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ABC-CLIO, LLC is a publishing company for academic reference works and periodicals primarily on topics such as history and social sciences for educational and public library settings.
In algebra, the Abel–Ruffini theorem (also known as Abel's impossibility theorem) states that there is no algebraic solution—that is, solution in radicals—to the general polynomial equations of degree five or higher with arbitrary coefficients.
Abruzzo (Aquiliano: Abbrùzzu) is a region of Southern Italy, with an area of 10,763 square km (4,156 sq mi) and a population of 1.2 million.
The Academy Awards, also known as the Oscars, are a set of 24 awards for artistic and technical merit in the American film industry, given annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), to recognize excellence in cinematic achievements as assessed by the Academy's voting membership.
Accounting or accountancy is the measurement, processing, and communication of financial information about economic entities such as businesses and corporations.
Adelaide del Vasto (Adelasia, Azalaïs) (– 16 April 1118) was countess of Sicily as the third spouse of Roger I of Sicily, and Queen consort of Jerusalem by marriage to Baldwin I of Jerusalem.
Adriano Celentano (born 6 January 1938) is an Italian singer, multi-instrumentalist, composer, producer, comedian, actor, film director and TV host.
The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula.
The Veneti (in Latin, also Heneti) were an Indo-European people who inhabited northeastern Italy, in an area corresponding to the modern-day region of Veneto.
Location of the Aequi (Equi) in central Italy, 5th century BC. The Aequi (Αἴκουοι and Αἴκοι) were an Italic tribe on a stretch of the Apennine Mountains to the east Latium in central of Italy who appear in the early history of ancient Rome.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
The Agenzia Nazionale Stampa Associata (ANSA) is the leading wire service in Italy, and one of the leaders among world news agencies.
Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia or Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the Republic of Albania (Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe.
Albanian (shqip, or gjuha shqipe) is a language of the Indo-European family, in which it occupies an independent branch.
Alberico Gentili (January 14, 1552June 19, 1608) was an Italian lawyer, jurist, and a former standing advocate to the Spanish Embassy in London, who served as the Regius professor of civil law at the University of Oxford for 21 years.
Alberto Sordi (15 June 1920 – 24 February 2003), Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI was an Italian actor.
Albertus Magnus, O.P. (c. 1200 – November 15, 1280), also known as Saint Albert the Great and Albert of Cologne, was a German Catholic Dominican friar and bishop.
The Alemanni (also Alamanni; Suebi "Swabians") were a confederation of Germanic tribes on the Upper Rhine River.
The Aleramici were a medieval Italian noble family of Frankish origin which ruled various northwestern counties and marches, in Piedmont and Liguria from the tenth to the 14th century.
Alessandro Bonci (February 10, 1870 – August 9, 1940) was an Italian lyric tenor known internationally for his association with the bel canto repertoire.
Alessandro "Alex" Del Piero, Ufficiale OMRI (born 9 November 1974) is an Italian former professional footballer who mainly played as a deep-lying forward, although he was capable of playing in several offensive positions.
Alessandro Francesco Tommaso Antonio Manzoni (7 March 1785 – 22 May 1873) was an Italian poet and novelist.
Pietro Alessandro Gaspare Scarlatti (2 May 1660 – 22 October 1725) was an Italian Baroque composer, known especially for his operas and chamber cantatas.
Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta (18 February 1745 – 5 March 1827) was an Italian physicist, chemist, and a pioneer of electricity and power,Giuliano Pancaldi, "Volta: Science and culture in the age of enlightenment", Princeton University Press, 2003.
Alexander Graham Bell (March 3, 1847 – August 2, 1922) was a Scottish-born scientist, inventor, engineer, and innovator who is credited with inventing and patenting the first practical telephone.
Alfonso the Magnanimous KG (also Alphonso; Alfons; 1396 – 27 June 1458) was the King of Aragon (as Alfonso V), Valencia (as Alfonso III), Majorca, Sardinia and Corsica (as Alfonso II), Sicily (as Alfonso I) and Count of Barcelona (as Alfonso IV) from 1416, and King of Naples (as Alfonso I) from 1442 until his death.
Algebraic geometry is a branch of mathematics, classically studying zeros of multivariate polynomials.
The Alps (Alpes; Alpen; Alpi; Alps; Alpe) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe,The Caucasus Mountains are higher, and the Urals longer, but both lie partly in Asia.
Amedeo Carlo Avogadro, Count of Quaregna and Cerreto (9 August 17769 July 1856), was an Italian scientist, most noted for his contribution to molecular theory now known as Avogadro's law, which states that equal volumes of gases under the same conditions of temperature and pressure will contain equal numbers of molecules.
The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
Amerigo Vespucci (March 9, 1454February 22, 1512) was an Italian explorer, financier, navigator and cartographer.
Analysis is the process of breaking a complex topic or substance into smaller parts in order to gain a better understanding of it.
Anarchism is a political philosophy that advocates self-governed societies based on voluntary institutions.
Italian anarchism as a movement began primarily from the influence of Mikhail Bakunin, Giuseppe Fanelli, and Errico Malatesta.
Anarcho-communism (also known as anarchist communism, free communism, libertarian communism and communist anarchism) is a theory of anarchism which advocates the abolition of the state, capitalism, wage labour and private property (while retaining respect for personal property) in favor of common ownership of the means of production, direct democracy and a horizontal network of workers' councils with production and consumption based on the guiding principle: "From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs".
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Andrea Bocelli, (born 22 September 1958) is an Italian singer, songwriter, and record producer.
Andrea Palladio (30 November 1508 – 19 August 1580) was an Italian architect active in the Republic of Venice.
Andrea Pirlo, Ufficiale OMRI (born 19 May 1979) is an Italian former professional footballer.
Angelo Ruffini (Pretare of Arquata del Tronto,1864 – 1929) was an Italian histologist and embryologist.
Echolocation, also called bio sonar, is the biological sonar used by several kinds of animals.
The antiproton,, (pronounced p-bar) is the antiparticle of the proton.
Antonio Caldara (1670 – 28 December 1736) was an Italian Baroque composer.
Antonio Cassese (1 January 1937 – 21 October 2011) was an Italian jurist who specialized in public international law.
Antonio Genovesi (1 November 171322 September 1769) was an Italian writer on philosophy and political economy.
Antonio Francesco Gramsci (22 January 1891 – 27 April 1937) was an Italian Marxist philosopher and politician.
Antonio Santi Giuseppe Meucci (13 April 1808 – 18 October 1889) was an Italian inventor and an associate of Giuseppe Garibaldi (a major political figure in the history of Italy).
Antonio Pacinotti (17 June 1841 – 24 March 1912) was an Italian physicist, who was Professor of Physics at the University of Pisa.
Antonio Sant'Elia (30 April 1888 – 10 October 1916) was an Italian architect and a key member of the Futurist movement in architecture.
Antonio Lucio Vivaldi (4 March 1678 – 28 July 1741) was an Italian Baroque musical composer, virtuoso violinist, teacher and cleric.
The Apuani were one of the most formidable and powerful of the Ligurian tribes who lived in ancient north-western Italy, mentioned repeatedly by Livy.
Apulia (Puglia; Pùglia; Pulia; translit) is a region of Italy in Southern Italy bordering the Adriatic Sea to the east, the Ionian Sea to the southeast, and the Strait of Òtranto and Gulf of Taranto to the south.
An aquila, or eagle, was a prominent symbol used in ancient Rome, especially as the standard of a Roman legion.
The Arab–Byzantine wars were a series of wars between the mostly Arab Muslims and the East Roman or Byzantine Empire between the 7th and 11th centuries AD, started during the initial Muslim conquests under the expansionist Rashidun and Umayyad caliphs in the 7th century and continued by their successors until the mid-11th century.
The Arbëreshë (Arbëreshët e Italisë or Shqiptrarët e Italisë), also known as Albanians of Italy or Italo-Albanians, are an Albanian ethnic and linguistic group in Southern Italy, mostly concentrated in scattered villages in the region of Apulia, Basilicata, Calabria, Molise and Sicily.
Arcangelo Corelli (17 February 1653 – 8 January 1713) was an Italian violinist and composer of the Baroque era.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
Aristotelianism is a tradition of philosophy that takes its defining inspiration from the work of Aristotle.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Arminius (German: Hermann; 18/17 BC – AD 21) was a chieftain of the Germanic Cherusci tribe who famously led an allied coalition of Germanic tribes to a decisive victory against three Roman legions in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest in 9 AD.
Arturo Toscanini (March 25, 1867 – January 16, 1957) was an Italian conductor.
Astatine is a radioactive chemical element with symbol At and atomic number 85.
Atlantic Europe is a geographical and anthropological term for the western portion of Europe which borders the Atlantic Ocean.
Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.
Augustus (plural augusti;;, Latin for "majestic", "the increaser" or "venerable"), was an ancient Roman title given as both name and title to Gaius Octavius (often referred to simply as Augustus), Rome's first Emperor.
The Aurunci were an Italic tribe that lived in southern Italy from around the 1st millennium BC.
"Ausones", the original Greek form for the Latin "Aurunci," was a name applied by Greek writers to describe various Italic peoples inhabiting the southern and central regions of Italy.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
The continent of Australia, sometimes known in technical contexts by the names Sahul, Australinea or Meganesia to distinguish it from the country of Australia, consists of the land masses which sit on Australia's continental shelf.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
An auteur ('author') is an artist, such as a film director, who applies a highly centralized and subjective control to many aspects of a collaborative creative work.
In chemistry and physics, the Avogadro constant (named after scientist Amedeo Avogadro) is the number of constituent particles, usually atoms or molecules, that are contained in the amount of substance given by one mole.
Avogadro's law (sometimes referred to as Avogadro's hypothesis or Avogadro's principle) is an experimental gas law relating the volume of a gas to the amount of substance of gas present.
The Bagienni (or Vegenni or Vagienni) were an ancient Ligurian people of north-western Italy mentioned in Pliny the Elder’s Naturalis Historia.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
A bank is a financial institution that accepts deposits from the public and creates credit.
A barbarian is a human who is perceived to be either uncivilized or primitive.
