süper Ligi

The Basketbol Süper Ligi (BSL), also known as Tahincioğlu Basketbol Süper Ligi for sponsorship reasons, is the top professional basketball division of the Turkish basketball league system.

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Bayezid II

Bayezid II (3 December 1447 – 26 May 1512) (Ottoman Turkish: بايزيد ثانى Bāyezīd-i s̱ānī, Turkish: II. Bayezid or II. Beyazıt) was the eldest son and successor of Mehmed II, ruling as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1481 to 1512.

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Bayezid II Mosque

The Bayezid II Mosque (Beyazıt Camii, Bayezid Camii) is an Ottoman imperial mosque located in the Beyazıt Square area of Istanbul, Turkey, near the ruins of the Forum of Theodosius of ancient Constantinople.

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Bayrampaşa

Bayrampaşa (pronounced) is a suburban district of Istanbul, Turkey on the European side of the city.

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Büyükçekmece Basketbol

Büyükçekmece Basketbol, for sponsorship reasons Demir İnşaat Büyükçekmece, is a Turkish professional basketball club based in Büyükçekmece, Istanbul which plays Turkish Basketball Super League.

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BBC

The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.

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Beşiktaş

Beşiktaş (pronounced) is a district and municipality of Istanbul, Turkey, located on the European shore of the Bosphorus strait.

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Beşiktaş J.K.

Beşiktaş Jimnastik Kulübü (Beşiktaş Gymnastics Club), also known simply as Beşiktaş, is a Turkish sports club founded in 1903, and based in the Beşiktaş district of Istanbul, Turkey.

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Beşiktaş J.K. (men's basketball)

Beşiktaş Basketbol is a Turkish professional basketball team from the city of İstanbul.

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Bebek, Beşiktaş

Bebek (known in Greek as Χηλαί, Chelai) is a historic Istanbul neighbourhood that falls within the boundaries and administration of the Beşiktaş district.

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Belgrad Forest

Belgrad Forest (Belgrad Ormanı) is a mixed deciduous forest lying adjacent to Istanbul, Turkey.

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Berlin–Baghdad railway

The Baghdad railway, also known as the Berlin–Baghdad railway (Bağdat Demiryolu, Bagdadbahn, سكة حديد بغداد, Chemin de Fer Impérial Ottoman de Bagdad), was built from 1903 to 1940 to connect Berlin with the (then) Ottoman Empire city of Baghdad, from where the Germans wanted to establish a port in the Persian Gulf, with a line through modern-day Turkey, Syria, and Iraq, linked to Europe by a bridge crossing the Bosphorous.

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Beylerbeyi

Beylerbeyi is a neighborhood in the Üsküdar municipality of Istanbul, Turkey.

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Beylerbeyi Palace

The Beylerbeyi Palace (Beylerbeyi Sarayı), Beylerbeyi meaning "Lord of Lords", is located in the Beylerbeyi neighbourhood of Üsküdar district in Istanbul, Turkey at the Asian side of the Bosphorus.

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Beyoğlu

Beyoğlu is a district located on the European side of İstanbul, Turkey, separated from the old city (historic peninsula of Constantinople) by the Golden Horn.

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Biennale

Biennale, Italian for "biennial" or "every other year", is any event that happens every two years.

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BJK Akatlar Arena

BJK Akatlar Arena is a multi-purpose indoor arena located in Akatlar, Istanbul, Turkey.

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BJK İnönü Stadium

İnönü Stadium (İnönü Stadyumu) was a football stadium in Istanbul, Turkey and the home ground of the football club Beşiktaş J.K..

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Black Sea

The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.

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Boğaziçi University

Boğaziçi University (also known as Bosphorus University, Boğaziçi Üniversitesi, "Boğaziçi" literally meaning Bosphorus in Turkish) is a major research university located on the European side of the Bosphorus strait in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Borsa Istanbul

The Borsa İstanbul (abbreviated as BIST) is the sole exchange entity of Turkey combining the former Istanbul Stock Exchange (ISE) (İstanbul Menkul Kıymetler Borsası, IMKB), the Istanbul Gold Exchange (İstanbul Altın Borsası, İAB) and the Derivatives Exchange of Turkey (Vadeli İşlem Opsiyon Borsası, VOB) under one umbrella.

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Bosniaks

The Bosniaks (Bošnjaci,; singular masculine: Bošnjak, feminine: Bošnjakinja) are a South Slavic nation and ethnic group inhabiting mainly the area of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

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Bosphorus Bridge

The Bosphorus Bridge (Boğaziçi Köprüsü), known officially as the 15 July Martyrs Bridge (15 Temmuz Şehitler Köprüsü) and unofficially as the First Bridge (Birinci Köprü), is one of the three suspension bridges spanning the Bosphorus strait (Turkish: Boğaziçi) in Istanbul, Turkey, thus connecting Europe and Asia (alongside Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge and Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge).

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Bosporus

The Bosporus or Bosphorus;The spelling Bosporus is listed first or exclusively in all major British and American dictionaries (e.g.,,, Merriam-Webster,, and Random House) as well as the Encyclopædia Britannica and the.

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Bucharest

Bucharest (București) is the capital and largest city of Romania, as well as its cultural, industrial, and financial centre.

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Bus rapid transit

Bus rapid transit (BRT, BRTS, busway, transitway) is a bus-based public transport system designed to improve capacity and reliability relative to a conventional bus system.

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Byzantine architecture

Byzantine architecture is the architecture of the Byzantine Empire, also known as the Later Roman or Eastern Roman Empire.

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Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).

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Byzantium

Byzantium or Byzantion (Ancient Greek: Βυζάντιον, Byzántion) was an ancient Greek colony in early antiquity that later became Constantinople, and later Istanbul.

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Byzas

In Greek mythology, Byzas (Ancient Greek: Βύζας, Býzas) was the eponymous founder of Byzantium (Ancient Greek: Βυζάντιον Byzántion), the city later known as Constantinople and then Istanbul.

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Cağaloğlu

Cağaloğlu is a quarter located in the Fatih district of Istanbul, Turkey.

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Caesar (title)

Caesar (English Caesars; Latin Caesares) is a title of imperial character.

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Caliphate

A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).

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Central business district

A central business district (CBD) is the commercial and business centre of a city.

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CEV Women's Champions League

The Women's CEV Champions League, formerly known as CEV Champions Cup (from 1960 to 2000), is the top official competition for women's volleyball clubs of Europe and takes place every year.

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Chalcedon

Chalcedon (or;, sometimes transliterated as Chalkedon) was an ancient maritime town of Bithynia, in Asia Minor.

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Chalcolithic

The Chalcolithic (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998), p. 301: "Chalcolithic /,kælkəl'lɪθɪk/ adjective Archaeology of, relating to, or denoting a period in the 4th and 3rd millennium BCE, chiefly in the Near East and SE Europe, during which some weapons and tools were made of copper. This period was still largely Neolithic in character. Also called Eneolithic... Also called Copper Age - Origin early 20th cent.: from Greek khalkos 'copper' + lithos 'stone' + -ic". χαλκός khalkós, "copper" and λίθος líthos, "stone") period or Copper Age, in particular for eastern Europe often named Eneolithic or Æneolithic (from Latin aeneus "of copper"), was a period in the development of human technology, before it was discovered that adding tin to copper formed the harder bronze, leading to the Bronze Age.

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Chang'an

Chang'an was an ancient capital of more than ten dynasties in Chinese history, today known as Xi'an.

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Chora Church

The Church of the Holy Saviour in Chora (Ἐκκλησία τοῦ Ἁγίου Σωτῆρος ἐν τῇ Χώρᾳ, Kariye Müzesi, Kariye Camii, Kariye Kilisesi) is a medieval Byzantine Greek Orthodox church preserved as the Chora Museum in the Edirnekapı neighborhood of Istanbul.

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Christianity

ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.

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Christopher Robert

Christopher Rhinelander Robert (23 March 1802 – 28 October 1878) was an American philanthropist from New York City, who founded the building of Robert College in Istanbul, Turkey in 1863, the oldest American school outside the United States.

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Cinema of Turkey

Yeşilçam (literally means The Green Pine in Turkish language) is the sobriquet that refers to the Turkish film art and industry.

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Cistern

A cistern (Middle English cisterne, from Latin cisterna, from cista, "box", from Greek κίστη, "basket") is a waterproof receptacle for holding liquids, usually water.

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CNBC-e

CNBC-e was a hybrid business/financial and entertainment channel operated in Turkey by CNBC Europe and the NTV Group. The channel shares its name with a co-owned magazine about CNBC-e. The economy-related morning and afternoon programmes of CNBC-e are in Turkish and are dedicated mainly to the global and Turkish financial markets such as the Istanbul Stock Exchange, while the evening programmes are mostly American TV series, films, talk shows and animations in English (with Turkish subtitles.) The channel also produces a weekly 15-minute programme in English, Business Turkey, which airs at weekends on CNBC Europe and is one of the few CNBC programmes still using the channel's 2000 on-air identity, though only for its opening titles. The schedule contains education, culture, drama, entertainment, music and sports programs and news with commercial breaks. The channel was sold to Discovery Communications and replaced with TLC Türkiye on November 6, 2015.

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CNN

Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.

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CNN Türk

CNN Türk is the Turkish affiliate of the cable news channel CNN that was launched to air on October 11, 1999.

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Column of Constantine

The Column of Constantine (Çemberlitaş Sütunu, from çemberli 'hooped' and taş 'stone'), also known as the Burnt Stone or the Burnt Pillar, is a Roman monumental column constructed on the orders of the Roman emperor Constantine the Great in 330 AD.

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Constantine the Great

Constantine the Great (Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Μέγας; 27 February 272 ADBirth dates vary but most modern historians use 272". Lenski, "Reign of Constantine" (CC), 59. – 22 May 337 AD), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor of Illyrian and Greek origin from 306 to 337 AD.

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Constantine XI Palaiologos

Constantine XI Dragases Palaiologos, Latinized as Palaeologus (Κωνσταντῖνος ΙΑ' Δραγάσης Παλαιολόγος, Kōnstantinos XI Dragasēs Palaiologos; 8 February 1405 – 29 May 1453) was the last reigning Byzantine Emperor, ruling as a member of the Palaiologos dynasty from 1449 to his death in battle at the fall of Constantinople in 1453.

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Constantinople

Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.

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Constitution of Turkey

The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Anayasası), also known as the Constitution of 1982, is Turkey's fundamental law.

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Contactless smart card

A contactless smart card is a contactless credential whose dimensions are credit-card size.

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Continental Europe

Continental or mainland Europe is the continuous continent of Europe excluding its surrounding islands.

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Crimean War

The Crimean War (or translation) was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which the Russian Empire lost to an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, France, Britain and Sardinia.

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Cypress

Cypress is a common name for various coniferous trees or shrubs of northern temperate regions that belong to the family Cupressaceae.

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Cyrus Hamlin

Cyrus Hamlin (January 5, 1811 – August 8, 1900) was an American Congregational missionary and educator, the father of A. D. F. Hamlin.

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Daily Sabah

Daily Sabah (lit. "Daily Morning") is a Turkish pro-government daily published in Turkey.

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Darüşşafaka High School

Darüşşafaka High School is a school in Maslak, Istanbul, Turkey.

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Darüşşafaka S.K.

Darüşşafaka Spor Kulübü is a professional basketball club based in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Decline and modernization of the Ottoman Empire

Beginning from the late eighteenth century, the Ottoman Empire faced challenges defending itself against foreign invasion and occupation.

