373 relations: A. James Gregor, Acerbo Law, Actual idealism, Adolf Hitler, Aeronautics, Agostino Lanzillo, Agrarianism, Albania, Albanians, Alberto De Stefani, Alceste De Ambris, Alexander the Great, Alfa Romeo, Alfred Haighton, Alfred Rosenberg, Alfred Sohn-Rethel, Alfredo Rocco, Algeria, Allies of World War I, Alpine race, Amerigo Dumini, Anarchism, Ancient Rome, Angelo Oliviero Olivetti, Anton Denikin, Arabid race, Ardengo Soffici, Arditi, Arthur Fonjallaz, Aryan race, Augustus, Austria-Hungary, Autarchism, Axis powers, Banco di Sicilia, Battle for Grain, Battle for Land, Battle for the Lira, Benedetto Croce, Benito Mussolini, Bernd Jürgen Fischer, Beta Israel, Biographical Dictionary of the Extreme Right Since 1890, Birth control, Birth rate, Black people, Blackshirts, Bologna, Bolsheviks, Cambridge University Press, ..., Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, Canton of Grisons, Canton of Ticino, Canton of Valais, Capitoline Wolf, Carleton S. 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Anthony James Gregor (born April 2, 1929) is a Professor of Political Science Emeritus at the University of California, Berkeley who is well known for his research on fascism, Marxism, and national security.
The Acerbo Law was an Italian electoral law proposed by Baron Giacomo Acerbo and passed by the Italian Parliament in November 1923.
Actual idealism was a form of idealism, developed by Giovanni Gentile, that grew into a 'grounded' idealism, contrasting the transcendental idealism of Immanuel Kant, and the absolute idealism of G. W. F. Hegel.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
Aeronautics (from the ancient Greek words ὰήρ āēr, which means "air", and ναυτική nautikē which means "navigation", i.e. "navigation into the air") is the science or art involved with the study, design, and manufacturing of air flight capable machines, and the techniques of operating aircraft and rockets within the atmosphere.
Agostino Lanzillo (31 October 1886 – 3 March 1952) was an Italian revolutionary syndicalist leader who later became a member of Benito Mussolini's fascist movement.
Agrarianism is a social philosophy or political philosophy which values rural society as superior to urban society, the independent farmer as superior to the paid worker, and sees farming as a way of life that can shape the ideal social values.
Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia or Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the Republic of Albania (Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe.
The Albanians (Shqiptarët) are a European ethnic group that is predominantly native to Albania, Kosovo, western Macedonia, southern Serbia, southeastern Montenegro and northwestern Greece, who share a common ancestry, culture and language.
Alberto De Stefani (1879–1969) was an Italian politician.
Alceste De Ambris (15 September 1874 – 9 December 1934), was an Italian syndicalist, the brother of politician Amilcare De Ambris.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
Alfa Romeo Automobiles S.p.A. is a car manufacturer, founded by Frenchman Alexandre Darracq as A.L.F.A. (" Anonima Lombarda Fabbrica Automobili", "Lombard Automobile Factory Company") on 24 June 1910, in Milan.
Coenraad Alfred Augustus Haighton (26 October 1896 – 13 April 1943) was a millionaire businessman and the leader of the Netherlands' first fascist movement.
Alfred Ernst Rosenberg (12 January 1893 – 16 October 1946) was a German theorist and an influential ideologue of the Nazi Party.
Alfred Sohn-Rethel (4 January 1899 – 6 April 1990) was a French-born German Marxian economist and philosopher especially interested in epistemology.
Alfredo Rocco (9 September 1875 – 28 August 1935) was an Italian politician and jurist.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
The Allies of World War I, or Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers in the First World War.
The Alpine race is a historical race concept defined by some late 19th-century and early 20th-century anthropologists as one of the sub-races of the Caucasian race.
Amerigo Dumini (January 3, 1894 – December 25, 1967) was an American-born Italian fascist hitman who led the group responsible for the 1924 assassination of Unitary Socialist Party leader Giacomo Matteotti.
Anarchism is a political philosophy that advocates self-governed societies based on voluntary institutions.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Angelo Oliviero Olivetti (1874 – 17 November 1931) was an Italian lawyer, journalist, and political activist.
Anton Ivanovich Denikin (p; 8 August 1947) was a Russian Lieutenant General in the Imperial Russian Army (1916) and afterwards a leading general of the White movement in the Russian Civil War.
The Arabid race (also Orientalid race) is a historical term for a morphological subtype of the Caucasoid race, as used in traditional physical anthropology.
Ardengo Soffici (April 7, 1879 – August 12, 1964), was an Italian writer, painter, poet, sculptor and intellectual.
Arditi was the name adopted by Royal Italian Army elite special force of World War I. The name derives from the Italian verb ardire ("to dare") and translates as "The Daring Ones".
Arthur Fonjallaz (2 January 1875 – 24 January 1944) was a Swiss military figure, publisher and fascist.
The Aryan race was a racial grouping used in the period of the late 19th century and mid-20th century to describe people of European and Western Asian heritage.
Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
Autarchism is a political philosophy that promotes the principles of individualism, the moral ideology of individual liberty and self-reliance.
The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.
Banco di Sicilia was an Italian bank based in Palermo, Sicily.
The Battle for Grain was an economic policy undertaken by the Fascists in Italy during the 1920s as a move toward autarky.
The Battle For Land, started in 1928 in Italy by Benito Mussolini, aimed to clear marshland and make it suitable for farming, as well as reclaiming land and reducing health risks.
The Battle for the Lira was an economic policy undertaken by the Fascists in Italy during the 1920s as an attempt to raise the claims of Italy becoming a great power.
Benedetto Croce (25 February 1866 – 20 November 1952) was an Italian idealist philosopher, historian and politician, who wrote on numerous topics, including philosophy, history, historiography and aesthetics.
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician and journalist who was the leader of the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF).
Bernd Jürgen Fischer (born 27 January 1952) is historian and professor of history at Indiana University-Purdue University Fort Wayne.
Beta Israel (בֵּיתֶא יִשְׂרָאֵל, Beyte (beyt) Yisrael; ቤተ እስራኤል, Bēta 'Isrā'ēl, modern Bēte 'Isrā'ēl, EAE: "Betä Ǝsraʾel", "House of Israel" or "Community of Israel"), also known as Ethiopian Jews (יְהוּדֵי אֶתְיוֹפְּיָה: Yehudey Etyopyah; Ge'ez: የኢትዮጵያ አይሁድዊ, ye-Ityoppya Ayhudi), are Jews whose community developed and lived for centuries in the area of the Kingdom of Aksum and the Ethiopian Empire that is currently divided between the Amhara and Tigray Regions of Ethiopia and Eritrea.
The Biographical Dictionary of the Extreme Right Since 1890 is a reference book by Philip Rees, on leading people in the various far right movements since 1890.
Birth control, also known as contraception and fertility control, is a method or device used to prevent pregnancy.
The birth rate (technically, births/population rate) is the total number of live births per 1,000 in a population in a year or period.
Black people is a term used in certain countries, often in socially based systems of racial classification or of ethnicity, to describe persons who are perceived to be dark-skinned compared to other populations.
The Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale (MVSN, "Voluntary Militia for National Security"), commonly called the Blackshirts (Camicie Nere, CCNN, singular: Camicia Nera) or squadristi (singular: squadrista), was originally the paramilitary wing of the National Fascist Party and, after 1923, an all-volunteer militia of the Kingdom of Italy.
