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Istanbul pogrom

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The Istanbul pogrom, also known as the Istanbul riots or September events (Septemvriana, "Events of September";, "Events of September 6–7"), were organized mob attacks directed primarily at Istanbul's Greek minority on 6–7 September 1955. [1]

198 relations: Abbot, Accession of Turkey to the European Union, Adnan Menderes, Alfred-Maurice de Zayas, Anatolia, Ankara, Anti-Greek sentiment, Ara Güler, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Armenian Genocide, Armenians, Arson, Atatürk Museum (Thessaloniki), Athens, Authoritarianism, Aziz Nesin, Çankaya, Ankara (district), İsmet İnönü, İstiklal Avenue, İzmir, Şalom, Şişli, Balıklı Greek Hospital, Balıklı, Istanbul, Baptistery, Belgians, Belgradkapı, Bespoke tailoring, Bey, Beyoğlu, Bill Clinton, Bosporus, Byzantine Empire, Can Dündar, Card-carrying Communist, Carpentry, Celâl Bayar, Chargé d'affaires, Church of St. Mary of the Spring (Istanbul), Citizenship, Clergy, Cold War, Cominform, Communist International, Communist Party of Turkey (historical), Constantinople, Constantinople massacre of 1821, Counter-Guerrilla, Cumhuriyet, Cyprus, ..., Cyprus crisis (1955–64), Cyprus dispute, Daily Mail, Decline and modernization of the Ottoman Empire, Democrat Party (Turkey, 1946–61), Diplomatic correspondence, Eastern Orthodox Church, Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, Edwin M. Martin, Emigration, Enosis, EOKA, Ergenekon (allegation), Eskişehir, Europe, False flag, Fatin Rüştü Zorlu, Forced circumcision, Foreign and Commonwealth Office, From Russia, with Love (novel), Genocide Convention, Georgian Byzantine-Rite Catholics, Georgios Grivas, Giaour, Google Videos, Government of France, Great Fire of 1660, Greco-Turkish War (1919–1922), Greece, Greek Cypriots, Greek Town riot, Greek War of Independence, Greeks, Greeks in Turkey, Grey Wolves (organization), Gymnasium (school), Hanging, Harold Macmillan, Hürriyet, Hürriyet Daily News, High Street, History of the Jews in Georgia, Human Rights Watch, Ian Fleming, Interpol, Irredentism, Islam, Istanbul, Istanbul University, James Bond, John Pearson (author), John Strachey (politician), Kathimerini, Kaymakam, Kemal Kerinçsiz, Kemal Tahir, Kemal Yamak, Komotini, Kristallnacht, Law, List of Commanders of the Turkish Air Force, List of diplomatic missions of the United Kingdom, London, Martial law, Martial law and state of emergency in Turkey, Medicine, Mehmet Ali Birand, Metropolitan bishop, Milliyet, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Turkey), Ministry of the Interior (Turkey), Mobbing, Monastery, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, National Intelligence Organization (Turkey), National Security Service (Turkey), Nations and Nationalism (journal), NATO, Nevşehir Province, Noel Barber, Norwegians, NTV (Turkey), Operation Gladio, Ottoman Empire, Oxford University Press, Pains of Autumn, Pamphilus (painter), Panagia, Paul of Greece, Phanariotes, Photomontage, Pogrom, Politico Europe, Population exchange between Greece and Turkey, Populism, Pound sterling, President of the United States, Priest, Prince Islands, Racism in Turkey, Radikal, Rape, Real estate, Ruhr University Bochum, Sabah (newspaper), Sabri Yirmibeşoğlu, Sarcophagus, Scalping, Scapegoat, Screamers (2006 film), Secret Intelligence Service, Special forces, Speros Vryonis, Station chief, Stock photography, Tactical Mobilisation Group, Taksim Square, Taraf, The Sunday Times, The Washington Post, Thesis, Thessaloniki, Today's Zaman, Treaty of Lausanne, Turkey, Turkification, Turkish Cypriots, Turkish Historical Society, Turkish Land Forces, Turkish lira, Turkish nationalism, Uğur Mumcu, United Kingdom, United Nations, United Nations Security Council, United States, United States dollar, United States Senate, Varlık Vergisi, Walls of Constantinople, Windows Media Video, World Council of Churches, Yedikule, Yeni Şafak, Yeniköy, Sarıyer, 1918 Toronto anti-Greek riot, 1960 Turkish coup d'état. Expand index (148 more) »


Abbot, meaning father, is an ecclesiastical title given to the male head of a monastery in various traditions, including Christianity.