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Delian League

The Delian League, founded in 478 BC, was an association of Greek city-states, with the amount of members numbering between 150 to 330under the leadership of Athens, whose purpose was to continue fighting the Persian Empire after the Greek victory in the Battle of Plataea at the end of the Second Persian invasion of Greece.

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Deportation of Armenian intellectuals on 24 April 1915

The deportation of Armenian intellectuals, sometimes known as Red Sunday (Western Կարմիր կիրակի Garmir giragi), was the first major event of the Armenian Genocide.

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Dolmabahçe Palace

Dolmabahçe Palace (Dolmabahçe Sarayı) located in the Beşiktaş district of Istanbul, Turkey, on the European coast of the Bosphorus, served as the main administrative center of the Ottoman Empire from 1856 to 1887 and 1909 to 1922 (Yıldız Palace was used in the interim).

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Dotted and dotless I

Dotted İi and dotless Iı are separate letters in Turkish and Azerbaijani.

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Eastern Orthodox Church

The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.

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Eastern world

The term Eastern world refers very broadly to the various cultures or social structures and philosophical systems, depending on the context, most often including at least part of Asia or geographically the countries and cultures east of Europe, specifically in historical (pre-modern) contexts, and in modern times in the context of Orientalism.

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Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople

The Ecumenical Patriarch (Η Αυτού Θειοτάτη Παναγιότης, ο Αρχιεπίσκοπος Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Νέας Ρώμης και Οικουμενικός Πατριάρχης, "His Most Divine All-Holiness the Archbishop of Constantinople, New Rome, and Ecumenical Patriarch") is the Archbishop of Constantinople–New Rome and ranks as primus inter pares (first among equals) among the heads of the several autocephalous churches that make up the Eastern Orthodox Church.

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Eczacıbaşı VitrA

Eczacıbaşı VitrA is the women's volleyball department of Eczacıbaşı S.K., a Turkish sports club based in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Edirne

Edirne, historically known as Adrianople (Hadrianopolis in Latin or Adrianoupolis in Greek, founded by the Roman emperor Hadrian on the site of a previous Thracian settlement named Uskudama), is a city in the northwestern Turkish province of Edirne in the region of East Thrace, close to Turkey's borders with Greece and Bulgaria.

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Ekmeleddin İhsanoğlu

Ekmeleddin Mehmet İhsanoğlu (born 26 December 1943) is a Turkish academic, politician and diplomat who was Secretary-General of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) from 2004 to 2014.

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Electric utility

An electric utility is a company in the electric power industry (often a public utility) that engages in electricity generation and distribution of electricity for sale generally in a regulated market.

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Electrical telegraph

An electrical telegraph is a telegraph that uses electrical signals, usually conveyed via dedicated telecommunication circuit or radio.

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Eminönü

Eminönü is a former district of Istanbul in Turkey, currently a quarter of Fatih, the province's capital district.

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Emir

An emir (أمير), sometimes transliterated amir, amier, or ameer, is an aristocratic or noble and military title of high office used in a variety of places in the Arab countries, West African, and Afghanistan.

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Emirgan Park

The Emirgan Park (Emirgan Korusu or rarely Emirgan Parkı) is a historical urban park located at the Emirgan neighbourhood in the Sarıyer district of Istanbul, Turkey, on the European coast of the Bosphorus.

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Empire

An empire is defined as "an aggregate of nations or people ruled over by an emperor or other powerful sovereign or government, usually a territory of greater extent than a kingdom, as the former British Empire, Spanish Empire, Portuguese Empire, French Empire, Persian Empire, Russian Empire, German Empire, Abbasid Empire, Umayyad Empire, Byzantine Empire, Ottoman Empire, or Roman Empire".

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Enderun School

The Enderun School (Ottoman Turkish: اندرون مکتب, Enderûn Mektebi) was a palace school and boarding school mostly for the Janissaries of the Ottoman Empire, which primarily recruited students via devşirme, a system of the Islamization of Christian children for serving the Ottoman government in bureaucratic, managerial, and Janissary military positions.

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Esenler

Esenler is a district of Istanbul, Turkey, on its European side.

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Eurasia

Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.

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Eurasia Tunnel

The Eurasia Tunnel (Avrasya Tüneli) is a road tunnel in Istanbul, Turkey, crossing underneath the Bosphorus strait.

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Eurasian Plate

The Eurasian Plate is a tectonic plate which includes most of the continent of Eurasia (a landmass consisting of the traditional continents of Europe and Asia), with the notable exceptions of the Indian subcontinent, the Arabian subcontinent, and the area east of the Chersky Range in East Siberia.

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EuroBasket 2001

The 2001 FIBA European Championship, commonly called FIBA EuroBasket 2001, was the 32nd FIBA EuroBasket regional basketball championship held by FIBA Europe, which also served as Europe qualifier for the 2002 FIBA World Championship, giving a berth to the top four (or five, depending on Yugoslavia reaching one of the top four places) teams in the final standings.

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Europe

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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European Capital of Culture

The European Capital of Culture is a city designated by the European Union (EU) for a period of one calendar year during which it organises a series of cultural events with a strong pan-European dimension.

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European Le Mans Series

The European Le Mans Series (ELMS) is a European sports car racing endurance series inspired by the 24 Hours of Le Mans race and run by the Automobile Club de l'Ouest (ACO).

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European route E80

European route E 80, also known as Trans-European Motorway or TEM, is an A-Class West-East European route, extending from Lisbon, Portugal to Gürbulak, Turkey, on the border with Iran.

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Eusebius

Eusebius of Caesarea (Εὐσέβιος τῆς Καισαρείας, Eusébios tés Kaisareías; 260/265 – 339/340), also known as Eusebius Pamphili (from the Εὐσέβιος τοῦ Παμϕίλου), was a historian of Christianity, exegete, and Christian polemicist. He became the bishop of Caesarea Maritima about 314 AD. Together with Pamphilus, he was a scholar of the Biblical canon and is regarded as an extremely learned Christian of his time. He wrote Demonstrations of the Gospel, Preparations for the Gospel, and On Discrepancies between the Gospels, studies of the Biblical text. As "Father of Church History" (not to be confused with the title of Church Father), he produced the Ecclesiastical History, On the Life of Pamphilus, the Chronicle and On the Martyrs. During the Council of Antiochia (325) he was excommunicated for subscribing to the heresy of Arius, and thus withdrawn during the First Council of Nicaea where he accepted that the Homoousion referred to the Logos. Never recognized as a Saint, he became counselor of Constantine the Great, and with the bishop of Nicomedia he continued to polemicize against Saint Athanasius of Alexandria, Church Fathers, since he was condemned in the First Council of Tyre in 335.

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Evliya Çelebi

Mehmed Zilli (25 March 1611 – 1682), known as Evliya Çelebi (اوليا چلبى), was an Ottoman explorer who travelled through the territory of the Ottoman Empire and neighboring lands over a period of forty years, recording his commentary in a travelogue called the Seyahatname ("Book of Travel").

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Exchange (organized market)

An exchange, or bourse also known as a trading exchange or trading venue, is an organized market where (especially) tradable securities, commodities, foreign exchange, futures, and options contracts are sold and bought.

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Eye surgery

Eye surgery, also known as ocular surgery, is surgery performed on the eye or its adnexa, typically by an ophthalmologist.

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Fall of Constantinople

The Fall of Constantinople (Ἅλωσις τῆς Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Halōsis tēs Kōnstantinoupoleōs; İstanbul'un Fethi Conquest of Istanbul) was the capture of the capital of the Byzantine Empire by an invading Ottoman army on 29 May 1453.

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Fatih

Fatih, historically Constantinople, is the capital district and a municipality (belediye) in Istanbul, Turkey which hosts all the provincial authorities, including the governor's office, police headquarters, metropolitan municipality and tax office while encompassing the peninsula coinciding with old Constantinople.

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Fatih Mosque, Istanbul

The Fatih Mosque (Fatih Camii, "Conqueror's Mosque" in English) is an Ottoman mosque in the Fatih district of Istanbul, Turkey.

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Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge

The Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge ("Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror Bridge"), also known as the Second Bosphorus Bridge (in Turkish: Fatih Sultan Mehmet Köprüsü, F.S.M. Köprüsü or 2. Köprü), is a bridge in Istanbul, Turkey spanning the Bosphorus strait (Turkish: Boğaziçi).

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Fener

Fener (Φανάρι) is a quarter midway up the Golden Horn within the district of Fatih in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Fenerbahçe Basketball

Fenerbahçe Basketball (Fenerbahçe Basketbol Takımı), for sponsorship reasons Fenerbahçe Doğuş, commonly known as Fenerbahçe, is a professional basketball team and the men's basketball department of Fenerbahçe SK, a major Turkish multi-sport club based in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Fenerbahçe S.K.

Fenerbahçe Spor Kulübü (Fenerbahçe Sports Club), commonly known as Fenerbahçe, are a major Turkish multi-sport club based in the Kadıköy district of Istanbul, Turkey.

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Fenerbahçe Women's Volleyball

Fenerbahçe Women's Volleyball is the women's volleyball department of Fenerbahçe SK, a major Turkish multi-sport club based in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Fethi Paşa Korusu

Fethi Paşa Korusu (Fethi Pasha Grove) is a large park in Istanbul, Turkey, on the hillside coming right down to the Bosphorus shore in the area called Paşalimanı.

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FIVB Volleyball Women's Club World Championship

The FIVB Volleyball Women's Club World Championship is an international women's club volleyball competition organised by the Fédération Internationale de Volleyball (FIVB), the sport's global governing body.

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Fjord

Geologically, a fjord or fiord is a long, narrow inlet with steep sides or cliffs, created by a glacier.

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Formula 1 Powerboat World Championship

The Formula 1 Powerboat World Championship (also F1) is an international motorboat racing competition for powerboats organised by the Union Internationale Motonautique (UIM) and promoted by H2O Racing, hence it often being referred to as F1H2O.

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Formula One

Formula One (also Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of single-seater auto racing sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) and owned by the Formula One Group.

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Fossil fuel power station

A fossil fuel power station is a power station which burns a fossil fuel such as coal, natural gas, or petroleum to produce electricity.

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Fountain of Ahmed III

The Fountain of Sultan Ahmed III (III.) is a fountain in a Turkish rococo structure located in the great square in front of the Imperial Gate of Topkapı Palace in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Fourth Crusade

The Fourth Crusade (1202–1204) was a Latin Christian armed expedition called by Pope Innocent III.

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Frankfurt

Frankfurt, officially the City of Frankfurt am Main ("Frankfurt on the Main"), is a metropolis and the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany.

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Funicular

A funicular is one of the modes of transport, along with a cable railway and an inclined elevator, which uses a cable traction for movement on a steep slope.

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Galata

Galata (in Greek was known as Galatas (Γαλατᾶς, Galatás)) was a neighbourhood opposite Constantinople (today's Istanbul, Turkey), located at the northern shore of the Golden Horn, the inlet which separates it from the historic peninsula of old Constantinople.

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Galata Tower

The Galata Tower (Galata Kulesi in Turkish) — called Christea Turris (the Tower of Christ in Latin) by the Genoese — is a medieval stone tower in the Galata/Karaköy quarter of Istanbul, Turkey, just to the north of the Golden Horn's junction with the Bosphorus.