Bologna (Bulåggna; Bononia) is the capital and largest city of the Emilia-Romagna Region in Northern Italy.
The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from bol'shinstvo (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Camillo Paolo Filippo Giulio Benso, Count of Cavour, Isolabella and Leri (10 August 1810 – 6 June 1861), generally known as Cavour, was an Italian statesman and a leading figure in the movement toward Italian unification.
The canton of (the) Grisons, or canton of Graubünden is the largest and easternmost canton of Switzerland.
The canton of Ticino, formally the Republic and Canton of Ticino (Repubblica e Cantone Ticino; Canton Tesin; Kanton Tessin; canton du Tessin, chantun dal Tessin) is the southernmost canton of Switzerland.
The canton of Valais (Kanton Wallis) is one of the 26 cantons of Switzerland, situated in the southwestern part of the country, around the valley of the Rhône from its headwaters to Lake Geneva, separating the Pennine Alps from the Bernese Alps.
The Capitoline Wolf (Italian: Lupa Capitolina) is a bronze sculpture of the mythical she-wolf suckling the twins, Romulus and Remus, from the legend of the founding of Rome.
Carleton Stevens Coon (June 23, 1904 – June 3, 1981) was an American physical anthropologist, Professor of Anthropology at the University of Pennsylvania, lecturer and professor at Harvard University, and president of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists.
Carlo Costamagna (born 21 September 1881 in Quiliano – died 1 March 1965 in Pietra Ligure) was an Italian lawyer and academic noted as a theorist of corporatism.
The Central Powers (Mittelmächte; Központi hatalmak; İttifak Devletleri / Bağlaşma Devletleri; translit), consisting of Germany,, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria – hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance (Vierbund) – was one of the two main factions during World War I (1914–18).
Cesare Lombroso (born Ezechia Marco Lombroso; 6 November 1835 – 19 October 1909), was an Italian criminologist and physician, founder of the Italian School of Positivist Criminology.
Chaim Azriel Weizmann (חיים עזריאל ויצמן, Хаим Вейцман Khaim Veytsman; 27 November 1874 – 9 November 1952) was a Zionist leader and Israeli statesman who served as President of the Zionist Organization and later as the first President of Israel.
The Chalcolithic (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998), p. 301: "Chalcolithic /,kælkəl'lɪθɪk/ adjective Archaeology of, relating to, or denoting a period in the 4th and 3rd millennium BCE, chiefly in the Near East and SE Europe, during which some weapons and tools were made of copper. This period was still largely Neolithic in character. Also called Eneolithic... Also called Copper Age - Origin early 20th cent.: from Greek khalkos 'copper' + lithos 'stone' + -ic". χαλκός khalkós, "copper" and λίθος líthos, "stone") period or Copper Age, in particular for eastern Europe often named Eneolithic or Æneolithic (from Latin aeneus "of copper"), was a period in the development of human technology, before it was discovered that adding tin to copper formed the harder bronze, leading to the Bronze Age.
Chameria (Çamëria; Τσαμουριά Tsamouriá; Çamlık) is a term used today mostly by Albanians for parts of the coastal region of Epirus in southern Albania and the historical Greek region of Epirus, traditionally associated with an Albanian speaking population called Chams.
Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.
All-Russian Extraordinary Commission (Всероссийская Чрезвычайная Комиссия), abbreviated as VChK (ВЧК, Ve-Che-Ka) and commonly known as Cheka, (from the initialism ChK) was the first of a succession of Soviet secret police organizations.
Civil religion is a concept that originated in French political thought and became a major topic for American sociologists since its use by Robert Bellah in 1960.
Class collaboration is a principle of social organization based upon the belief that the division of society into a hierarchy of social classes is a positive and essential aspect of civilization.
Class conflict, frequently referred to as class warfare or class struggle, is the tension or antagonism which exists in society due to competing socioeconomic interests and desires between people of different classes.
Classical liberalism is a political ideology and a branch of liberalism which advocates civil liberties under the rule of law with an emphasis on economic freedom.
A concordat is a convention between the Holy See and a sovereign state that defines the relationship between the Catholic Church and the state in matters that concern both,René Metz, "What is Canon Law?" (New York: Hawthorn Books, 1960), pg.
A condom is a sheath-shaped barrier device, used during sexual intercourse to reduce the probability of pregnancy or a sexually transmitted infection (STI).
Constantine is a former French département in Algeria which existed between 1848 and 1962.
Corporatism is the organization of a society by corporate groups and agricultural, labour, military or scientific syndicates and guilds on the basis of their common interests.
Corrado Gini (May 23, 1884 – March 13, 1965) was an Italian statistician, demographer and sociologist who developed the Gini coefficient, a measure of the income inequality in a society.
Corsica (Corse; Corsica in Corsican and Italian, pronounced and respectively) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of the 18 regions of France.
A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
Curzio Malaparte (9 June 1898 – 19 July 1957), born Kurt Erich Suckert, was an Italian writer, film-maker, war correspondent and diplomat.
Dalmatia (Dalmacija; see names in other languages) is one of the four historical regions of Croatia, alongside Croatia proper, Slavonia and Istria.
Daniel Guérin (19 May 1904 in Paris – 14 April 1988 in Suresnes) was a French anarcho-communist author, best known for his work Anarchism: From Theory to Practice, as well as his collection No Gods No Masters: An Anthology of Anarchism in which he collected writings on the idea and movement it inspired, from the first writings of Max Stirner in the mid-19th century through the first half of the 20th century.
Durante degli Alighieri, commonly known as Dante Alighieri or simply Dante (c. 1265 – 1321), was a major Italian poet of the Late Middle Ages.
A declaration of war is a formal act by which one state goes to war against another.
What constitutes a definition of fascism and fascist governments has been a complicated and highly disputed subject concerning the exact nature of fascism and its core tenets debated amongst historians, political scientists, and other scholars since Benito Mussolini first used the term in 1915.
In economics, deflation is a decrease in the general price level of goods and services.
A democratic republic is a form of government operating on principles adopted from a republic and a democracy.
Denis Mack Smith CBE FBA FRSL (March 3, 1920 – July 11, 2017) was an English historian, specialising in the history of Italy from the Risorgimento onwards.
Deposition by political means concerns the removal of a politician or monarch.
The Dinaric race, also known as the Adriatic race, were terms used by certain physical anthropologists in the early to mid-20th century to describe the perceived predominant race of the contemporary ethnic groups of Central and Southeast Europe (a sub-type of Caucasoid race).
Duce ("leader") is an Italian title, derived from the Latin word dux, and cognate with duke.
The Duchy of Milan was a constituent state of the Holy Roman Empire in northern Italy.
Dux (plural: ducēs) is Latin for "leader" (from the noun dux, ducis, "leader, general") and later for duke and its variant forms (doge, duce, etc.). During the Roman Republic, dux could refer to anyone who commanded troops, including foreign leaders, but was not a formal military rank.
The East Baltic race is one of the subcategories of the Europid (Caucasian) race into which it was divided by biological anthropologists and scientific racists in the early 20th century.
The economy of Italy under fascism refers to the economy in Italy between 1922 and 1943 when the fascists were in control.
