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Italian Campaign (World War II)

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The Italian Campaign of World War II consisted of the Allied operations in and around Italy, from 1943 to the end of the war in Europe. [1]

164 relations: Abruzzo, Adolf Hitler, Adriatic Sea, Aeronautica Nazionale Repubblicana, Airdrop, Albert Kesselring, Allied Force Headquarters, Allied invasion of Italy, Allied invasion of Sicily, Allies of World War II, Ancona, Apennine Mountains, Armistice of Cassibile, Army Group C, Axis powers, Badoglio Proclamation, Balkans, Barbara Line, Bari, Battle of Ancona, Battle of Anzio, Battle of Monte Castello, Battle of Ortona, Battle of San Marino, Battle of the Atlantic, Bazooka, Bernard Montgomery, Bernhardt Line, Black Brigades, Bologna, Bombing of the Vatican, Brazilian Expeditionary Force, British Army, Buffalo Soldier, Central Italy, Civil war, Decima Flottiglia MAS, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Eastern Europe, Eastern Front (World War II), Egypt, Eighth Army (United Kingdom), Far East, Field marshal (United Kingdom), Fighter aircraft, Florence, Foggia, Francisco Franco, Franklin D. Roosevelt, French Expeditionary Corps (1943–44), ..., General (United Kingdom), Generalfeldmarschall, Genoa, George S. Patton, German Army (Wehrmacht), German Instrument of Surrender, Germany and the Second World War, Gothic Line, Greek Civil War, Harold Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis, Heinrich von Vietinghoff, Henry Maitland Wilson, Hitler Line, Hungary, I Canadian Corps, II Corps (Poland), II Corps (United States), India, Infantry, Invasion of Normandy, Italian Civil War, Italian Co-belligerent Air Force, Italian Co-belligerent Army, Italian Co-belligerent Navy, Italian resistance movement, Italian Social Republic, IV Corps (United States), Jewish Brigade, John Keegan, John P. Lucas, Kingdom of Greece, Kingdom of Italy, Land mine, Lieutenant general (United States), Line of communication, Liri, Lucca, Lucian Truscott, Major general (United States), Mandatory Palestine, Marina Nazionale Repubblicana, Mark W. Clark, Mediterranean and Middle East theatre of World War II, Mediterranean Sea, Messina, Middle East, Milan, Military history of Italy during World War II, Monte Cassino, Mount Etna, Naples, National Republican Army, National Republican Guard (Italy), North African Campaign, OB West, Office of Public Sector Information, Oliver Leese, Open city, Operation Baytown, Operation Bowler, Operation Dragoon, Operation Slapstick, Palermo, Penguin Books, Pisa, Po (river), Polish Armed Forces in the West, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Red Army, Richard McCreery, Rimini, Rodolfo Graziani, Rome, Royal Italian Army, Royal Italian Army during World War II, Royal Navy, Salerno, San Marino, Seventh United States Army, Sicily, Slovenia, Southern France, Southern Italy, Soviet Union, Spain, Supreme Allied Commander, Surrender of Caserta, Taranto, Trieste, Turin, United States Army, United States Army Center of Military History, United States Army North, Universal Newsreel, Venice, VI Corps (United States), Vienna, Vittorio Ambrosio, Volturno Line, Waffen-SS, Wehrmacht, Western Front (World War II), Winston Churchill, Winter Line, World War II, 10th Army (Wehrmacht), 10th Mountain Division, 15th Army Group, 29th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (1st Italian), 34th Infantry Division (United States), 3rd Carpathian Rifle Division (Poland), 5th Infantry Division (United Kingdom), 8th Infantry Division (India), 92nd Infantry Division (United States). Expand index (114 more) »

Abruzzo

Abruzzo (Aquiliano: Abbrùzzu) is a region of Southern Italy, with an area of 10,763 square km (4,156 sq mi) and a population of 1.2 million.

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Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.

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Adriatic Sea

The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula.