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Galatasaray High School

Galatasaray High School (Galatasaray Lisesi, Lycée de Galatasaray) is one of the most influential high schools in modern Turkey.

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Galatasaray S.K.

Galatasaray Spor Kulübü (Galatasaray Sports Club) is a Turkish sports club based on the European side of the city of Istanbul in Turkey, most notable for its association football department.

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Galatasaray S.K. (men's basketball)

Galatasaray S.K., for sponsorship reasons Galatasaray Odeabank, is a professional basketball team based in the city of Istanbul in Turkey.

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Galleria Ataköy

Galleria Ataköy, the first modern shopping mall in Turkey, is situated in the western suburb of Ataköy, Istanbul.

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Gülhane Park

Gülhane Park (Gülhane Parkı, "Rosehouse Park"; from Persian: Gulkhāna, "house of flowers") is a historical urban park in the Eminönü district of Istanbul, Turkey; it is located adjacent to and on the grounds of the Topkapı Palace.

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Gecekondu

Gecekondu (plural gecekondular) is a Turkish word meaning a house put up quickly without proper permissions, a squatter's house, and by extension, a shanty or shack.

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Gentrification

Gentrification is a process of renovation of deteriorated urban neighborhoods by means of the influx of more affluent residents.

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Geographical regions of Turkey

The geographical regions of Turkey comprise seven regions (bölge) which were originally defined at the country's First Geography Congress in 1941.

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GeoTLD

A GeoTLD (geographic TLD) is a top-level domain in the Domain Name System of the Internet using the name of or invoking an association with a geographical, geopolitical, ethnic, linguistic or cultural community.

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Gezi Park protests

A wave of demonstrations and civil unrest in Turkey began on 28 May 2013, initially to contest the urban development plan for Istanbul's Taksim Gezi Park.

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Global city

A global city, also called world city or sometimes alpha city or world center, is a city which is a primary node in the global economic network.

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Golden Horn

The Golden Horn (Altın Boynuz; Χρυσόκερας, Chrysókeras; Sinus Ceratinus), also known by its modern Turkish name as Haliç, is a major urban waterway and the primary inlet of the Bosphorus in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Governor of İstanbul

The Governor of İstanbul (Turkish: İstanbul Valiliği) is the civil service state official responsible for both national government and state affairs in the Province of İstanbul.

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Grand Bazaar, Istanbul

The Grand Bazaar (Kapalıçarşı, meaning ‘Covered Market’; also Büyük Çarşı, meaning ‘Grand Market’Müller-Wiener (1977), p. 345.) in Istanbul is one of the largest and oldest covered markets in the world, with 61 covered streets and over 4,000 shopsMüller-Wiener (1977), p. 349.

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Grand National Assembly of Turkey

The Grand National Assembly of Turkey (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi), usually referred to simply as the TBMM or Parliament (Meclis or Parlamento), is the unicameral Turkish legislature.

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Grand vizier

In the Ottoman Empire, the Grand Vizier (Sadrazam) was the prime minister of the Ottoman sultan, with absolute power of attorney and, in principle, dismissible only by the sultan himself.

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Greco-Persian Wars

The Greco-Persian Wars (also often called the Persian Wars) were a series of conflicts between the Achaemenid Empire of Persia and Greek city-states that started in 499 BC and lasted until 449 BC.

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Greek government-debt crisis

The Greek government-debt crisis (also known as the Greek Depression) was the sovereign debt crisis faced by Greece in the aftermath of the financial crisis of 2007–08.

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Greek Orthodox Church

The name Greek Orthodox Church (Greek: Ἑλληνορθόδοξη Ἑκκλησία, Ellinorthódoxi Ekklisía), or Greek Orthodoxy, is a term referring to the body of several Churches within the larger communion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity, whose liturgy is or was traditionally conducted in Koine Greek, the original language of the Septuagint and New Testament, and whose history, traditions, and theology are rooted in the early Church Fathers and the culture of the Byzantine Empire.

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Gross domestic product

Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.

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GSM

GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) is a standard developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) to describe the protocols for second-generation digital cellular networks used by mobile devices such as tablets, first deployed in Finland in December 1991.

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Habertürk

Habertürk (literally: "News Turkish"), abbreviated as HT, is a high-circulation Turkish newspaper.

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Hagia Sophia

Hagia Sophia (from the Greek Αγία Σοφία,, "Holy Wisdom"; Sancta Sophia or Sancta Sapientia; Ayasofya) is a former Greek Orthodox Christian patriarchal basilica (church), later an Ottoman imperial mosque and now a museum (Ayasofya Müzesi) in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Hanafi

The Hanafi (حنفي) school is one of the four religious Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence (fiqh).

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Haydarpaşa railway station

Haydarpaşa station (Haydarpaşa Garı) is a railway station in Istanbul.

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Hürriyet

Hürriyet (Liberty) is one of the major Turkish newspapers, founded in 1948.

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Hürriyet Daily News

The Hürriyet Daily News, formerly Hürriyet Daily News and Economic Review and Turkish Daily News, is the oldest current English-language daily in Turkey, founded in 1961.

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Hejaz railway

The Hejaz (or Hedjaz) railway (Hicaz Demiryolu) was a narrow-gauge railway (track gauge) that ran from Damascus to Medina, through the Hejaz region of Saudi Arabia, with a branch line to Haifa on the Mediterranean Sea.

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Herodotus

Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.

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Hippodrome of Constantinople

The Hippodrome of Constantinople (Hippódromos tēs Kōnstantinoupóleōs) was a circus that was the sporting and social centre of Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire.

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Historic Areas of Istanbul

The Historic Areas of Istanbul is a group of sites in the capital district of Fatih in the city of Istanbul, Turkey.

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Humid subtropical climate

A humid subtropical climate is a zone of climate characterized by hot and humid summers, and mild to cool winters.

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Humidity

Humidity is the amount of water vapor present in the air.

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Illyria

In classical antiquity, Illyria (Ἰλλυρία, Illyría or Ἰλλυρίς, Illyrís; Illyria, see also Illyricum) was a region in the western part of the Balkan Peninsula inhabited by the Illyrians.

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Intercity Istanbul Park

Intercity Istanbul Park (İstanbul Park), also known as the Istanbul Racing Circuit, or initially as the Istanbul Otodrom, is a motor sports race track in Tuzla, east of Istanbul, Turkey.

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International Association of Athletics Federations

The International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) is the international governing body for the sport of athletics.

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International Council of Shopping Centers

The International Council of Shopping Centers (ICSC) is the global trade association of the shopping center industry.

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International Istanbul Film Festival

The Istanbul International Film Festival (Uluslararası İstanbul Film Festivali) is the first and oldest international film festival in Turkey, organised by the Istanbul Foundation for Culture and Arts.

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Islam

IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).

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Islamic calligraphy

Islamic calligraphy is the artistic practice of handwriting and calligraphy, based upon the alphabet in the lands sharing a common Islamic cultural heritage.

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Islamic culture

Islamic culture is a term primarily used in secular academia to describe the cultural practices common to historically Islamic people -- i.e., the culture of the Islamicate.

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Isma'il Pasha

Isma'il Pasha (إسماعيل باشا Ismā‘īl Bāshā, Turkish: İsmail Paşa), known as Ismail the Magnificent (31 December 1830 – 2 March 1895), was the Khedive of Egypt and Sudan from 1863 to 1879, when he was removed at the behest of the United Kingdom.

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Israel

Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.

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Istanbul Atatürk Airport

Istanbul Atatürk Airport (İstanbul Atatürk Havalimanı) is the main international airport serving Istanbul, and the biggest airport in Turkey by total number of passengers, destinations served and aircraft movements.

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Istanbul Biennial

The International Istanbul Biennial is a contemporary art exhibition, held every two years in Istanbul, Turkey, since 1987.

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Istanbul Cevahir

Istanbul Cevahir Shopping and Entertainment Centre, also known as Şişli Kültür ve Ticaret Merkezi (Şişli Culture and Trade Centre) is a modern shopping mall located on the Büyükdere Avenue in the Şişli district of Istanbul, Turkey.

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Istanbul Commerce University

Istanbul Commerce University (İstanbul Ticaret Üniversitesi) is a private university established in 2001 by the Istanbul Chamber of Commerce.

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Istanbul High School

İstanbul High School, (İstanbul Lisesi, Istanbuler Gymnasium) also commonly known as İstanbul Erkek Lisesi, abbreviated İEL, is one of the oldest and internationally renowned high schools of Turkey.

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Istanbul International Jazz Festival

The Istanbul International Jazz Festival, formerly Istanbul Festival, (Uluslararası İstanbul Caz Festivali) is a cultural event held every July in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Istanbul International Music Festival

The Istanbul International Music Festival, formerly Istanbul Festival, (Uluslararası İstanbul Müzik Festivali) is a cultural event held every June and July in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Istanbul Metro

The Istanbul Metro (İstanbul Metrosu) is a rapid transit railway network that serves the city of Istanbul, Turkey.

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Istanbul New Airport

Istanbul New Airport (İstanbul Yeni Havalimanı) is an international airport under construction in the Arnavutköy district on the European side of Istanbul, Turkey.

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Istanbul nostalgic tramways

The Istanbul nostalgic tramways are two heritage tramlines in the city of Istanbul, Turkey.

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Istanbul pogrom

The Istanbul pogrom, also known as the Istanbul riots or September events (Septemvriana, "Events of September";, "Events of September 6–7"), were organized mob attacks directed primarily at Istanbul's Greek minority on 6–7 September 1955.

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Istanbul Province

Istanbul Province (İstanbul ili), also the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (İstanbul Büyükşehir Belediyesi) is a province of Turkey.

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Istanbul Technical University

Istanbul Technical University (Turkish İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, commonly referred to as ITU or Technical University) is an international technical university located in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Istanbul Tram

Istanbul Tram is a modern tramway system on the European side of Istanbul, which first opened in 1992 as tramline T1 and being a part of Istanbul's public transport network.

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Istanbul University

Istanbul University (İstanbul Üniversitesi) is a prominent Turkish university located in Istanbul.

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Istanbulkart

istanbulkart is a contactless smart card for fare payment on public transport in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Ivan Aivazovsky

Ivan Konstantinovich Aivazovsky (Ива́н Константи́нович Айвазо́вский; 29 July 18172 May 1900) was an Armenian-Russian Romantic painter who is considered one of the greatest masters of marine art.

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Iznik pottery

Iznik pottery, or Iznik ware, named after the town of İznik in western Anatolia where it was made, is a decorated ceramic that was produced from the last quarter of the 15th century until the end of the 17th century.

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Joint Commission

The Joint Commission is a United States-based nonprofit tax-exempt 501(c) organization that accredits more than 21,000 US health care organizations and programs.

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Justice and Development Party (Turkey)

The Justice and Development Party (Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi), abbreviated officially AK Parti in Turkish, is a conservative political party in Turkey.

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Justinian I

Justinian I (Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus; Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós; 482 14 November 565), traditionally known as Justinian the Great and also Saint Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church, was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565.

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Kabataş Erkek Lisesi

Kabataş Erkek Lisesi or Kabataş High School (Kabataş Mekteb-i İdâdisi) is one of the oldest and most prominent high schools in Turkey.

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Kabataş, Beyoğlu

Kabataş is a quarter of Beyoğlu municipality (belediye) in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Kadıköy

Kadıköy (in Byzantine Chalcedon, in Χαλκηδών), is a large, populous, and cosmopolitan district in the Asian side of Istanbul, Turkey on the northern shore of the Sea of Marmara, facing the historic city centre on the European side of the Bosporus.