Emperor of the French (French: Empereur des Français) was the title used by the House of Bonaparte starting when Napoleon Bonaparte was given the title of Emperor on 18 May 1804 by the French Senate and was crowned emperor of the French on 2 December 1804 at the cathedral of Notre-Dame de Paris, in Paris, with the Crown of Napoleon.
The was the historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
Engelbert Dollfuss (Engelbert Dollfuß,; 4 October 1892 – 25 July 1934) was an Austrian Christian Social and Patriotic Front statesman.
Enrico Corradini (20 July 1865 – 10 December 1931) was an Italian novelist, essayist, journalist and nationalist political figure.
Enrico Ferri (25 February 1856 – 12 April 1929) was an Italian criminologist, socialist and student of Cesare Lombroso, the founder of the Italian school of criminology.
Epirus (Ήπειρος, Ípeiros), is a traditional geographic and modern administrative region in northwestern Greece.
Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.
Ernesto Giménez Caballero (2 August 1899 in Madrid – 14 May 1988 in Madrid), also known as Gecé, was a Spanish writer, film director, diplomat, and pioneer of Falangism.
Ettore Ovazza (21 March 1892, in Turin – 11 October 1943, in Intra) was an Italian Fascist Jewish banker.
Eugen Joseph Weber (April 24, 1925 in Bucharest, Romania – May 17, 2007 in Brentwood, Los Angeles, California) was a Romanian-born American historian with a special focus on Western Civilization.
European early modern humans (EEMH) in the context of the Upper Paleolithic in Europe refers to the early presence of anatomically modern humans in Europe.
Falangism (falangismo) was the political ideology of the Falange Española de las JONS and afterwards of the Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional Sindicalista (both known simply as the "Falange") as well as derivatives of it in other countries.
Fasces ((Fasci,, a plurale tantum, from the Latin word fascis, meaning "bundle") is a bound bundle of wooden rods, sometimes including an axe with its blade emerging. The fasces had its origin in the Etruscan civilization and was passed on to ancient Rome, where it symbolized a magistrate's power and jurisdiction. The axe originally associated with the symbol, the Labrys (Greek: λάβρυς, lábrys) the double-bitted axe, originally from Crete, is one of the oldest symbols of Greek civilization. To the Romans, it was known as a bipennis. Commonly, the symbol was associated with female deities, from prehistoric through historic times. The image has survived in the modern world as a representation of magisterial or collective power, law and governance. The fasces frequently occurs as a charge in heraldry: it is present on the reverse of the U.S. Mercury dime coin and behind the podium in the United States House of Representatives; and it was the origin of the name of the National Fascist Party in Italy (from which the term fascism is derived). During the first half of the 20th century both the fasces and the swastika (each symbol having its own unique ancient religious and mythological associations) became heavily identified with the authoritarian/fascist political movements of Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini. During this period the swastika became deeply stigmatized, but the fasces did not undergo a similar process. The fact that the fasces remained in use in many societies after World War II may have been due to the fact that prior to Mussolini the fasces had already been adopted and incorporated within the governmental iconography of many governments outside Italy. As such, its use persists as an accepted form of governmental and other iconography in various contexts. (The swastika remains in common usage in parts of Asia for religious purposes which are also unrelated to early 20th century European fascism.) The fasces is sometimes confused with the related term fess, which in French heraldry is called a fasce.
The Italian Fasci of Combat (Fasci Italiani di Combattimento, FIC), until 1919 called Fasci of Revolutionary Action (Fasci d'Azione Rivoluzionaria, FAR), was an Italian fascio organization, created by Benito Mussolini in 1914.
Fascism is a form of radical authoritarian ultranationalism, characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition and control of industry and commerce, which came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe.
Fascist architecture is a style of architecture developed by architects of fascist societies in the early 20th century.
The Manifesto of the Italian Fasci of Combat (Il manifesto dei fasci italiani di combattimento), commonly known as the Fascist Manifesto, was the initial declaration of the political stance of the Fasci Italiani di Combattimento ("Italian League of Combat") the movement founded in Milan by Benito Mussolini in 1919 and an early exponent of Fascism.
Fascist mysticism (Italian: Mistica fascista) was a current of political and religious thought in Fascist Italy, based on Fideism, a belief that faith existed without reason, and that Fascism should be based on a mythology and spiritual mysticism.
Fascist Revolutionary Party (Partito Fascista Rivoluzionario, PFR) was the first political party established by Benito Mussolini, founded in January 1915, as described in his 1933 "The Political and Social Doctrine of Fascism".
Fascist syndicalism (related to national syndicalism) was a trade syndicate movement (syndicat means trade union in French) that rose out of the pre-World War II provenance of the revolutionary syndicalism movement led mostly by Edmondo Rossoni, Sergio Panunzio, A. O. Olivetti, Michele Bianchi, Alceste De Ambris, Paolo Orano, Massimo Rocca, and Guido Pighetti, under the influence of French Marxist Georges Sorel, who was considered the “‘metaphysician’ of syndicalism.” The Fascist Syndicalists differed from other branches of syndicalism in that they generally favored class struggle, worker-controlled factories and hostility to industrialists, which lead historians to portray them as “leftist fascist idealists” who “differed radically from right fascists.” Generally considered one of the more radical Fascist syndicalists in Italy, Rossoni was the “leading exponent of fascist syndicalism.”, and sought to infuse nationalism with “class struggle.”.
Führer (These are also cognates of the Latin peritus ("experienced"), Sanskrit piparti "brings over" and the Greek poros "passage, way".-->, spelled Fuehrer when the umlaut is not available) is a German word meaning "leader" or "guide".
Ferrara (Ferrarese: Fràra) is a town and comune in Emilia-Romagna, northern Italy, capital of the Province of Ferrara.
The fez (more correctly ṭarbūsh from the Persian sarpūsh) is a felt headdress in the shape of a short cylindrical peakless hat, usually red, and sometimes with a tassel attached to the top.
Fiat Automobiles S.p.A. (originally FIAT, lit) is the largest automobile manufacturer in Italy, a subsidiary of FCA Italy S.p.A., which is part of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles (previously Fiat S.p.A.). Fiat Automobiles was formed in January 2007 when Fiat reorganized its automobile business, and traces its history back to 1899 when the first Fiat automobile, the Fiat 4 HP, was produced.
In politics, a figurehead is a person who holds de jure (in name or by law) an important title or office (often supremely powerful), yet de facto (in reality) executes little actual power.
Filippo Tommaso Emilio Marinetti (22 December 1876 – 2 December 1944) was an Italian poet, editor, art theorist, and founder of the Futurist movement.
First Marshal of the Empire (Italian: Primo Maresciallo dell'Impero) was a military rank established by the Italian parliament on March 30, 1938.
The Fourth Council of the Lateran was convoked by Pope Innocent III with the papal bull Vineam domini Sabaoth of 19 April 1213, and the Council gathered at Rome's Lateran Palace beginning 11 November 1215.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
Futurism (Futurismo) was an artistic and social movement that originated in Italy in the early 20th century.
General Gabriele D'Annunzio, Prince of Montenevoso, Duke of Gallese (12 March 1863 – 1 March 1938), sometimes spelled d'Annunzio, was an Italian writer, poet, journalist, playwright and soldier during World War I. He occupied a prominent place in Italian literature from 1889 to 1910 and later political life from 1914 to 1924.
Gaetano Salvemini (September 8, 1873 – September 6, 1957) was an Italian anti-fascist politician, historian and writer.