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Aeronautica Nazionale Repubblicana

Wing emblem of the A.N.R. from 1944 to 1945. The National Republican Air Force (Aeronautica Nazionale Repubblicana, or ANR) was the air force of the Italian Social Republic during World War II, closely linked with the German Air Force (Luftwaffe) in northern Italy.

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Airdrop

An airdrop is a type of airlift, developed during World War II to resupply otherwise inaccessible troops, who themselves may have been airborne forces.

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Albert Kesselring

Albert Kesselring (30 November 1885 – 16 July 1960) was a German Luftwaffe Generalfeldmarschall during World War II.

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Allied Force Headquarters

Allied Force Headquarters (AFHQ) was the headquarters that controlled all Allied operational forces in the Mediterranean Theatre of World War II from late 1942 until the end of the war in Europe in May 1945.

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Allied invasion of Italy

The Allied invasion of Italy was the Allied amphibious landing on mainland Italy that took place on 3 September 1943 during the early stages of the Italian Campaign of World War II.

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Allied invasion of Sicily

The Allied invasion of Sicily, codenamed Operation Husky, was a major campaign of World War II, in which the Allies took the island of Sicily from the Axis powers (Italy and Nazi Germany).

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Allies of World War II

The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).

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Ancona

Ancona ((elbow)) is a city and a seaport in the Marche region in central Italy, with a population of around 101,997.

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Apennine Mountains

The Apennines or Apennine Mountains (Ἀπέννινα ὄρη; Appenninus or Apenninus Mons—a singular used in the plural;Apenninus has the form of an adjective, which would be segmented Apenn-inus, often used with nouns such as mons (mountain) or Greek ὄρος oros, but just as often used alone as a noun. The ancient Greeks and Romans typically but not always used "mountain" in the singular to mean one or a range; thus, "the Apennine mountain" refers to the entire chain and is translated "the Apennine mountains". The ending can vary also by gender depending on the noun modified. The Italian singular refers to one of the constituent chains rather than to a single mountain and the Italian plural refers to multiple chains rather than to multiple mountains. Appennini) are a mountain range consisting of parallel smaller chains extending along the length of peninsular Italy.

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Armistice of Cassibile

The Armistice of Cassibile was an armistice signed on 3 September 1943 by Walter Bedell Smith and Giuseppe Castellano, and made public on 8 September, between the Kingdom of Italy and the Allies during World War II.

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Army Group C

Army Group C (in German, Heeresgruppe C or HGr C) was an army group of the German Wehrmacht during the Second World War.

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Axis powers

The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.

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Badoglio Proclamation

The Badoglio Proclamation was a speech read on Ente Italiano per le Audizioni Radiofoniche (EIAR) at 19:42 on 8 September 1943 by Marshal Pietro Badoglio, Italian head of government, announcing that the Cassibile armistice between Italy and the Allies signed on 3 September had come into force.

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Balkans

The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.

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Barbara Line

During the Italian Campaign of World War II, the Barbara Line was a series of German military fortifications in Italy, some south of the Gustav Line, from Colli al Volturno to the Adriatic Coast in San Salvo and a similar distance north of the Volturno Line.

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Bari

Bari (Barese: Bare; Barium; translit) is the capital city of the Metropolitan City of Bari and of the Apulia region, on the Adriatic Sea, in southern Italy.

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Battle of Ancona

The Battle of Ancona was a battle involving forces from Poland serving as part of the British Army and German forces that took place from 16 June–18 July 1944 during the Italian campaign in World War II.

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Battle of Anzio

The Battle of Anzio was a battle of the Italian Campaign of World War II that took place from January 22, 1944 (beginning with the Allied amphibious landing known as Operation Shingle) to June 5, 1944 (ending with the capture of Rome).

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Battle of Monte Castello

The Battle of Monte Castello (also called Operation Encore) was an engagement that took place from 25 November 1944 to 21 February 1945 during the Italian campaign of World War II.