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Kadıköy Anadolu Lisesi

Kadıköy Anadolu Lisesi, also commonly known as Kadıköy Maarif College, abbreviated Kadıköy Maarif or KAL, is one of the oldest, most prestigious Anatolian High Schools and internationally renowned high schools of Turkey; located in Moda, Istanbul.

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Kadir Has University

Kadir Has University (KHU or as mostly preferred by its students KHAS), was founded in 1997, in Istanbul.

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Kadir Topbaş

Kadir Topbaş (born 8 January 1945) is a Turkish architect, businessman, politician and former mayor of Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality in Turkey from 2004 to 2017.

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Kaifeng

Kaifeng, known previously by several names, is a prefecture-level city in east-central Henan province, China.

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Kanal İstanbul

Kanal İstanbul (Channel Istanbul) is a Turkish project for the artificial sea-level waterway, which is being built by the Republic of Turkey on the European side of Turkey, connecting the Black Sea to the Sea of Marmara, and thus to the Aegean and Mediterranean seas.

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Kanal D

Kanal D is a nationwide television channel in Turkey and part of Doğan Media Group owned by the Turkish media tycoon Aydın Doğan.

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Kanyon Shopping Mall

Kanyon (meaning Canyon in Turkish) is a multi-purpose complex located on the Büyükdere Avenue in the Levent business district of Istanbul, Turkey.

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Karaköy

Karaköy, the modern name for ancient Galata, is a commercial quarter in the Beyoğlu district of Istanbul, Turkey, located at the northern part of the Golden Horn mouth on the European side of Bosphorus.

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Kastamonu Province

Kastamonu Province (Kastamonu ili) is one of the provinces of Turkey, in the Black Sea region to the north of the country. It is surrounded by Sinop to the east, Bartın, Karabük to the west, Çankırı to the south, Çorum to the southeast and the Black Sea to the north.

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Köppen climate classification

The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.

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Kebab

Kebabs (also kabobs or kababs) are various cooked meat dishes, with their origins in Middle Eastern cuisine.

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Kemal Kılıçdaroğlu

Kemal Kılıçdaroğlu (born 17 December 1948) is a Turkish social democratic politician.

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Kemalism

Kemalism (Kemalizm), also known as Atatürkism (Atatürkçülük, Atatürkçü düşünce), or the '''Six Arrows''' (Altı ok), is the founding ideology of the Republic of Turkey.

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Khedivate of Egypt

The Khedivate of Egypt (خدیویت مصر) was an autonomous tributary state of the Ottoman Empire, established and ruled by the Muhammad Ali Dynasty following the defeat and expulsion of Napoleon Bonaparte's forces which brought an end to the short-lived French occupation of Lower Egypt.

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Khedive

The term Khedive (خدیو Hıdiv) is a title largely equivalent to the English word viceroy.

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Koç University

Koç University (Koç Üniversitesi) is a non-profit private university in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Kuleli Military High School

Kuleli Military High School was the oldest military high school in Turkey, located in Çengelköy, Istanbul, on the Asian shore of the Bosphorus strait.

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Kumkapı

Kumkapı (meaning 'sand gate' in Turkish) is a quarter in Fatih district of Istanbul.

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Kurdish–Turkish conflict (1978–present)

The Kurdish–Turkish conflict is an armed conflict between the Republic of Turkey and various Kurdish insurgent groups, which have demanded separation from Turkey to create an independent Kurdistan, or to have autonomy and greater political and cultural rights for Kurds inside the Republic of Turkey.

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Kurdistan Workers' Party

The Kurdistan Workers' Party or PKK (Partiya Karkerên Kurdistanê) is an organization based in Turkey and Iraq.

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Kurds

The Kurds (rtl, Kurd) or the Kurdish people (rtl, Gelî kurd), are an ethnic group in the Middle East, mostly inhabiting a contiguous area spanning adjacent parts of southeastern Turkey (Northern Kurdistan), northwestern Iran (Eastern Kurdistan), northern Iraq (Southern Kurdistan), and northern Syria (Western Kurdistan).

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Lake-effect snow

Lake-effect snow is produced during cooler atmospheric conditions when a cold air mass moves across long expanses of warmer lake water, warming the lower layer of air which picks up water vapor from the lake, rises up through the colder air above, freezes and is deposited on the leeward (downwind) shores.

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Landline

A landline telephone (also known as land line, land-line, main line, home phone, landline, fixed-line, and wireline) is a phone that uses a metal wire or optical fiber telephone line for transmission as distinguished from a mobile cellular line, which uses radio waves for transmission.

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Latin Church in the Middle East

The Latin Church in the Middle East represents members of Catholic Church's Latin Church in the Middle East, notably in Turkey and the Levant (Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Palestine, and Jordan).

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Latin Empire

The Empire of Romania (Imperium Romaniae), more commonly known in historiography as the Latin Empire or Latin Empire of Constantinople, and known to the Byzantines as the Frankokratia or the Latin Occupation, was a feudal Crusader state founded by the leaders of the Fourth Crusade on lands captured from the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire.

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Levent

Levent is a neighbourhood and one of the main business districts of Istanbul, Turkey, located on the European side of the city.

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Liceo Italiano di Istanbul

The Liceo Italiano Statale Istanbul or the Istituti Medi Italiani (I.M.I.), popularly known as Liceo Italiano in Italian and İtalyan Lisesi in Turkish, is under legislation a private school which is situated in Istanbul, Turkey.

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List of busiest airports by passenger traffic

The world's busiest airports by passenger traffic are measured by total passengers (data from Airports Council International), defined as passengers enplaned plus passengers deplaned plus direct-transit passengers.

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List of cities by GDP

This is a list of cities and/or their metropolitan areas in the world by GDP.

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List of cities proper by population

This article lists the most populous cities in the world defined according to a concept of city proper.

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List of districts of Istanbul

This is a list of districts of Istanbul in Turkey (İstanbul'un ilçeleri) as of 31 December 2017.

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List of European cities by population within city limits

This is a list of the largest cities in Europe ranked according to population within their city limits.

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List of high school in Istanbul

The list of schools in Istanbul lists high schools within the city limits of Istanbul.

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List of largest cities

Determining the world's largest cities depends on which definitions of city are used.

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List of largest cities and towns in Turkey

This is a list of cities and towns in Turkey by population, which includes cities and towns that are provincial capitals or have a population of at least 7,001.

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List of largest cities throughout history

This article lists the largest cities or urban areas by estimated population in history.

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List of largest European cities in history

No description.

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List of mayors of Istanbul

This is a list of mayors of Istanbul, Turkey.

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List of metropolitan areas by population

One concept which measures the world's largest cities is that of the metropolitan area, which is based on the concept of a labor market area and is typically defined as an employment core (an area with a high density of available jobs) and the surrounding areas that have strong commuting ties to the core.

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List of metropolitan areas in Europe

This is a list of metropolitan areas in Europe, with their population according to three different sources.

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List of shopping malls in Istanbul

This is a list of notable historical and modern shopping malls in Istanbul, Turkey.

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List of the busiest airports in Europe

This is a list of the 100 busiest airports in Europe, ranked by total passengers per year, including both terminal and transit passengers.

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List of urban areas by population

This is a list of contiguous urban areas of the world ranked according to population.

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Little Hagia Sophia

Little Hagia Sophia Mosque (Küçük Ayasofya Camii), formerly the Church of the Saints Sergius and Bacchus (Ἐκκλησία τῶν Ἁγίων Σεργίου καὶ Βάκχου ἐν τοῖς Ὁρμίσδου, Ekklēsía tôn Hagíōn Sergíou kaì Bákchou en toîs Hormísdou), is a former Greek Eastern Orthodox church dedicated to Saints Sergius and Bacchus in Constantinople, converted into a mosque during the Ottoman Empire.

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London

London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Lord Chancellor

The Lord Chancellor, formally the Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, is the highest ranking among those Great Officers of State which are appointed regularly in the United Kingdom, nominally outranking even the Prime Minister.

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Low-cost carrier

A low-cost carrier or low-cost airline (also known as ''no-frills'', ''discount'' or budget carrier or airline, or LCC) is an airline without most of the traditional services provided in the fare, resulting in lower fares and fewer comforts.

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M1 (Istanbul Metro)

Line M1, officially referred to as the M1 Yenikapı–Atatürk Airport/Kirazlı line, (also known as the Istanbul Light Metro (Hafif Metro)) is a rapid transit line of the Istanbul Metro.

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M2 (Istanbul Metro)

Line M2, officially referred to as the M2 Yenikapı – Hacıosman line (M2 Yenikapı - Hacıosman metro hattı), is a, 16-station rapid transit line of the Istanbul Metro.

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M3 (Istanbul Metro)

The M3, officially referred to as the M3 Kirazli–Başakşehir/Olimpiyatköy Metro Line (M3 Başakşehir–Başakşehir/Olimpiyatköy Metro Hattı), is a, 11-station rapid transit line of the İstanbul Metro system on the European part of Istanbul, Turkey.

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M4 (Istanbul Metro)

Line M4, officially referred to as the M4 Kadıköy–Tavşantepe line (M4 Kadıköy–Tavşantepe Metro Hattı), is a, 19-station rapid transit line of the Istanbul Metro.

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M5 (Istanbul Metro)

Line M5, officially referred to as the M5 Üsküdar–Çekmeköy line (M5 Üsküdar–Çekmeköy metro hattı), is a rapid transit line of the İstanbul Metro System.

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M6 (Istanbul Metro)

Line M6, officially referred to as the M6 Levent – Hisarüstü/Boğaziçi Üniversitesi line, is a light metro line of the Istanbul Metro.

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M7 (Istanbul Metro)

Line M7, officially referred to as the M7 Kabataş–Mahmutbey line (M7 Kabataş–Mahmutbey metro hattı) is a rapid transit line of the İstanbul Metro system on the European part of Istanbul, Turkey.

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M8 (Istanbul Metro)

Line M8, officially referred to as the M8 Bostancı-Dudullu line, is a rapid transit line of the Istanbul Metro system, currently under construction in the Asian part of Istanbul, Turkey.

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Madrasa

Madrasa (مدرسة,, pl. مدارس) is the Arabic word for any type of educational institution, whether secular or religious (of any religion), and whether a school, college, or university.

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Magnetic resonance imaging

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.

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Mahmud II

Mahmud II (Ottoman Turkish: محمود ثانى Mahmud-u sānī, محمود عدلى Mahmud-u Âdlî) (İkinci Mahmut) (20 July 1785 – 1 July 1839) was the 30th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1808 until his death in 1839.

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Mahmutpasha Bazaar, Istanbul

Mahmutpasha Bazaar, (Mahmutpaşa Çarşısı) is a shopping street in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Maiden's Tower

The Maiden's Tower (Kız Kulesi), also known as Leander's Tower (Tower of Leandros) since the medieval Byzantine period, is a tower lying on a small islet located at the southern entrance of the Bosphorus strait from the coast of Üsküdar in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Marmara Region

The Marmara Region (Turkish: Marmara Bölgesi) is a geographical region of Turkey.

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Marmara University

Marmara University (Turkish: Marmara Üniversitesi) is a public university in the Fatih district of Istanbul, in Turkey.

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Marmaray

Marmaray is a partially operational rail transportation project in the Turkish city of Istanbul.