Gaius MariusC·MARIVS·C·F·C·N is how Marius was termed in official state inscriptions in Latin: "Gaius Marius, son of Gaius, grandson of Gaius" (157 BC – January 13, 86 BC) was a Roman general and statesman.
Gian Galeazzo Ciano, 2nd Count of Cortellazzo and Buccari (18 March 1903 – 11 January 1944) was Foreign Minister of Fascist Italy from 1936 until 1943 and Benito Mussolini's son-in-law.
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and the most important figure of German idealism.
George Bernard Shaw (26 July 1856 – 2 November 1950), known at his insistence simply as Bernard Shaw, was an Irish playwright, critic, polemicist, and political activist.
Henry George Seldes (November 16, 1890 – July 2, 1995) was an American investigative journalist, foreign correspondent, editor, author, and media critic best known for the publication of the newsletter In Fact from 1940 to 1950.
Georges Eugène Sorel (2 November 1847 – 29 August 1922) was a French philosopher and theorist of Sorelianism.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
A ghostwriter is hired to write literary or journalistic works, speeches, or other texts that are officially credited to another person as the author.
Giacomo Acerbo, Baron of Aterno (25 July 1888 – 9 January 1969) was an Italian economist and Fascist politician who drafted the Acerbo Law which solidified Benito Mussolini's position once in power.
Giacomo Matteotti (22 May 1885 – 10 June 1924) was an Italian socialist politician.
Giambattista Vico (B. Giovan Battista Vico, 23 June 1668 – 23 January 1744) was an Italian political philosopher and rhetorician, historian and jurist, of the Age of Enlightenment.
Ansaldo was one of Italy's oldest and most important engineering companies, existing for 140 years from 1853 to 1993.
Gioacchino Volpe (16 February 1876 – 1 October 1971) was an Italian historian and, during the years between the two world wars, a politician.
Giovanni Gentile (30 May 1875 – 15 April 1944) was an Italian neo-Hegelian idealist philosopher, educator, and fascist politician.
Giovanni Giolitti (27 October 1842 – 17 July 1928) was an Italian statesman.
Giovanni Papini (January 9, 1881 – July 8, 1956) was an Italian journalist, essayist, literary critic, poet, and novelist.
"Giovinezza" (Italian for youth) is the official hymn of the Italian National Fascist Party, regime, and army, and was the unofficial national anthem of Italy between 1924 and 1943.
Giulio Cogni (January 10, 1908 – November 15, 1983) was an Italian writer, racial theorist, music composer and music critic.
Giuseppe Bottai (3 September 1895 – 9 January 1959) was an Italian journalist, and member of the National Fascist Party of Benito Mussolini.
Giuseppe Garibaldi; 4 July 1807 – 2 June 1882) was an Italian general, politician and nationalist. He is considered one of the greatest generals of modern times and one of Italy's "fathers of the fatherland" along with Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, Victor Emmanuel II of Italy and Giuseppe Mazzini. Garibaldi has been called the "Hero of the Two Worlds" because of his military enterprises in Brazil, Uruguay and Europe. He personally commanded and fought in many military campaigns that led eventually to the Italian unification. Garibaldi was appointed general by the provisional government of Milan in 1848, General of the Roman Republic in 1849 by the Minister of War, and led the Expedition of the Thousand on behalf and with the consent of Victor Emmanuel II. His last military campaign took place during the Franco-Prussian War as commander of the Army of the Vosges. Garibaldi was very popular in Italy and abroad, aided by exceptional international media coverage at the time. Many of the greatest intellectuals of his time, such as Victor Hugo, Alexandre Dumas, and George Sand, showered him with admiration. The United Kingdom and the United States helped him a great deal, offering him financial and military support in difficult circumstances. In the popular telling of his story, he is associated with the red shirts worn by his volunteers, the Garibaldini, in lieu of a uniform.
Giuseppe Mazzini (22 June 1805 – 10 March 1872) was an Italian politician, journalist, activist for the unification of Italy and spearhead of the Italian revolutionary movement.
Giuseppe Prezzolini (27 January 1882 – 16 July 1982) was an Italian literary critic, journalist, editor and writer, later an American citizen.
Giuseppe Ungaretti (8 February 1888 – 2 June 1970) was an Italian modernist poet, journalist, essayist, critic, academic, and recipient of the inaugural 1970 Neustadt International Prize for Literature.
The Gotthard Pass or St.
The Grand Council of Fascism (aka: Fascist Grand Council) was the main body of Mussolini's Fascist government in Italy.
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.
Gross national product (GNP) is the market value of all the goods and services produced in one year by labor and property supplied by the citizens of a country.
The Guggenheim family is an American family known for their involvement in the mining industry and later in philanthropy.
Guglielmo Marconi, 1st Marquis of Marconi (25 April 187420 July 1937) was an Italian inventor and electrical engineer known for his pioneering work on long-distance radio transmission and for his development of Marconi's law and a radio telegraph system.
Hugues Alexandre Sinclair de Rochemont (Hilversum, January 6, 1901 – March 13, 1942) was a Dutch fascist and later a collaborator with the Nazis.
Henry Stuart Hughes (May 16, 1916, New York City – October 21, 1999, La Jolla, California) was an American historian, professor, and activist.
Hans Friedrich Karl Günther (February 16, 1891 – September 25, 1968) was a German physician, writer, and eugenicist in the Weimar Republic and the Third Reich.
Henri du Vergier, comte de la Rochejaquelein (30 August 1772 – 28 January 1794), was the youngest general of the Royalist Vendéan insurrection during the French Revolution.
Hinterrhein District is a former administrative district in the canton of Graubünden, Switzerland.
The Holy See (Santa Sede; Sancta Sedes), also called the See of Rome, is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity.
The House of Savoy (Casa Savoia) is a royal family that was established in 1003 in the historical Savoy region. Through gradual expansion, the family grew in power from ruling a small county in the Alps of northern Italy to absolute rule of the kingdom of Sicily in 1713 to 1720 (exchanged for Sardinia). Through its junior branch, the House of Savoy-Carignano, it led the unification of Italy in 1861 and ruled the Kingdom of Italy from 1861 until 1946 and, briefly, the Kingdom of Spain in the 19th century. The Savoyard kings of Italy were Victor Emmanuel II, Umberto I, Victor Emmanuel III, and Umberto II. The last monarch ruled for a few weeks before being deposed following the Constitutional Referendum of 1946, after which the Italian Republic was proclaimed.
Hubert Renfro Knickerbocker (January 31, 1898 – July 12, 1949) was an American journalist and author.
Human sexuality is the way people experience and express themselves sexually.
The Hungarian Soviet Republic or literally Republic of Councils in Hungary (Magyarországi Tanácsköztársaság or Magyarországi Szocialista Szövetséges Tanácsköztársaság) was a short-lived (133 days) communist rump state.
Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower.
An Ideology is a collection of normative beliefs and values that an individual or group holds for other than purely epistemic reasons.
The Illyrians (Ἰλλυριοί, Illyrioi; Illyrii or Illyri) were a group of Indo-European tribes in antiquity, who inhabited part of the western Balkans.
Imperialism is a policy that involves a nation extending its power by the acquisition of lands by purchase, diplomacy or military force.
The Indian independence movement encompassed activities and ideas aiming to end the East India Company rule (1757–1857) and the British Indian Empire (1857–1947) in the Indian subcontinent.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
An inferiority complex is the lack of self-worth, a doubt and uncertainty about oneself, and feelings of not measuring up to standards.