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Accession of Turkey to the European Union

Turkey's application to accede to the European Economic Community, the predecessor of the European Union (EU), was made on 14 April 1987.

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Adnan Menderes

Adnan Menderes (1899 – 17 September 1961) or Ali Adnan Ertekin Menderes was the Turkish Prime Minister between 1950–1960.

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Alfred-Maurice de Zayas

Alfred-Maurice de Zayas (born May 31, 1947, Havana, Cuba) is an American lawyer, writer, historian, a leading expert in the field of human rights and international law and retired high-ranking United Nations official.

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Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.

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Ankara (English; Turkish Ottoman Turkish Engürü), formerly known as Ancyra (Ἄγκυρα, Ankyra, "anchor") and Angora, is the capital of the Republic of Turkey.

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Anti-Greek sentiment

Anti-Greek sentiment (also known as Hellenophobia (translit), anti-Hellenism, mishellenism (translit), or Greek-bashing) refers to negative feelings, dislike, hatred, derision and/or prejudice towards Greeks, the Hellenic Republic, and Greek culture.

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Ara Güler

Ara Güler (Արա Կիւլեր, born August 16, 1928 in Beyoğlu, Istanbul, Turkey) is an Armenian-Turkish photojournalist, nicknamed "the Eye of Istanbul" or "the Photographer of Istanbul".

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Aristotle University of Thessaloniki

The Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (A.U.Th.; often called the Aristotelian University or University of Thessaloniki; Αριστοτέλειο Πανεπιστήμιο Θεσσαλονίκης) is the sixth oldest and among the most highly ranked tertiary education institutions in Greece.

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Armenian Genocide

The Armenian Genocide (Հայոց ցեղասպանություն, Hayots tseghaspanutyun), also known as the Armenian Holocaust, was the Ottoman government's systematic extermination of 1.5 million Armenians, mostly citizens within the Ottoman Empire.

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Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.

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Arson is a crime of intentionally, deliberately and maliciously setting fire to buildings, wildland areas, abandoned homes, vehicles or other property with the intent to cause damage or enjoy the act.

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Atatürk Museum (Thessaloniki)

The Atatürk Museum (Μουσείο Ατατούρκ, Mousío Atatúrk, Atatürk Evi Müzesi, Atatürk House Museum) is a historic house museum in Thessaloniki, Central Macedonia, Greece.

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Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.

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Authoritarianism is a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms.

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Aziz Nesin

Aziz Nesin (born Mehmet Nusret, 20 December 1915 – 6 July 1995) was a Turkish writer, humorist and the author of more than 100 books.

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Çankaya, Ankara (district)

Çankaya is a district of Ankara, Turkey.

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İsmet İnönü

Mustafa İsmet İnönü (24 September 1884 – 25 December 1973) was a Turkish general and statesman, who served as the second President of Turkey from 10 November 1938 to 27 May 1950, when his Republican People's Party was defeated in Turkey's second free elections.

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İstiklal Avenue

İstiklal Avenue or Istiklal Street (Turkish: İstiklâl Caddesi, Greek: Μεγάλη Οδός του Πέραν, French: Grande Rue de Péra, English: Independence Avenue) is one of the most famous avenues in Istanbul, Turkey, visited by nearly 3 million people in a single day over the course of weekends.

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İzmir is a metropolitan city in the western extremity of Anatolia and the third most populous city in Turkey, after Istanbul and Ankara.

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Şalom is a Jewish weekly newspaper published in Turkey.

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Şişli is one of 39 districts of Istanbul, Turkey.

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Balıklı Greek Hospital

The Balıklı Greek Hospital (Balıklı Rum Hastanesi) is a health care institution at Balıklı neighborhood of Yedikule quarter in Zeytinburnu district of Istanbul, which was established in the 18th century and continues its service run by the Greek community of Turkey.

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Balıklı, Istanbul

Balıklı (Μπαλουκλί, pr. "Baluklí") is a quarter in Istanbul, Turkey.

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In Christian architecture the baptistery or baptistry (Old French baptisterie; Latin baptisterium; Greek βαπτιστήριον, 'bathing-place, baptistery', from βαπτίζειν, baptízein, 'to baptize') is the separate centrally planned structure surrounding the baptismal font.

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Belgians (Belgen, Belges, Belgier) are people identified with the Kingdom of Belgium, a federal state in Western Europe.

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Belgradkapı (Turkish for Belgrad Gate) is a quarter in Zeytinburnu district of Istanbul in Turkey.

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Bespoke tailoring

Bespoke tailoring is clothing made to an individual buyer's specifications by a tailor.