A barometer is a scientific instrument used in meteorology to measure atmospheric pressure.
The Baroque is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, art and music that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the late 18th century.
Basilicata, also known with its ancient name Lucania, is a region in Southern Italy, bordering on Campania to the west, Apulia (Puglia) to the north and east, and Calabria to the south.
The Battle of Waterloo was fought on Sunday, 18 June 1815, near Waterloo in present-day Belgium, then part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands.
The Bavarian dynasty was those kings of the Lombards who were descended from Garibald I, the Agilolfing duke of Bavaria.
Bavarians (Bavarian: Boarn, Standard German: Bayern) are nation and ethnographic group of Germans of the Bavaria region, a state within Germany.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
Beniamino Segre (16 February 1903 – 2 October 1977) was an Italian mathematician who is remembered today as a major contributor to algebraic geometry and one of the founders of finite geometry.
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician and journalist who was the leader of the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF).
In differential geometry, Bernstein's problem is as follows: if the graph of a function on Rn−1 is a minimal surface in Rn, does this imply that the function is linear? This is true in dimensions n at most 8, but false in dimensions n at least 9.
In mathematics, any of the positive integers that occurs as a coefficient in the binomial theorem is a binomial coefficient.
In elementary algebra, the binomial theorem (or binomial expansion) describes the algebraic expansion of powers of a binomial.
Bohemia (Čechy;; Czechy; Bohême; Bohemia; Boemia) is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic.
The Boii (Latin plural, singular Boius; Βόιοι) were a Gallic tribe of the later Iron Age, attested at various times in Cisalpine Gaul (northern Italy), Pannonia (Hungary and its western neighbours), parts of Bavaria, in and around Bohemia (after whom the region is named in most languages; comprising the bulk of the Czech Republic), and Gallia Narbonensis.
Bologna (Bulåggna; Bononia) is the capital and largest city of the Emilia-Romagna Region in Northern Italy.
Bonaventura Francesco Cavalieri (Cavalerius; 1598 – 30 November 1647) was an Italian mathematician and a Jesuate.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
The Briniates were an ancient Ligurian tribe mentioned by Livy as being subjugated by Rome under consuls Marcus Aemilius Lepidus and Quintus Mucius Scaevola in 175 BCE.
The British Isles are a group of islands off the north-western coast of continental Europe that consist of the islands of Great Britain, Ireland, the Isle of Man and over six thousand smaller isles.
Brittany (Bretagne; Breizh, pronounced or; Gallo: Bertaèyn, pronounced) is a cultural region in the northwest of France, covering the western part of what was known as Armorica during the period of Roman occupation.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
Bruno Conti (born 13 March 1955 in Nettuno, Rome) is an Italian football manager and former player.
Bruno Benedetto Rossi (13 April 1905 – 21 November 1993) was an Italian experimental physicist.
Bruno Leopoldo Francesco Sammartino (October 6, 1935 – April 18, 2018) was an Italian-born American professional wrestler, best known for his work with the World Wide Wrestling Federation (WWWF, now WWE).
The Bruttians (Bréttioi, Bruttii) were an ancient Italic tribe of Lucanian descent.
The Bulbous corpuscle or Ruffini ending or Ruffini corpuscle is a slowly adapting mechanoreceptor located in the cutaneous tissue.
The Bulgars (also Bulghars, Bulgari, Bolgars, Bolghars, Bolgari, Proto-Bulgarians) were Turkic semi-nomadic warrior tribes that flourished in the Pontic-Caspian steppe and the Volga region during the 7th century.
The Burgundians (Burgundiōnes, Burgundī; Burgundar; Burgendas; Βούργουνδοι) were a large East Germanic or Vandal tribe, or group of tribes, who lived in the area of modern Poland in the time of the Roman Empire.
Burgundy (Bourgogne) is a historical territory and a former administrative region of France.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Calabria (Calàbbria in Calabrian; Calavría in Calabrian Greek; Καλαβρία in Greek; Kalavrì in Arbëresh/Albanian), known in antiquity as Bruttium, is a region in Southern Italy.
Caltagirone (Caltaggiruni) is a town and comune in the Metropolitan City of Catania, on the island (and region) of Sicily, southern Italy, about southwest of Catania.
Camillo Paolo Filippo Giulio Benso, Count of Cavour, Isolabella and Leri (10 August 1810 – 6 June 1861), generally known as Cavour, was an Italian statesman and a leading figure in the movement toward Italian unification.
Camillo Golgi (7 July 1843 – 21 January 1926) was an Italian biologist and pathologist known for his works on the central nervous system.
Campania is a region in Southern Italy.
The Campanians (also Campani) were an ancient Italic tribe, part of the Osci nation, speaking an Oscan language.
The Camuni or Camunni were an ancient population located in Val Camonica during the Iron Age (1st millennium BC); the Latin name Camunni was attributed to them by the authors of the 1st century.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Canal Once (Channel Eleven; formerly Once TV México), is a Mexican educational broadcast television network owned by Instituto Politécnico Nacional.
The Canegrate culture was a civilization of Prehistoric Italy who developed from the recent Bronze Age (13th century BC) until the Iron Age,Agnoletto, 1992 in the areas of what are now western Lombardy, eastern Piedmont, and Ticino.
Canon law (from Greek kanon, a 'straight measuring rod, ruler') is a set of ordinances and regulations made by ecclesiastical authority (Church leadership), for the government of a Christian organization or church and its members.
The canton of Ticino, formally the Republic and Canton of Ticino (Repubblica e Cantone Ticino; Canton Tesin; Kanton Tessin; canton du Tessin, chantun dal Tessin) is the southernmost canton of Switzerland.
The Capetian House of Anjou was a royal house and cadet branch of the direct French House of Capet, part of the Capetian dynasty.
Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime.
Capua is a city and comune in the province of Caserta, Campania, southern Italy, situated north of Naples, on the northeastern edge of the Campanian plain.
The Caraceni or Caricini or Carricini (Greek: Καρακηνοὶ or Καρίκινοι) were a tribe of the Italic Samnites.
Carlo Rubbia, (born 31 March 1934) is an Italian particle physicist and inventor who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1984 with Simon van der Meer for work leading to the discovery of the W and Z particles at CERN.
Carlo Scarpa (2 June 1906 – 28 November 1978) was an Italian architect, influenced by the materials, landscape, and the history of Venetian culture, and Japan.
The Carni (Greek Καρνίοι) were a tribe of the Eastern Alps in classical antiquity, settling in the mountains separating Noricum and Venetia (roughly corresponding to the more modern Triveneto).
Carthage (from Carthago; Punic:, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the center or capital city of the ancient Carthaginian civilization, on the eastern side of the Lake of Tunis in what is now the Tunis Governorate in Tunisia.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Caudini were a Samnite tribe that lived among the mountains ringing Campania and in the valleys of the Isclero and Volturnus rivers.
In geometry, Cavalieri's principle, a modern implementation of the method of indivisibles, named after Bonaventura Cavalieri, is as follows.
Celle di San Vito (Cèles de Sant Vuite) is a town and comune in the province of Foggia of the Apulia region in central southeast Italy.
The Celtic languages are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic"; a branch of the greater Indo-European language family.
The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
Cengage is an educational content, technology, and services company for the higher education, K-12, professional, and library markets worldwide.
The Cenomani or Aulerci Cenomani were a Celtic people, a branch of the Aulerci in Gallia Celtica, whose territory corresponded generally to Maine in the modern départment of Sarthe, west of the Carnutes between the Seine and the Loire.
The European Organization for Nuclear Research (Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire), known as CERN (derived from the name Conseil européen pour la recherche nucléaire), is a European research organization that operates the largest particle physics laboratory in the world.
Cesare Bonesana-Beccaria, Marquis of Gualdrasco and Villareggio (15 March 173828 November 1794) was an Italian criminologist, jurist, philosopher, and politician, who is widely considered as the most talented jurist and one of the greatest thinkers of the Age of Enlightenment.
Cesare Terranova (25 August 1921 in Petralia Sottana – 25 September 1979 in Palermo), Centro Studi Giuridici e Sociali "Cesare Terranova" (accessed 28 October 2012) can not be accessed 20 August 2017 was an Italian judge and politician from Sicily notable for his anti-Mafia stance.
Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.
Charles II, also known as Charles the Lame (Charles le Boiteux; Carlo lo Zoppo; 1254 – 5 May 1309), was King of Naples, Count of Provence and Forcalquier (1285–1309), Prince of Achaea (1285–1289), and Count of Anjou and Maine (1285–1290); he also styled himself King of Albania and claimed the Kingdom of Jerusalem from 1285.
Charles VIII, called the Affable, l'Affable (30 June 1470 – 7 April 1498), was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 1483 to his death in 1498.
Chicago Pile-1 (CP-1) was the world's first nuclear reactor.
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
Christian democracy is a political ideology that emerged in nineteenth-century Europe under the influence of Catholic social teaching, as well as Neo-Calvinism.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Christopher Columbus (before 31 October 145120 May 1506) was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer.
Marcus Tullius Cicero (3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC.
The Cinema of Italy comprises the films made within Italy or by Italian directors.
Cisalpine Gaul (Gallia Cisalpina), also called Gallia Citerior or Gallia Togata, was the part of Italy inhabited by Celts (Gauls) during the 4th and 3rd centuries BC.
Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture, including both liturgical (religious) and secular music.
In criminology, the Classical School usually refers to the 18th-century work during the Enlightenment by the utilitarian and social-contract philosophers Jeremy Bentham and Cesare Beccaria.
Claudio Abbado, Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI (26 June 1933 – 20 January 2014) was an Italian conductor.
Claudio Giovanni Antonio Monteverdi (15 May 1567 (baptized) – 29 November 1643) was an Italian composer, string player and choirmaster.
The Colosseum or Coliseum, also known as the Flavian Amphitheatre (Latin: Amphitheatrum Flavium; Italian: Anfiteatro Flavio or Colosseo), is an oval amphitheatre in the centre of the city of Rome, Italy.