A tax paid by a person who inherits money or property or a levy on the estate (money and property) of a person who has died.
Intellectualism denotes the use, development, and exercise of the intellect; the practice of being an intellectual; and the Life of the Mind.
Internment is the imprisonment of people, commonly in large groups, without charges or intent to file charges, and thus no trial.
In the context of the history of the 20th century, the interwar period was the period between the end of the First World War in November 1918 and the beginning of the Second World War in September 1939.
The Ionian Islands (Modern Greek: Ιόνια νησιά, Ionia nisia; Ancient Greek, Katharevousa: Ἰόνιοι Νῆσοι, Ionioi Nēsoi; Isole Ionie) are a group of islands in Greece.
The Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale (English: "Institute for Industrial Reconstruction"), best known by its acronym IRI, was an Italian public holding company established in 1933 by the Fascist regime to rescue, restructure and finance banks and private companies that went bankrupt during the Great Depression.
The Italian Communist Party (Partito Comunista Italiano, PCI) was a communist political party in Italy.
Italian East Africa (Africa Orientale Italiana) was an Italian colony in the Horn of Africa.
The Italian Empire (Impero Italiano) comprised the colonies, protectorates, concessions, dependencies and trust territories of the Kingdom of Italy and, after 1946, the Italian Republic.
Imperialism, colonialism and irredentism played an important role in the foreign policy of Fascist Italy.
Italian irredentism (irredentismo italiano) was a nationalist movement during the late 19th and early 20th centuries in Italy with irredentist goals which promoted the unification of geographic areas in which indigenous ethnic Italians and Italian-speaking persons formed a majority, or substantial minority, of the population.
The Italian Liberal Party (Partito Liberale Italiano, PLI) was a liberal and conservative political party in Italy.
Italian Libya (Libia Italiana; ليبيا الإيطالية) was a unified colony of Italian North Africa (Africa Settentrionale Italiana, or ASI) established in 1934 in what is now modern Libya.
Italian nationalism builds upon the idea that Italians are the ethnic, cultural, and linguistic successors of the ancient Romans who inhabited the Italian Peninsula for over a millennium.
The Italian Parliament (Parlamento Italiano) is the national parliament of the Italian Republic.
The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Penisola italiana, Penisola appenninica) extends from the Po Valley in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south.
The Italian Racial Laws (Leggi razziali) were a set of laws promulgated by Fascist Italy from 1938 to 1943 to enforce racial discrimination in Italy, directed mainly against the Italian Jews and the native inhabitants of the colonies.
The Italian Regency of Carnaro (Reggenza Italiana del Carnaro) was a self-proclaimed state in the city of Fiume (now Rijeka, Croatia) led by Gabriele d'Annunzio between 1919 and 1920.
The Italian Social Movement (MSI), later the Italian Social Movement – National Right (Movimento Sociale Italiano – Destra Nazionale, MSI–DN), was a neo-fascist and post-fascist political party in Italy.
The Italian Social Republic (Repubblica Sociale Italiana,; RSI), informally known as the Republic of Salò (Repubblica di Salò), was a German puppet state with limited recognition that was created during the later part of World War II, existing from the beginning of German occupation of Italy in September 1943 until the surrender of German troops in Italy in May 1945.
The Italian Socialist Party (PSI) was a socialist and later social-democratic political party in Italy.
Italian unification (Unità d'Italia), or the Risorgimento (meaning "the Resurgence" or "revival"), was the political and social movement that consolidated different states of the Italian peninsula into the single state of the Kingdom of Italy in the 19th century.
Italianization (Italianizzazione; talijanizacija; poitaljančevanje; Italianisierung; Ιταλοποίηση) is the spread of Italian culture, people, or language, either by integration or assimilation.
The Italians (Italiani) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation native to the Italian peninsula.
The Italiotes (Ἰταλιῶται) were the pre-Roman Greek-speaking inhabitants of the Italian Peninsula, between Naples and Sicily.
Italo Balbo (Ferrara, 6 June 1896 – Tobruk, 28 June 1940) was an Italian Blackshirt (Camicie Nere, or CCNN) leader who served as Italy's Marshal of the Air Force (Maresciallo dell'Aria), Governor-General of Libya, Commander-in-Chief of Italian North Africa (Africa Settentrionale Italiana, or ASI), and the "heir apparent" to Italian dictator Benito Mussolini.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Iván Tibor Berend (commonly known as Iván T. Berend; born 11 December 1930) is a Hungarian historian and teacher who served as President of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences from 1985 until 1990.
Jacob Salwyn Schapiro (December 19, 1879 – December 30, 1973) was a Professor Emeritus of History at the City College of New York.
The Jewish question was a wide-ranging debate in 19th- and 20th-century European society pertaining to the appropriate status and treatment of Jews in society.
John Francis Pollard (born November 23, 1944) is a British historian, fellow of Trinity Hall, Cambridge, fellow of the Royal Historical Society, and Emeritus Professor of Modern European History at Anglia Polytechnic University.
Joseph-Marie, Comte de Maistre (1 April 1753 – 26 February 1821) was a French-speaking Savoyard philosopher, writer, lawyer, and diplomat, who advocated social hierarchy and monarchy in the period immediately following the French Revolution.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
Baron Giulio Cesare Andrea Evola (19 May 1898–11 June 1974), better known as Julius Evola, was an Italian philosopher, painter, and esotericist.
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.
The Kingdom of SardiniaThe name of the state was originally Latin: Regnum Sardiniae, or Regnum Sardiniae et Corsicae when the kingdom was still considered to include Corsica.
Kosovo (Kosova or Kosovë; Косово) is a partially recognised state and disputed territory in Southeastern Europe that declared independence from Serbia in February 2008 as the Republic of Kosovo (Republika e Kosovës; Република Косово / Republika Kosovo).
The Lateran Treaty (Patti Lateranensi; Pacta Lateranensia) was one of the Lateran Pacts of 1929 or Lateran Accords, agreements made in 1929 between the Kingdom of Italy and the Holy See, settling the "Roman Question".
A latifundium is a very extensive parcel of privately owned land.
In politics, law and order (also known as tough on crime and the War on Crime) refers to demands for a strict criminal justice system, especially in relation to violent and property crime, through stricter criminal penalties.
Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism, often in opposition to social hierarchy.
Leon Trotsky (born Lev Davidovich Bronstein; – 21 August 1940) was a Russian revolutionary, theorist, and Soviet politician.
Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (15 April 14522 May 1519), more commonly Leonardo da Vinci or simply Leonardo, was an Italian polymath of the Renaissance, whose areas of interest included invention, painting, sculpting, architecture, science, music, mathematics, engineering, literature, anatomy, geology, astronomy, botany, writing, history, and cartography.
Liberal democracy is a liberal political ideology and a form of government in which representative democracy operates under the principles of classical liberalism.
Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty and equality.
Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
Life insurance (or life assurance, especially in the Commonwealth of Nations) is a contract between an insurance policy holder and an insurer or assurer, where the insurer promises to pay a designated beneficiary a sum of money (the benefit) in exchange for a premium, upon the death of an insured person (often the policy holder).
A lockout is a temporary work stoppage or denial of employment initiated by the management of a company during a labor dispute.
Luigi Albertini (19 October 1871 – 29 December 1941) was an influential Italian newspaper editor, Member of Parliament, and historian of the First World War.
