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Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
The Aegean Sea (Αιγαίο Πέλαγος; Ege Denizi) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
After the Battle is a military history magazine published quarterly in the United Kingdom by Battle of Britain International Limited.
The Aigle-class destroyers (contre-torpilleurs) were built for the French navy during the 1920s.
The Kingdom of Albania (Gheg Albanian: Mbretnija Shqiptare, Standard Albanian: Mbretëria Shqiptare) was the official name of Albania between 1928 and 1939.
Alberto Pariani (27 November 1876, Milan – 1 March 1955) was an Italian general.
Albertville (Arpitan: Arbèrtvile) is a commune in the Savoie department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in south-eastern France.
Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
Alfred Montagne (20 June 1881 – 26 February 1963) was a French general who commanded the XV Corps during the Battle of France (1940).
Alfredo Guzzoni (12 April 1877 – 15 April 1965) was an Italian military officer who served in both World War I and World War II.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
The Alpine Line (Ligne Alpine) or Little Maginot Line (French: Petite Ligne Maginot) was the component of the Maginot Line that defended the southeastern portion of France.
The Alpine Wall (Vallo Alpino) was an Italian system of fortifications along the 1851 km of Italy's northern frontier.
The Alpini (Italian for "alpines"), are an elite mountain warfare military corps of the Italian Army.
The Alps (Alpes; Alpen; Alpi; Alps; Alpe) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe,The Caucasus Mountains are higher, and the Urals longer, but both lie partly in Asia.
The Ambin group (Groupe d'Ambin in French, Gruppo d'Ambin in Italian) is a sub-range of the Cottian Alps located on the French-Italian border.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
André François-Poncet (13 June 1887 – 8 January 1978) was a French politician and diplomat whose post as ambassador to Germany allowed him to witness first-hand the rise to power of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party, and the Nazi regime's preparations for World War II.
The Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (السودان الإنجليزي المصري) was a condominium of the United Kingdom and Egypt in the eastern Sudan region of northern Africa between 1899 and 1956, but in practice the structure of the condominium ensured full British control over the Sudan.
The Anglo-French Supreme War Council (SWC) was established to oversee joint military strategy at the start of the Second World War.
Ante Pavelić (14 July 1889 – 28 December 1959) was a Croatian general and military dictator who founded and headed the fascist ultranationalist organization known as the Ustaše in 1929 and governed the Independent State of Croatia (Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, NDH), a fascist Nazi puppet state built out of Yugoslavia by the authorities of Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy, from 1941 to 1945.
Antoine-Marie-Benoit Besson (1876–1969) was a French military officer.
The Arc is a river in the Savoie département of south-eastern France.
The Armistice of 22 June 1940 was signed at 18:36.
The Armistice of Cassibile was an armistice signed on 3 September 1943 by Walter Bedell Smith and Giuseppe Castellano, and made public on 8 September, between the Kingdom of Italy and the Allies during World War II.
An armoured train is a railway train protected with armour.
The Armstrong Whitworth A.W.38 Whitley was one of three British twin-engined, front line medium bomber types that were in service with the Royal Air Force (RAF) at the outbreak of the Second World War.
The Army of the Alps (Armée des Alpes) was one of the French Revolutionary armies.
The Army of the Po (Italian Armata del Po), numbered the Sixth Army (6a Armata), was a field army of the Royal Italian Army (Regio Esercito) during World War II (1939–45).
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
The Austro-Hungarian Army (Landstreitkräfte Österreich-Ungarns; Császári és Királyi Hadsereg) was the ground force of the Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy from 1867 to 1918.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
Bardia, or El Burdi (البردية or البردي) is a Mediterranean seaport in the Butnan District of eastern Libya.
The Battle of Belgium or Belgian Campaign, often referred to within Belgium as the 18 Days' Campaign (Campagne des 18 jours, Achttiendaagse Veldtocht), formed part of the greater Battle of France, an offensive campaign by Germany during the Second World War.
The Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries during the Second World War.
The Battle of Sedan or Second Battle of Sedan (12–15 May 1940)Frieser 2005, p. 196.
The Battle of the Netherlands (Slag om Nederland) was a military campaign part of Case Yellow (Fall Gelb), the German invasion of the Low Countries (Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands) and France during World War II.
A battleship is a large armored warship with a main battery consisting of large caliber guns.
Beaufort, also Beaufort-sur-Doron, is a commune in the Savoie department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in south-eastern France.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician and journalist who was the leader of the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF).
The Bersaglieri (Marksmen in English) are a corps of the Italian Army originally created by General Alessandro La Marmora on 18 June 1836 to serve in the Army of the Kingdom of Sardinia, later to become the Royal Italian Army.
Bessans is a commune in the Savoie department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in south-eastern France.
Bizerte (بنزرت); historically: Phoenician: Hippo Acra, Hippo Diarrhytus and Hippo Zarytus), also known in English as Bizerta, is a town of Bizerte Governorate in Tunisia. It is the northernmost city in Africa, located 65 km (40mil) north of the capital Tunis. The city had 142,966 inhabitants in 2014.
The Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale (MVSN, "Voluntary Militia for National Security"), commonly called the Blackshirts (Camicie Nere, CCNN, singular: Camicia Nera) or squadristi (singular: squadrista), was originally the paramilitary wing of the National Fascist Party and, after 1923, an all-volunteer militia of the Kingdom of Italy.
Blitzkrieg (German, "lightning war") is a method of warfare whereby an attacking force, spearheaded by a dense concentration of armoured and motorised or mechanised infantry formations with close air support, breaks through the opponent's line of defence by short, fast, powerful attacks and then dislocates the defenders, using speed and surprise to encircle them with the help of air superiority.
The Bloch MB.150 (later MB.151 to MB.157) was a French low-wing monoplane fighter aircraft developed and produced by Société des Avions Marcel Bloch.
In military science, a blockhouse is a small fortification, usually consisting of one or more rooms with loopholes, allowing its defenders to fire in various directions.
Bordeaux (Gascon Occitan: Bordèu) is a port city on the Garonne in the Gironde department in Southwestern France.
The Breda Ba.88 Lince (Italian: Lynx) was a ground-attack aircraft used by the Italian Regia Aeronautica during World War II.
Briançon is a commune in the Hautes-Alpes department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France.