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“Bey” (بك “Beik”, bej, beg, بيه “Beyeh”, بیگ “Beyg” or بگ “Beg”) is a Turkish title for chieftain, traditionally applied to the leaders or rulers of various sized areas in the Ottoman Empire.

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Beyoğlu is a district located on the European side of İstanbul, Turkey, separated from the old city (historic peninsula of Constantinople) by the Golden Horn.

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Bill Clinton

William Jefferson Clinton (born August 19, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.

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The Bosporus or Bosphorus;The spelling Bosporus is listed first or exclusively in all major British and American dictionaries (e.g.,,, Merriam-Webster,, and Random House) as well as the Encyclopædia Britannica and the.

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Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).

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Can Dündar

Can Dündar (born 16 June 1961 in Ankara) is a Turkish journalist, columnist and documentarian.

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Card-carrying Communist

"Card-carrying communist" is a term popularised during the Second Red Scare as a label for members of communist and far-left organisations, especially the Communist Party.

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Carpentry is a skilled trade in which the primary work performed is the cutting, shaping and installation of building materials during the construction of buildings, ships, timber bridges, concrete formwork, etc.

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Celâl Bayar

Mahmut Celâl Bayar (16 May 1883 – 22 August 1986) was a Turkish politician who was the third President of Turkey from 1950 to 1960; previously he was Prime Minister of Turkey from 1937 to 1939.

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Chargé d'affaires

A chargé d'affaires, often shortened to chargé (French) and sometimes to charge-D (abbreviated in colloquial English), is a diplomat who heads an embassy in the absence of the ambassador.

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Church of St. Mary of the Spring (Istanbul)

The Monastery of the Mother of God at the Spring (full name in Μονὴ τῆς Θεοτòκου τῆς Πηγῆς, pr. Moni tis Theotóku tis Pigis; Turkish name: Balıklı Meryem Ana Rum Manastiri) or simply Zoödochos Pege (Ζωοδόχος Πηγή, "Life-giving Spring") is an Eastern Orthodox sanctuary in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the custom or law as being a legal member of a sovereign state or belonging to a nation.

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Clergy are some of the main and important formal leaders within certain religions.

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Cold War

The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).

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Founded on October 5, 1947, Cominform (from Communist Information Bureau) is the common name for what was officially referred to as the Information Bureau of the Communist and Workers' Parties.

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Communist International

The Communist International (Comintern), known also as the Third International (1919–1943), was an international communist organization that advocated world communism.

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Communist Party of Turkey (historical)

The Communist Party of Turkey (Türkiye Komünist Partisi, TKP) was a political party in Turkey.

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Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.

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Constantinople massacre of 1821

The Constantinople massacre of 1821 was orchestrated by the authorities of the Ottoman Empire against the Greek community of Constantinople (modern Istanbul) in retaliation for the outbreak of the Greek War of Independence (1821–1830).

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Counter-Guerrilla (Kontrgerilla) is the Turkish branch of Operation Gladio, a clandestine stay-behind anti-communist initiative backed by the United States as an expression of the Truman Doctrine.

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Cumhuriyet (The Republic) is the oldest up-market Turkish daily newspaper.

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Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.

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Cyprus crisis (1955–64)

There was a period of political and violent conflict in Cyprus, also known as the Cyprus crisis and EOKA period, between the Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots, between 1955 and 1964.

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Cyprus dispute

The Cyprus dispute, also known as the Cyprus conflict, Cyprus issue or Cyprus problem, is the ongoing issue of Turkish military invasion and occupation of the northern third of the island since 1974.

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Daily Mail

The Daily Mail is a British daily middle-marketPeter Wilby, New Statesman, 19 December 2013 (online version: 2 January 2014) tabloid newspaper owned by the Daily Mail and General Trust and published in London.

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Decline and modernization of the Ottoman Empire

Beginning from the late eighteenth century, the Ottoman Empire faced challenges defending itself against foreign invasion and occupation.

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Democrat Party (Turkey, 1946–61)

The Democratic Party (Turkish: Demokrat Parti, DP for short) was a Turkish moderately right-wing political party, and the country's third legal opposition party, after the Liberal Republican Party (Serbest Cumhuriyet Fırkası) established by Ali Fethi Okyar in 1930, and the National Development Party (Milli Kalkınma Partisi) established by Nuri Demirağ in 1945.

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Diplomatic correspondence

Diplomatic correspondence is correspondence between one state and another, usually – though not exclusively – of a formal character.

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Eastern Orthodox Church

The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.