Coluccio Salutati (16 February 1331 – 4 May 1406) was an Italian humanist and man of letters, and one of the most important political and cultural leaders of Renaissance Florence; as chancellor of the Republic and its most prominent voice, he was effectively the permanent secretary of state in the generation before the rise of the Medici.
Commedia all'italiana (i.e. "Comedy in the Italian way") or Italian-style comedy is an Italian film genre.
The commedia sexy all'italiana (lit. "sex comedy Italian style"), also known as commedia scollacciata or commedia erotica all'italiana, is a subgenre of Italian commedia all'italiana film genre.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
Como (Lombard: Còmm, Cómm or Cùmm; Novum Comum) is a city and comune in Lombardy, Italy.
The Congress of Vienna (Wiener Kongress) also called Vienna Congress, was a meeting of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich, and held in Vienna from November 1814 to June 1815, though the delegates had arrived and were already negotiating by late September 1814.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
The Italian Constituent Assembly (Italian: Assemblea Costituente della Repubblica Italiana) was a parliamentary chamber which existed in Italy from 25 June 1946 until 31 January 1948.
The Corsi were an ancient people of Sardinia and Corsica, to which they gave the name.
Corsica (Corse; Corsica in Corsican and Italian, pronounced and respectively) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of the 18 regions of France.
Corsican (corsu or lingua corsa) is a Romance language within the Italo-Dalmatian subfamily.
The Counter-Reformation, also called the Catholic Reformation or the Catholic Revival, was the period of Catholic resurgence initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation, beginning with the Council of Trent (1545–1563) and ending at the close of the Thirty Years' War (1648).
The County of Nice (Comté de Nice / Pays Niçois, Contea di Nizza/Paese Nizzardo, Niçard Countèa de Nissa/Paìs Nissart) is a historical region of France, located in the south-eastern part, around the city of Nice, and roughly equivalent to the modern department of Alpes-Maritimes.
The County of Sicily, also known as County of Sicily and Calabria, was a Norman state comprising the islands of Sicily and Malta and part of Calabria from 1071 until 1130.
Cremona is a city and comune in northern Italy, situated in Lombardy, on the left bank of the Po River in the middle of the Pianura Padana (Po Valley).
Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.
In Marxist philosophy, cultural hegemony is the domination of a culturally diverse society by the ruling class who manipulate the culture of that society—the beliefs, explanations, perceptions, values, and mores—so that their imposed, ruling-class worldview becomes the accepted cultural norm; the universally valid dominant ideology, which justifies the social, political, and economic status quo as natural and inevitable, perpetual and beneficial for everyone, rather than as artificial social constructs that benefit only the ruling class.
Cultural heritage is the legacy of physical artifacts and intangible attributes of a group or society that are inherited from past generations, maintained in the present and preserved for the benefit of future generations.
Italy is considered the birthplace of Western civilization and a cultural superpower.
Dalmatia (Dalmacija; see names in other languages) is one of the four historical regions of Croatia, alongside Croatia proper, Slavonia and Istria.
Durante degli Alighieri, commonly known as Dante Alighieri or simply Dante (c. 1265 – 1321), was a major Italian poet of the Late Middle Ages.
Dario Fo (24 March 1926 – 13 October 2016) was an Italian actor–playwright, comedian, singer, theatre director, stage designer, songwriter, painter, political campaigner for the Italian left-wing and the recipient of the 1997 Nobel Prize in Literature.
The Daunians (Daúnioi; Daunii) were an Iapygian tribe which inhabited northern Apulia in classical antiquity.
Demic diffusion, as opposed to trans-cultural diffusion, is a demographic term referring to a migratory model, developed by Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza, of population diffusion into and across an area that had been previously uninhabited by that group, possibly, but not necessarily, displacing, replacing, or intermixing with a pre-existing population (such as has been suggested for the spread of agriculture across Neolithic Europe and several other ''Landnahme'' events).
The demographic characteristics of the population of Croatia are known through censuses, normally conducted in ten-year intervals and analysed by various statistical bureaus since the 1850s.
This article is about the demographic features of the population of Italy, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.
The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.
A diaspora (/daɪˈæspərə/) is a scattered population whose origin lies in a separate geographic locale.
Dino Zoff (born 28 February 1942) is an Italian former professional football goalkeeper and is the oldest ever winner of the World Cup, which he earned as captain of the Italian national team in the 1982 tournament in Spain, at the age of 40 years, 4 months and 13 days, also winning the award for best goalkeeper of the tournament, and being elected to the team of the tournament, for his performances, keeping two clean-sheets, an honour he also received after winning the 1968 European Championship on home soil; he is the only Italian player to have won both the World Cup and the European Championship.
Dionysius of Halicarnassus (Διονύσιος Ἀλεξάνδρου Ἁλικαρνασσεύς, Dionysios Alexandrou Halikarnasseus, "Dionysios son of Alexandros of Halikarnassos"; c. 60 BCafter 7 BC) was a Greek historian and teacher of rhetoric, who flourished during the reign of Caesar Augustus.
Disco is a musical style that emerged in the mid 1960s and early 1970s from America's urban nightlife scene, where it originated in house parties and makeshift discothèques, reaching its peak popularity between the mid-1970s and early 1980s.
A diva is a celebrated female singer; a woman of outstanding talent in the world of opera, and by extension in theatre, cinema and popular music.
Domenico Cimarosa (17 December 1749, Aversa, Kingdom of Naples, now Province of Caserta – 11 January 1801, Venice) was an Italian opera composer of the Neapolitan school.
The Order of Preachers (Ordo Praedicatorum, postnominal abbreviation OP), also known as the Dominican Order, is a mendicant Catholic religious order founded by the Spanish priest Dominic of Caleruega in France, approved by Pope Honorius III via the Papal bull Religiosam vitam on 22 December 1216.
Double-entry bookkeeping, in accounting, is a system of bookkeeping so named because every entry to an account requires a corresponding and opposite entry to a different account.
A drum machine is an electronic musical instrument that creates percussion.
The term Eastern world refers very broadly to the various cultures or social structures and philosophical systems, depending on the context, most often including at least part of Asia or geographically the countries and cultures east of Europe, specifically in historical (pre-modern) contexts, and in modern times in the context of Orientalism.
An electric battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells with external connections provided to power electrical devices such as flashlights, smartphones, and electric cars.
Electronic dance music (also known as EDM, dance music, club music, or simply dance) is a broad range of percussive electronic music genres made largely for nightclubs, raves, and festivals.
Electronic music is music that employs electronic musical instruments, digital instruments and circuitry-based music technology.
Elena Lucrezia Cornaro Piscopia, also Helen Cornaro (5 June 1646 – 26 July 1684), was a Venetian philosopher of noble descent, who was one of the first women to receive an academic degree from a university and in 1678 she became the first woman in the world to receive a Ph.D. degree.
Second order linear partial differential equations (PDEs) are classified as either elliptic, hyperbolic, or parabolic.
The Elymians (Greek: Ἔλυμοι; Latin: Elymi) were an ancient people who inhabited the western part of Sicily during the Bronze Age and Classical antiquity.
Embryology (from Greek ἔμβρυον, embryon, "the unborn, embryo"; and -λογία, -logia) is the branch of biology that studies the prenatal development of gametes (sex cells), fertilization, and development of embryos and fetuses.
Emilia-Romagna (Emilian and Emélia-Rumâgna) is an administrative Region of Northeast Italy comprising the historical regions of Emilia and Romagna.
Emilio Gentile (born 1946 in Bojano) is an Italian historian specializing in the ideology and culture of fascism.
Emilio Gino Segrè (1 February 1905 – 22 April 1989) was an Italian-American physicist and Nobel laureate, who discovered the elements technetium and astatine, and the antiproton, a subatomic antiparticle, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1959.
The Emirate of Sicily (إِمَارَةُ صِقِلِّيَة) was an emirate on the island of Sicily which existed from 831 to 1091.
Ennio De Giorgi (8 February 1928 – 25 October 1996) was an Italian mathematician, member of the House of Giorgi, who worked on partial differential equations and the foundations of mathematics.
Enrico Caruso (25 February 1873 – 2 August 1921) was an Italian operatic tenor.
Enrico De Nicola, (9 November 1877 – 1 October 1959) was an Italian jurist, journalist, politician, and provisional Head of State of republican Italy from 1946 to 1948.
Enrico Fermi (29 September 1901 – 28 November 1954) was an Italian-American physicist and the creator of the world's first nuclear reactor, the Chicago Pile-1.
Ernesto Basile (31 January 1857, in Palermo – 26 August 1932, in Palermo) was an Italian architect and an exponent of modernism and Art Nouveau.
Eros Walter Luciano Ramazzotti (born 28 October 1963) is an Italian musician and singer-songwriter.
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
The Indigenous peoples of Europe are the focus of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various indigenous groups that reside in the nations of Europe.
Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world.
Etruria (usually referred to in Greek and Latin source texts as Tyrrhenia Τυρρηνία) was a region of Central Italy, located in an area that covered part of what are now Tuscany, Lazio, and Umbria.
The Etruscan civilization is the modern name given to a powerful and wealthy civilization of ancient Italy in the area corresponding roughly to Tuscany, western Umbria and northern Lazio.
There are two main hypotheses as to the origins of the Etruscan civilization in the Early Iron Age: autochthonous development in situ out of the Villanovan culture, or colonization of Italy from the Near East.
Ettore Majorana (born on 5 August 1906 – probably died after 1959) was an Italian theoretical physicist who worked on neutrino masses.
The Euganei (fr. Lat. Euganei, Euganeorum; cf. Gr. εὐγενής (eugenēs) 'well-born') were a semi-mythical Proto-Italic ethnic group that dwelt an area among Adriatic Sea and Rhaetian Alps.
Eugenio Montale (12 October 1896 – 12 September 1981) was an Italian poet, prose writer, editor and translator, and recipient of the 1975 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Euro disco (or Eurodisco) is the variety of European forms of electronic dance music that evolved from disco in the later 1970s; incorporating elements of pop, new wave and rock into a disco-like continuous dance atmosphere.