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Maslak

Maslak is one of the main business districts of Sarıyer, Istanbul, Turkey, located on the European side of the city.

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Medical research

Biomedical research (or experimental medicine) encompasses a wide array of research, extending from "basic research" (also called bench science or bench research), – involving fundamental scientific principles that may apply to a ''preclinical'' understanding – to clinical research, which involves studies of people who may be subjects in clinical trials.

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Medical tourism

Medical tourism refers to people traveling to a country other than their own to obtain medical treatment.

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Medieval Greek

Medieval Greek, also known as Byzantine Greek, is the stage of the Greek language between the end of Classical antiquity in the 5th–6th centuries and the end of the Middle Ages, conventionally dated to the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453.

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Mediterranean Basin

In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin (also known as the Mediterranean region or sometimes Mediterranea) is the region of lands around the Mediterranean Sea that have a Mediterranean climate, with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers, which supports characteristic Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub vegetation.

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Mediterranean climate

A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by rainy winters and dry summers.

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Mediterranean Sea

The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.

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Megara

Megara (Μέγαρα) is a historic town and a municipality in West Attica, Greece.

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Mehmed the Conqueror

Mehmed II (محمد ثانى, Meḥmed-i sānī; Modern II.; 30 March 1432 – 3 May 1481), commonly known as Mehmed the Conqueror (Fatih Sultan Mehmet), was an Ottoman Sultan who ruled first for a short time from August 1444 to September 1446, and later from February 1451 to May 1481.

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Mehmed VI

Mehmed VI (محمد السادس Meḥmed-i sâdis, وحيد الدين Vahideddin, Vahideddin or Altıncı Mehmet), who is also known as Şahbaba (meaning "Emperor-father") among his relatives, (14 January 1861 – 16 May 1926) was the 36th and last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, reigning from 1918 to 1922.

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Member of parliament

A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the voters to a parliament.

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Merv

Merv (Merw, Мерв, مرو; مرو, Marv), formerly Achaemenid Persian Satrapy of Margiana, and later Alexandria (Margiana) (Ἀλεξάνδρεια) and Antiochia in Margiana (Ἀντιόχεια τῆς Μαργιανῆς), was a major oasis-city in Central Asia, on the historical Silk Road, located near today's Mary in Turkmenistan.

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Metonymy

Metonymy is a figure of speech in which a thing or concept is referred to by the name of something closely associated with that thing or concept.

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Metro FM (Turkey)

Metro FM is a nationwide FM radio network broadcasting from İstanbul.

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Metrobus (Istanbul)

Metrobus (Metrobüs) is a bus rapid transit route in İstanbul, Turkey with 45 stations which follows the city's ring-road via Avcılar, Zincirlikuyu and the Bosphorus Bridge to Söğütlüçeşme using dedicated bus lanes for much of the route.

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Metropolitan area

A metropolitan area, sometimes referred to as a metro area or commuter belt, is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing.

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Metropolitan municipalities in Turkey

There are 81 provinces in Turkey (il).

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Metropolitan Railway

The Metropolitan Railway (also known as the Met) was a passenger and goods railway that served London from 1863 to 1933, its main line heading north-west from the capital's financial heart in the City to what were to become the Middlesex suburbs.

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Mevlüt Uysal

Mevlüt Uysal (born 1966, Alanya) is a Turkish lawyer, politician and current mayor of Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality of Turkey.

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Microclimate

A microclimate is a local set of atmospheric conditions that differ from those in the surrounding areas, often with a slight difference but sometimes with a substantial one.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Military academy

A military academy or service academy (in the United States) is an educational institution which prepares candidates for service in the officer corps.

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Millet (Ottoman Empire)

In the Ottoman Empire, a millet was a separate court of law pertaining to "personal law" under which a confessional community (a group abiding by the laws of Muslim Sharia, Christian Canon law, or Jewish Halakha) was allowed to rule itself under its own laws.

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Milliyet

Milliyet (Turkish for "nationality") is a major Turkish daily newspaper published in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Mimar Sinan

Koca Mi'mâr Sinân Âğâ (معمار سينان, "Sinan Agha the Grand Architect"; Modern Turkish: Mimar Sinan,, "Sinan the Architect") (1488/1490 – July 17, 1588) was the chief Ottoman architect (mimar) and civil engineer for Sultans Suleiman the Magnificent, Selim II, and Murad III.

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Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University

Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University (Mimar Sinan Güzel Sanatlar Üniversitesi; abbreviated MSGSÜ) is a Turkish state university dedicated to the higher education of fine arts.

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Mission Istaanbul

Mission Istaanbul is a 2008 action thriller film starring Vivek Oberoi, Shriya Saran and Zayed Khan.

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Mobile phone

A mobile phone, known as a cell phone in North America, is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area.

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Moment magnitude scale

The moment magnitude scale (MMS; denoted as Mw or M) is one of many seismic magnitude scales used to measure the size of earthquakes.

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Monastery of Stoudios

The Monastery of Stoudios, more fully Monastery of Saint John the Forerunner "at Stoudios" (Greek Μονή του Αγίου Ιωάννη του Προδρόμου «εν τοις Στουδίου» Monē tou Hagiou Iōannē tou Prodromou "en tois Stoudiou"), often shortened to Stoudios, Studion, or Stoudion, (Studium), was historically the most important monastery of Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul), the capital of the Byzantine Empire.

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Moscow

Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.

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Mosques commissioned by the Ottoman dynasty

The list below contains some of the most important mosques in modern-day Turkey that were commissioned by the members of Ottoman imperial family.

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MSNBC

MSNBC is an American news cable and satellite television network that provides news coverage and political commentary from NBC News on current events.

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Murad IV

Murad IV (مراد رابع, Murād-ı Rābiʿ; 26/27 July 1612 – 8 February 1640) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1623 to 1640, known both for restoring the authority of the state and for the brutality of his methods.

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Muslim

A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.

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Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (19 May 1881 (conventional) – 10 November 1938) was a Turkish army officer, revolutionary, and founder of the Republic of Turkey, serving as its first President from 1923 until his death in 1938.

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My Father and My Son

My Father and My Son (Babam ve Oğlum) is a 2005 Turkish drama film written and directed by Çağan Irmak about a family torn apart by the 1980 Turkish coup d'état.

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Names of Istanbul

The city of Istanbul has been known by a number of different names.

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Nationalist Movement Party

The Nationalist Movement Party (alternatively translated as Nationalist Action Party; Milliyetçi Hareket Partisi, MHP) is a Turkish far-right conservative political party that adheres to Turkish ultranationalism and Euroscepticism.

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Naval Academy (Turkey)

The Turkish Naval Academy (Deniz Harp Okulu) is a four-year co-educational military academy located in the district of Tuzla in Istanbul.

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Naval High School (Turkey)

Deniz Lisesi (English: Naval High School); known in the Ottoman period as the Mühendishane-i Bahr-i Hümâyûn (Imperial School of Naval Engineering) and later as the Mekteb-i Bahriye-i Şahane (Imperial Naval School); is a Turkish naval high school located on Heybeliada Island (the second largest of the Prince Islands) in the Sea of Marmara, to the southeast of Istanbul, Turkey.

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Neoclassical architecture

Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century.

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Neolithic

The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.

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Neolithic Revolution

The Neolithic Revolution, Neolithic Demographic Transition, Agricultural Revolution, or First Agricultural Revolution, was the wide-scale transition of many human cultures during the Neolithic period from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to one of agriculture and settlement, making an increasingly larger population possible.

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New Mosque (Istanbul)

The Yeni Cami, meaning New Mosque; originally named the Valide Sultan Mosque (Valide Sultan Camii) and later New Valide Sultan Mosque (Yeni Valide Sultan Camii) after its partial reconstruction and completion between 1660 and 1665; is an Ottoman imperial mosque located in the Eminönü quarter of Istanbul, Turkey.

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New Rome

New Rome (Greek: Νέα Ῥώμη, Nea Romē; Latin: Nova Roma) has often been used to describe the city founded by the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great in 330 AD as his new imperial capital at the city on the European coast of the Bosphorus strait, then known as Byzantium, which he enlarged and named after himself as Constantinople.

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New York City

The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.

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Nişantaşı

Nişantaşı is a quarter of the Şişli district on the European side of Istanbul, Turkey.

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Nightlife

Nightlife is a collective term for entertainment that is available and generally more popular from the late evening into the early hours of the morning.

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Nika riots

The Nika riots (Στάσις τοῦ Νίκα Stásis toû Níka), or Nika revolt, took place against Emperor Justinian I in Constantinople over the course of a week in AD 532.

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North Anatolian Fault

The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) (Kuzey Anadolu Fay Hattı.) is an active right-lateral strike-slip fault in northern Anatolia which runs along the transform boundary between the Eurasian Plate and the Anatolian Plate.

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NTV (Turkey)

NTV is a Turkish nationwide television news channel.

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Nuruosmaniye Mosque

The Nuruosmaniye Mosque (Nuruosmaniye Camii) is an Ottoman mosque located in the Çemberlitaş neighbourhood of Fatih district in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Obelisk of Theodosius

The Obelisk of Theodosius (Dikilitaş) is the Ancient Egyptian obelisk of Pharaoh Thutmose III re-erected in the Hippodrome of Constantinople (known today as At Meydanı or Sultanahmet Meydanı, in the modern city of Istanbul, Turkey) by the Roman emperor Theodosius I in the 4th century AD.

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Occupation of Constantinople

The Occupation of Constantinople (İstanbul'un İşgali) (November 13, 1918 – September 23, 1923), the capital of the Ottoman Empire, by British, French and Italian forces, took place in accordance with the Armistice of Mudros, which ended Ottoman participation in the First World War.

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Oceanic climate

An oceanic or highland climate, also known as a marine or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features cool summers (relative to their latitude) and cool winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates.

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OECD

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.

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Orient Express

The Orient Express was a long-distance passenger train service created in 1883 by Compagnie Internationale des Wagons-Lits (CIWL).

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Ortaköy

Ortaköy (literally Middle Village in Turkish) in Greek known as Agios Fokas (Άγιος Φωκάς) in the Byzantine period and Mesachorion (Μεσαχώριον, meaning "middle village") later, is a neighbourhood, formerly a small village, within the Beşiktaş district of Istanbul, Turkey, located in the middle of the European bank of the Bosphorus.

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Ortaköy Mosque

Ortaköy Mosque (Ortaköy Camii), officially the Büyük Mecidiye Camii (Grand Imperial Mosque of Sultan Abdülmecid) in Beşiktaş, Istanbul, Turkey, is situated at the waterside of the Ortaköy pier square, one of the most popular locations on the Bosphorus.

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Otoyol 1

Otoyol 1 (Motorway 1), abbreviated as O-1 and locally referred to as Istanbul Inner Beltway (İstanbul 1.), is a controlled access highway in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Otoyol 2

Otoyol 2 (Motorway 2), abbreviated as, aka İstanbul 2.

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Otoyol 3

Otoyol 3 (Motorway 3), also known as the European Motorway (Avrupa Otoyolu) and abbreviated as the O-3 is a long otoyol in East Thrace, Turkey.

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Otoyol 4

Otoyol 4 (Motorway 4), named Anatolian Motorway (Anadolu Otoyolu) and abbreviated as O-4, is a toll motorway connecting the northeastern Marmara Region to the Central Anatolia Region in Turkey.