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Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople

The Ecumenical Patriarch (Η Αυτού Θειοτάτη Παναγιότης, ο Αρχιεπίσκοπος Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Νέας Ρώμης και Οικουμενικός Πατριάρχης, "His Most Divine All-Holiness the Archbishop of Constantinople, New Rome, and Ecumenical Patriarch") is the Archbishop of Constantinople–New Rome and ranks as primus inter pares (first among equals) among the heads of the several autocephalous churches that make up the Eastern Orthodox Church.

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Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople

The Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople (Οἰκουμενικόν Πατριαρχεῖον Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Oikoumenikón Patriarkhíon Konstantinoupóleos,; Patriarchatus Oecumenicus Constantinopolitanus; Rum Ortodoks Patrikhanesi, "Roman Orthodox Patriarchate") is one of the fourteen autocephalous churches (or "jurisdictions") that together compose the Eastern Orthodox Church.

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Edwin M. Martin

Edwin McCammon Martin (May 21, 1908 – January 12, 2002) worked for the government of the United States from 1935 to 1975, first as an economist, then on the mobilization of the US economy for World War II and then as a diplomat in the US and abroad.

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Emigration is the act of leaving a resident country or place of residence with the intent to settle elsewhere.

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Enosis (Ένωσις,, "union") is the movement of various Greek communities that live outside Greece, for incorporation of the regions they inhabit into the Greek state.

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EOKA (ΕΟΚΑ) was a Greek Cypriot nationalist guerrilla organisation that fought a campaign for the end of British rule in Cyprus, for the island's self-determination and for eventual union with Greece.

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Ergenekon (allegation)

Ergenekon was the name given to an alleged clandestine, secularist ultra-nationalist organization in Turkey with possible ties to members of the country's military and security forces.

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Eskişehir (eski "old", şehir "city"), is a city in northwestern Turkey and the capital of the Eskişehir Province. In the Byzantine era its name was Dorylaeum. The urban population of the city is 717,135 with a metropolitan population of 826,135. The city is located on the banks of the Porsuk River, 792 m above sea level, where it overlooks the fertile Phrygian Valley. In the nearby hills one can find hot springs. The city is to the west of Ankara, to the southeast of Istanbul and to the northeast of Kütahya. Known as a university town, both Eskişehir Osmangazi University and Anadolu University (which has one of the largest student enrollments in the world) are based in Eskişehir. The province covers an area of.

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Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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False flag

A false flag is a covert operation designed to deceive; the deception creates the appearance of a particular party, group, or nation being responsible for some activity, disguising the actual source of responsibility.

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Fatin Rüştü Zorlu

Fatin Rüştü Zorlu (April 20, 1910 – September 16, 1961) was a Turkish diplomat and politician.

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Forced circumcision

Forced circumcision refers to circumcision of males who have not given their consent to the procedure.

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Foreign and Commonwealth Office

The Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO), commonly called the Foreign Office, is a department of the Government of the United Kingdom.

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From Russia, with Love (novel)

From Russia, with Love is the fifth novel by the English author Ian Fleming to feature his fictional British Secret Service agent James Bond.

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Genocide Convention

The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 9 December 1948 as General Assembly Resolution 260.

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Georgian Byzantine-Rite Catholics

Georgian Byzantine Rite Catholics (Catholics of Georgian nationality or origin who are of Byzantine or "Greek" rite) are not now reported in published sources as existing.

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Georgios Grivas

Georgios Grivas (Γεώργιος Γρίβας; 6 July 1897 – 27 January 1974), also known by his nom de guerre Digenis (Διγενής), which he adopted while in EOKA, was a Cyprus-born general in the Greek Army, leader of the EOKA guerrilla organisation.

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Giaour or Gawur (gâvur,; from گور gâvor an obsolete variant of modern گبر gaur; ghiaur; Kaur; giaoúris) meaning "infidel", is an extremely offensive term, a slur, historically used in the Ottoman Empire for non-Muslims or more particularly Christians in the Balkans.

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Google Videos

Google Videos is a video search engine from Google, similar to Google Images.

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Government of France

The Government of the French Republic (Gouvernement de la République française) exercises executive power in France.

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Great Fire of 1660

Two thirds of Istanbul was destroyed in the Great Fire of 1660.

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Greco-Turkish War (1919–1922)

The Greco-Turkish War of 1919–1922 was fought between Greece and the Turkish National Movement during the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire after World War I between May 1919 and October 1922.

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No description.

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Greek Cypriots

Greek Cypriots (Ελληνοκύπριοι, Kıbrıs Rumları or Kıbrıs Yunanları) are the ethnic Greek population of Cyprus, forming the island's largest ethnolinguistic community.