British Cyprus was the island of Cyprus under the dominion of the British Empire, administered sequentially from 1878 to 1914 as a British protectorate, a unilaterally annexed military occupation from 1914 to 1922 and from 1922 to 1960 as a Crown colony.
A bunker is a defensive military fortification designed to protect people or valued materials from falling bombs or other attacks.
Cagliari (Casteddu; Caralis) is an Italian municipality and the capital of the island of Sardinia, an autonomous region of Italy.
The Cannone da 149/35 A was a heavy gun which served with Italy during World War I and World War II.
The CANT Z.506 Airone (Italian: Heron) was a triple-engine floatplane produced by CANT from 1935.
The canton of Ticino, formally the Republic and Canton of Ticino (Repubblica e Cantone Ticino; Canton Tesin; Kanton Tessin; canton du Tessin, chantun dal Tessin) is the southernmost canton of Switzerland.
The capital ships of a navy are its most important warships; they are generally the larger ships when compared to other warships in their respective fleet.
Caproni was an Italian aircraft manufacturer founded in 1908 by Giovanni Battista "Gianni" Caproni.
A casemate, sometimes erroneously rendered casement, is a fortified gun emplacement or armored structure from which guns are fired.
A casern, also spelled cazern or caserne, is a military barracks in a garrison town.
The Chamber of Deputies (Camera dei deputati) is a house of the bicameral Parliament of Italy (the other being the Senate of the Republic).
The Channel Islands (Norman: Îles d'la Manche; French: Îles Anglo-Normandes or Îles de la Manche) are an archipelago in the English Channel, off the French coast of Normandy.
Charles Huntziger (25 June 1880 – 11 November 1941) was a French Army general during World War I and World War II.
Charles Noguès (13 August 1876 - 20 April 1971) was a French general.
Chasseur, a French term for "hunter", is the designation given to certain regiments of French and Belgian light infantry (chasseurs à pied) or light cavalry (chasseurs à cheval) to denote troops trained for rapid action.
A client state is a state that is economically, politically, or militarily subordinate to another more powerful state in international affairs.
Coastal artillery is the branch of the armed forces concerned with operating anti-ship artillery or fixed gun batteries in coastal fortifications.
Col d'Étache in French, (in Italian Colle d'Etiache), is a pedestrian pass (el. 2,799 m) across the Cottian Alps.
The Col de Montgenèvre (elevation 1854 m.) is a high mountain pass in the Cottian Alps, in France 2 kilometres away from Italy.
The Col de Pelouse (Colle della Pelouse) is a mountain pass in the Alps on the border between France and Italy.
Col de Tende (Colle di Tenda; elevation 1870 m) is a high mountain pass in the Alps, close to the border between France and Italy, although the highest section of the pass is wholly within France.
The Comando Truppe Alpine (Alpine Troops Command) or COMTA (formerly also COMALP) commands the Mountain Troops of the Italian Army, called Alpini and various support and training units.
During World War II, the Commissione Italiana d'Armistizio con la Francia ("Italian Armistice Commission with France") or CIAF was a temporary civil and military body charged with implementing the Franco-Italian armistice of 24 June 1940 and harmonising it with the Franco-German armistice of 22 June.
In international law, a condominium (plural either condominia, as in Latin, or condominiums) is a political territory (state or border area) in or over which multiple sovereign powers formally agree to share equal dominium (in the sense of sovereignty) and exercise their rights jointly, without dividing it into "national" zones.
Cormet de Roselend (el. 1967 m.) is a high mountain pass in the Alps in the department of Savoie in France.
Corsica (Corse; Corsica in Corsican and Italian, pronounced and respectively) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of the 18 regions of France.
The Crown Colony of the Island of Malta and its Dependencies (commonly known as the Crown Colony of Malta) was a British colony in the present-day Republic of Malta.
Dalmatia (Dalmacija; see names in other languages) is one of the four historical regions of Croatia, alongside Croatia proper, Slavonia and Istria.
The Defensive Sector of the Rhône (Secteur Défensif du Rhône) was the French military organization that in 1940 controlled the section of the French border with Switzerland and Italy in the area of Geneva.
A demi-brigade (Half-brigade) is a military formation used by the French Army since the French Revolutionary Wars.
A demilitarized zone, DMZ or DZ is an area in which treaties or agreements between nations, military powers or contending groups forbid military installations, activities or personnel.
Denis Mack Smith CBE FBA FRSL (March 3, 1920 – July 11, 2017) was an English historian, specialising in the history of Italy from the Risorgimento onwards.
In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast, maneuverable long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet, convoy or battle group and defend them against smaller powerful short-range attackers.
The Deuxième Bureau de l'État-major général ("Second Bureau of the General Staff") was France's external military intelligence agency from 1871 to 1940.
The Dewoitine D.520 was a French fighter aircraft that entered service in early 1940, shortly after the beginning of the Second World War.
Edoardo Alfieri (first name usually shortened to Dino; 8 December 1886 – 12 December 1966) was an Italian fascist politician and diplomat.
Djibouti City (also called Djibouti; مدينة جيبوتي, Ville de Djibouti, Magaalada Jabuuti, Magaala Gabuuti) is the eponymous capital and largest city of Djibouti.
The Dodecanese (Δωδεκάνησα, Dodekánisa, literally "twelve islands") are a group of 15 larger plus 150 smaller Greek islands in the southeastern Aegean Sea, off the coast of Asia Minor (Turkey), of which 26 are inhabited.
Translated from the corresponding article in the Italian Wikipedia Domenico Cavagnari (20 July 1876, Genoa – 2 November 1966, Rome) was an Italian admiral and the Chief of Staff of the Regia Marina from 1934 until 1940.
The Dunkirk evacuation, code-named Operation Dynamo, and also known as the Miracle of Dunkirk, was the evacuation of Allied soldiers during World War II from the beaches and harbour of Dunkirk, in the north of France, between 26 May and 4 June 1940.
The Ethio-Djibouti Railway (Chemin de Fer Djibouto-Éthiopien (C.D.E.) is a metre gauge railway in the Horn of Africa that once connected Addis Ababa to the port city of Djibouti. The operating company was also known as the Ethio-Djibouti Railways. The railway was built in 1894–1917 to connect the Ethiopian capital city to the then-French colony of Djibouti. During early operations, it provided landlocked Ethiopia with its only access to the sea. After World War II, the railway progressively fell into a state of disrepair due to competition from road transport. The railway has been mostly superseded by the Addis Ababa–Djibouti Railway, an electrified standard gauge railway that was completed in 2017. The metre gauge railway has been abandoned in central Ethiopia and Djibouti. However, a rehabilitated section is still in operation near the Ethiopia-Djibouti border. As of February 2018, a combined passenger and freight service runs two times a week between the Ethiopian city of Dire Dawa and the Djibouti border, stopping at Dewele (passengers) and Guelile (freight). Plans were announced in 2018 to rehabilitate track from Dire Dawa to Mieso.