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Battle of Ortona

The Battle of Ortona (20–28 December 1943) was a battle fought between two battalions of elite German Fallschirmjäger (paratroops) from the German 1st Parachute Division under Generalleutnant Richard Heidrich, and assaulting Canadian troops from the Canadian 1st Infantry Division under Major General Chris Vokes, most of whom were fresh recruits whose first taste of combat was during the Invasion of Sicily.

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Battle of San Marino

The Battle of San Marino was an engagement on 17–20 September 1944 during the Italian Campaign of the Second World War, in which German Army forces occupied the neutral Republic of San Marino, and were then attacked by Allied forces.

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Battle of the Atlantic

The Battle of the Atlantic was the longest continuous military campaign in World War II, running from 1939 to the defeat of Germany in 1945.

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Bazooka

Bazooka is the common name for a man-portable recoilless anti-tank rocket launcher weapon, widely fielded by the United States Army.

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Bernard Montgomery

Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, (17 November 1887 – 24 March 1976), nicknamed "Monty" and "The Spartan General", was a senior British Army officer who fought in both the First World War and the Second World War.

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Bernhardt Line

The Bernhardt Line (or Reinhard Line) was a German defensive line in Italy during the Italian Campaign of World War II.

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Black Brigades

The Corpo Ausiliario delle Squadre d'azione di Camicie Nere (Italian: Auxiliary Corps of the Black Shirts' Action Squads), most widely known as the Black Brigades (Brigate Nere) was one of the Fascist paramilitary groups, organized and run by the Republican Fascist Party (Partito Fascista Repubblicano, PFR) operating in the Italian Social Republic (in northern Italy), during the final years of World War II, and after the signing of the Italian Armistice in 1943.

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Bologna

Bologna (Bulåggna; Bononia) is the capital and largest city of the Emilia-Romagna Region in Northern Italy.

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Bombing of the Vatican

Bombing of Vatican City occurred twice during World War II.

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Brazilian Expeditionary Force

The Brazilian Expeditionary Force or BEF (Força Expedicionária Brasileira; FEB) consisted of about 25,700 men arranged by the army and air force to fight alongside the Allied forces in the Mediterranean Theatre of World War II.

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British Army

The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces.

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Buffalo Soldier

Buffalo Soldiers originally were members of the 10th Cavalry Regiment of the United States Army, formed on September 21, 1866, at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas.

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Central Italy

Central Italy (Italia centrale or just Centro) is one of the five official statistical regions of Italy used by the National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT), a first level NUTS region and a European Parliament constituency.

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Civil war

A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war between organized groups within the same state or country.

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Decima Flottiglia MAS

The Decima Flottiglia MAS (Decima Flottiglia Motoscafi Armati Siluranti, also known as La Decima or Xª MAS) (Italian for "10th Assault Vehicle Flotilla") was an Italian commando frogman unit of the Regia Marina (Italian Royal Navy) created during the Fascist regime.

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Dwight D. Eisenhower

Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 to 1961.

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Eastern Europe

Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.

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Eastern Front (World War II)

The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.

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Egypt

Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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Eighth Army (United Kingdom)

The Eighth Army was a field army formation of the British Army during the Second World War, fighting in the North African and Italian campaigns.

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Far East

The Far East is a geographical term in English that usually refers to East Asia (including Northeast Asia), the Russian Far East (part of North Asia), and Southeast Asia.

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Field marshal (United Kingdom)

Field Marshal has been the highest rank in the British Army since 1736.

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Fighter aircraft

A fighter aircraft is a military aircraft designed primarily for air-to-air combat against other aircraft, as opposed to bombers and attack aircraft, whose main mission is to attack ground targets.

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Florence

Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.

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Foggia

Foggia (Foggiano: Fògge) is a city and comune of Apulia, in southern Italy, capital of the province of Foggia.

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Francisco Franco

Francisco Franco Bahamonde (4 December 1892 – 20 November 1975) was a Spanish general who ruled over Spain as a military dictator from 1939, after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War, until his death in 1975.

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Franklin D. Roosevelt

Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.