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Ottoman architecture

Ottoman architecture is the architecture of the Ottoman Empire which emerged in Bursa and Edirne in 14th and 15th centuries.

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Ottoman Caliphate

The Ottoman Caliphate (1517–1924), under the Ottoman dynasty of the Ottoman Empire, was the last Sunni Islamic caliphate of the late medieval and the early modern era.

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Ottoman constitution of 1876

The Ottoman constitution of 1876 (قانون اساسى; Kanûn-u Esâsî; "Basic Law") was the first constitution of the Ottoman Empire.

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Ottoman cuisine

Ottoman cuisine is the cuisine of the Ottoman Empire and its continuation in the cuisines of Turkey, Greece, the Balkans, and parts of the Caucasus and the Middle East.

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Ottoman dynasty

The Ottoman dynasty (Osmanlı Hanedanı) was made up of the members of the imperial House of Osman (خاندان آل عثمان Ḫānedān-ı Āl-ı ʿOsmān), also known as the Ottomans (Osmanlılar).

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Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

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Ottoman Imperial Harem

The Imperial Harem (حرم همايون, Harem-i Hümâyûn) of the Ottoman Empire was the Ottoman sultan's harem composed of the wives, servants (both female slaves and eunuchs), female relatives, and the sultan's concubines, occupying a secluded portion of the Ottoman imperial household.

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Ottoman miniature

Ottoman miniature or Turkish miniature was an art form in the Ottoman Empire, which can be linked to the Persian miniature tradition, as well as strong Chinese artistic influences.

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Ottoman Turkish language

Ottoman Turkish (Osmanlı Türkçesi), or the Ottoman language (Ottoman Turkish:, lisân-ı Osmânî, also known as, Türkçe or, Türkî, "Turkish"; Osmanlıca), is the variety of the Turkish language that was used in the Ottoman Empire.

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Ottoman Turks

The Ottoman Turks (or Osmanlı Turks, Osmanlı Türkleri) were the Turkish-speaking population of the Ottoman Empire who formed the base of the state's military and ruling classes.

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Pammakaristos Church

Pammakaristos Church, also known as the Church of Theotokos Pammakaristos (Θεοτόκος ἡ Παμμακάριστος, "All-Blessed Mother of God"), is one of the most famous Greek Orthodox Byzantine churches in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Paris

Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.

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Peoples' Democratic Party (Turkey)

The Peoples' Democratic Party (Turkish: Halkların Demokratik Partisi (HDP), Kurdish: Partiya Demokratîk a Gelan), or Democratic Party of the Peoples, is a pro-minority political party in Turkey.

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Pera Museum

Pera Museum (Turkish: Pera Müzesi) is an art museum in the Tepebaşı quarter of the Beyoğlu (Pera) district in Istanbul, Turkey, located at Meşrutiyet Avenue No.

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Pescennius Niger

Pescennius Niger (Gaius Pescennius Niger Augustus; c. 135/140 – 194) was Roman Emperor from 193 to 194 during the Year of the Five Emperors.

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Pliny the Elder

Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.

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Polis

Polis (πόλις), plural poleis (πόλεις), literally means city in Greek.

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Population exchange between Greece and Turkey

The 1923 population exchange between Greece and Turkey (Ἡ Ἀνταλλαγή, Mübâdele) stemmed from the "Convention Concerning the Exchange of Greek and Turkish Populations" signed at Lausanne, Switzerland, on 30 January 1923, by the governments of Greece and Turkey.

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Port of Haydarpaşa

The Port of Haydarpaşa, also known as the Port of Haidar Pasha (Haydarpaşa Limanı) is a general cargo seaport, ro-ro and container terminal, situated in Haydarpaşa, Istanbul, Turkey at the southern entrance to the Bosphorus.

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Port of Istanbul

The Port of Istanbul is a passenger terminal for cruise liners, which is situated at Karaköy neighborhood of Beyoğlu district in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Posta (newspaper)

Posta is a mass market Turkish daily newspaper, with the second highest circulation in Turkey.

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Postal code

A postal code (also known locally in various English-speaking countries throughout the world as a postcode, post code, Eircode, PIN Code or ZIP Code) is a series of letters or digits or both, sometimes including spaces or punctuation, included in a postal address for the purpose of sorting mail.

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Primary school

A primary school (or elementary school in American English and often in Canadian English) is a school in which children receive primary or elementary education from the age of about seven to twelve, coming after preschool, infant school and before secondary school.

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Prince Islands

The Prince Islands (Πριγκηπονήσια, Prens Adaları, alternatively written as Princes' Islands in which the "princes" are plural (meaning "Islands of the Princes"); or Kızıl Adalar ("Red Islands") in Turkish); officially just Adalar ("Islands"), are an archipelago off the coast of Istanbul, Turkey, in the Sea of Marmara.

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Productivity

Productivity describes various measures of the efficiency of production.

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Promontory

A promontory is a raised mass of land that projects into a lowland or a body of water (in which case it is a peninsula).

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Provinces of Turkey

Turkey is divided into 81 provinces (il).

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Purchasing power parity

Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a neoclassical economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two countries is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power.

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Qadi

A qadi (قاضي; also cadi, kadi or kazi) is the magistrate or judge of the Shariʿa court, who also exercises extrajudicial functions, such as mediation, guardianship over orphans and minors, and supervision and auditing of public works.

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Rapid transit

Rapid transit or mass rapid transit, also known as heavy rail, metro, MRT, subway, tube, U-Bahn or underground, is a type of high-capacity public transport generally found in urban areas.

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Recep Tayyip Erdoğan

Recep Tayyip Erdoğan (born 26 February 1954) is a Turkish politician serving as President of Turkey since 2014.

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Renaissance Revival architecture

Renaissance Revival (sometimes referred to as "Neo-Renaissance") is a broad designation that covers many 19th century architectural revival styles which were neither Grecian (see Greek Revival) nor Gothic (see Gothic Revival) but which instead drew inspiration from a wide range of classicizing Italian modes.

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Republic of Genoa

The Republic of Genoa (Repúbrica de Zêna,; Res Publica Ianuensis; Repubblica di Genova) was an independent state from 1005 to 1797 in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast, incorporating Corsica from 1347 to 1768, and numerous other territories throughout the Mediterranean.

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Republican People's Party (Turkey)

The Republican People's Party (Cumhuriyet Halk Partisi, CHP) is a Kemalist and social-democratic political party in Turkey.

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Ring road

A ring road (also known as beltline, beltway, circumferential (high)way, loop or orbital) is a road or a series of connected roads encircling a town, city, or country.

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Robert College

Robert College of Istanbul (İstanbul Özel Amerikan Robert Lisesi or Robert Kolej) is an independent privateThe Turkish education system divides schools into two classes: public or private.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Roman usurper

Usurpers are individuals or groups of individuals who obtain and maintain the power or rights of another by force and without legal authority.

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Romaniote Jews

The Romaniote Jews or Romaniots (Ῥωμανιῶτες, Rhōmaniṓtes; רומניוטים, Romanyotim) are an ethnic Jewish community with distinctive cultural features who have lived in the Eastern Mediterranean for more than 2,000 years and are the oldest Jewish community in the Levant.

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Rumelihisarı

Rumelihisarı (also known as Rumelian Castle and Roumeli Hissar Castle) or Boğazkesen Castle (literally meaning "Strait-Cutter Castle") is a medieval fortress located in Istanbul, Turkey, on a series of hills on the European banks of the Bosphorus.

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Sabah (newspaper)

Sabah is a Turkish daily newspaper, with a circulation of around 330,000 as of 2011.

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Sabiha Gökçen International Airport

Sabiha Gökçen International Airport is one of the two international airports serving Istanbul, the largest city in Turkey, the other being Atatürk Airport.

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Safavid dynasty

The Safavid dynasty (دودمان صفوی Dudmān e Safavi) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran, often considered the beginning of modern Iranian history.

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Sakıp Sabancı Museum

The Sabancı University Sakıp Sabancı Museum (Sakıp Sabancı Müzesi) is a private fine arts museum in Istanbul, Turkey, dedicated to calligraphic art, religious and state documents, as well as paintings of the Ottoman era.

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Samatya

Samatya (Ψαμάθεια, pr. Psamatheia; Սամաթիա) is a quarter of the Fatih district of Istanbul.

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Samuel Morse

Samuel Finley Breese Morse (April 27, 1791 – April 2, 1872) was an American painter and inventor. After having established his reputation as a portrait painter, in his middle age Morse contributed to the invention of a single-wire telegraph system based on European telegraphs. He was a co-developer of the Morse code and helped to develop the commercial use of telegraphy.

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SantralIstanbul

The SantralIstanbul (Santralİstanbul), opened in 2007, is an arts and cultural complex located at the upper end of Golden Horn in the Eyüp district of Istanbul, Turkey.

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Sarayburnu

Sarayburnu (Sarayburnu, meaning Cape Palace; known in English as the Seraglio Point) is a promontory quarter separating the Golden Horn and the Sea of Marmara in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Sarıyer

Sarıyer is the northernmost district of Istanbul, Turkey, on the European side of the city.

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São Paulo Art Biennial

The São Paulo Art Biennial (Bienal in Portuguese) was founded in 1951 and has been held every two years since.

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Sözcü

Sözcü (English: Spokesperson) is a popular Turkish daily newspaper.

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Süleymaniye Mosque

The Süleymaniye Mosque (Süleymaniye Camii) is an Ottoman imperial mosque located on the Third Hill of Istanbul, Turkey.

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Süper Lig

The Süper Lig (Super League) is a Turkish professional league for association football clubs.

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Sea of Marmara

The Sea of Marmara (Marmara Denizi), also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea, and in the context of classical antiquity as the Propontis is the inland sea, entirely within the borders of Turkey, that connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea, thus separating Turkey's Asian and European parts.

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Seafood

Seafood is any form of sea life regarded as food by humans.

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Second Athenian Empire

The Second Athenian Empire or Confederacy was a maritime confederation of Aegean city-states from 378–355 BC and headed by Athens, primarily for self-defense against the growth of Sparta and secondly, the Persian Empire.

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Selahattin Demirtaş

Selahattin Demirtaş (born 10 April 1973) is a Turkish politician of Zaza Kurdish descent, member of the parliament of Turkey since 2007.

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Sephardi Jews

Sephardi Jews, also known as Sephardic Jews or Sephardim (סְפָרַדִּים, Modern Hebrew: Sefaraddim, Tiberian: Səp̄āraddîm; also Ye'hude Sepharad, lit. "The Jews of Spain"), originally from Sepharad, Spain or the Iberian peninsula, are a Jewish ethnic division.

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Septimius Severus

Septimius Severus (Lucius Septimius Severus Augustus; 11 April 145 – 4 February 211), also known as Severus, was Roman emperor from 193 to 211.

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Seven hills of Istanbul

Constantinople is known as the City on the Seven Hills (Yedi tepeli şehir).

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Seven hills of Rome

The seven hills of Rome (Sette colli di Roma, Septem colles/ montes Romae) east of the river Tiber form the geographical heart of Rome, within the walls of the city.

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Sewage treatment

Sewage treatment is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater, primarily from household sewage.

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Shafi‘i

The Shafi‘i (شافعي, alternative spelling Shafei) madhhab is one of the four schools of Islamic law in Sunni Islam.

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Shahada

The Shahada (الشهادة,"the testimony").