Euro War, also known as Macaroni Combat, Macaroni War, Spaghetti Combat, or Spaghetti War, is a broad subgenre of war film that emerged in the mid-1960s, so named because most were produced and directed by European co-productions, and most notably by Italians.
Eurodance (sometimes known as Euro-NRG or Euro) is a genre of electronic dance music that originated in the late 1980s in Europe.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The Eurovision Song Contest (Concours Eurovision de la chanson), often simply called Eurovision, is an international song competition held primarily among the member countries of the European Broadcasting Union.
Evangelista Torricelli; 15 October 1608 – 25 October 1647) was an Italian physicist and mathematician, best known for his invention of the barometer, but is also known for his advances in optics and work on the method of indivisibles.
Existentialism is a tradition of philosophical inquiry associated mainly with certain 19th and 20th-century European philosophers who, despite profound doctrinal differences,Oxford Companion to Philosophy, ed.
Experimental music is a general label for any music that pushes existing boundaries and genre definitions.
Fabio Cannavaro, Ufficiale OMRI (born 13 September 1973) is an Italian former professional footballer who is the manager of Chinese club Guangzhou Evergrande.
Faeto (Fayéte) is a town and comune in the province of Foggia in the Apulia region of southeast Italy.
Falisci (Φαλίσκοι) is the ancient Roman exonym for an Italic people who lived in what is now northern Lazio, on the Etruscan side of the Tiber River.
The Fall of the Western Roman Empire (also called Fall of the Roman Empire or Fall of Rome) was the process of decline in the Western Roman Empire in which it failed to enforce its rule, and its vast territory was divided into several successor polities.
Family values, sometimes referred to as familial values, are traditional or cultural values that pertain to the family's structure, function, roles, beliefs, attitudes, and ideals.
Fascism is a form of radical authoritarian ultranationalism, characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition and control of industry and commerce, which came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe.
A fashion capital is a city which has a major influence on international fashion trends and in which the design, production and retailing of fashion products – plus events such as fashion weeks, awards and trade fairs – generate significant economic output.
Federica Pellegrini (born 5 August 1988) is an Italian swimmer.
Federico Fellini, Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI (20 January 1920 – 31 October 1993) was an Italian film director and screenwriter.
Federigo Tozzi (born January 1, 1883 in Siena; died March 21, 1920 in Rome) was an Italian writer.
Fermo (ancient: Firmum Picenum) is a town and comune of the Marche, Italy, in the Province of Fermo.
The Festival dei Due Mondi (Festival of the Two Worlds) is an annual summer music and opera festival held each June to early July in Spoleto, Italy, since its founding by composer Gian Carlo Menotti in 1958.
Fibonacci (c. 1175 – c. 1250) was an Italian mathematician from the Republic of Pisa, considered to be "the most talented Western mathematician of the Middle Ages".
In mathematics, the Fibonacci numbers are the numbers in the following integer sequence, called the Fibonacci sequence, and characterized by the fact that every number after the first two is the sum of the two preceding ones: Often, especially in modern usage, the sequence is extended by one more initial term: By definition, the first two numbers in the Fibonacci sequence are either 1 and 1, or 0 and 1, depending on the chosen starting point of the sequence, and each subsequent number is the sum of the previous two.
Fidenae was an ancient town of Latium, situated about 8 km north of Rome on the Via Salaria, which ran between Rome and the Tiber.
The FIFA World Cup, often simply called the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the sport's global governing body.
Filippo Brunelleschi (1377 – April 15, 1446) was an Italian designer and a key figure in architecture, recognised to be the first modern engineer, planner and sole construction supervisor.
Filippo Pacini (25 May 1812 – 9 July 1883) was an Italian anatomist, posthumously famous for isolating the cholera bacterium Vibrio cholerae in 1854, well before Robert Koch's more widely accepted discoveries 30 years later.
A finite geometry is any geometric system that has only a finite number of points.
The First Punic War (264 to 241 BC) was the first of three wars fought between Ancient Carthage and the Roman Republic, the two great powers of the Western Mediterranean.
The flag of Italy (Bandiera d'Italia), often referred to in Italian as il Tricolore; is a tricolour featuring three equally-sized vertical pales of green, white and red, with the green at the hoist side.
The Flavian dynasty was a Roman imperial dynasty, which ruled the Roman Empire between 69 AD and 96 AD, encompassing the reigns of Vespasian (69–79), and his two sons Titus (79–81) and Domitian (81–96).
Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.
Florence Cathedral, formally the Cattedrale di Santa Maria del Fiore (in English "Cathedral of Saint Mary of the Flower") is the cathedral of Florence, Italy, or Il Duomo di Firenze, in Italian.
Football (calcio in Italian) is the most popular sport in Italy.
Forlì (Furlè; Forum Livii) is a comune and city in Emilia-Romagna, northern Italy, and is the capital of the province of Forlì-Cesena.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
The France national rugby union team competes annually against England, Ireland, Italy, Scotland and Wales in the Six Nations Championship.
Francesca Caccini (18 September 1587 – after 1641) was an Italian composer, singer, lutenist, poet, and music teacher of the early Baroque era.
Francesco Carrara (September 18, 1805 - January 15, 1888) was an Italian jurist and liberal politician who was one of the leading criminal law European scholars and death penalty abolition lawyers of the 19th century.
Francesco Mario Pagano (8 December 1748 – 29 October 1799) was an Italian jurist, author, thinker, and the founder of the Neapolitan school of law.
Francesco Redi (18 February 1626 – 1 March 1697) was an Italian physician, naturalist, biologist and poet.
Francesco Totti, Ufficiale OMRI (born 27 September 1976) is an Italian former professional footballer who played for Roma and the Italy national team.
The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic Church, founded in 1209 by Saint Francis of Assisi.
The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire.
Frederick II (26 December 1194 – 13 December 1250; Fidiricu, Federico, Friedrich) was King of Sicily from 1198, King of Germany from 1212, King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor from 1220 and King of Jerusalem from 1225.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
The French (Français) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation who are identified with the country of France.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
The Frentani were an Italic tribe occupying the tract on the east coast of the peninsula from the Apennines to the Adriatic, and from the frontiers of Apulia to those of the Marrucini.
The Friniates were an ancient Ligurian tribe on the north of the Apennines, near the sources of the Scultenna (modern Panaro) river, which had been reduced to subjection by C. Flaminius in 187 BCE.
Friuli is an area of Northeast Italy with its own particular cultural and historical identity.
Friuli-Venezia Giulia (Friûl-Vignesie Julie; Furlanija-Julijska krajina, Friaul-Julisch Venetien; Friul-Venesia Julia; Friul-Unieja Julia) is one of the 20 regions of Italy, and one of five autonomous regions with special statute.
Futurism (Futurismo) was an artistic and social movement that originated in Italy in the early 20th century.
General Gabriele D'Annunzio, Prince of Montenevoso, Duke of Gallese (12 March 1863 – 1 March 1938), sometimes spelled d'Annunzio, was an Italian writer, poet, journalist, playwright and soldier during World War I. He occupied a prominent place in Italian literature from 1889 to 1910 and later political life from 1914 to 1924.
Gae Aulenti (4 December 1927 – 31 October 2012) was a prolific Italian architect, whose work spans industrial and exhibition design, furniture, graphics, stage design, lighting and interior design.
The Gaesatae (Greek Γαισάται) were a group of Gaulish warriors who lived in the Alps near the river Rhône and fought against the Roman Republic in the Battle of Telamon of 225 BC.
Domenico Gaetano Maria Donizetti (29 November 1797 – 8 April 1848) was an Italian composer.
Gaius Cassius Longinus (October 3, before 85 BC – October 3, 42 BC) was a Roman senator, a leading instigator of the plot to kill Julius Caesar, and the brother in-law of Marcus Junius Brutus.
Gaius Lucilius (c. 180 – 103/2 BC), the earliest Roman satirist, of whose writings only fragments remain, was a Roman citizen of the equestrian class, born at Suessa Aurunca in Campania.
Gaius MariusC·MARIVS·C·F·C·N is how Marius was termed in official state inscriptions in Latin: "Gaius Marius, son of Gaius, grandson of Gaius" (157 BC – January 13, 86 BC) was a Roman general and statesman.
Galileo Ferraris (31 October 1847 – 7 February 1897) was an Italian physicist and electrical engineer, one of the pioneers of AC power system and an inventor of the three-phase induction motor.
Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564Drake (1978, p. 1). The date of Galileo's birth is given according to the Julian calendar, which was then in force throughout Christendom. In 1582 it was replaced in Italy and several other Catholic countries with the Gregorian calendar. Unless otherwise indicated, dates in this article are given according to the Gregorian calendar. – 8 January 1642) was an Italian polymath.
Gallo-Italic of Sicily (Gallo-italico di Sicilia) is a group of Gallo-Italic languages found in about 15 isolated communities of central eastern Sicily.
The Garuli were an ancient Ligurian tribe mentioned by Livy as being subjugated by Rome under consuls Marcus Aemilius Lepidus and Quintus Mucius Scaevola in 175 BCE.
The Gaudo Culture is a neolithic culture from Southern Italy, primarily in the region of Campania, active at the beginning of the 3rd millennium BC, whose typesite necropolis is located near Paestum, not far from the mouth of the river Sele.
Gaulish was an ancient Celtic language that was spoken in parts of Europe as late as the Roman Empire.
The Gauls were Celtic people inhabiting Gaul in the Iron Age and the Roman period (roughly from the 5th century BC to the 5th century AD).
Genoa (Genova,; Zêna; English, historically, and Genua) is the capital of the Italian region of Liguria and the sixth-largest city in Italy.
In astronomy, the geocentric model (also known as geocentrism, or the Ptolemaic system) is a superseded description of the universe with Earth at the center.
George Maniakes (transliterated as Georgios Maniaces, Maniakis, or Maniaches,; died 1043) was a prominent Eastern Roman general during the 11th century, he was the catepan of Italy in 1042.