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Greek Town riot

The Greek Town riot was a race riot in South Omaha, Nebraska on February 21, 1909.

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Greek War of Independence

The Greek War of Independence, also known as the Greek Revolution (Ελληνική Επανάσταση, Elliniki Epanastasi, or also referred to by Greeks in the 19th century as the Αγώνας, Agonas, "Struggle"; Ottoman: يونان عصياني Yunan İsyanı, "Greek Uprising"), was a successful war of independence waged by Greek revolutionaries against the Ottoman Empire between 1821 and 1830.

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The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.

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Greeks in Turkey

The Greeks in Turkey (Rumlar) constitute a population of Greek and Greek-speaking Eastern Orthodox Christians who mostly live in Istanbul, as well as on the two islands of the western entrance to the Dardanelles: Imbros and Tenedos (Gökçeada and Bozcaada).

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Grey Wolves (organization)

The Grey Wolves (Bozkurtlar), officially known as Ülkü Ocakları ("Idealist Clubs/Hearths"), is a Turkish ultranationalist organization.

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Gymnasium (school)

A gymnasium is a type of school with a strong emphasis on academic learning, and providing advanced secondary education in some parts of Europe comparable to British grammar schools, sixth form colleges and US preparatory high schools.

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Hanging is the suspension of a person by a noose or ligature around the neck.

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Harold Macmillan

Maurice Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, (10 February 1894 – 29 December 1986) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1957 to 1963.

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Hürriyet (Liberty) is one of the major Turkish newspapers, founded in 1948.

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Hürriyet Daily News

The Hürriyet Daily News, formerly Hürriyet Daily News and Economic Review and Turkish Daily News, is the oldest current English-language daily in Turkey, founded in 1961.

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High Street

High Street (or the High Street, also High Road) is a metonym for the concept (and frequently the street name) of the primary business street of towns or cities, especially in the United Kingdom and Commonwealth of Nations.

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History of the Jews in Georgia

Georgian Jews (ქართველი ებრაელები kartveli ebraelebi) are one of the oldest communities in Georgia, tracing their migration into the country during the Babylonian captivity in 6th century BC.

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Human Rights Watch

Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.

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Ian Fleming

Ian Lancaster Fleming (28 May 1908 – 12 August 1964) was an English author, journalist and naval intelligence officer who is best known for his James Bond series of spy novels.

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The International Criminal Police Organization (Organisation internationale de police criminelle; ICPO-INTERPOL), more commonly known as Interpol, is an international organization that facilitates international police cooperation.

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Irredentism is any political or popular movement that seeks to reclaim and reoccupy a land that the movement's members consider to be a "lost" (or "unredeemed") territory from their nation's past.

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IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).

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Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.

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Istanbul University

Istanbul University (İstanbul Üniversitesi) is a prominent Turkish university located in Istanbul.

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James Bond

The James Bond series focuses on a fictional British Secret Service agent created in 1953 by writer Ian Fleming, who featured him in twelve novels and two short-story collections.

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John Pearson (author)

John George Pearson (born 5 October 1930) is an English novelist and an author of biographies, notably of Ian Fleming, the creator of James Bond, and of the Kray twins.

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John Strachey (politician)

Evelyn John St Loe Strachey (21 October 1901 – 15 July 1963) was a British Labour politician and writer.

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I Kathimerini (Η Καθημερινή,, meaning "The Daily") is a daily morning newspaper published in Athens.

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Qaim Maqam, Qaimaqam or Kaymakam (also spelled kaimakam and caimacam; قائم مقام, "sub-governor") is the title used for the governor of a provincial district in the Republic of Turkey, Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus and in Lebanon; additionally, it was a title used for roughly the same official position in the Ottoman Empire.

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Kemal Kerinçsiz

Kemal Kerinçsiz (born February 20, 1960 in Edirne, Turkey) is a Turkish nationalist lawyer, famous for filing complaints against more than 40 Turkish journalists and authors (including Orhan Pamuk, Elif Şafak, and the late Hrant Dink) for "insulting Turkishness".

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Kemal Tahir

Kemal Tahir (March 13, 1910 - April 21, 1973) was a prominent Turkish novelist and intellectual.

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Kemal Yamak

Kemal Yamak (1924, Merzifon – 26 July 2009) was Commander of the Turkish Army (1987–1989).

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Komotini (Κομοτηνή; Gümülcine) is a city in the region of East Macedonia and Thrace, northeastern Greece.