Luigi Facta (16 November 1861 – 5 November 1930) was an Italian politician, journalist and last Prime Minister of Italy before the leadership of Benito Mussolini.
A luxury tax is a tax on luxury goods: products not considered essential.
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was an Indian activist who was the leader of the Indian independence movement against British rule.
Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.
Maltese (Malti) is the national language of Malta and a co-official language of the country alongside English, while also serving as an official language of the European Union, the only Semitic language so distinguished.
The March on Rome (Marcia su Roma) was an organized mass demonstration in October 1922, which resulted in Benito Mussolini's National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, or PNF) acceding to power in the Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia).
Margherita Sarfatti (April 8, 1880 – October 30, 1961) was an Italian journalist, art critic, patron, collector, socialite, a prominent propaganda adviser of the National Fascist Party.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
Massimo Bontempelli (May 12, 1878 – July 21, 1960) was an Italian poet, playwright, novelist and composer.
The Mediterranean race (also Mediterranid race) is one of the sub-races into which the Caucasian race was categorised by most anthropologists in the late 19th to mid-20th centuries.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Mesocco Castle is a ruined castle in the municipality of Mesocco of the Canton of Graubünden in Switzerland.
Michael Arthur Ledeen (born August 1, 1941) is an American historian, neoconservative foreign policy analyst, and author with a PhD in philosophy.
Michael John Parenti (born 1933) is an American political scientist and cultural critic who writes on scholarly and popular subjects.
Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni or more commonly known by his first name Michelangelo (6 March 1475 – 18 February 1564) was an Italian sculptor, painter, architect and poet of the High Renaissance born in the Republic of Florence, who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art.
A microstate or ministate is a sovereign state having a very small population or very small land area, and usually both.
The model of masculinity under fascist Italy was an idealized version of masculinity prescribed by dictator Benito Mussolini during his reign as fascist dictator of Italy from 1925-1943.
Mongoloid is a grouping of all or some peoples indigenous to East Asia, Central Asia, Southeast Asia, North Asia, South Asia, the Arctic, the Americas and the Pacific Islands.
A motto (derived from the Latin muttum, 'mutter', by way of Italian motto, 'word', 'sentence') is a maxim; a phrase meant to formally summarize the general motivation or intention of an individual, family, social group or organization.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (born Charles-Louis Napoléon Bonaparte; 20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) was the President of France from 1848 to 1852 and as Napoleon III the Emperor of the French from 1852 to 1870.
The National Fascist Movement (Mișcarea Națională Fascistă, MNF) was a Romanian political movement formed in 1923 by the merger of the National Romanian Fascia and the National Italo-Romanian Cultural and Economic Movement.
The National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF) was an Italian political party, created by Benito Mussolini as the political expression of fascism (previously represented by groups known as Fasci).
The National Front was a far right political party in Switzerland that flourished during the 1930s.
The National Italo-Romanian Cultural and Economic Movement (Mișcarea Națională Culturală și Economică Italo-Română) or National Italo-Romanian Fascist Movement (Mișcarea Națională Fascistă Italo-Română) was a short-lived Fascist movement active in Romania during the early 1920s.
The National Romanian Fascio (Fascia Națională Română) was a small fascist group that was active in Romania for a short time during the 1920s.
National syndicalism is an adaptation of syndicalism to suit the social agenda of integral nationalism.
The National Socialist German Workers' Party (abbreviated NSDAP), commonly referred to in English as the Nazi Party, was a far-right political party in Germany that was active between 1920 and 1945 and supported the ideology of Nazism.
Neo-fascism is a post–World War II ideology that includes significant elements of fascism.
Nobility is a social class in aristocracy, normally ranked immediately under royalty, that possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in a society and with membership thereof typically being hereditary.
The Nordic race was one of the putative sub-races into which some late-19th to mid-20th-century anthropologists divided the Caucasian race.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
Northern Italy (Italia settentrionale or just Nord) is a geographical region in the northern part of Italy.
The October Revolution (p), officially known in Soviet literature as the Great October Socialist Revolution (Вели́кая Октя́брьская социалисти́ческая револю́ция), and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising, the Bolshevik Revolution, or the Bolshevik Coup, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolsheviks and Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.
Omnipotent Government: The Rise of the Total State and Total War is a book by Austrian School economist Ludwig von Mises first published in 1944 by Yale University Press.
A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of state in which one political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution.
Organized crime is a category of transnational, national, or local groupings of highly centralized enterprises run by criminals who intend to engage in illegal activity, most commonly for money and profit.
Pact of Pacification (aka Pacification Pact) was a peace agreement officially signed by Mussolini and other leaders of the Fasci with the Italian Socialist Party (PSI) and the General Confederation of Labor (CGL) in Rome on August 2 or 3, 1921.
On October 2, 1925 at the Palazzo Vidoni-Caffarelli in Rome, the Vidoni Pact was signed between CGII (Confederazione Generale dell'Industria Italiana) and the General Confederation of Fascist Syndical Corporations' representatives (GCFSC).
Paolo Orano (born 15 June 1875 in Rome – died 7 April 1945 in Padula) was an Italian psychologist, politician and writer.
The Papal States, officially the State of the Church (Stato della Chiesa,; Status Ecclesiasticus; also Dicio Pontificia), were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula under the direct sovereign rule of the Pope, from the 8th century until 1870.
The Paris Peace Conference, also known as Versailles Peace Conference, was the meeting of the victorious Allied Powers following the end of World War I to set the peace terms for the defeated Central Powers.
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known generally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a Generalfeldmarschall and statesman who commanded the German military during the second half of World War I before later being elected President of the Weimar republic in 1925.
Francesco Petrarca (July 20, 1304 – July 18/19, 1374), commonly anglicized as Petrarch, was a scholar and poet of Renaissance Italy who was one of the earliest humanists.
Philip Rees (born 1941) is a British writer and librarian in charge of acquisitions at the J. B. Morrell Library, University of York.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
Classical pluralism is the view that politics and decision making are located mostly in the framework of government, but that many non-governmental groups use their resources to exert influence.
A political myth is an ideological narrative that is believed by social groups.
Political science is a social science which deals with systems of governance, and the analysis of political activities, political thoughts, and political behavior.
Lake Fogliano, a coastal lagoon in the Pontine Plain. The Pontine Marshes, termed in Latin Pomptinus Ager by Titus Livius, Pomptina Palus (singular) and Pomptinae Paludes (plural) by Pliny the Elder,Natural History 3.59.
The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.
Pope Innocent III (Innocentius III; 1160 or 1161 – 16 July 1216), born Lotario dei Conti di Segni (anglicized as Lothar of Segni) reigned from 8 January 1198 to his death in 1216.
The pound sterling (symbol: £; ISO code: GBP), commonly known as the pound and less commonly referred to as Sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, and Tristan da Cunha.
Praxis (from translit) is the process by which a theory, lesson, or skill is enacted, embodied, or realized.
A prime minister is the head of a cabinet and the leader of the ministers in the executive branch of government, often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system.
The President of the Council of Ministers of the Italian Republic (Italian: Presidente del Consiglio dei ministri della Repubblica Italiana), commonly referred to in Italy as Presidente del Consiglio, or informally as Premier and known in English as the Prime Minister of Italy, is the head of government of the Italian Republic.