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Show TV

Show TV is a nationwide television channel in Turkey owned by Ciner Media Group (since 2013, acquired from Çukurova Media Group after Çukurova was forced to sell due to tax debts. The channel was originally established by the Turkish businessmen Erol Aksoy and Haldun Simavi and were originally launched on March 1, 1991, although it commences its test transmissions. A year later, the channel moved its headquarters to Istanbul, Turkey, and were at the same time starting its official broadcasts. Show TV extended its range of viewers by adding more channels like Show Max and Show Turk to its group. Show TV aired many world-known series for the first time in Turkey. Among them were S.W.A.T., The Master, The Rookies, Silk Stalkings, T. J. Hooker, Booker, Roseanne, The Wonder Years, Superboy, Tequila and Bonetti, Doogie Howser, M.D., The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air, Dream On, Generations, The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles, Seinfeld, In the Heat of the Night, Friends, Beverly Hills, 90210, Power Rangers and Premiers Baisers. Furthermore, it re-aired some television series like Fame, Charlie's Angels, The Twilight Zone and Dallas, which were very popular during the monopolistic era of TRT in Turkey. The channel's personalities include Mustafa Ceceli, Begüm, Alişan, Asuman Krause, Ali Sunal, Jülide Ateş and Çağla Şikel. The channel also aired successful Turkish television series like Kurtlar Vadisi, Doktorlar, Adını Feriha Koydum, and Muhteşem Yüzyıl.

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Silahtarağa Power Station

The Silahtarağa Power Station (Silahtarağa Elektrik Santralı) was a coal-fired generating station located in Istanbul Turkey.

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Silivri

Silivri (Selymbria) is a city and a district in Istanbul Province along the Sea of Marmara in Turkey, outside metropolitan Istanbul, containing many holiday and weekend homes for residents of the city.

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Silk Road

The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West.

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Sinan Erdem Dome

The Sinan Erdem Dome, formerly known as the Ataköy Dome, is a multi-purpose indoor arena that is located in Ataköy, Bakırköy, Istanbulon the European side of Istanbul, Turkey.

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Sirkeci railway station

Sirkeci railway station (Sirkeci garı), listed on maps as Istanbul railway station (İstanbul garı), is a railway terminal in Istanbul.

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Sivas Province

Sivas Province (Sivas İli) is a province of Turkey.

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Spice Bazaar

The Spice Bazaar (Turkish: Mısır Çarşısı, meaning Egyptian Bazaar) in Istanbul, Turkey is one of the largest bazaars in the city.

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Sports club

A sports club or sporting club, sometimes athletics club or sports society or sports association, is a group of people formed for the purpose of playing sports.

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St. George's Cathedral, Istanbul

The Church of St.

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Stained glass

The term stained glass can refer to coloured glass as a material or to works created from it.

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Star TV (Turkey)

Star TV is a Turkish nationwide TV channel.

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Strait

A strait is a naturally formed, narrow, typically navigable waterway that connects two larger bodies of water.

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Sublime Porte

The Sublime Porte, also known as the Ottoman Porte or High Porte (باب عالی Bāb-ı Ālī or Babıali, from باب, bāb "gate" and عالي, alī "high"), is a synecdochic metonym for the central government of the Ottoman Empire.

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Suez Canal

thumb The Suez Canal (قناة السويس) is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez.

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Sufism

Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.

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Suleiman the Magnificent

|spouse.

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Sultan

Sultan (سلطان) is a position with several historical meanings.

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Sultan Ahmed Mosque

The Sultan Ahmed Mosque or Sultan Ahmet Mosque (Sultan Ahmet Camii) is a historic mosque located in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Sultanbeyli

Sultanbeyli is a district of Istanbul, Turkey, located inland on the Asian side of the city.

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Sulukule

Sulukule (literally: "Water tower") is a historic quarter in the Fatih district of Istanbul, Turkey.

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Summer Olympic Games

The Summer Olympic Games (Jeux olympiques d'été) or the Games of the Olympiad, first held in 1896, is an international multi-sport event that is hosted by a different city every four years.

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Sunni Islam

Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.

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Taksim Gezi Park

Taksim Gezi Park is an urban park next to Taksim Square, in Istanbul's Beyoğlu district (historically known as Pera.) It is one of the last green spaces in Beyoğlu and one of the smallest parks of Istanbul.

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Taksim Military Barracks

The Taksim Military Barracks or Halil Pasha Artillery Barracks (Taksim Kışlası or Halil Paşa Topçu Kışlası) were located at the site of the present-day Taksim Gezi Park next to Taksim Square in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Taksim Square

Taksim Square (Taksim Meydanı), situated in Beyoğlu in the European part of Istanbul, Turkey, is a major tourist and leisure district famed for its restaurants, shops, and hotels.

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Taksim Stadium

Taksim Stadium (Taksim Stadı) was the first football stadium in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Tanzimat

The Tanzimât (lit) was a period of reform in the Ottoman Empire that began in 1839 and ended with the First Constitutional Era in 1876.

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Tarlabaşı

Tarlabaşı is a neighbourhood in the Beyoğlu district in Istanbul, Turkey stretching from Taksim Square and Talimhane in the north to in the south.

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Tavern

A tavern is a place of business where people gather to drink alcoholic beverages and be served food, and in most cases, where travelers receive lodging.

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Tünel

The Tünel (Tunnel) (Official Designation: F2) is a historical underground funicular line in Istanbul, Turkey, located at the northern shore of the Golden Horn.

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Türk Telekom

Türk Telekom is the formerly state-owned Turkish telecommunications company.

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Türk Telekom Stadium

Officially Ali Sami Yen Spor Kompleksi – Türk Telekom Stadium, is a football stadium serving as the home ground of the Süper Lig club Galatasaray S.K..

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Telephone exchange

A telephone exchange is a telecommunications system used in the public switched telephone network or in large enterprises.

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The World Is Not Enough

The World Is Not Enough is a 1999 British spy film, the nineteenth in the ''James Bond'' series produced by Eon Productions, and the third to star Pierce Brosnan as the fictional MI6 agent James Bond.

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Theodosius I

Theodosius I (Flavius Theodosius Augustus; Θεοδόσιος Αʹ; 11 January 347 – 17 January 395), also known as Theodosius the Great, was Roman Emperor from AD 379 to AD 395, as the last emperor to rule over both the eastern and the western halves of the Roman Empire. On accepting his elevation, he campaigned against Goths and other barbarians who had invaded the empire. His resources were not equal to destroy them, and by the treaty which followed his modified victory at the end of the Gothic War, they were established as Foederati, autonomous allies of the Empire, south of the Danube, in Illyricum, within the empire's borders. He was obliged to fight two destructive civil wars, successively defeating the usurpers Magnus Maximus and Eugenius, not without material cost to the power of the empire. He also issued decrees that effectively made Nicene Christianity the official state church of the Roman Empire."Edict of Thessalonica": See Codex Theodosianus XVI.1.2 He neither prevented nor punished the destruction of prominent Hellenistic temples of classical antiquity, including the Temple of Apollo in Delphi and the Serapeum in Alexandria. He dissolved the order of the Vestal Virgins in Rome. In 393, he banned the pagan rituals of the Olympics in Ancient Greece. After his death, Theodosius' young sons Arcadius and Honorius inherited the east and west halves respectively, and the Roman Empire was never again re-united, though Eastern Roman emperors after Zeno would claim the united title after Julius Nepos' death in 480 AD.

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Thessaloniki

Thessaloniki (Θεσσαλονίκη, Thessaloníki), also familiarly known as Thessalonica, Salonica, or Salonika is the second-largest city in Greece, with over 1 million inhabitants in its metropolitan area, and the capital of Greek Macedonia, the administrative region of Central Macedonia and the Decentralized Administration of Macedonia and Thrace.

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Thrace

Thrace (Modern Θράκη, Thráki; Тракия, Trakiya; Trakya) is a geographical and historical area in southeast Europe, now split between Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey, which is bounded by the Balkan Mountains to the north, the Aegean Sea to the south and the Black Sea to the east.

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Thracians

The Thracians (Θρᾷκες Thrāikes; Thraci) were a group of Indo-European tribes inhabiting a large area in Eastern and Southeastern Europe.

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Time in Turkey

Time in Turkey is given by UTC+03:00 year-round.

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Today's Zaman

Today's Zaman (Zaman is Turkish for 'time' or 'age') was an English-language daily newspaper based in Turkey.

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Tokyo

, officially, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan and has been the capital since 1869.

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Topkapı Palace

The Topkapı Palace (Topkapı Sarayı or in طوپقپو سرايى, Ṭopḳapu Sarāyı), or the Seraglio, is a large museum in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Topkapi (film)

Topkapi (1964) is a Technicolor heist film made by Filmways Pictures and distributed by United Artists.

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Track and field

Track and field is a sport which includes athletic contests established on the skills of running, jumping, and throwing.

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Tram

A tram (also tramcar; and in North America streetcar, trolley or trolley car) is a rail vehicle which runs on tramway tracks along public urban streets, and also sometimes on a segregated right of way.

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Trams in Istanbul

The former capital of the Ottoman Empire was once served, on both its Asian and European sides, by a large network of trams in Istanbul.

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Treaty of Lausanne

The Treaty of Lausanne (Traité de Lausanne) was a peace treaty signed in the Palais de Rumine, Lausanne, Switzerland, on 24 July 1923.

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TRT World

TRT World is a 24-hour international English-language news channel based in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Tulip

Tulips (Tulipa) form a genus of spring-blooming perennial herbaceous bulbiferous geophytes (having bulbs as storage organs).

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Turkey

Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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Turkish Air Force Academy

The Turkish Air Force Academy (TuAFA) (Hava Harp Okulu) is a four-year co-educational military academy located in the city of Istanbul, Turkey.

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Turkish alphabet

The Turkish alphabet (Türk alfabesi) is a Latin-script alphabet used for writing the Turkish language, consisting of 29 letters, seven of which (Ç, Ş, Ğ, I, İ, Ö, Ü) have been modified from their Latin originals for the phonetic requirements of the language.

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Turkish and Islamic Arts Museum

The Turkish and Islamic Arts Museum (Türk ve İslam Eserleri Müzesi) is a museum located in Sultanahmet Square in Fatih district of Istanbul, Turkey.

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Turkish constitutional referendum, 2007

A constitutional referendum on electoral reform took place in Turkey on 21 October 2007.

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Turkish constitutional referendum, 2010

A constitutional referendum on a number of changes to the constitution was held in Turkey on 12 September 2010.

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Turkish general election, November 2015

The Turkish general election of November 2015 was held on 1 November 2015 throughout the 85 electoral districts of Turkey to elect 550 members to the Grand National Assembly.

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Turkish Grand Prix

The Turkish Grand Prix (Türkiye Grand Prix'si) was a Formula One motor race that was first held on 21 August 2005 as part of the 2005 Formula One season and last held on 8 May 2011 as part of the 2011 Formula One season.

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Turkish language

Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).

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Turkish lira

The Turkish lira (Türk lirası; sign: ₺; code: TRY; usually abbreviated as TL) is the currency of Turkey and the self-declared Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.

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Turkish local elections, 1994

Turkey held local elections on 27 March 1994.

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Turkish local elections, 2014

Local elections (formal: Local authority general elections, Turkish: Mahalli İdareler Genel Seçimi or simply Yerel Seçimleri) were held in Turkey on 30 March 2014, with some repeated on 1 June 2014.

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Turkish Military Academy

The Turkish Military Academy (Kara Harp Okulu) is a four-year co-educational military academy located in the center of Ankara, Turkey.