Ettore Bastico (9 April 1876 – 2 December 1972) was an Italian military officer before and during World War II.
The Fairey Swordfish was a biplane torpedo bomber designed by the Fairey Aviation Company.
During World War II, Fall Rot (Case Red) was the plan for the second phase of the conquest of France by the German Army and began on 5 June 1940.
The Fiat BR.20 Cicogna (Italian: "stork") was a low-wing twin-engine medium bomber that was developed and manufactured by Italian aircraft company Fiat.
The Fiat CR.42 Falco ("Falcon", plural: Falchi) was a single-seat sesquiplane fighter developed and produced by Italian aircraft manufacturer Fiat Aviazione.
The Fiat G.50 Freccia ("Arrow") was a World War II Italian fighter aircraft developed and manufactured by aviation company Fiat.
The Fiat-Ansaldo M11/39 was an Italian medium tank first produced prior to World War II.
Filippo Anfuso (1 January 1901 – 13 December 1963) was an Italian writer, diplomat and Fascist politician.
The Italian First Army was an Italian army formation, in World War I, facing Austro-Hungarian and German forces, and in World War II, fighting on the North African front.
The First Austrian Republic (Republik Österreich) was created after the signing of the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye on September 10, 1919—the settlement after the end of World War I which ended the Habsburg rump state of Republic of German-Austria—and ended with the establishment of the Austrofascist Federal State of Austria based upon a dictatorship of Engelbert Dollfuss and the Fatherland's Front in 1934.
The Fleet Air Arm (FAA) is the branch of the British Royal Navy responsible for the operation of naval aircraft.
Fontan is a commune in the Alpes-Maritimes department in southeastern France.
The Fort de l'Infernet is a fortification complex near Briançon in the French Alps.
The Fort de l'Olive is a fortification in the vicinity of Briançon in the Dauphiné region of southeastern France.
The Fort de la Redoute Ruinée (literally "fort of the ruined redoubt") was a French fort overlooking the Col de la Traversette in the Cottian Alps between 1892 and 1940.
The Fortified Sector of the Dauphiné (Secteur Fortifié du Dauphiné) was the French military organization that in 1940 controlled the section of the Alpine Line portion of the Maginot Line facing Italy in the vicinity of Briançon.
A forward operating base (FOB) is any secured forward military position, commonly a military base, that is used to support tactical operations.
Major General Francis James Rennell Rodd, 2nd Baron Rennell KBE CB DL JP (25 October 1895 – 15 March 1978) was the second but eldest surviving son of the diplomat Rennell Rodd, 1st Baron Rennell.
Francisco Franco Bahamonde (4 December 1892 – 20 November 1975) was a Spanish general who ruled over Spain as a military dictator from 1939, after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War, until his death in 1975.
The Franco-Italian Armistice, or Armistice of Villa Incisa, signed on 24 June 1940, in effect from 25 June, ended the brief Italian invasion of France during the Second World War.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.
The French colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies, protectorates and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 16th century onward.
Algérie was a French heavy cruiser that served during the early years of World War II.
Colbert was a French heavy cruiser of the, that saw service in World War II.
Dupleix was a French heavy cruiser of the, that saw service during World War II.
Foch was a French Navy heavy cruiser of the, that saw service in World War II.
Jean de Vienne was a French light cruiser of the.
La Galissonnière was the name-ship of a class of French light cruisers, named in honour of Roland-Michel Barrin de La Galissonière.
Marseillaise was a French light cruiser of the.
French Naval Aviation (often abbreviated in French to: « l'Aéronavale », or « Aviation navale » or more simply « l'Aéro ») is the naval air arm of the French Navy.
The French Navy (Marine Nationale), informally "La Royale", is the maritime arm of the French Armed Forces.
French North Africa was a collection of territories in North Africa controlled by France, centering on French Algeria.
The French protectorate of Tunisia (Protectorat français de Tunisie; الحماية الفرنسية في تونس) was established in 1881, during the French colonial Empire era, and lasted until Tunisian independence in 1956.
The French Riviera (known in French as the Côte d'Azur,; Còsta d'Azur; literal translation "Coast of Azure") is the Mediterranean coastline of the southeast corner of France.
French Somaliland (officially the Côte française des Somalis, "French Somali Coast"), with its capital at Djibouti, was the scene of only minor skirmishing during World War II, principally between June and July 1940.
The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870 when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War until 1940 when France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.
The military tactic of frontal assault is a direct, hostile movement of forces toward the front of an enemy force (as compared to the flanks or rear of the enemy).
Gian Galeazzo Ciano, 2nd Count of Cortellazzo and Buccari (18 March 1903 – 11 January 1944) was Foreign Minister of Fascist Italy from 1936 until 1943 and Benito Mussolini's son-in-law.
Gaston-Henri Billotte (10 February 1875 – 23 May 1940) was a French military officer, remembered chiefly for his central role in the failure of the French Army to defeat the German invasion of France in May 1940.
Gastone Gambara (10 November 1890 – 27 February 1962) was an Italian General who participated in the First World War and the Second World War.
A gasworks or gas house is an industrial plant for the production of flammable gas.
Genoa (Genova,; Zêna; English, historically, and Genua) is the capital of the Italian region of Liguria and the sixth-largest city in Italy.
Gerhard Schreiber (26 July 1940 – 17 May 2017) was a German military historian who specialised in the German-Italian relations during the Nazi era.
Gerhard Ludwig Weinberg (born 1 January 1928) is a German-born American diplomatic and military historian noted for his studies in the history of World War II.
The German invasion of Luxembourg was part of Case Yellow (Fall Gelb), the German invasion of the Low Countries (Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands) and France during World War II.
Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula.
Giuseppe Santoro (born 1930) was an Italian lawyer and diplomat who was also active in politics as a supporter of the Socialists.