A prisoner in the Vatican or prisoner of the Vatican (Prigioniero del Vaticano; Captivus Vaticani) is how Pope Pius IX was described following the capture of Rome by the armed forces of the Kingdom of Italy on 20 September 1870.
Privatization (also spelled privatisation) is the purchase of all outstanding shares of a publicly traded company by private investors, or the sale of a state-owned enterprise to private investors.
Proletarian nation was a term used by 20th century Italian nationalist intellectuals such as Enrico Corradini and later adopted by Italian Fascist leader Benito Mussolini to refer to Italy and other poorer countries that were subordinate to the western imperialist powers.
Propaganda of Fascist Italy was the material put forth by Italian Fascism to justify its authority and programs and encourage popular support.
Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems by which divisions into an electorate are reflected proportionately into the elected body.
Protectionism is the economic policy of restricting imports from other countries through methods such as tariffs on imported goods, import quotas, and a variety of other government regulations.
Puberty is the process of physical changes through which a child's body matures into an adult body capable of sexual reproduction.
Public works (or internal improvements historically in the United States)Carter Goodrich, (Greenwood Press, 1960)Stephen Minicucci,, Studies in American Political Development (2004), 18:2:160-185 Cambridge University Press.
RAI – Radiotelevisione italiana S.p.A. (commercially styled Rai; known until 1954 as Radio Audizioni Italiane is the national public broadcasting company of Italy, owned by the Ministry of Economy and Finance. The RAI operates many DVB and Sat television channels and radio stations, broadcasting via digital terrestrial transmission (15 television and 7 radio channels nationwide) and from several satellite platforms. It is the biggest television broadcaster in Italy and competes with Mediaset, and other minor television and radio networks. The RAI has a relatively high television audience share of 33.8%. RAI broadcasts are also received in neighboring countries, including Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Malta, Monaco, Montenegro, San Marino, Slovenia, Vatican City, Switzerland, and Tunisia, and elsewhere on cable and satellite. Sometimes Rai 1 was received even further in Europe via Sporadic E until the digital switch off in July 2012. Half of the RAI's revenues come from broadcast receiving licence fees, the rest from the sale of advertising time Retrieved on 2007-10-10 Italian Ministry of Communications, Retrieved on 2007-10-10. In 1950, the RAI became one of the 23 founding broadcasting organizations of the European Broadcasting Union.
Rassenkunde des deutschen Volkes (English: Racial Science of the German People), is a book written by German race researcher and Nazi Party member Hans Günther and published in 1922.
A reactionary is a person who holds political views that favor a return to the status quo ante, the previous political state of society, which they believe possessed characteristics (discipline, respect for authority, etc.) that are negatively absent from the contemporary status quo of a society.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
Renzo De Felice (8 April 1929 – 25 May 1996) was an Italian historian, who specialized in the Fascist era, writing, among other works, a 6000-page biography of Mussolini (4 volumes, 1965–1997).
The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia, later: Repubblica Veneta; Repùblica de Venèsia, later: Repùblica Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima (Most Serene Republic of Venice) (Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia; Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for a millennium between the 8th century and the 18th century.
The Republican Fascist Party (Partito Fascista Repubblicano, PFR) was a political party in Italy led by Benito Mussolini during the German occupation of Central and Northern Italy and was the sole legitimate and ruling party of the Italian Social Republic.
Republicanism is an ideology centered on citizenship in a state organized as a republic under which the people hold popular sovereignty.
There was a period of revolutions and interventions in Hungary between 1918 and 1920.
Right-wing politics hold that certain social orders and hierarchies are inevitable, natural, normal or desirable, typically supporting this position on the basis of natural law, economics or tradition.
Rijeka (Fiume; Reka; Sankt Veit am Flaum; see other names) is the principal seaport and the third-largest city in Croatia (after Zagreb and Split).
Robert Michels (9 January 1876 in Cologne, Germany – 3 May 1936 in Rome, Italy) was a German-born Italian sociologist who wrote on the political behavior of intellectual elites and contributed to elite theory.
Roberto Farinacci (16 October 1892 – 28 April 1945) was a leading Italian Fascist politician, and important member of the National Fascist Party (PNF) before and during World War II, and one of its ardent anti-Semitic proponents; Christopher Hibbert describes him as "slavishly pro-German".
Roger D. Griffin (born 31 January 1948) is a British professor of modern history and political theorist at Oxford Brookes University, England.
The role of Christianity in civilization has been intricately intertwined with the history and formation of Western society.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Roman Question (Questione romana; Quaestio Romana) was a dispute regarding the temporal power of the popes as rulers of a civil territory in the context of the Italian Risorgimento.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
Romanitas is the collection of political and cultural concepts and practices by which the Romans defined themselves.
The Romansh people (also spelled Romansch, Rumantsch, or Romanche; Romansh:, rumàntsch, or) are a people and ethnic group of Switzerland, native speakers of the Romansh language.
The Rothschild family is a wealthy Jewish family descending from Mayer Amschel Rothschild (1744–1812), a court factor to the German Landgraves of Hesse-Kassel in the Free City of Frankfurt, Holy Roman Empire, who established his banking business in the 1760s. Unlike most previous court factors, Rothschild managed to bequeath his wealth and established an international banking family through his five sons, who established themselves in London, Paris, Frankfurt, Vienna, and Naples. The family was elevated to noble rank in the Holy Roman Empire and the United Kingdom. During the 19th century, the Rothschild family possessed the largest private fortune in the world, as well as the largest private fortune in modern world history.The House of Rothschild: Money's prophets, 1798–1848, Volume 1, Niall Ferguson, 1999, page 481-85The Secret Life of the Jazz Baroness, from The Times 11 April 2009, Rosie Boycott The family's wealth was divided among various descendants, and today their interests cover a diverse range of fields, including financial services, real estate, mining, energy, mixed farming, winemaking and nonprofits.The Rothschilds: Portrait of a Dynasty, By Frederic Morton, page 11 The Rothschild family has frequently been the subject of conspiracy theories, many of which have antisemitic origins.
The Russian Civil War (Grazhdanskaya voyna v Rossiyi; November 1917 – October 1922) was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future.
Russian Fascist Organization (RFO) was the name adopted by a Russian émigré group active in Manchuria before World War II.
The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.
The Sammarinese Fascist Party (Partito Fascista Sammarinese) or PFS was a fascist political party that ruled San Marino from 1923 to 1943.
San Marino, officially the Republic of San Marino (Repubblica di San Marino), also known as the Most Serene Republic of San Marino (Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino), is an enclaved microstate surrounded by Italy, situated on the Italian Peninsula on the northeastern side of the Apennine Mountains.
Alessandro di Mariano di Vanni Filipepi (c. 1445 – May 17, 1510), known as Sandro Botticelli, was an Italian painter of the Early Renaissance.
Savoy (Savouè,; Savoie; Savoia) is a cultural region in Western Europe.
The Second Italo-Ethiopian War, also referred to as the Second Italo-Abyssinian War, was a colonial war from 3 October 1935 until 1939, despite the Italian claim to have defeated Ethiopia by 5 May 1936, the date of the capture of Addis Ababa.
The term secret police (or political police)Ilan Berman & J. Michael Waller, "Introduction: The Centrality of the Secret Police" in Dismantling Tyranny: Transitioning Beyond Totalitarian Regimes (Rowman & Littlefield, 2006), p. xv.
A secular religion is a nontheistic communal belief system which includes political religions.