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French Expeditionary Corps (1943–44)

The French Expeditionary Corps (Corps Expéditionnaire Français, CEF), also known as the French Expeditionary Corps in Italy (Corps Expéditionaire Français en Italie, CEFI.), was an expeditionary force composed of Free French soldiers that fought in the Italian Campaign during World War II under the command of General Alphonse Juin.

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General (United Kingdom)

General (or full general to distinguish it from the lower general officer ranks) is the highest rank currently achievable by serving officers of the British Army.

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Generalfeldmarschall

Generalfeldmarschall (general field marshal, field marshal general, or field marshal;; abbreviated to Feldmarschall) was a rank in the armies of several German states and the Holy Roman Empire; in the Habsburg Monarchy, the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary, the rank Feldmarschall was used.

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Genoa

Genoa (Genova,; Zêna; English, historically, and Genua) is the capital of the Italian region of Liguria and the sixth-largest city in Italy.

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George S. Patton

General George Smith Patton Jr. (November 11, 1885 – December 21, 1945) was a senior officer of the United States Army who commanded the U.S. Seventh Army in the Mediterranean theater of World War II, but is best known for his leadership of the U.S. Third Army in France and Germany following the Allied invasion of Normandy in June 1944.

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German Army (Wehrmacht)

The German Army (Heer) was the land forces component of the Wehrmacht, the regular German Armed Forces, from 1935 until it was demobilized and later dissolved in August 1946.

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German Instrument of Surrender

The German Instrument of Surrender ended World War II in Europe.

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Germany and the Second World War

Germany and the Second World War (Das Deutsche Reich und der Zweite Weltkrieg) is a 12,000-page, 13-volume work published by the Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt (DVA), that has taken academics from the military history centre of the German armed forces 30 years to finish.

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Gothic Line

The Gothic Line (Gotenstellung; Linea Gotica) was a German defensive line of the Italian Campaign of World War II.

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Greek Civil War

Τhe Greek Civil War (ο Eμφύλιος, o Emfýlios, "the Civil War") was fought in Greece from 1946 to 1949 between the Greek government army—backed by the United Kingdom and the United States—and the Democratic Army of Greece (DSE)—the military branch of the Greek Communist Party (KKE).

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Harold Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis

Field Marshal Harold Rupert Leofric George Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis, (10 December 1891 – 16 June 1969) was a senior British Army officer who served with distinction in both the First World War and the Second World War and, afterwards, as Governor General of Canada, the 17th since Canadian Confederation.

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Heinrich von Vietinghoff

Heinrich von Vietinghoff (6 December 1887 – 23 February 1952) was a German general (Generaloberst) of the Wehrmacht during World War II.

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Henry Maitland Wilson

Field Marshal Henry Maitland Wilson, 1st Baron Wilson, (5 September 1881 – 31 December 1964), also known as Jumbo Wilson, was a senior British Army officer of the 20th century.

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Hitler Line

The Hitler Line was a German defensive line in central Italy during the Second World War.

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Hungary

Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.

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I Canadian Corps

I Canadian Corps was one of the two corps fielded by the Canadian Army during the Second World War.

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II Corps (Poland)

The Polish II Corps (Drugi Korpus Wojska Polskiego), 1943–1947, was a major tactical and operational unit of the Polish Armed Forces in the West during World War II.

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II Corps (United States)

The II Corps was a corps-sized formation of the United States Army that was active in both World War I and World War II.

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India

India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Infantry

Infantry is the branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry, artillery, and tank forces.

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Invasion of Normandy

The Western Allies of World War II launched the largest amphibious invasion in history when they assaulted Normandy, located on the northern coast of France, on 6 June 1944.

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Italian Civil War

The Italian Civil War (Italian: La guerra civile) is the period between September 8, 1943 (the date of the armistice of Cassibile), and May 2, 1945 (the date of the surrender of German forces in Italy) in which the Italian Resistance and the Italian Co-Belligerent Army joined the allies fighting Axis forces including continuing Italian Fascists Italian Social Republic.