The Gold Medal of Military Valour (Medaglia d'oro al valor militare) is an Italian medal established on 21 May 1793 by King Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia "....per bassi ufficiali e soldati che avevano fatto azioni di segnalato valore in guerra" (for deeds of outstanding gallantry in war by junior officers and soldiers).
The Grand Council of Fascism (aka: Fascist Grand Council) was the main body of Mussolini's Fascist government in Italy.
Gross register tonnage (GRT, grt, g.r.t., gt) or gross registered tonnage, is a ship's total internal volume expressed in "register tons", each of which is equal to.
The Guardia alla Frontiera (GaF), was an Italian Army Border guard created in 1937 who defended the 1.851 km of northern Italian frontiers with the so-called "Vallo Alpino Occidentale" (487 km with France), "Vallo Alpino Settentrionale" (724 km with Switzerland and 420 km with Austria) and "Vallo Alpino Orientale" (220 km with Yugoslavia).
The Guépard-class destroyers (contre-torpilleurs) were six ships of the French Navy, laid down in 1927 and commissioned in 1930.
The Gulf of Genoa (Golfo di Genova) is the northernmost part of the Ligurian Sea.
Haddock Force was a Royal Air Force group of bombers dispatched to airfields in southern France, with the mission of bombing northern Italian industrial sites, following the Italian entry into the Second World War.
The heavy cruiser was a type of cruiser, a naval warship designed for long range and high speed, armed generally with naval guns of roughly 203mm calibre (8 inches in caliber) of whose design parameters were dictated by the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922 and the London Naval Treaty of 1930.
Henri Parisot (1881–1963) was a French general during the First World War (1914–18) and Second World War (1939–45).
The Armée de l'Air (literally, "army of the air") is the name used for the French Air Force in its native language since it was made independent of the Army in 1933.
HMAS Sydney, named after the Australian city of Sydney, was one of three modified ''Leander''-class light cruisers operated by the Royal Australian Navy (RAN).
HMS Calypso (D61) was a C class cruiser of the Caledon sub-class of the Royal Navy, launched in 1917 and sunk in 1940 by the Italian submarine ''Alpino Attilio Bagnolini''.
HMS Neptune was a light cruiser which served with the Royal Navy during World War II.
HMS Orion was a ''Leander''-class light cruiser which served with distinction in the Royal Navy during World War II.
The Hossbach Memorandum was the summary of a meeting on 5 November 1937 between German dictator Adolf Hitler and his military and foreign policy leadership in which Hitler's future expansionist policies were outlined.
A hotel is an establishment that provides paid lodging on a short-term basis.
The House of Savoy (Casa Savoia) is a royal family that was established in 1003 in the historical Savoy region. Through gradual expansion, the family grew in power from ruling a small county in the Alps of northern Italy to absolute rule of the kingdom of Sicily in 1713 to 1720 (exchanged for Sardinia). Through its junior branch, the House of Savoy-Carignano, it led the unification of Italy in 1861 and ruled the Kingdom of Italy from 1861 until 1946 and, briefly, the Kingdom of Spain in the 19th century. The Savoyard kings of Italy were Victor Emmanuel II, Umberto I, Victor Emmanuel III, and Umberto II. The last monarch ruled for a few weeks before being deposed following the Constitutional Referendum of 1946, after which the Italian Republic was proclaimed.
Human overpopulation (or population overshoot) occurs when the ecological footprint of a human population in a specific geographical location exceeds the carrying capacity of the place occupied by that group.
Hyères, Provençal Occitan: Ieras in classical norm, or Iero in Mistralian norm) is a commune in the Var department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France. The old town lies from the sea clustered around the Castle of Saint Bernard, which is set on a hill. Between the old town and the sea lies the pine-covered hill of Costebelle, which overlooks the peninsula of Giens. Hyères is the oldest resort on the French Riviera.
In aviation, icing conditions are those atmospheric conditions that can lead to the formation of water ice on the surfaces of an aircraft, or within the engine as carburetor icing.
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).
The Invasion of Poland, known in Poland as the September Campaign (Kampania wrześniowa) or the 1939 Defensive War (Wojna obronna 1939 roku), and in Germany as the Poland Campaign (Polenfeldzug) or Fall Weiss ("Case White"), was a joint invasion of Poland by Germany, the Soviet Union, the Free City of Danzig, and a small Slovak contingent that marked the beginning of World War II.
The Isère is a river in the Rhône-Alpes region of southeastern France.
The Italian Armed Forces (italian: Forze armate italiane) encompass the Italian Army, the Italian Navy and the Italian Air Force.
The Italian Army ranks are the ranks used by the Italian Army and are worn on epaulettes of shirts.
Italian East Africa (Africa Orientale Italiana) was an Italian colony in the Horn of Africa.
The Italian invasion of Albania (April 7–12, 1939) was a brief military campaign by the Kingdom of Italy against the Albanian Kingdom.
Italian irredentism (irredentismo italiano) was a nationalist movement during the late 19th and early 20th centuries in Italy with irredentist goals which promoted the unification of geographic areas in which indigenous ethnic Italians and Italian-speaking persons formed a majority, or substantial minority, of the population.
The Italian Islands of the Aegean (Isole italiane dell'Egeo; Ἰταλικαὶ Νῆσοι Αἰγαίου Πελάγους) were a group of twelve major islands (the Dodecanese) in the southeastern Aegean Sea, which — together with the surrounding islets — were ruled by the Kingdom of Italy from 1912 to 1943 and the Italian Social Republic from 1943 to 1945.
Italian Libya (Libia Italiana; ليبيا الإيطالية) was a unified colony of Italian North Africa (Africa Settentrionale Italiana, or ASI) established in 1934 in what is now modern Libya.
The Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs is the head of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Italy.
Italian-occupied France was an area of south-eastern France occupied by Fascist Italy in two stages during World War II.
Italo Balbo (Ferrara, 6 June 1896 – Tobruk, 28 June 1940) was an Italian Blackshirt (Camicie Nere, or CCNN) leader who served as Italy's Marshal of the Air Force (Maresciallo dell'Aria), Governor-General of Libya, Commander-in-Chief of Italian North Africa (Africa Settentrionale Italiana, or ASI), and the "heir apparent" to Italian dictator Benito Mussolini.