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Kristallnacht (lit. "Crystal Night") or Reichskristallnacht, also referred to as the Night of Broken Glass, Reichspogromnacht or simply Pogromnacht, and Novemberpogrome (Yiddish: קרישטאָל נאַכט krishtol nakt), was a pogrom against Jews throughout Nazi Germany on 9–10 November 1938, carried out by SA paramilitary forces and German civilians.

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Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.

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List of Commanders of the Turkish Air Force

This list includes Commanders of the Turkish Air Force (Türk Hava Kuvvetleri Komutanlığı), who were, in their time of service, nominal heads of the Turkish Air Force.

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List of diplomatic missions of the United Kingdom

This is a list of diplomatic missions of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, excluding honorary consulates.

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London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Martial law

Martial law is the imposition of direct military control of normal civilian functions of government, especially in response to a temporary emergency such as invasion or major disaster, or in an occupied territory. Martial law can be used by governments to enforce their rule over the public.

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Martial law and state of emergency in Turkey

Since 1940, Turkey has frequently been under extraordinary rule, either the whole of the country or specific provinces.

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Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.

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Mehmet Ali Birand

Mehmet Ali Birand (9 December 1941 – 17 January 2013) was a Turkish journalist, political commentator and writer.

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Metropolitan bishop

In Christian churches with episcopal polity, the rank of metropolitan bishop, or simply metropolitan, pertains to the diocesan bishop or archbishop of a metropolis (then more precisely called metropolitan archbishop); that is, the chief city of a historical Roman province, ecclesiastical province, or regional capital.

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Milliyet (Turkish for "nationality") is a major Turkish daily newspaper published in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Turkey)

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Dışişleri Bakanlığı) is a government ministry of the Republic of Turkey, responsible for the foreign relations of Turkey.

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Ministry of the Interior (Turkey)

The Ministry of the Interior (İçişleri Bakanlığı) is a government ministry office of the Republic of Turkey, responsible for interior security affairs in Turkey.

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Mobbing, as a sociological term, means bullying of an individual by a group, in any context, such as a family, peer group, school, workplace, neighborhood, community, or online.

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A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monks or nuns, whether living in communities or alone (hermits).

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Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (19 May 1881 (conventional) – 10 November 1938) was a Turkish army officer, revolutionary, and founder of the Republic of Turkey, serving as its first President from 1923 until his death in 1938.

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National Intelligence Organization (Turkey)

The National Intelligence Organization (Millî İstihbarat Teşkilatı, MİT) is the governmental intelligence organization of Turkey.

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National Security Service (Turkey)

The National Security Service (Milli Emniyet Hizmeti, MEH, but known as MAH) was the governmental intelligence organization of Turkey between 1926 and 1965, when it was replaced by the National Intelligence Organization (Millî İstihbarat Teşkilâtı, MİT).

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Nations and Nationalism (journal)

Nations and Nationalism is a peer-reviewed academic journal that covers research on nationalism and related issues.

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The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.

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Nevşehir Province

Nevşehir Province (Nevşehir ili) is a province in central Turkey with its capital in Nevşehir. Its adjacent provinces are Kırşehir to the northwest, Aksaray to the southwest, Niğde to the south, Kayseri to the southeast, and Yozgat to the northeast. Nevşehir includes the area called Cappadocia - a very popular tourist attraction in Turkey. The famous town of Göreme is also located in Nevşehir. Cappadocia once included the area now covered by this province. This province is notable for the fairy chimneys of Göreme, the Ortahisar (middle fortress), a number of old churches from the Byzantine period.

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Noel Barber

Noel Barber (9 September 190910 July 1988) was a British novelist and journalist.

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Norwegians (nordmenn) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Norway.

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NTV (Turkey)

NTV is a Turkish nationwide television news channel.

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Operation Gladio

Operation Gladio is the codename for a clandestine North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) "stay-behind" operation in Europe during the Cold War.

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Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Pains of Autumn

Pains of Autumn (Güz Sancısı) is a 2009 Turkish drama film, directed by Tomris Giritlioğlu, based on the novel by Yılmaz Karakoyunlu.

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Pamphilus (painter)

Pamphilus of Amphipolis (Ancient Greek: Πάμφιλος, fourth century BC) was a Macedonian painter and head of Sicyonian school.

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Panagia (Greek: Παναγία, fem. of panágios, pan- + hágios, the All-Holy; pronounced in Medieval and Modern Greek, also transliterated Panayia or Panaghia, is one of the titles of Mary, the mother of Jesus, used especially in Orthodox Christianity. Most Greek churches dedicated to the Virgin Mary are called Panagia; the standard western Christian designation of "St. Mary" is rarely used in the Orthodox East, as Mary is considered the holiest of all human beings and therefore of higher status than the Saints.