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Italian Co-belligerent Air Force

The Italian Co-Belligerent Air Force (Aviazione Cobelligerante Italiana, or ACI), or Air Force of the South (Aeronautica del Sud), was the air force of the Royalist "Badoglio government" in southern Italy during the last years of World War II.

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Italian Co-belligerent Army

The Italian Co-belligerent Army (Esercito Cobelligerante Italiano), Army of the South (Esercito del Sud), or Italian Liberation Corps (Corpo Italiano di Liberazione) were names applied to various division sets of the now former Royal Italian Army during the period when it fought on the side of the Allies during World War II from September 1943 onwards.

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Italian Co-belligerent Navy

The Italian Co-Belligerent Navy (Marina Cobelligerante Italiana), or Navy of the South (Marina del Sud) or Royal Navy (Regia Marina), was the navy of the Italian royalist forces fighting on the side of the Allies in southern Italy after the Allied armistice with Italy in September 1943.

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Italian resistance movement

The Italian resistance movement (Resistenza italiana or just la Resistenza) is an umbrella term for resistance groups that opposed the occupying German forces and the Italian Fascist puppet regime of the Italian Social Republic during the later years of World War II.

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Italian Social Republic

The Italian Social Republic (Repubblica Sociale Italiana,; RSI), informally known as the Republic of Salò (Repubblica di Salò), was a German puppet state with limited recognition that was created during the later part of World War II, existing from the beginning of German occupation of Italy in September 1943 until the surrender of German troops in Italy in May 1945.

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IV Corps (United States)

IV Corps was a corps-sized formation of the United States Army that saw service in both World War I and World War II.

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Jewish Brigade

The Jewish Infantry Brigade Group, more commonly known as the Jewish Brigade Group or Jewish Brigade, was a military formation of the British Army composed of Jews from the Yishuv in Mandatory Palestine commanded by British-Jewish officers that served in Europe during World War II.

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John Keegan

Sir John Desmond Patrick Keegan (15 May 1934 – 2 August 2012) was an English military historian, lecturer, writer and journalist.

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John P. Lucas

Major General John Porter Lucas (January 14, 1890 – December 24, 1949) was a senior officer of the United States Army who saw service in World War I and World War II.

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Kingdom of Greece

The Kingdom of Greece (Greek: Βασίλειον τῆς Ἑλλάδος) was a state established in 1832 at the Convention of London by the Great Powers (the United Kingdom, Kingdom of France and the Russian Empire).

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Kingdom of Italy

The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.

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Land mine

A land mine is an explosive device concealed under or on the ground and designed to destroy or disable enemy targets, ranging from combatants to vehicles and tanks, as they pass over or near it.

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Lieutenant general (United States)

In the United States Army, United States Marine Corps, and the United States Air Force, lieutenant general (abbreviated LTG in the Army, Lt Gen in the Air Force, and LtGen in the Marine Corps) is a three-star general officer rank, with the pay grade of O-9.

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Line of communication

A line of communication (or communications) is the route that connects an operating military unit with its supply base.

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Liri

The Liri (Latin Liris or Lyris, previously, Clanis; Greek: Λεῖρις) is one of the principal rivers of central Italy, flowing into the Tyrrhenian Sea a little below Minturno under the name Garigliano.

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Lucca

Lucca is a city and comune in Tuscany, Central Italy, on the Serchio, in a fertile plain near the Tyrrhenian Sea.

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Lucian Truscott

General Lucian King Truscott Jr. (January 9, 1895 – September 12, 1965) was a highly decorated senior United States Army officer, who saw distinguished active service during World War II.

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Major general (United States)

In the United States Army, United States Marine Corps, and United States Air Force, major general is a two-star general-officer rank, with the pay grade of O-8.

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Mandatory Palestine

Mandatory Palestine (فلسطين; פָּלֶשְׂתִּינָה (א"י), where "EY" indicates "Eretz Yisrael", Land of Israel) was a geopolitical entity under British administration, carved out of Ottoman Syria after World War I. British civil administration in Palestine operated from 1920 until 1948.