The Kingdom of Bulgaria (Царство България, Tsarstvo Bǎlgariya), also referred to as the Tsardom of Bulgaria and the Third Bulgarian Tsardom, was a constitutional monarchy in Eastern and Southeastern Europe, which was established on 5 October (O.S. 22 September) 1908 when the Bulgarian state was raised from a principality to a kingdom.
The Kingdom of Egypt (المملكة المصرية; المملكه المصريه, "the Egyptian Kingdom") was the de jure independent Egyptian state established under the Muhammad Ali Dynasty in 1922 following the Unilateral Declaration of Egyptian Independence by the United Kingdom.
The Kingdom of Greece (Greek: Βασίλειον τῆς Ἑλλάδος) was a state established in 1832 at the Convention of London by the Great Powers (the United Kingdom, Kingdom of France and the Russian Empire).
The Kingdom of Hungary (Hungarian: Magyar Királyság), also known as the Regency, existed from 1920 to 1946 as a de facto country under Regent Miklós Horthy.
The Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq (المملكة العراقية الهاشمية) was founded on 23 August 1921 under British administration following the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in the Mesopotamian campaign of World War I. Although a League of Nations mandate was awarded to the UK in 1920, the 1920 Iraqi revolt resulted in the scrapping of the original mandate plan in favor of a British administered semi-independent kingdom, under the Hashemite allies of Britain, via the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty.
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.
The Kingdom of Romania (Regatul României) was a constitutional monarchy in Southeastern Europe which existed from 1881, when prince Carol I of Romania was proclaimed King, until 1947, when King Michael I of Romania abdicated and the Parliament proclaimed Romania a republic.
The Kingdom of Yugoslavia (Serbo-Croatian, Slovene: Kraljevina Jugoslavija, Краљевина Југославија; Кралство Југославија) was a state in Southeast Europe and Central Europe, that existed from 1918 until 1941, during the interwar period and beginning of World War II.
Krasnaya Zvezda (Кра́сная звезда́, literally "Red Star") is an official newspaper of Soviet and later Russian Ministry of Defence.
The L3/35 or Carro Veloce CV-35 was an Italian tankette that saw combat before and during World War II.
La Spezia (A Spèza in the local dialect of Spezzina), at the head of the Gulf of La Spezia in the southern part of the Liguria region of Northern Italy, is the capital city of the province of La Spezia.
Lanslebourg-Mont-Cenis is a former commune in the Savoie department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in south-eastern France.
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
A light cruiser is a type of small- or medium-sized warship.
Lioré-et-Olivier LeO 45 was a French medium bomber that was used during and after the Second World War.
In special economic zones business and trades laws differ from the rest of the country.
This is a list of the World War II divisions of the Royal Italian Army of the Kingdom of Italy.
The Little St Bernard Pass (French: Col du Petit Saint-Bernard, Italian: Colle del Piccolo San Bernardo) is a mountain pass in the Alps on the France–Italy border.
Livorno is a port city on the Ligurian Sea on the western coast of Tuscany, Italy.
MacGregor Knox is an American historian of 20th-century Europe, and was from 1994 to 2010 the Stevenson Professor of International History at the London School of Economics.
The Maddalena Pass (Italian: Colle della Maddalena French: Col de Larche, historically Col de l'Argentière) (elevation 1996 m.) is a high mountain pass between the Cottian Alps and the Maritime Alps, located on the border between Italy and France.
The Maginot Line (Ligne Maginot), named after the French Minister of War André Maginot, was a line of concrete fortifications, obstacles, and weapon installations built by France in the 1930s to deter invasion by Germany and force them to move around the fortifications.
Maneuver warfare, or manoeuvre warfare, is a military strategy that advocates attempting to defeat the enemy by incapacitating their decision-making through shock and disruption.
The Manstein Plan is one of the names used to describe the war plan of the German Army during the Battle of France in 1940.
Mario Roatta (2 February 1887 – 7 January 1968) was an Italian general, best known for his role in Italian Second Army's repression against civilians, that matched the German one in the Slovene- and Croatian-inhabited areas of the Italian-occupied Yugoslavia during World War II.
Marseille (Provençal: Marselha), is the second-largest city of France and the largest city of the Provence historical region.
Marshal of Italy (Italian: Maresciallo d'Italia) was a rank in the Italian Royal Army (Regio Esercito).
Motoscafo armato silurante (Italian: "torpedo armed motorboat"), commonly abbreviated as MAS was a class of fast torpedo armed vessel used by the Regia Marina (the Royal Navy of Italy) during World War I and World War II.
Maurice Gustave Gamelin (20 September 1872 – 18 April 1958) was a senior French Army general.
The Mediterranean and Middle East Theatre was a major theatre of operations during the Second World War.
The British Mediterranean Fleet also known as the Mediterranean Station was part of the Royal Navy.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Menton (written Menton in classical norm or Mentan in Mistralian norm; Mentone) is a commune in the Alpes-Maritimes department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France.
Military doctrine is the expression of how military forces contribute to campaigns, major operations, battles, and engagements.
The Minister of the Interior (Ministre de l'Intérieur) is an important position in the Government of France.
The Ministry of the Armed Forces (Ministère des Armées) is the French department in charge of managing the French Armed Forces inside and outside French soil.
Modane is a commune in the Savoie department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in southeastern France.
Mont Cenis (Moncenisio) is a massif (el. 3,612 m / 11,850 ft) and pass (el. 2081 m / 6827 ft) in Savoie (France), which forms the limit between the Cottian and Graian Alps.
Mont Chaberton is a peak in the French Alps in the group known as the Massif des Cerces in the département of Hautes-Alpes.
Monte Grammondo is a mountain in Liguria, northern Italy, part of the Alps.
Montgenèvre is a commune of the Hautes-Alpes department in southeastern France.
Mortaio da 81/14 Modello 35 was an Italian World War II infantry mortar.
The Mortier de 280 TR Modèle 1914 Schneider was a French siege howitzer manufactured by the Schneider et Cie company, used during World War I. The howitzer had its origins from a Russian Army policy to upgrade its artillery park after the poor showing of Russian artillery in the 1904-5 Russo-Japanese war.
A mountain pass is a navigable route through a mountain range or over a ridge.
Mountain warfare refers to warfare in the mountains or similarly rough terrain.
Munich (München; Minga) is the capital and the most populated city in the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps.
The Munich Agreement was a settlement permitting Nazi Germany's annexation of portions of Czechoslovakia along the country's borders mainly inhabited by German speakers, for which a new territorial designation, the "Sudetenland", was coined.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
The New Statesman is a British political and cultural magazine published in London.