Germanicus (Latin: Germanicus Julius Caesar; 24 May 15 BC – 10 October AD 19) was a member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty and a prominent general of the Roman Empire, who was known for his campaigns in Germania.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Gerolamo (or Girolamo, or Geronimo) Cardano (Jérôme Cardan; Hieronymus Cardanus; 24 September 1501 – 21 September 1576) was an Italian polymath, whose interests and proficiencies ranged from being a mathematician, physician, biologist, physicist, chemist, astrologer, astronomer, philosopher, writer, and gambler.
Giacinto Facchetti (18 July 1942 – 4 September 2006) was an Italian footballer who played as a defender.
Giacomo Agostini (born 16 June 1942) is an Italian multi-time world champion Grand Prix motorcycle road racer.
Giacomo Bulgarelli (24 October 1940 – 12 February 2009) was an Italian international footballer who played as a midfielder.
Giacomo Taldegardo Francesco di Sales Saverio Pietro Leopardi (29 June 1798 – 14 June 1837) was an Italian philosopher, poet, essayist, and philologist.
Giacomo Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria Puccini (22 December 1858 29 November 1924) was an Italian opera composer who has been called "the greatest composer of Italian opera after Verdi".
Giallo (plural gialli) is a 20th-century Italian thriller or horror genre of literature and film.
Giambattista Vico (B. Giovan Battista Vico, 23 June 1668 – 23 January 1744) was an Italian political philosopher and rhetorician, historian and jurist, of the Age of Enlightenment.
Giampiero Boniperti (born 4 July 1928 in Barengo, Piedmont) is an Italian former football player who played his entire 15 season career at Juventus between 1946 and 1961, winning five Serie A titles and two Coppa Italia titles.
Giovanni Francesco Giuseppe Malfatti, also known as Gian Francesco or Gianfrancesco (26 September 1731 – 9 October 1807) was an Italian mathematician.
Gian Lorenzo Bernini (also Gianlorenzo or Giovanni Lorenzo; 7 December 1598 – 28 November 1680) was an Italian sculptor and architect.
Giancarlo De Carlo (12 December 1919 − 4 June 2005) was an Italian architect.
Gianluigi "Gigi" Buffon, Ufficiale OMRI (born 28 January 1978) is an Italian professional footballer who last played as a goalkeeper for Juventus.
Giovanni "Gianni" Rivera (born 18 August 1943, in Alessandria) is an Italian politician and former footballer who played as a midfielder.
Giovanni "Gio" Ponti (18 November 1891 – 16 September 1979) was an Italian architect, industrial designer, furniture designer, artist, and publisher.
Gioachino Antonio Rossini (29 February 1792 – 13 November 1868) was an Italian composer who wrote 39 operas as well as some sacred music, songs, chamber music, and piano pieces.
Giovanni Giorgio Moroder (born 26 April 1940) is an Italian singer, songwriter, DJ and record producer.
Giosuè Alessandro Giuseppe Carducci (27 July 1835 – 16 February 1907) was an Italian poet and teacher.
Giotto di Bondone (1267 – January 8, 1337), known mononymously as Giotto and Latinised as Giottus, was an Italian painter and architect from Florence during the Late Middle Ages.
Giovanni Battista (also Giambattista or Piranesi) (4 October 1720 – 9 November 1778) was an Italian artist famous for his etchings of Rome and of fictitious and atmospheric "prisons" (Le Carceri d'Invenzione).
Giovanni Boccaccio (16 June 1313 – 21 December 1375) was an Italian writer, poet, correspondent of Petrarch, and an important Renaissance humanist.
Giovanni Domenico Cassini (8 June 1625 – 14 September 1712) was an Italian (naturalised French) mathematician, astronomer and engineer.
Giovanni Falcone (18 May 1939 – 23 May 1992) was an Italian judge and prosecuting magistrate.
Giovanni Gentile (30 May 1875 – 15 April 1944) was an Italian neo-Hegelian idealist philosopher, educator, and fascist politician.
Giovanni Placido Agostino Pascoli (31 December 1855 – 6 April 1912) was an Italian poet and classical scholar.
Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (1525 – 2 February 1594) was an Italian Renaissance composer of sacred music and the best-known 16th-century representative of the Roman School of musical composition.
Giovanni Virginio Schiaparelli FRS(For) HFRSE (14 March 1835 Savigliano – 4 July 1910 Milan) was an Italian astronomer and science historian.
The Giro d'Italia (Tour of Italy; also known as the Giro) is an annual multiple-stage bicycle race primarily held in Italy, while also occasionally passing through nearby countries.
The giudicati (Italian; judicati in Latin; judicadus, logus or rennus in Sardinian), in English referred to as Sardinian Judgedoms or Judicatures, were independent states that took power in Sardinia in the Middle Ages, between the ninth and fifteenth centuries.
Giulio Natta (26 February 1903 – 2 May 1979) was an Italian chemist and Nobel laureate.
Giulio Romano, also known as Giulio Pippi, (c. 1499 – 1 November 1546) was an Italian painter and architect.
Giuseppe Garibaldi; 4 July 1807 – 2 June 1882) was an Italian general, politician and nationalist. He is considered one of the greatest generals of modern times and one of Italy's "fathers of the fatherland" along with Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, Victor Emmanuel II of Italy and Giuseppe Mazzini. Garibaldi has been called the "Hero of the Two Worlds" because of his military enterprises in Brazil, Uruguay and Europe. He personally commanded and fought in many military campaigns that led eventually to the Italian unification. Garibaldi was appointed general by the provisional government of Milan in 1848, General of the Roman Republic in 1849 by the Minister of War, and led the Expedition of the Thousand on behalf and with the consent of Victor Emmanuel II. His last military campaign took place during the Franco-Prussian War as commander of the Army of the Vosges. Garibaldi was very popular in Italy and abroad, aided by exceptional international media coverage at the time. Many of the greatest intellectuals of his time, such as Victor Hugo, Alexandre Dumas, and George Sand, showered him with admiration. The United Kingdom and the United States helped him a great deal, offering him financial and military support in difficult circumstances. In the popular telling of his story, he is associated with the red shirts worn by his volunteers, the Garibaldini, in lieu of a uniform.
Giuseppe Jappelli (14 May 1783 – 8 May 1852) was an Italian neoclassic architect and engineer who was born and died in Venice.
Giuseppe Mazzini (22 June 1805 – 10 March 1872) was an Italian politician, journalist, activist for the unification of Italy and spearhead of the Italian revolutionary movement.
Giuseppe "Peppino" Meazza (23 August 1910 – 21 August 1979), also known as il Balilla, was an Italian football manager and player.
Giuseppe Paolo Stanislao "Beppo" Occhialini ForMemRS (5 December 1907 – 30 December 1993) was an Italian physicist, who contributed to the discovery of the pion or pi-meson decay in 1947, with César Lattes and Cecil Frank Powell (Nobel Prize for Physics).
Giuseppe Peano (27 August 1858 – 20 April 1932) was an Italian mathematician and glottologist.
Giuseppe Tartini (8 April 1692 – 26 February 1770) was an Italian Baroque composer and violinist.
Giuseppe Ungaretti (8 February 1888 – 2 June 1970) was an Italian modernist poet, journalist, essayist, critic, academic, and recipient of the inaugural 1970 Neustadt International Prize for Literature.
Giuseppe Fortunino Francesco Verdi (9 or 10 October 1813 – 27 January 1901) was an Italian opera composer.
Goblin (also Back to the Goblin, New Goblin, Goblin Rebirth, the Goblin Keys, The Goblins and Claudio Simonetti's Goblin) is an Italian progressive rock band known for their soundtrack work.
The Golgi apparatus, also known as the Golgi complex, Golgi body, or simply the Golgi, is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells.
The Gothic War between the Byzantine Empire during the reign of Emperor Justinian I and the Ostrogothic Kingdom of Italy took place from 535 until 554 in the Italian peninsula, Dalmatia, Sardinia, Sicily and Corsica.
The Graioceli were a Gaulish tribe whose lands lay in the upper valley of Maurienne (France) and in the vicinity of Alpis Graia (modern Little St Bernard Pass), as well as in adjoining sections of northwestern Piedmont (Italy) in the Graian Alps.
A Grammy Award (stylized as GRAMMY, originally called Gramophone Award), or Grammy, is an award presented by The Recording Academy to recognize achievement in the music industry.
In road bicycle racing, a Grand Tour is one of the three major European professional cycling stage races: Tour de France, Giro d'Italia and Vuelta a España.
Grazia Maria Cosima Damiana Deledda (28 September 1871 – 15 August 1936) was an Italian writer who received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1926 "for her idealistically inspired writings which with plastic clarity picture the life on her native island and with depth and sympathy deal with human problems in general".
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
Gregorio Ricci-Curbastro (12January 1925) was an Italian mathematician born in Lugo di Romagna.
The Guelphs and Ghibellines (guelfi e ghibellini) were factions supporting the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor, respectively, in the Italian city-states of central and northern Italy.
Guglielmo Marconi, 1st Marquis of Marconi (25 April 187420 July 1937) was an Italian inventor and electrical engineer known for his pioneering work on long-distance radio transmission and for his development of Marconi's law and a radio telegraph system.
The Hallstatt culture was the predominant Western and Central European culture of Early Iron Age Europe from the 8th to 6th centuries BC, developing out of the Urnfield culture of the 12th century BC (Late Bronze Age) and followed in much of its area by the La Tène culture.
Hannibal Barca (𐤇𐤍𐤁𐤏𐤋 𐤁𐤓𐤒 ḥnb‘l brq; 247 – between 183 and 181 BC) was a Carthaginian general, considered one of the greatest military commanders in history.
Hellenization or Hellenisation is the historical spread of ancient Greek culture, religion and, to a lesser extent, language, over foreign peoples conquered by Greeks or brought into their sphere of influence, particularly during the Hellenistic period following the campaigns of Alexander the Great in the fourth century BC.
The Hercates were an ancient Ligurian tribe mentioned by Livy as being subjugated by Rome in 175 BCE.
The Hernici were an Italic tribe of ancient Italy, whose territory was in Latium between the Fucine Lake and the Sacco River (Trerus), bounded by the Volsci on the south, and by the Aequi and the Marsi on the north.