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Marina Nazionale Repubblicana

The Marina Nazionale Repubblicana was the navy of the Italian Social Republic, a German puppet state in Italy.

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Mark W. Clark

Mark Wayne Clark (May 1, 1896 – April 17, 1984) was a United States Army officer who saw service during World War I, World War II, and the Korean War.

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Mediterranean and Middle East theatre of World War II

The Mediterranean and Middle East Theatre was a major theatre of operations during the Second World War.

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Mediterranean Sea

The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.

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Messina

Messina (Sicilian: Missina; Messana, Μεσσήνη) is the capital of the Italian Metropolitan City of Messina.

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Middle East

The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).

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Milan

Milan (Milano; Milan) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,380,873 while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,235,000.

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Military history of Italy during World War II

The participation of Italy in the Second World War was characterized by a complex framework of ideology, politics, and diplomacy, while its military actions were often heavily influenced by external factors.

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Monte Cassino

Monte Cassino (sometimes written Montecassino) is a rocky hill about southeast of Rome, in the Latin Valley, Italy, to the west of the town of Cassino and altitude.

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Mount Etna

Mount Etna, or Etna (Etna or Mongibello; Mungibeddu or â Muntagna; Aetna), is an active stratovolcano on the east coast of Sicily, Italy, in the Metropolitan City of Catania, between the cities of Messina and Catania.

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Naples

Naples (Napoli, Napule or; Neapolis; lit) is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy after Rome and Milan.

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National Republican Army

The National Republican Army (Esercito Nazionale Repubblicano, or ENR) was the army of the Italian Social Republic (Repubblica Sociale Italiana, or RSI) from 1943 to 1945 that fought on the side of Nazi Germany during World War II.

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National Republican Guard (Italy)

The Italian National Republican Guard (Guardia Nazionale Repubblicana, or GNR) was a gendarmerie force of the Italian Social Republic created by decree on December 8, 1943, replacing the Carabinieri and the National Security Volunteer Militia (MVSN).

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North African Campaign

The North African Campaign of the Second World War took place in North Africa from 10 June 1940 to 13 May 1943.

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OB West

The German Army Command in the West (Oberbefehlshaber West (German: initials OB West) was the overall command of the Westheer, the German Armed Forces on the Western Front during World War II. It was directly subordinate to German Armed Forces High Command. The area under the command of the OB West varied as the war progressed. At its farthest extent it reached the French Atlantic coast. By the end of World War II in Europe it was reduced to commanding troops in Bavaria.

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Office of Public Sector Information

The Office of Public Sector Information (OPSI) is the body responsible for the operation of Her Majesty's Stationery Office (HMSO) and of other public information services of the United Kingdom.

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Oliver Leese

Lieutenant General Sir Oliver William Hargreaves Leese, 3rd Baronet, (27 October 1894 – 22 January 1978) was a senior British Army officer who saw distinguished active service during both the world wars.

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Open city

In war, in the event of the imminent capture of a city, the government/military structure of the nation that controls the city will sometimes declare it an open city, thus announcing that it has abandoned all defensive efforts.

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Operation Baytown

Operation Baytown was an Allied amphibious landing on the mainland of Italy that took place on 3 September 1943, part of the Allied invasion of Italy, itself part of the Italian Campaign, during the Second World War.

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Operation Bowler

Operation Bowler was an air attack on Venice harbour by Allied aircraft on 21 March 1945, as part of the Italian campaign of the Second World War.

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Operation Dragoon

Operation Dragoon (initially Operation Anvil) was the code name for the Allied invasion of Southern France on 15August 1944.

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Operation Slapstick

Operation Slapstick was the code name for a British landing from the sea at the Italian port of Taranto during the Second World War.

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Palermo

Palermo (Sicilian: Palermu, Panormus, from Πάνορμος, Panormos) is a city of Southern Italy, the capital of both the autonomous region of Sicily and the Metropolitan City of Palermo.

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Penguin Books

Penguin Books is a British publishing house.