Nice (Niçard Niça, classical norm, or Nissa, nonstandard,; Nizza; Νίκαια; Nicaea) is the fifth most populous city in France and the capital of the Alpes-Maritimes département.
Novalesa is a comune (municipality) in the Metropolitan City of Turin in the Italian region Piedmont, located about 60 km west of Turin, on the border with France.
The Office of Public Sector Information (OPSI) is the body responsible for the operation of Her Majesty's Stationery Office (HMSO) and of other public information services of the United Kingdom.
In war, in the event of the imminent capture of a city, the government/military structure of the nation that controls the city will sometimes declare it an open city, thus announcing that it has abandoned all defensive efforts.
Operation Torch (8–16 November 1942, formerly Operation Gymnast) was a Anglo–American invasion of French North Africa, during the North African Campaign of the Second World War.
Oran (وَهران, Wahrān; Berber language: ⵡⴻⵂⵔⴰⵏ, Wehran) is a major coastal city located in the north-west of Algeria.
Ouvrage Cap Martin is a work (gros ouvrage) of the Maginot Line's Alpine extension, the Alpine Line, also called the Little Maginot Line.
Ouvrage Gondran is a lesser work (petit ouvrage) of the Maginot Line's Alpine extension, the Alpine Line.
Ouvrage Janus is a work (gros ouvrage) of the Maginot Line's Alpine extension, the Alpine Line, located to the east of Briançon on near the Col de Montgenèvre.
Ouvrage Mont Agel is a work (gros ouvrage) of the Maginot Line's Alpine extension, the Alpine Line, also called the Little Maginot Line.
Ouvrage Saint-Antoine is a work (gros ouvrage) of the Maginot Line's Alpine extension, the Alpine Line.
Ouvrage Saint-Gobain is a work (gros ouvrage) of the Maginot Line's Alpine extension, the Alpine Line.
Ouvrage Sapey is a work (gros ouvrage) of the Maginot Line's Alpine extension, the Alpine Line, also known as the Little Maginot Line.
The Pact of Steel (Stahlpakt, Patto d'Acciaio), known formally as the Pact of Friendship and Alliance between Germany and Italy, was a military and political alliance between the Kingdom of Italy and Nazi Germany.
The Palazzo Venezia, formerly Palace of St.
Palermo (Sicilian: Palermu, Panormus, from Πάνορμος, Panormos) is a city of Southern Italy, the capital of both the autonomous region of Sicily and the Metropolitan City of Palermo.
Paolo Camillo Thaon, Marquess of Revel (10 June 1859 – 24 March 1948), laterly titled by Benito Mussolini with the honorary title of 1st Duke of the Sea, was an Italian admiral of the Royal Italian Navy (Regia Marina) during World War I and later a politician.
Paul Baudouin (19 December 1894 – 10 February 1964) was a French banker who became a politician and Vichy foreign minister.
Former French secret service chief Paul Paillole was born in the Breton town of Rennes on 18 November 1905.
Paul Reynaud (15 October 1878 – 21 September 1966) was a French politician and lawyer prominent in the interwar period, noted for his stances on economic liberalism and militant opposition to Germany.
Paul Valéry University of Montpellier (Université Paul-Valéry Montpellier III), also known as or UPVM (official acronym) or Montpellier III (UM3, until early 2015), is a French university in the Academy of Montpellier.
Paul Verlaine University – Metz (Université Paul Verlaine - Metz, or UPV-M) was a French university, based in Metz.
Pegli is a neighbourhood in the west of Genoa, Italy.
Sir Percy Lyham Loraine, 12th Baronet, (5 November 1880 – 23 May 1961) was a British diplomat.
The Phoney War (Drôle de guerre; Sitzkrieg) was an eight-month period at the start of World War II, during which there was only one limited military land operation on the Western Front, when French troops invaded Germany's Saar district.
Piacenza (Piacentino: Piaṡëinsa) is a city and comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy.
Marshal Pietro Badoglio, 1st Duke of Addis Abeba, 1st Marquess of Sabotino (28 September 1871 – 1 November 1956), was an Italian general during both World Wars and a Prime Minister of Italy, as well as the first viceroy of Italian East Africa.
Pietro Sandro Nenni (February 9, 1891 – January 1, 1980) was an Italian socialist politician, the national secretary of the Italian Socialist Party (PSI) and lifetime Senator since 1970.
Pietro Pintor (1880 – 7 December 1940) was an Italian general during World War II.
The Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, also known simply as the "PG", is the largest daily newspaper serving metropolitan Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States.
A platoon is a military unit typically composed of two or more squads/sections/patrols.
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
The President of the Council of Ministers of the Italian Republic (Italian: Presidente del Consiglio dei ministri della Repubblica Italiana), commonly referred to in Italy as Presidente del Consiglio, or informally as Premier and known in English as the Prime Minister of Italy, is the head of government of the Italian Republic.
Raffaele de Courten (Milan, 23 September 1888 - Frascati, 23 August 1978) was an Italian admiral.
The Italian Royal Air Force (Regia Aeronautica Italiana) was the name of the air force of the Kingdom of Italy.
The Royal Navy (Italian: Regia Marina) was the navy of the Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) from 1861 to 1946.
René-Henri Olry CLH (28 June 1880 – 3 January 1944) was a French general and commander of the Army of the Alps (l'Armée des Alpes) during the Battle of France of World War II.
A reservist is a person who is a member of a military reserve force.
The Rhône (Le Rhône; Rhone; Walliser German: Rotten; Rodano; Rôno; Ròse) is one of the major rivers of Europe and has twice the average discharge of the Loire (which is the longest French river), rising in the Rhône Glacier in the Swiss Alps at the far eastern end of the Swiss canton of Valais, passing through Lake Geneva and running through southeastern France.
Marshal Rodolfo Graziani, 1st Marquis of Neghelli (11 August 1882 – 11 January 1955), was a prominent Italian military officer in the Kingdom of Italy's Regio Esercito (Royal Army), primarily noted for his campaigns in Africa before and during World War II.
Rotterdam is a city in the Netherlands, in South Holland within the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt river delta at the North Sea.
Rouen (Frankish: Rodomo; Rotomagus, Rothomagus) is a city on the River Seine in the north of France.
The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.