The Herules (or Heruli) were an East Germanic tribe who lived north of the Black Sea apparently near the Sea of Azov, in the third century AD, and later moved (either wholly or partly) to the Roman frontier on the central European Danube, at the same time as many eastern barbarians during late antiquity, such as the Goths, Huns, Scirii, Rugii and Alans.
Hilbert's nineteenth problem is one of the 23 Hilbert problems, set out in a list compiled in 1900 by David Hilbert.
The Hindu–Arabic numeral systemDavid Eugene Smith and Louis Charles Karpinski,, 1911 (also called the Arabic numeral system or Hindu numeral system) is a positional decimal numeral system that is the most common system for the symbolic representation of numbers in the world.
The Hirpini (Latin: Hirpini; Greek: Ἱρπινοί) were an ancient Samnite tribe of Southern Italy.
Hispania was the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula.
Histology, also microanatomy, is the study of the anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals using microscopy.
In archaic times, ancient Greeks, Etruscans and Celts established settlements in the south, the centre and the north of Italy respectively, while various Italian tribes and Italic peoples inhabited the Italian peninsula and insular Italy.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
Quintus Horatius Flaccus (December 8, 65 BC – November 27, 8 BC), known in the English-speaking world as Horace, was the leading Roman lyric poet during the time of Augustus (also known as Octavian).
The House of Habsburg (traditionally spelled Hapsburg in English), also called House of Austria was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe.
The House of Savoy (Casa Savoia) is a royal family that was established in 1003 in the historical Savoy region. Through gradual expansion, the family grew in power from ruling a small county in the Alps of northern Italy to absolute rule of the kingdom of Sicily in 1713 to 1720 (exchanged for Sardinia). Through its junior branch, the House of Savoy-Carignano, it led the unification of Italy in 1861 and ruled the Kingdom of Italy from 1861 until 1946 and, briefly, the Kingdom of Spain in the 19th century. The Savoyard kings of Italy were Victor Emmanuel II, Umberto I, Victor Emmanuel III, and Umberto II. The last monarch ruled for a few weeks before being deposed following the Constitutional Referendum of 1946, after which the Italian Republic was proclaimed.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism and empiricism) over acceptance of dogma or superstition.
The Iapygians (Ἰάπυγες, Ĭāpyges; Iapyges, Iapygii) were an Indo-European people who inhabited Apulia in classical antiquity.
The Ilvates were a Ligurian tribe, whose name is found only in the writings of Livy.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
An induction motor or asynchronous motor is an AC electric motor in which the electric current in the rotor needed to produce torque is obtained by electromagnetic induction from the magnetic field of the stator winding.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
Inigo Jones (15 July 1573 – 21 June 1652) was the first significant English architect (of Welsh ancestry) in the early modern period, and the first to employ Vitruvian rules of proportion and symmetry in his buildings.
The Insubres or Insubri were a Gaulish population settled in Insubria, in what is now the Italian region of Lombardy.
In mathematics, an integral assigns numbers to functions in a way that can describe displacement, area, volume, and other concepts that arise by combining infinitesimal data.
The International Workingmen's Association (IWA, 1864–1876), often called the First International, was an international organization which aimed at uniting a variety of different left-wing socialist, communist and anarchist political groups and trade union organizations that were based on the working class and class struggle.
The Ireland national rugby union team represents the island of Ireland in rugby union.
Istria (Croatian, Slovene: Istra; Istriot: Eîstria; Istria; Istrien), formerly Histria (Latin), is the largest peninsula in the Adriatic Sea.
The term Istrian-Dalmatian exodus refers to the post-World War II expulsion and departure of ethnic Italians from the Yugoslav territory of Istria, as well as the cities of Zadar and Rijeka.
The Italian diaspora is the large-scale emigration of Italians from Italy.
The Italian Empire (Impero Italiano) comprised the colonies, protectorates, concessions, dependencies and trust territories of the Kingdom of Italy and, after 1946, the Italian Republic.
Italian Fascism (fascismo italiano), also known simply as Fascism, is the original fascist ideology as developed in Italy.
Italian folk music has a deep and complex history.
The Italian Grisons or Italian Grigioni (Grigionitaliano or Grigioni italiano; Italienischbünden; Grischun talian) is the region of the Canton of Grisons, Switzerland where Italian and Lombard are spoken.
Italian irredentism in Malta is related to the Maltese people who supported Italian irredentism in Malta and believe the Maltese islands are part of Italy.
Italian irredentism in Nice was the political movement supporting the annexation of the County of Nice to the Kingdom of Italy.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Italian neorealism (Neorealismo), also known as the Golden Age, is a national film movement characterized by stories set amongst the poor and the working class, filmed on location, frequently using non-professional actors.
Italian opera is both the art of opera in Italy and opera in the Italian language.
The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Penisola italiana, Penisola appenninica) extends from the Po Valley in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south.
The Italian Racial Laws (Leggi razziali) were a set of laws promulgated by Fascist Italy from 1938 to 1943 to enforce racial discrimination in Italy, directed mainly against the Italian Jews and the native inhabitants of the colonies.
Italian unification (Unità d'Italia), or the Risorgimento (meaning "the Resurgence" or "revival"), was the political and social movement that consolidated different states of the Italian peninsula into the single state of the Kingdom of Italy in the 19th century.
The Italian Male Volleyball League is structured in several levels of importance; the highest of them is SuperLega (former Serie A1).
The Italian Wars, often referred to as the Great Italian Wars or the Great Wars of Italy and sometimes as the Habsburg–Valois Wars or the Renaissance Wars, were a series of conflicts from 1494 to 1559 that involved, at various times, most of the city-states of Italy, the Papal States, the Republic of Venice, most of the major states of Western Europe (France, Spain, the Holy Roman Empire, England, and Scotland) as well as the Ottoman Empire.
The Italianate style of architecture was a distinct 19th-century phase in the history of Classical architecture.
The Italians (Italiani) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation native to the Italian peninsula.
Italian migration into what is today France has been going on, in different migrating cycles, for centuries, beginning in prehistoric times right to the modern age.
There are up to 10,000 Italians in the United Arab Emirates, approximately two-thirds of whom are in Dubai, and the rest in Abu Dhabi.
The Italic languages are a subfamily of the Indo-European language family, originally spoken by Italic peoples.
The Italic peoples are an Indo-European ethnolinguistic group identified by speaking Italic languages.
Italica (Itálica; north of modern-day Santiponce, 9 km NW of Seville, Spain) was an elaborate Roman city in the province of Hispania Baetica and the birthplace of Roman Emperors Trajan and Hadrian.
Italo Calvino (. RAI (circa 1970), retrieved 25 October 2012. 15 October 1923 – 19 September 1985) was an Italian journalist and writer of short stories and novels.
Italo disco (sometimes hyphenated, such as Italo-disco, subjected to varying capitalization, or abbreviated as Italo) is a music genre which originated in Italy and was mainly produced from the late 1970s to the late 1980s.
Aron Ettore Schmitz (19 December 186113 September 1928), better known by the pseudonym Italo Svevo, was an Italian writer, businessman, novelist, playwright, and short story writer.
In historical linguistics, Italo-Celtic is a grouping of the Italic and Celtic branches of the Indo-European language family on the basis of features shared by these two branches and no others.
The Italo-Dalmatian languages, or Central Romance languages, are a group of Romance languages spoken in Italy, Corsica (France) and formerly in Dalmatia (Croatia).
Italus or Italos (from) was a legendary king of the Oenotrians, who were among the earliest inhabitants of Italy.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
The Italy men's national volleyball team dominated international volleyball competitions in the 1990s and early 2000s, by winning three World Championships in a row (1990, 1994 and 1998), six European Championships, one World Cup (1995) and eight World League (1990, 1991, 1992, 1994, 1995, 1997, 1999 and 2000).
The Italy national football team (Nazionale di calcio dell'Italia) represents Italy in association football and is controlled by the Italian Football Federation (FIGC), the governing body for football in Italy.
The Italy national rugby union team competes annually in the Six Nations Championship against the other top rugby teams in Europe.
The Italy women's national volleyball team is governed by the Federazione Italiana Pallavolo (FIPAV).
Jacopo Francesco Riccati (28 May 1676 – 15 April 1754) was an Venetian mathematician and jurist from Venice.
Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and developed from roots in blues and ragtime.
Jessica Rossi (born 7 January 1992) is a female Italian sports shooter.
John Venn, FRS, FSA, (4 August 1834 – 4 April 1923) was an English logician and philosopher noted for introducing the Venn diagram, used in the fields of set theory, probability, logic, statistics, and computer science.
Joseph-Louis Lagrange (or;; born Giuseppe Lodovico Lagrangia, Encyclopædia Britannica or Giuseppe Ludovico De la Grange Tournier, Turin, 25 January 1736 – Paris, 10 April 1813; also reported as Giuseppe Luigi Lagrange or Lagrangia) was an Italian Enlightenment Era mathematician and astronomer.
The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC (708 AUC), was a reform of the Roman calendar.
Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
Jus sanguinis (right of blood) is a principle of nationality law by which citizenship is not determined by place of birth but by having one or both parents who are citizens of the state.
Justinian I (Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus; Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós; 482 14 November 565), traditionally known as Justinian the Great and also Saint Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church, was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565.
Karl Julius Beloch (January 21, 1854 in Nieder-Petschkendorf – February 1, 1929 in Rome) was a German classical and economic historian.
Karl Waldemar Ziegler (November 26, 1898 – August 12, 1973) was a German chemist who won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1963, with Giulio Natta, for work on polymers.
The Khazars (خزر, Xəzərlər; Hazarlar; Хазарлар; Хәзәрләр, Xäzärlär; כוזרים, Kuzarim;, Xazar; Хоза́ри, Chozáry; Хаза́ры, Hazáry; Kazárok; Xazar; Χάζαροι, Cházaroi; p./Gasani) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people, who created what for its duration was the most powerful polity to emerge from the break-up of the Western Turkic Khaganate.