Sergio Panunzio (July 20, 1886 – October 8, 1944) was an Italian theoretician of national syndicalism.
Shock troops or assault troops are formations created to lead an attack.
The Sicilian Mafia, also known as simply the Mafia and frequently referred to by members as Cosa Nostra (this thing of ours), is a criminal syndicate in Sicily, Italy.
The Sicilian Mafia was less active during the era of Fascist Italy and it was fought by Benito Mussolini's government.
Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.
The Simon Wiesenthal Center (often abbreviated SWC), with headquarters in Los Angeles, California, United States, was established in 1977 and named for Nazi hunter Simon Wiesenthal.
The Sioux also known as Očhéthi Šakówiŋ, are groups of Native American tribes and First Nations peoples in North America.
The Slovenes, also called as Slovenians (Slovenci), are a nation and South Slavic ethnic group native to Slovenia who share a common ancestry, culture, history and speak Slovenian as their first language.
Slovenia (Slovenija), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene:, abbr.: RS), is a country in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes.
Social conservatism is the belief that society is built upon a fragile network of relationships which need to be upheld through duty, traditional values and established institutions.
In Marxist theory, socialism (also called the socialist mode of production) refers to a specific historical phase of economic development and its corresponding set of social relations that supersede capitalism in the schema of historical materialism.
The South Slavs are a subgroup of Slavic peoples who speak the South Slavic languages.
The Spanish Civil War (Guerra Civil Española),Also known as The Crusade (La Cruzada) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War (Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlists, and The Rebellion (La Rebelión) or Uprising (Sublevación) among Republicans.
Spazio vitale (living space) was the territorial expansionist concept of Italian Fascism.
Squadrismo consisted of Italian fascist squads, mostly from rural areas, who were led by the ''ras'' from 1918–1924.
A state-owned enterprise (SOE) is a business enterprise where the state has significant control through full, majority, or significant minority ownership.
The Statuto Albertino (English: Albertine Statute), was the constitution that Charles Albert of Sardinia conceded to the Kingdom of Sardinia in Italy on 4 March 1848.
Syncretic politics, or spectral-syncretic, refers to politics that combine elements from across the conventional left–right political spectrum.
A syndicate is a self-organizing group of individuals, companies, corporations or entities formed to transact some specific business, to pursue or promote a shared interest.
Telos is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal established in May 1968 to provide the New Left with a coherent theoretical perspective.
"The Doctrine of Fascism" ("La dottrina del fascismo") is an essay attributed to Benito Mussolini.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Third Position is an ideology that was developed in the late 20th century by political parties including Terza Posizione in Italy and Troisième Voie in France.
Third Rome is the hypothetical successor to the legacy of ancient Rome (the "first Rome").
Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847October 18, 1931) was an American inventor and businessman, who has been described as America's greatest inventor.
Benito Mussolini Totalitarianism is a political concept where the state recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to control every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible.
A tradition is a belief or behavior passed down within a group or society with symbolic meaning or special significance with origins in the past.
Traditionalist conservatism, also known as classical conservatism and traditional conservatism, is a political philosophy emphasizing the need for the principles of a transcendent moral order, manifested through certain natural laws to which society ought to conform in a prudent manner.
London Pact (Patto di Londra), or more correctly, the Treaty of London, 1915, was a secret pact between the Triple Entente and the Kingdom of Italy.
The Treaty of Rapallo was a treaty between the Kingdom of Italy and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (renamed Yugoslavia in 1929), signed to solve the dispute over some territories in the former Austrian Littoral in the upper Adriatic, and in Dalmatia.
The Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye was signed on 10 September 1919 by the victorious Allies of World War I on the one hand and by the Republic of German-Austria on the other.
Tripartism is economic corporatism based on tripartite contracts of business, labour, and state affiliations within the economy.
The Triple Alliance was a secret agreement between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy.
The Triple Entente (from French entente "friendship, understanding, agreement") refers to the understanding linking the Russian Empire, the French Third Republic, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland after the signing of the Anglo-Russian Entente on 31 August 1907.
Trivulzio is an Italian surname, and may refer to: The Trivulzio family, a noble family most closely associated with Milan.
Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.
Ugo Spirito (September 9, 1896, Arezzo – April 28, 1979, Rome) was an Italian philosopher; at first, a fascist political philosopher and subsequently an idealist thinker.
The Unitary Socialist Party (Partito Socialista Unitario, PSU) was a social-democratic political party in Italy, active from 1922 to 1930.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The Val Mesolcina, also known as the Valle Mesolcina or Misox, is an alpine valley of the Grisons, Switzerland, stretching from the San Bernardino Pass to Grono where it joins the Calanca Valley.
Vatican City (Città del Vaticano; Civitas Vaticana), officially the Vatican City State or the State of Vatican City (Stato della Città del Vaticano; Status Civitatis Vaticanae), is an independent state located within the city of Rome.
The Ionian Islands were an overseas possession of the Republic of Venice from the mid-14th century until the late 18th century.
Victor Emmanuel II (Vittorio Emanuele Maria Alberto Eugenio Ferdinando Tommaso di Savoia; 14 March 1820 – 9 January 1878) was King of Sardinia from 1849 until 17 March 1861.
Victor Emmanuel III (Vittorio Emanuele Ferdinando Maria Gennaro di Savoia; Vittorio Emanuele III, Viktor Emanueli III; 11 November 1869 – 28 December 1947) was the King of Italy from 29 July 1900 until his abdication on 9 May 1946.
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
Walter Ze'ev Laqueur (born 26 May 1921) is an American historian, journalist and political commentator.
The Warburg family is a prominent German and American banking family of German Jewish and originally Venetian Jewish descent, noted for their varied accomplishments in biochemistry, botany, political activism, economics, investment banking, law, physics, classical music, art history, pharmacology, physiology, finance, private equity and philanthropy.
The Western Alps are the western part of the Alpine range including the southeastern part of France (i.e. Savoie), the whole of Monaco, the northwestern part of Italy and the southwestern part of Switzerland (i.e. Valais).
White people is a racial classification specifier, used mostly for people of European descent; depending on context, nationality, and point of view, the term has at times been expanded to encompass certain persons of North African, Middle Eastern, and South Asian descent, persons who are often considered non-white in other contexts.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
A world view or worldview is the fundamental cognitive orientation of an individual or society encompassing the whole of the individual's or society's knowledge and point of view.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
The World Zionist Organization (הַהִסְתַּדְּרוּת הַצִּיּוֹנִית הָעוֹלָמִית; HaHistadrut HaTzionit Ha'Olamit), or WZO, was founded as the Zionist Organization (ZO; 1897–1960) at the initiative of Theodor Herzl at the First World Zionist Congress, which took place in August 1897 in Basel, Switzerland.
Yad Vashem (יָד וַשֵׁם; literally, "a monument and a name") is Israel's official memorial to the victims of the Holocaust.
Zeev Sternhell (זאב שטרנהל, born 10 April 1935) is a Polish-born Israeli historian, political scientist, commentator on the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, and writer.
The Fascist International Congress was a meeting held by deputies from a number of European Fascist organizations.
Ceka, Fascism in Italy, Fascist Italians, Fascist Regime, Fascist era, Italian Facist, Italian Fascist, Italian Fascists, Italian fascism, Mussolini's Fascism, Mussolini's Fascist movement, Mussolini's Italy, Mussolinian Fascism, Paleo-fascism, Sammarinese Fascism.