This article is about the Italian Royal Army (Regio Esercito) which participated in World War II.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
A sapper, also called pioneer or combat engineer, is a combatant or soldier who performs a variety of military engineering duties such as breaching fortifications, demolitions, bridge-building, laying or clearing minefields, preparing field defenses as well as building, and working on road and airfield construction and repair.
The Savoia-Marchetti SM.79 Sparviero (Italian for sparrowhawk) was a three-engined Italian medium bomber developed and manufactured by aviation company Savoia-Marchetti.
The Savoia-Marchetti SM.81 Pipistrello (Italian: bat) was the first three-engine bomber/transport aircraft serving in the Italian Regia Aeronautica.
Savona (Ligurian: Sann-a is a seaport and comune in the west part of the northern Italian region of Liguria, capital of the Province of Savona, in the Riviera di Ponente on the Mediterranean Sea. Savona used to be one of the chief seats of the Italian iron industry, having iron-works and foundries, shipbuilding, railway workshops, engineering shops, and a brass foundry. One of the most celebrated former inhabitants of Savona was the navigator Christopher Columbus, who farmed land in the area while chronicling his journeys. 'Columbus's house', a cottage situated in the Savona hills, lay between vegetable crops and fruit trees. It is one of several residences in Liguria associated with Columbus.
Savoy (Savouè,; Savoie; Savoia) is a cultural region in Western Europe.
Séez is a commune in the Savoie department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in south-eastern France.
A seaside resort is a resort town or resort hotel, located on the coast.
The 2nd Army (Italian: 2^ Armata) was a World War I and World War II field army.
The Second Italo-Ethiopian War, also referred to as the Second Italo-Abyssinian War, was a colonial war from 3 October 1935 until 1939, despite the Italian claim to have defeated Ethiopia by 5 May 1936, the date of the capture of Addis Ababa.
The Senegalese Tirailleurs (Tirailleurs Sénégalais) were a corps of colonial infantry in the French Army.
The Italian Military Information Service (Servizio Informazioni Militare, or SIM) was the military intelligence organization for the Royal Army (Regio Esercito) of the Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) from 1900 until 1946, and of the Italian Republic until 1949.
Sestri Ponente is an industrial suburb of Genoa in northwest Italy.
The Italian Seventh Army was an Italian Army which was formed in World War I and World War II.
Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.
The Siege of Malta in the Second World War was a military campaign in the Mediterranean Theatre.
The Sixth Army (6eme Armée) was a Field army of the French Army during World War I and World War II.
The Skoda 7.5 cm Gebirgskanone M. 15 was a mountain gun used by Austria-Hungary in World War I. In German service, it was known as the 7.5 cm GebK 15.
In the 18th century and most of the 19th, a sloop-of-war in the Royal Navy was a warship with a single gun deck that carried up to eighteen guns.
Sollières-Sardières is a former commune in the Savoie department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in south-eastern France.
The Somme is a river in Picardy, northern France.
South Arabia is a historical region that consists of the southern region of the Arabian Peninsula, mainly centered in what is now the Republic of Yemen, yet it has also historically included Najran, Jizan, and 'Asir, which are presently in Saudi Arabia, and the Dhofar of present-day Oman.
The Spanish Civil War (Guerra Civil Española),Also known as The Crusade (La Cruzada) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War (Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlists, and The Rebellion (La Rebelión) or Uprising (Sublevación) among Republicans.
Spazio vitale (living space) was the territorial expansionist concept of Italian Fascism.
Steel Mill was an early Bruce Springsteen band.
The Strait of Gibraltar (مضيق جبل طارق, Estrecho de Gibraltar) is a narrow strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Gibraltar and Peninsular Spain in Europe from Morocco and Ceuta (Spain) in Africa.
The Strait of Hormuz (تنگه هرمز Tangeye Hormoz) is a strait between the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman.
The Strait of Sicily (also known as Sicilian Strait, Sicilian Channel, Channel of Sicily, Sicilian Narrows and Pantelleria Channel; Canale di Sicilia or the Stretto di Sicilia; Canali di Sicilia or Strittu di Sicilia) is the strait between Sicily and Tunisia.
thumb The Suez Canal (قناة السويس) is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez.
Participating certificate of the Compagnie Universelle du Canal Maritime de Suez, issued 1. January 1889 The Universal Maritime Suez Canal Company (Compagnie universelle du canal maritime de Suez, or simply Compagnie de Suez for short) was the corporation that constructed the Suez Canal between 1859 and 1869 and operated it until 1956.
Sulfur mustard, commonly known as mustard gas, is the prototypical substance of the sulfur-based family of cytotoxic and vesicant chemical warfare agents known as the sulfur mustards which have the ability to form large blisters on exposed skin and in the lungs.
Sulmona (Abruzzese: Sulmóne; Sulmo; Greek: Σουλμῶν, Soulmōn) is a city and comune of the province of L'Aquila in Abruzzo, Italy.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
A tankette is a tracked armoured fighting vehicle that resembles a small tank, roughly the size of a car.
Termignon is a former commune in the Savoie department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in south-eastern France.
The Third Reich Trilogy is a series of three narrative history books by the British historian Richard J. Evans covering the rise and collapse of Nazi Germany in detail, with a focus on the internal politics and the decision-making process.
Tignes is a commune in the Tarentaise Valley, in the Savoie department in the Rhône-Alpes region in south-eastern France.
A torpedo boat is a relatively small and fast naval ship designed to carry torpedoes into battle.
Toulon (Provençal: Tolon (classical norm), Touloun (Mistralian norm)) is a city in southern France and a large military harbour on the Mediterranean coast, with a major French naval base.
Trapani (Tràpani; Drepanon, Δρέπανον) is a city and comune on the west coast of Sicily in Italy.
A triangular division is a designation given to the way military divisions are organized.
Turin (Torino; Turin) is a city and an important business and cultural centre in northern Italy.
Turin Airport (Aeroporto di Torino), also known as Turin-Caselle Airport (Aeroporto di Torino-Caselle), is an airport located at Caselle Torinese, north-northwest of the city of Turin, in the Metropolitan City of Turin, Piedmont region, northern Italy.
The Tyrrhenian Sea (Mar Tirreno, Mer Tyrrhénienne, Mare Tirrenu, Mari Tirrenu, Mari Tirrenu, Mare Tirreno) is part of the Mediterranean Sea off the western coast of Italy.