The Kingdom of Aragon (Reino d'Aragón, Regne d'Aragó, Regnum Aragonum, Reino de Aragón) was a medieval and early modern kingdom on the Iberian Peninsula, corresponding to the modern-day autonomous community of Aragon, in Spain.
The Kingdom of Naples (Regnum Neapolitanum; Reino de Nápoles; Regno di Napoli) comprised that part of the Italian Peninsula south of the Papal States between 1282 and 1816.
The Kingdom of Sicily (Regnum Siciliae, Regno di Sicilia, Regnu di Sicilia, Regne de Sicília, Reino de Sicilia) was a state that existed in the south of the Italian peninsula and for a time Africa from its founding by Roger II in 1130 until 1816.
The Kingdom of the Lombards (Regnum Langobardorum) also known as the Lombard Kingdom; later the Kingdom of (all) Italy (Regnum totius Italiae), was an early medieval state established by the Lombards, a Germanic people, on the Italian Peninsula in the latter part of the 6th century.
La bohème is an opera in four acts,Puccini called the divisions quadro, a tableau or "image", rather than atto (act).
La Scala (abbreviation in Italian language for the official name Teatro alla Scala) is an opera house in Milan, Italy.
The La Tène culture was a European Iron Age culture named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel in Switzerland, where thousands of objects had been deposited in the lake, as was discovered after the water level dropped in 1857.
The Ladin people are an ethnic group in northern Italy.
The Laevi, or Levi (who are not to be confused with descendants of Levi), were Celtic-LigurianLivius, Ab Urbe condita 5.34-35.3.
Lamellar corpuscles, or Pacinian corpuscles, are one of the four major types of mechanoreceptor cell in glabrous (hairless) mammalian skin.
There are approximately thirty-four living spoken languages and related dialects in Italy; most of which are indigenous evolutions of Vulgar Latin, and are therefore classified as Romance languages.
The Lapicini were an ancient Ligurian tribe mentioned by Livy as being subjugated by Rome under consuls Marcus Aemilius Lepidus and Quintus Mucius Scaevola in 175 BCE.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Latin peoples, also called Romance peoples, is a term used broadly to refer to those societies heavily influenced by Roman culture that, after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, started to diverge from the spoken Vulgar Latin language, creating localized versions which nowadays make up the Romance languages.
The Latino-Faliscan or Latino-Venetic languages are a group of languages originating from Italy belonging to the Italic languages, a group of the Indo-European languages.
The Latins were originally an Italic tribe in ancient central Italy from Latium.
The Latins (Latin: Latini), sometimes known as the Latians, were an Italic tribe which included the early inhabitants of the city of Rome.
Latium is the region of central western Italy in which the city of Rome was founded and grew to be the capital city of the Roman Empire.
Laura Pausini, (born 16 May 1974) is an Italian pop singer-songwriter, record producer and television personality.
Lazio (Latium) is one of the 20 administrative regions of Italy.
Lazzaro Spallanzani (10 January 1729 – 12 February 1799) was an Italian Catholic priest, biologist and physiologist who made important contributions to the experimental study of bodily functions, animal reproduction, and animal echolocation.
Léon Homo (16 December 1872 – 16 August 1957) was a 20th-century French historian, a specialist of Roman history.
The Leaning Tower of Pisa (Torre pendente di Pisa) or simply the Tower of Pisa (Torre di Pisa) is the campanile, or freestanding bell tower, of the cathedral of the Italian city of Pisa, known worldwide for its unintended tilt.
Leon Battista Alberti (February 14, 1404 – April 25, 1472) was an Italian humanist author, artist, architect, poet, priest, linguist, philosopher and cryptographer; he epitomised the Renaissance Man.
Leonardo Bruni (or Leonardo Aretino) (c. 1370 – March 9, 1444) was an Italian humanist, historian and statesman, often recognized as the most important humanist historian of the early Renaissance.
Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (15 April 14522 May 1519), more commonly Leonardo da Vinci or simply Leonardo, was an Italian polymath of the Renaissance, whose areas of interest included invention, painting, sculpting, architecture, science, music, mathematics, engineering, literature, anatomy, geology, astronomy, botany, writing, history, and cartography.
Leopold II (Italian: Leopoldo Giovanni Giuseppe Francesco Ferdinando Carlo, German: Leopold Johann Joseph Franz Ferdinand Karl, English: Leopold John Joseph Francis Ferdinand Charles; 3 October 1797 – 29 January 1870) was Grand Duke of Tuscany (1824–1859).
The Lepontii were an ancient Celtic people occupying portions of Rhaetia (in modern Switzerland and northern Italy) in the Alps during the late Bronze Age/Iron Age.
Liber Abaci (1202, also spelled as Liber Abbaci) is a historic book on arithmetic by Leonardo of Pisa, known later by his nickname Fibonacci.
The Ligures (singular Ligus or Ligur; English: Ligurians, Greek: Λίγυες) were an ancient Indo-European people who appear to have originated in, and gave their name to, Liguria, a region of north-western Italy.
Liguria (Ligûria, Ligurie) is a coastal region of north-western Italy; its capital is Genoa.
Ligurian (ligure or lengua ligure) is a Gallo-Italic language spoken in Liguria in Northern Italy, parts of the Mediterranean coastal zone of France, Monaco and in the villages of Carloforte and Calasetta in Sardinia.
The Lingones were a Celtic tribe that originally lived in Gaul in the area of the headwaters of the Seine and Marne rivers.
This is a list of ancient Corsican and Sardinian tribes, listed in order of the province (Roman province) or the general area in which they lived.
Composers of the Baroque era, ordered by date of birth.
This is a list of composers of the Classical music era, roughly from 1730 to 1820.
This is a list of countries by number of Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film.
The operas listed cover all important genres, and include all operas regularly performed today, from seventeenth-century works by Monteverdi, Cavalli, and Purcell to late twentieth-century operas by Messiaen, Berio, Glass, Adams, Birtwistle, and Weir.
This is a list of Italians, who are identified with the Italian nation through residential, legal, historical, or cultural means, grouped by their area of notability.
This article contains a list of the oldest existing universities in continuous operation in the world.
This is a list of famous people from or with origins in the island of Sardinia.
Sicily is the largest region in Italy with a population of over five million and has contributed many famous names to all walks of life.
This is a list of Romantic-era composers.
Titus Livius Patavinus (64 or 59 BCAD 12 or 17) – often rendered as Titus Livy, or simply Livy, in English language sources – was a Roman historian.
In mathematics, the logarithm is the inverse function to exponentiation.
The Lombards or Longobards (Langobardi, Longobardi, Longobard (Western)) were a Germanic people who ruled most of the Italian Peninsula from 568 to 774.
Lombards of Sicily (Lombardi di Sicilia) are an ethnolinguistic minority living in Sicily, southern Italy, speaking an isolated variety of Gallo-Italic dialects, the so-called Gallo-Italic of Sicily.
Lombardy (Lombardia; Lumbardia, pronounced: (Western Lombard), (Eastern Lombard)) is one of the twenty administrative regions of Italy, in the northwest of the country, with an area of.
Lorenzo de' Medici (1 January 1449 – 8 April 1492) was an Italian statesman, de facto ruler of the Florentine Republic and the most powerful and enthusiastic patron of Renaissance culture in Italy.
Louis the Pious (778 – 20 June 840), also called the Fair, and the Debonaire, was the King of the Franks and co-Emperor (as Louis I) with his father, Charlemagne, from 813.
Lučani (Лучани) is a town and municipality located in the Moravica District of western Serbia.
Fra Luca Bartolomeo de Pacioli (sometimes Paccioli or Paciolo; 1447–1517) was an Italian mathematician, Franciscan friar, collaborator with Leonardo da Vinci, and a seminal contributor to the field now known as accounting.
Lucca is a city and comune in Tuscany, Central Italy, on the Serchio, in a fertile plain near the Tyrrhenian Sea.
Lucera (Lucerino: Lucére) is an Italian city of 34,243 inhabitants in the province of Foggia in the region of Apulia, and the seat of the Diocese of Lucera-Troia.
Luchino Visconti di Modrone, Count of Lonate Pozzolo (2 November 1906 – 17 March 1976), was an Italian theatre, opera and cinema director, as well as a screenwriter.
Luciano Berio, Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI (October 24, 1925 – May 27, 2003) was an Italian composer.
Luciano Pavarotti, Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI (12 October 19356 September 2007) was an Italian operatic tenor who also crossed over into popular music, eventually becoming one of the most commercially successful tenors of all time.
Titus Lucretius Carus (15 October 99 BC – c. 55 BC) was a Roman poet and philosopher.
Luigi Aloisio Galvani (Aloysius Galvanus; 9 September 1737 – 4 December 1798) was an Italian physician, physicist, biologist and philosopher, who discovered animal electricity.
Luigi Nono (29 January 1924 – 8 May 1990) was an Italian avant-garde composer of classical music and remains one of the most prominent composers of the 20th century.
Luigi Pirandello (28 June 1867 – 10 December 1936) was an Italian dramatist, novelist, poet, and short story writer whose greatest contributions were his plays.
Luigi "Gigi" Riva (born 7 November 1944) is an Italian former professional footballer who played as a centre-forward.
Luigi Vanvitelli (born Lodewijk van Wittel; 12 May 1700 – 1 March 1773) was an Italian engineer and architect.
Luni is a comune (municipality) in the province of La Spezia, in the easternmost end of the Liguria region of northern Italy.
Madama Butterfly (Madam Butterfly) is an opera in three acts (originally two) by Giacomo Puccini, with an Italian libretto by Luigi Illica and Giuseppe Giacosa.
Magna Graecia (Latin meaning "Great Greece", Μεγάλη Ἑλλάς, Megálē Hellás, Magna Grecia) was the name given by the Romans to the coastal areas of Southern Italy in the present-day regions of Campania, Apulia, Basilicata, Calabria and Sicily that were extensively populated by Greek settlers; particularly the Achaean settlements of Croton, and Sybaris, and to the north, the settlements of Cumae and Neapolis.
A Majorana fermion (uploaded 19 April 2013, retrieved 5 October 2014; and also based on the physicist's name's pronunciation.), also referred to as a Majorana particle, is a fermion that is its own antiparticle.