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Pisa

Pisa is a city in the Tuscany region of Central Italy straddling the Arno just before it empties into the Ligurian Sea.

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Po (river)

The Po (Padus and Eridanus; Po; ancient Ligurian: Bodincus or Bodencus; Πάδος, Ἠριδανός) is a river that flows eastward across northern Italy.

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Polish Armed Forces in the West

The Polish Armed Forces in the West refers to the Polish military formations formed to fight alongside the Western Allies against Nazi Germany and its allies during World War II.

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Prime Minister of the United Kingdom

The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of the United Kingdom government.

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Red Army

The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

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Richard McCreery

General Sir Richard Loudon McCreery (1 February 1898 – 18 October 1967), was a career soldier of the British Army, who was decorated for leading one of the last cavalry actions in the First World War.

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Rimini

Rimini (Rémin; Ariminum) is a city of about 150,000 inhabitants in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy and capital city of the Province of Rimini.

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Rodolfo Graziani

Marshal Rodolfo Graziani, 1st Marquis of Neghelli (11 August 1882 – 11 January 1955), was a prominent Italian military officer in the Kingdom of Italy's Regio Esercito (Royal Army), primarily noted for his campaigns in Africa before and during World War II.

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Rome

Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).

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Royal Italian Army

The Royal Italian Army (Italian: Regio Esercito Italiano) was the army of the Kingdom of Italy from the unification of Italy in 1861 to the birth of the Italian Republic in 1946.

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Royal Italian Army during World War II

This article is about the Italian Royal Army (Regio Esercito) which participated in World War II.

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Royal Navy

The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.

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Salerno

Salerno (Salernitano: Salierne) is a city and comune in Campania (southwestern Italy) and is the capital of the province of the same name.

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San Marino

San Marino, officially the Republic of San Marino (Repubblica di San Marino), also known as the Most Serene Republic of San Marino (Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino), is an enclaved microstate surrounded by Italy, situated on the Italian Peninsula on the northeastern side of the Apennine Mountains.

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Seventh United States Army

The Seventh Army was a United States army created during World War II that evolved into the United States Army Europe (USAREUR) during the 1950s and 1960s.

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Sicily

Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.

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Slovenia

Slovenia (Slovenija), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene:, abbr.: RS), is a country in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes.

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Southern France

Southern France or the South of France, colloquially known as le Midi, is a defined geographical area consisting of the regions of France that border the Atlantic Ocean south of the Marais Poitevin, Spain, the Mediterranean, and Italy.

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Southern Italy

Southern Italy or Mezzogiorno (literally "midday") is a macroregion of Italy traditionally encompassing the territories of the former Kingdom of the two Sicilies (all the southern section of the Italian Peninsula and Sicily), with the frequent addition of the island of Sardinia.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Spain

Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.

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Supreme Allied Commander

Supreme Allied Commander is the title held by the most senior commander within certain multinational military alliances.

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Surrender of Caserta

The Surrender of Caserta (Resa di Caserta) of April 29, 1945 was the written agreement that formalized the surrender of German forces in Italy, ending the Italian Campaign of World War II.

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Taranto

Taranto (early Tarento from Tarentum; Tarantino: Tarde; translit; label) is a coastal city in Apulia, Southern Italy.

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Trieste

Trieste (Trst) is a city and a seaport in northeastern Italy.

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Turin

Turin (Torino; Turin) is a city and an important business and cultural centre in northern Italy.

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United States Army

The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.

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United States Army Center of Military History

The United States Army Center of Military History (CMH) is a directorate within the Office of the Administrative Assistant to the Secretary of the Army.

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United States Army North

The United States Army North is a formation of the United States Army Service Component Command of United States Northern Command.

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Universal Newsreel

Universal Newsreel (sometimes known as Universal-International Newsreel or just U-I Newsreel) was a series of 7- to 10-minute newsreels that were released twice a week between 1929 and 1967 by Universal Studios.

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Venice

Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.

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VI Corps (United States)

The VI Corps was activated as VI Army Corps in August 1918 at Neufchâteau, France, serving in the Lorraine Campaign.