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Paul of Greece

Paul (Παύλος, Pávlos; 14 December 1901 – 6 March 1964) was King of Greece from 1947 until his death in 1964.

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Phanariotes, Phanariots, or Phanariote Greeks (Φαναριώτες, Fanarioți, Fenerliler) were members of prominent Greek families in PhanarEncyclopædia Britannica,Phanariote, 2008, O.Ed.

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Photomontage is the process and the result of making a composite photograph by cutting, gluing, rearranging and overlapping two or more photographs into a new image.

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The term pogrom has multiple meanings, ascribed most often to the deliberate persecution of an ethnic or religious group either approved or condoned by the local authorities.

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Politico Europe

Politico Europe is the European edition of the American publication Politico, a journalism company based in Arlington County, Virginia.

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Population exchange between Greece and Turkey

The 1923 population exchange between Greece and Turkey (Ἡ Ἀνταλλαγή, Mübâdele) stemmed from the "Convention Concerning the Exchange of Greek and Turkish Populations" signed at Lausanne, Switzerland, on 30 January 1923, by the governments of Greece and Turkey.

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In politics, populism refers to a range of approaches which emphasise the role of "the people" and often juxtapose this group against "the elite".

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Pound sterling

The pound sterling (symbol: £; ISO code: GBP), commonly known as the pound and less commonly referred to as Sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, and Tristan da Cunha.

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President of the United States

The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.

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A priest or priestess (feminine) is a religious leader authorized to perform the sacred rituals of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more deities.

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Prince Islands

The Prince Islands (Πριγκηπονήσια, Prens Adaları, alternatively written as Princes' Islands in which the "princes" are plural (meaning "Islands of the Princes"); or Kızıl Adalar ("Red Islands") in Turkish); officially just Adalar ("Islands"), are an archipelago off the coast of Istanbul, Turkey, in the Sea of Marmara.

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Racism in Turkey

In Turkey, racism and ethnic discrimination are present in its society and throughout its history, and this racism and ethnic discrimination is also institutional against the non-Muslim and non-Sunni minorities.

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Radikal ("Radical") was a daily liberal Turkish language newspaper, published in Istanbul.

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Rape is a type of sexual assault usually involving sexual intercourse or other forms of sexual penetration carried out against a person without that person's consent.

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Real estate

Real estate is "property consisting of land and the buildings on it, along with its natural resources such as crops, minerals or water; immovable property of this nature; an interest vested in this (also) an item of real property, (more generally) buildings or housing in general.

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Ruhr University Bochum

The Ruhr-University Bochum (German: Ruhr-Universität Bochum, RUB), located on the southern hills of central Ruhr area Bochum, was founded in 1962 as the first new public university in Germany after World War II.

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Sabah (newspaper)

Sabah is a Turkish daily newspaper, with a circulation of around 330,000 as of 2011.

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Sabri Yirmibeşoğlu

Sabri Yirmibeşoğlu (1 September 1928 – 2 January 2016) was a Turkish general.

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A sarcophagus (plural, sarcophagi) is a box-like funeral receptacle for a corpse, most commonly carved in stone, and usually displayed above ground, though it may also be buried.

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Scalping is the act of cutting or tearing a part of the human scalp, with hair attached, from the head of an enemy as a trophy.

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In the Bible, a scapegoat is an animal which is ritually burdened with the sins of others then driven away.

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Screamers (2006 film)

Screamers is a 2006 documentary film directed by Carla Garapedian, conceived by Peter McAlevey and Garapedian and produced by McAlevey.

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Secret Intelligence Service

The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), commonly known as MI6, is the foreign intelligence service of the government of the United Kingdom, tasked mainly with the covert overseas collection and analysis of human intelligence (HUMINT) in support of the UK's national security.

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Special forces

Special forces and special operations forces are military units trained to conduct special operations.

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Speros Vryonis

Speros Vryonis Jr. (Σπυρίδων "Σπύρος" Βρυώνης, born July 18, 1928 in Memphis, Tennessee) is an American historian of Greek descent and a specialist in Byzantine, Balkan, and Greek history.

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Station chief

A station chief is a government official who is the head of a team, post or function usually in a foreign country.

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Stock photography

Stock photography is the supply of photographs, which are often licensed for specific uses.

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Tactical Mobilisation Group

The Tactical Mobilisation Group (TMG, Seferberlik Taktik Kurulu) was the special operations unit of the Turkish Army.