Ubaldo Soddu (23 July 1883 – 20 July 1949) was an Italian military officer, who commanded the Italian Forces in the Greco-Italian War for a month.
The Ubaye Valley is an area in the Alpes de Haute-Provence département, in the French Alps, having approximately 7,700 residents.
Udine (Udin, Weiden in Friaul, Utinum, Videm) is a city and comune in northeastern Italy, in the middle of the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, between the Adriatic Sea and the Alps (Alpi Carniche).
Umberto II (Umberto Nicola Tommaso Giovanni Maria di Savoia; 15 September 190418 March 1983) was the last King of Italy.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States Army Command and General Staff College (CGSC or, obsolete, USACGSC) at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, is a graduate school for United States Army and sister service officers, interagency representatives, and international military officers.
The United States Naval Institute (USNI), based in Annapolis, Maryland, is a private, non-profit, professional military association that seeks to offer independent, nonpartisan forums for debate of national defense and security issues.
The University of Lorraine, often abbreviated in UL, is a grand établissement created on 1 January 2012 by the merger of Henri Poincaré, Nancy 2 and Paul Verlaine Universities, and the National Polytechnic Institute of Lorraine (INPL), etc...
The University of Waterloo (commonly referred to as Waterloo, UW, or UWaterloo) is a public research university with a main campus in Waterloo, Ontario.
Upper Normandy (Haute-Normandie,; Ĥâote-Normaundie) is a former administrative region of France.
UTC+01:00, known simply as UTC+1, is a time offset that adds 1 hour to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).
Vado Ligure, in antiquity Vada Sabatia, is a town and comune in the province of Savona, Liguria, in northern Italy.
Valence - Chabeuil Airport is an airport in France, located about east of Valence (in the Drôme department, Rhone-Alpes region) and approximately south-southeast of Paris.
The Stura di Demonte Valley (in Italian Valle Stura di Demonte) is a valley in south-west of Piedmont in the Province of Cuneo, Italy.
The Vauquelin-class large destroyers (contre-torpilleurs) of the French Navy were laid down in 1930 and commissioned in 1931.
The Vésubie is a river in the southeast of France.
The Vickers Wellington was a British twin-engined, long-range medium bomber.
Victor Emmanuel III (Vittorio Emanuele Ferdinando Maria Gennaro di Savoia; Vittorio Emanuele III, Viktor Emanueli III; 11 November 1869 – 28 December 1947) was the King of Italy from 29 July 1900 until his abdication on 9 May 1946.
Villarodin-Bourget is a commune in the Savoie department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in south-eastern France.
Virginio Gayda (12 August 1885 – 14 March 1944) was a prominent Italian fascist and journalist during the reign of Benito Mussolini's National Fascist Party.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yorkshire (abbreviated Yorks), formally known as the County of York, is a historic county of Northern England and the largest in the United Kingdom.
Zone Rouge (English: Red Zone) is a chain of non-contiguous areas throughout northeastern France that the French government isolated after the First World War.
The 10 cm M. 14 Feldhaubitze was a dual-purpose field and mountain gun used by Austria-Hungary during World War I. Between the wars it was used by Austria, Italy, and Poland.
101st Motorised Division Trieste or 101° Divisione Trieste (Italian) was a Motorised Division of the Italian Army during World War II.
The 11th Infantry Division Brennero was a mountain infantry division of the Italian Army during World War II.
133rd Armoured Division Littorio or 133° Divisione Corazzata Littorio (Italian) was an armoured division of the Italian Army during World War II.
The 16th Infantry Division Pistoia was an auto-transportable infantry division of the Italian Army during World War II.
The 1st Alpine Division Taurinense was a World War II light Infantry division of the Italian Army which specialised in Mountain Combat.
1st Infantry Division Superga was a mountain infantry division of the Italian Army during World War II.
The 1st San Marco Regiment (Italian: 1° Reggimento San Marco), located in Brindisi, is an amphibious formation of the Italian Navy.
The 22nd Infantry Division Cacciatori delle Alpi was an infantry division of the Italian Army during World War II.
The 24th Infantry Division Pinerolo was an infantry division of the Italian Army during World War II.
The 26th Infantry Division Assietta was a mountain infantry Division (formed 6 August 1935) of the Italian Army during World War II.
The 2nd Alpine Division Tridentina was a World War II Mountain Infantry division of the Italian Army.
The 2nd Infantry Division Sforzesca was a mountain Infantry Division of the Italian Army during World War II.
The 33rd Infantry Division Acqui (33ª Divisione Acqui) was a mountain infantry Division of the Italian Army during World War II.
The 36th Infantry Division Forlì was a mountain infantry Division of the Italian Army during World War II.
The 37th Infantry Division Modena was a mountain Infantry Division of the Italian Army during World War II.
The 3rd Alpini Regiment (3° Reggimento Alpini) is a light Infantry regiment of the Italian Army, specializing in mountain combat.
The 3rd Army Corps was one of three corps the Italian Army fielded during the Cold War.
The 3rd Infantry Division (Ravenna) was a mountain infantry division of the Italian Army during World War II.
The 44th Infantry Division Cremona was an infantry division of the Italian Army during World War II.
The 4th Alpine Division Cuneense was an Italian division composed of Alpini - light Mountain Infantry - and Mountain Artillery units.
The 4th Infantry Division Livorno was a mountain Infantry Division of the Italian Army during World War II.
The 52nd Infantry Division Torino was an auto-transportable infantry division of the Italian Army during World War II.
The 58th Infantry Division Legnano was an Infantry Division of the Royal Italian Army during the Second World War.
The 59th Infantry Division Cagliari was a mountain infantry division of the Italian Army during World War II.
The 5th Alpini Division Pusteria was a light Infantry division of the Italian Army, specializing in Mountain Combat.
The 5th Alpini Regiment (5° Reggimento Alpini) is a light infantry regiment of the Italian Army, specializing in Mountain Combat.
The 5th Infantry Division Cosseria was an Infantry Division of the Italian Army during the Second World War.
The 6th Infantry Division Cuneo was an infantry division of the Italian Army during World War II.
The 7th Infantry Division Lupi di Toscana ("Wolves of Tuscany") was an infantry division of the Italian Army during World War II.
The 8.8 cm Flak 18/36/37/41 is a German 88 mm anti-aircraft and anti-tank artillery gun from World War II.