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Turkish motorcycle Grand Prix

The Turkish Motorcycle Grand Prix was a motorcycling event that was part of the World Motorcycle Racing season.

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Turkish presidential election, 2014

Presidential elections were held on 10 August 2014 in order to elect the 12th President of Turkey.

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Turkish Radio and Television Corporation

The Turkish Radio and Television Corporation, also known as TRT (Turkish: Türkiye Radyo ve Televizyon Kurumu), is the national public broadcaster of Turkey and was founded in 1964.

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Turkish State Meteorological Service

Turkish State Meteorological Service (Devlet Meteoroloji İşleri Genel Müdürlüğü or DMİ) is the Turkish government bureau commissioned with producing the meteorological and climatic data pertaining to Turkey.

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Turkish State Railways

The State Railways of the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Devlet Demiryolları), abbreviated as TCDD, is a government-owned national railway company responsible with the ownership and maintenance of railway infrastructure in Turkey, as well as the planning and construction of new lines.

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Turkish Statistical Institute

Turkish Statistical Institute (commonly known as TurkStat; Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu or TÜİK) is the Turkish government agency commissioned with producing official statistics on Turkey, its population, resources, economy, society, and culture.

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Turkish War of Independence

The Turkish War of Independence (Kurtuluş Savaşı "War of Liberation", also known figuratively as İstiklâl Harbi "Independence War" or Millî Mücadele "National Campaign"; 19 May 1919 – 24 July 1923) was fought between the Turkish National Movement and the proxies of the Allies – namely Greece on the Western front, Armenia on the Eastern, France on the Southern and with them, the United Kingdom and Italy in Constantinople (now Istanbul) – after parts of the Ottoman Empire were occupied and partitioned following the Ottomans' defeat in World War I. Few of the occupying British, French, and Italian troops had been deployed or engaged in combat.

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TVF Burhan Felek Sport Hall

TVF Burhan Felek Sport Hall, (Burhan Felek Spor Salonu) is a volleyball arena located in Üsküdar district of Istanbul, Turkey and reopened on 19 November 2010.

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Twenty-foot equivalent unit

The twenty-foot equivalent unit (often TEU or teu) is an inexact unit of cargo capacity often used to describe the capacity of container ships and container terminals.

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UEFA Euro 2012

The 2012 UEFA European Championship, commonly referred to as UEFA Euro 2012 or simply Euro 2012, was the 14th European Championship for men's national football teams organised by UEFA.

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UEFA Euro 2016

The 2016 UEFA European Championship, commonly referred to as UEFA Euro 2016 or simply Euro 2016, was the 15th UEFA European Championship, the quadrennial international men's football championship of Europe organised by UEFA.

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UEFA stadium categories

UEFA stadium categories are categories for football stadiums laid out in the UEFA Stadium Infrastructure Regulations.

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Ultraviolet index

The ultraviolet index or UV Index is an international standard measurement of the strength of sunburn-producing ultraviolet (UV) radiation at a particular place and time.

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United States dollar

The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.

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Urban renewal

Urban renewal (also called urban regeneration in the United Kingdom, urban renewal or urban redevelopment in the United States) is a program of land redevelopment in cities, often where there is urban decay.

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Uzak

Uzak is a 2002 Turkish film directed by Nuri Bilge Ceylan.

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Vakıfbank S.K.

Vakıfbank Sports Club (Vakıfbank Spor Kulübü), currently one of the best volleyball teams in the world, double winner of the FIVB Volleyball Women's Club World Championship and triple European Champions League winner, is a Turkish volleyball club based in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Valens Aqueduct

The Valens Aqueduct (Valens Su Kemeri or Bozdoğan Kemeri, meaning "Aqueduct of the Grey Falcon"; Ἀγωγὸς τοῦ ὕδατος, Agōgós tou hýdatos, meaning simply "aqueduct") is a Roman aqueduct which was the major water-providing system of the Eastern Roman capital of Constantinople (modern Istanbul, Turkey).

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Value added

In business, the difference between the sale price and the production cost of a product is the unit profit.

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Varlık Vergisi

Varlık Vergisi ("wealth tax" or "capital tax") was a Turkish tax levied on citizens of Turkey in 1942, with the stated aim of raising funds for the country's defense in case of an eventual entry into World War II.

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Vasip Şahin

Vasip Şahin (born 1964) is a Turkish civil servant.

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Venice Biennale

The Venice Biennale (La Biennale di Venezia; in English also called the "Venice Biennial") refers to an arts organization based in Venice and the name of the original and principal biennial exhibition the organization organizes.

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Vizier

A vizier (rarely; وزير wazīr; وازیر vazīr; vezir; Chinese: 宰相 zǎixiàng; উজির ujira; Hindustani (Hindi-Urdu): वज़ीर or وزیر vazeer; Punjabi: ਵਜ਼ੀਰ or وزير vazīra, sometimes spelt vazir, vizir, vasir, wazir, vesir or vezir) is a high-ranking political advisor or minister.

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Vodafone Park

Vodafone Park is an all-seater, multi-purpose stadium in the Beşiktaş district of Istanbul, Turkey.

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Waqf

A waqf (وقف), also known as habous or mortmain property, is an inalienable charitable endowment under Islamic law, which typically involves donating a building, plot of land or other assets for Muslim religious or charitable purposes with no intention of reclaiming the assets.

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Water supply

Water supply is the provision of water by public utilities commercial organisations, community endeavors or by individuals, usually via a system of pumps and pipes.

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Welfare Party

The Welfare Party (Refah Partisi, RP) was an Islamist political party in Turkey.

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Western world

The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.

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World Heritage site

A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.

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World Touring Car Championship

The FIA World Touring Car Championship was an international touring car championship promoted by Eurosport Events and sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA).

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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Yalı

A yalı (yalı, from Greek γιαλή yialí (mod. γιαλός yialós), literally "seashore, beach") is a house or mansion constructed at immediate waterside (almost exclusively seaside, particularly on the Bosphorus strait in Istanbul) and usually built with an architectural concept that takes into account the characteristics of the coastal location.

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Yavuz Selim Mosque

The Yavuz Selim Mosque, also known as the Selim I Mosque and the Yavuz Sultan Selim Mosque (Yavuz Selim Camii) is a 16th-century Ottoman imperial mosque located at the top of the 5th Hill of Istanbul, Turkey, in the neighborhood of Çukurbostan, overlooking the Golden Horn.

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Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge

The Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge (Yavuz Sultan Selim Köprüsü) is a bridge for rail and motor vehicle transit over the Bosphorus strait, to the north of two existing suspension bridges in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Yıldız Palace

Yıldız Palace (Yıldız Sarayı) is a vast complex of former imperial Ottoman pavilions and villas in Istanbul, Turkey, built in the 19th and early 20th centuries.

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Yıldız Park

Yıldız Park (Yıldız Parkı) is a historical, urban park in Beşiktaş district of Istanbul, Turkey.

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Yeniköy, Sarıyer

Yeniköy (Yeniköy, "New Village"), sometimes also referred to as Yeni Kioi, is a neighbourhood in the Sarıyer district of Istanbul, Turkey.

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Young Turk Revolution

The Young Turk Revolution (July 1908) of the Ottoman Empire was when the Young Turks movement restored the Ottoman constitution of 1876 and ushered in multi-party politics in a two stage electoral system (electoral law) under the Ottoman parliament.

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Zorlu Center

Zorlu Center is a multiple-use complex in the Beşiktaş district on the European side of Istanbul, Turkey.

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.istanbul

.istanbul and.ist are approved top level domains (TLD) for the Internet.

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1509 Constantinople earthquake

The 1509 Constantinople earthquake, referred to as "The Lesser Judgment Day" (Küçük Kıyamet or Kıyamet-i Suğra) by contemporaries, occurred in the Sea of Marmara on 10 September 1509 at about 10pm.

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1999 İzmit earthquake

The 1999 İzmit earthquake (also known as the Kocaeli, Gölcük, or Marmara earthquake) occurred on 17 August at 03:01:40 local time in northwestern Turkey.

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2000 Summer Olympics

The 2000 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the XXVII Olympiad and commonly known as Sydney 2000 or the Millennium Olympic Games/Games of the New Millennium, were an international multi-sport event which was held between 15 September and 1 October 2000 in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

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2004 Summer Olympics

The 2004 Summer Olympic Games (Θερινοί Ολυμπιακοί Αγώνες 2004), officially known as the Games of the XXVIII Olympiad and commonly known as Athens 2004, was a premier international multi-sport event held in Athens, Greece, from 13 to 29 August 2004 with the motto Welcome Home. 10,625 athletes competed, some 600 more than expected, accompanied by 5,501 team officials from 201 countries.

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2005 UEFA Champions League Final

The 2005 UEFA Champions League Final was the final match of the 2004–05 UEFA Champions League, Europe's primary club football competition.

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2008 Summer Olympics

The 2008 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad and commonly known as Beijing 2008, was an international multi-sport event that was held from 8 to 24 August 2008 in Beijing, China.

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2009 UEFA Cup Final

The 2009 UEFA Cup Final was the final match of the 2008–09 UEFA Cup, the 38th season of the UEFA Cup, UEFA's second-tier club football tournament.

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2010 FIBA World Championship

The 2010 FIBA World Championship, hosted by Turkey, was the international basketball competition contested by the men's national teams.

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2011–12 Euroleague

The 2011–12 Turkish Airlines Euroleague was the 12th season of the modern era of Euroleague and the second under the title sponsorship of Turkish Airlines.

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2012 IAAF World Indoor Championships

The 2012 IAAF World Indoor Championships in Athletics was the 14th edition of the global-level indoor track and field competition and was held between March 9–11, 2012 at the Ataköy Athletics Arena in Istanbul, Turkey.

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2012 Summer Olympics

The 2012 Summer Olympics, formally the Games of the XXX Olympiad and commonly known as London 2012, was an international multi-sport event that was held from 27 July to 12 August 2012 in London, United Kingdom.

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2016–17 EuroLeague

The 2016–17 Turkish Airlines EuroLeague was the 17th season of the modern era of Euroleague Basketball and the seventh under the title sponsorship of the Turkish Airlines.

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2020 Summer Olympics

The 2020 Summer Olympics, officially known as the and commonly known as Tokyo 2020, is a forthcoming international multi-sport event that is scheduled to take place from 24 July to 9 August 2020.

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2020 UEFA Champions League Final

The 2020 UEFA Champions League Final will be the final match of the 2019–20 UEFA Champions League, the 65th season of Europe's premier club football tournament organised by UEFA, and the 28th season since it was renamed from the European Champion Clubs' Cup to the UEFA Champions League.

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360 (Turkey)

360 is a privately owned television channel in Turkey.

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Redirects here:

City of Istanbul, Constantinople (Turkey), Constantinople (modern city), Constantinopole, Turkey, Dersaâdet, Geography of Istanbul, Historic Areas of İstanbul, Instabul, Instanbul, Islambol, Islambul, Istamboul, Istambul, Istanbul (Turkey), Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality, Istanbul, Turkey, Istanbuler, Istanbull, Konstantiniye, Kushta, Ligos, Lygos, Micklegard, Ottoman Constantinople, Stambol, Stambul, Stambulu, Topboğazi, Tzarigrad, UN/LOCODE:TRIST, İslambol, İslambul, İstanbul, İstanbul, Turkey, استانبول.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Istanbul

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