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Vienna

Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.

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Vittorio Ambrosio

Vittorio Ambrosio (28 July 1879 – 19 November 1958) was an Italian general who served in the Italo-Turkish War, World War I, and World War II.

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Volturno Line

The Volturno Line (also known as the Viktor Line) was a German defensive position in Italy during the Italian Campaign of World War II.

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Waffen-SS

The Waffen-SS (Armed SS) was the armed wing of the Nazi Party's SS organisation.

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Wehrmacht

The Wehrmacht (lit. "defence force")From wehren, "to defend" and Macht., "power, force".

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Western Front (World War II)

The Western Front was a military theatre of World War II encompassing Denmark, Norway, Luxembourg, Belgium, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, France, Italy, and Germany. World War II military engagements in Southern Europe and elsewhere are generally considered under separate headings. The Western Front was marked by two phases of large-scale combat operations. The first phase saw the capitulation of the Netherlands, Belgium, and France during May and June 1940 after their defeat in the Low Countries and the northern half of France, and continued into an air war between Germany and Britain that climaxed with the Battle of Britain. The second phase consisted of large-scale ground combat (supported by a massive air war considered to be an additional front), which began in June 1944 with the Allied landings in Normandy and continued until the defeat of Germany in May 1945.

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Winston Churchill

Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.

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Winter Line

The Winter Line was a series of German and Italian military fortifications in Italy, constructed during World War II by Organisation Todt and commanded by Albert Kesselring.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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10th Army (Wehrmacht)

The 10th Army (German: 10. Armee) was a World War II field army of Wehrmacht (Germany).

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10th Mountain Division

The 10th Mountain Division (Light Infantry) is a light infantry division in the United States Army based at Fort Drum, New York.

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15th Army Group

The 15th Army Group was an Army Group consisted by the British Eighth and the U.S. Fifth Armies, which apart troops from British Empire and U.S.A., also had whole units from other allied countries/regions; like 2 of their Corps (from free France and Poland), 1 Division (from Brazil) and 7 Brigades (6 Italians and one Greek), besides supporting and being supported by the local Italian partisans.

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29th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (1st Italian)

The 29th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (1st Italian) also Legione SS Italiana (29. was created on 10 February 1945 as the second SS-Division numbered 29. The first, the 29th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (1st Russian), was disbanded. The new unit created in November 1943, was based on the Waffen-Grenadier-Brigade der SS (italienische Nr. 1). The division is also called "Italia".

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34th Infantry Division (United States)

The 34th Infantry Division is an infantry division of the United States Army, part of the National Guard, that participated in World War I, World War II and multiple current conflicts.

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3rd Carpathian Rifle Division (Poland)

The 3rd Carpathian Rifle Division (3 Dywizja Strzelców Karpackich, sometimes translated as 3rd Carpathian Infantry Division), also commonly known as Christmas Tree Division due to the characteristic emblem, was an infantry division of the Polish Armed Forces in the West that fought during World War II on the Italian Front.

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5th Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

The 5th Infantry Division was a regular army infantry division of the British Army.

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8th Infantry Division (India)

The 8th Mountain Division was raised as the 8th Indian Infantry division of the British Indian Army.

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92nd Infantry Division (United States)

The 92nd Infantry Division (92nd Division, WWI) was a segregated infantry division of the United States Army that served in both World War I and World War II.

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Redirects here:

Advance to Tiber, Allied march on Rome, Italian campaign (World War II), Italian front World War 2, Italian front World War II, Italy 1943, Italy 1943-1945, Italy 1943-44, Italy 1943-45, Italy 1943–44, Italy 1943–45, Italy 1944-1945, Italy 1944-45, Italy 1944–1945, Italy 1944–45, Italy, 1943-1945, Italy, 1943-45, Italy, 1943–1945, Italy, 1943–45, Italy, 1944-1945, Italy, 1944–1945, Liberation of Italy.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italian_Campaign_(World_War_II)

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