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Taksim Square

Taksim Square (Taksim Meydanı), situated in Beyoğlu in the European part of Istanbul, Turkey, is a major tourist and leisure district famed for its restaurants, shops, and hotels.

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Taraf ("Side" in Turkish) was a liberal newspaper in Turkey.

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The Sunday Times

The Sunday Times is the largest-selling British national newspaper in the "quality press" market category.

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The Washington Post

The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.

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A thesis or dissertation is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification presenting the author's research and findings.

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Thessaloniki (Θεσσαλονίκη, Thessaloníki), also familiarly known as Thessalonica, Salonica, or Salonika is the second-largest city in Greece, with over 1 million inhabitants in its metropolitan area, and the capital of Greek Macedonia, the administrative region of Central Macedonia and the Decentralized Administration of Macedonia and Thrace.

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Today's Zaman

Today's Zaman (Zaman is Turkish for 'time' or 'age') was an English-language daily newspaper based in Turkey.

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Treaty of Lausanne

The Treaty of Lausanne (Traité de Lausanne) was a peace treaty signed in the Palais de Rumine, Lausanne, Switzerland, on 24 July 1923.

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Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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Turkification, or Turkicization (Türkleştirme), is a cultural shift whereby populations or states adopted a historical Turkic culture, such as in the Ottoman Empire.

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Turkish Cypriots

Turkish Cypriots or Cypriot Turks (Kıbrıs Türkleri or Kıbrıslı Türkler; Τουρκοκύπριοι) are mostly ethnic Turks originating from Cyprus.

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Turkish Historical Society

The Turkish Historical Society also known as Turkish Historical Association or Turkish History Foundation (Türk Tarih Kurumu, TTK) is a research society studying the history of Turkey and the Turkish people, founded in 1931 by the initiative of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, with headquarters in Ankara, Turkey.

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Turkish Land Forces

The Turkish Land Forces (Türk Kara Kuvvetleri), or Turkish Army (Türk Ordusu), is the main branch of the Turkish Armed Forces responsible for land-based military operations.

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Turkish lira

The Turkish lira (Türk lirası; sign: ₺; code: TRY; usually abbreviated as TL) is the currency of Turkey and the self-declared Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.

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Turkish nationalism

Turkish nationalism is a political ideology that promotes and glorifies the Turkish people, as either a national, ethnic, or linguistic group.

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Uğur Mumcu

Uğur Mumcu (22 August 1942 – 24 January 1993) um:ag was a Turkish investigative journalist for the daily Cumhuriyet.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.

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United Nations Security Council

The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States dollar

The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.

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United States Senate

The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprise the legislature of the United States.

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Varlık Vergisi

Varlık Vergisi ("wealth tax" or "capital tax") was a Turkish tax levied on citizens of Turkey in 1942, with the stated aim of raising funds for the country's defense in case of an eventual entry into World War II.

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Walls of Constantinople

The Walls of Constantinople are a series of defensive stone walls that have surrounded and protected the city of Constantinople (today Istanbul in Turkey) since its founding as the new capital of the Roman Empire by Constantine the Great.

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Windows Media Video

Windows Media Video (WMV) is a series of video codecs and their corresponding video coding formats developed by Microsoft.

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World Council of Churches

The World Council of Churches (WCC) is a worldwide inter-church organization founded in 1948.

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Yedikule (Seven Towers) is a neighborhood of Fatih, Istanbul, Turkey.

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Yeni Şafak

Yeni Şafak ("New Dawn") is a conservative Turkish daily newspaper.

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Yeniköy, Sarıyer

Yeniköy (Yeniköy, "New Village"), sometimes also referred to as Yeni Kioi, is a neighbourhood in the Sarıyer district of Istanbul, Turkey.

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1918 Toronto anti-Greek riot

The 1918 Toronto anti-Greek riot was a three-day long race riot in Toronto, Ontario, Canada targeting Greek immigrants during August 2–4, 1918.

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1960 Turkish coup d'état

The 1960 Turkish coup d'état (27 Mayıs Darbesi) was the first coup d'état in the Republic of Turkey.

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Redirects here:

1955 Istanbul pogrom, 1955 Istanbul riots, 6-7 September, 6-7 September Uprisings, 6-7 September exhibition assault, 6–7 September exhibition assault, Events of September 6–7, Istanbul Pogrom, Istanbul Riot, Istanbul Riots, Istanbul pogroms, Istanbul riots, Istanbul riots of 1955, Septemvriana.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Istanbul_pogrom

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