In geometry, the Malfatti circles are three circles inside a given triangle such that each circle is tangent to the other two and to two sides of the triangle.
Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.
The Maltese (Maltin) are an ethnic group indigenous to Malta, and identified with the Maltese language.
Manfredi Nicoletti (16 June 1930 – 29 October 2017) was an Italian architect.
Maniace (Sicilian: Maniaci) is a comune (municipality) in the Metropolitan City of Catania in the Italian region Sicily, located about east of Palermo and about northwest of Catania.
Mantua (Mantova; Emilian and Latin: Mantua) is a city and comune in Lombardy, Italy, and capital of the province of the same name.
Marcello Malpighi (10 March 1628 – 29 November 1694) was an Italian biologist and physician, who is referred to as the "Father of microscopical anatomy, histology, physiology and embryology".
Marcello Piacentini (December 8, 1881 – May 19, 1960) was an Italian urban theorist and one of the main proponents of Italian Fascist architecture.
Marche, or the Marches, is one of the twenty regions of Italy.
Marco Polo (1254January 8–9, 1324) was an Italian merchant, explorer, and writer, born in the Republic of Venice.
Marco Tardelli (born 24 September 1954) is an Italian former football player and manager.
Marcus Aurelius (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus; 26 April 121 – 17 March 180 AD) was Roman emperor from, ruling jointly with his adoptive brother, Lucius Verus, until Verus' death in 169, and jointly with his son, Commodus, from 177.
Marcus Junius Brutus (the Younger) (85 BC – 23 October 42 BC), often referred to as Brutus, was a politician of the late Roman Republic.
Maria Gaetana Agnesi (16 May 1718 – 9 January 1799) was an Italian mathematician, philosopher, theologian, and humanitarian.
The Marici were a Ligurian people.
Mario Monicelli (16 May 1915 – 29 November 2010) was an Italian director and screenwriter and one of the masters of the Commedia all'Italiana (Comedy Italian style).
Marcus Antonius (Latin:; 14 January 1 August 30 BC), commonly known in English as Mark Antony or Marc Antony, was a Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic from an oligarchy into the autocratic Roman Empire.
The Marrucini were an Italic tribe that occupied a small strip of territory around the ancient Teate (modern Chieti), on the east coast of Abruzzo, Italy, limited by the Aterno and Foro Rivers.
In ancient Roman religion and myth, Mars (Mārs) was the god of war and also an agricultural guardian, a combination characteristic of early Rome.
Marsi is the Latin exonym for an Italic people of ancient Italy, whose chief centre was Marruvium, on the eastern shore of Lake Fucinus (which was drained for agricultural land in the late 19th century).
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
Mathematical logic is a subfield of mathematics exploring the applications of formal logic to mathematics.
Maurizio Pollini (born January 5, 1942) is an Italian classical pianist.
In Old World archaeology, Mesolithic (Greek: μέσος, mesos "middle"; λίθος, lithos "stone") is the period between the Upper Paleolithic and the Neolithic.
In particle physics, mesons are hadronic subatomic particles composed of one quark and one antiquark, bound together by strong interactions.
The Messapians (Messápioi; Messapii) were an Iapygian tribe that inhabited southern Apulia in classical antiquity.
The Metamorphoses (Metamorphōseōn librī: "Books of Transformations") is a Latin narrative poem by the Roman poet Ovid, considered his magnum opus.
Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni or more commonly known by his first name Michelangelo (6 March 1475 – 18 February 1564) was an Italian sculptor, painter, architect and poet of the High Renaissance born in the Republic of Florence, who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art.
Michelangelo Antonioni, Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI (29 September 1912 – 30 July 2007), was an Italian film director, screenwriter, editor, and short story writer.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
Milan (Milano; Milan) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,380,873 while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,235,000.
Milan Cathedral (Duomo di Milano; Lombard: Domm de Milan) is the cathedral church of Milan, Lombardy, Italy.
Anna Maria Mazzini (born 25 March 1940), Anna Maria Quaini (for the Swiss civil registry), known as Mina Mazzini or simply Mina, is an Italian singer.
In mathematics, a minimal surface is a surface that locally minimizes its area.
The Ministry of the Interior (Ministero dell'Interno) is a government agency of Italy, headquartered in Rome.
Modena (Mutna; Mutina; Modenese: Mòdna) is a city and comune (municipality) on the south side of the Po Valley, in the Province of Modena in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
Molise is a region of Southern Italy.
Morgantina is an archaeological site in east central Sicily, southern Italy.
The musicarello (plural: musicarelli) is a film subgenre which emerged in Italy and which is characterised by the presence in main roles of young singers, already famous among their peers, supported by comic actors.
Naples (Napoli, Napule or; Neapolis; lit) is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy after Rome and Milan.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
A nation is a stable community of people, formed on the basis of a common language, territory, economic life, ethnicity or psychological make-up manifested in a common culture.
Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century.
Neoclassicism (from Greek νέος nèos, "new" and Latin classicus, "of the highest rank") is the name given to Western movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that draw inspiration from the "classical" art and culture of classical antiquity.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
The Nerva–Antonine dynasty was a dynasty of seven Roman Emperors who ruled over the Roman Empire from 96 AD to 192 AD.
Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a neurotrophic factor and neuropeptide primarily involved in the regulation of growth, maintenance, proliferation, and survival of certain target neurons.
The neuron doctrine is the concept that the nervous system is made up of discrete individual cells, a discovery due to decisive neuro-anatomical work of Santiago Ramón y Cajal and later presented by, among others, H. Waldeyer-Hartz.
The New World is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (3 May 1469 – 21 June 1527) was an Italian diplomat, politician, historian, philosopher, humanist, and writer of the Renaissance period.
Niccolò (or Nicolò) Paganini (27 October 178227 May 1840) was an Italian violinist, violist, guitarist, and composer.
Nicolaus Copernicus (Mikołaj Kopernik; Nikolaus Kopernikus; Niklas Koppernigk; 19 February 1473 – 24 May 1543) was a Renaissance-era mathematician and astronomer who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at the center of the universe, likely independently of Aristarchus of Samos, who had formulated such a model some eighteen centuries earlier.
The Norman conquest of southern Italy lasted from 999 to 1139, involving many battles and independent conquerors.
Normandy (Normandie,, Norman: Normaundie, from Old French Normanz, plural of Normant, originally from the word for "northman" in several Scandinavian languages) is one of the 18 regions of France, roughly referring to the historical Duchy of Normandy.
The Normans (Norman: Normaunds; Normands; Normanni) were the people who, in the 10th and 11th centuries, gave their name to Normandy, a region in France.
Northern Italy (Italia settentrionale or just Nord) is a geographical region in the northern part of Italy.
Nu-disco, sometimes called disco house, which can also refer to funky house and to a style of French house, is a 21st-century dance music genre associated with a renewed interest in 1970s and 1980s US disco, early to end-1980s Italo disco and Funk, as well as other synthesizer-heavy European dance styles.
Number theory, or in older usage arithmetic, is a branch of pure mathematics devoted primarily to the study of the integers.
The Nuragic civilization was a civilization in Sardinia, the second largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, which lasted from the 18th century BC (Bronze Age) to the 2nd century AD.
The gens Octavia was a plebeian family at Rome, which was raised to patrician status by Caesar during the first century BC.
Flavius Odoacer (c. 433Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire, Vol. 2, s.v. Odovacer, pp. 791–793 – 493 AD), also known as Flavius Odovacer or Odovacar (Odoacre, Odoacer, Odoacar, Odovacar, Odovacris), was a soldier who in 476 became the first King of Italy (476–493).
The Oenotrians ("tribe led by Oenotrus" or "people from the land of vines - Οἰνωτρία") were an ancient people of uncertain origin who inhabited a territory from Paestum to southern Calabria in southern Italy.
On Crimes and Punishments (Dei delitti e delle pene), is a treatise written by Cesare Beccaria in 1764.
Opera (English plural: operas; Italian plural: opere) is a form of theatre in which music has a leading role and the parts are taken by singers.
The Opici were an ancient italic people of the Latino-Faliscan group who lived in the region of Campania.
Optics is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.
The Orobii also Orumobii or Orumbovii were a population that inhabited the northern Italian valleys of Bergamo, Como and Lecco in the 1st millennium BC.
Oscan is an extinct Indo-European language of southern Italy.
The Osci (also called Opici, Opsci, Obsci, Opicans, Ὀπικοί, Ὀσκοί), were an Italic people of Campania and Latium adiectum during Roman times.
The Osco-Umbrian, Sabellic or Sabellian languages are a group of Italic languages, the Indo-European languages that were spoken in Central and Southern Italy by the Osco-Umbrians before Latin replaced them, as the power of Ancient Rome expanded.
The Ostrogoths (Ostrogothi, Austrogothi) were the eastern branch of the later Goths (the other major branch being the Visigoths).
Otto I (23 November 912 – 7 May 973), traditionally known as Otto the Great (Otto der Große, Ottone il Grande), was German king from 936 and Holy Roman Emperor from 962 until his death in 973.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Publius Ovidius Naso (20 March 43 BC – 17/18 AD), known as Ovid in the English-speaking world, was a Roman poet who lived during the reign of Augustus.
Oxford is a city in the South East region of England and the county town of Oxfordshire.
The Oxford Latin Dictionary (or OLD) is the standard English lexicon of Classical Latin, compiled from sources written before AD 200.
Padua (Padova; Pàdova) is a city and comune in Veneto, northern Italy.
The Paeligni or Peligni were an Italic tribe who lived in the Valle Peligna, in what is now Abruzzo, central Italy.
Paestum was a major ancient Greek city on the coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea in Magna Graecia (southern Italy).
The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 95% of human technological prehistory.
Palermo (Sicilian: Palermu, Panormus, from Πάνορμος, Panormos) is a city of Southern Italy, the capital of both the autonomous region of Sicily and the Metropolitan City of Palermo.
Palladian architecture is a European style of architecture derived from and inspired by the designs of the Venetian architect Andrea Palladio (1508–1580).
The Palme d'Or (Golden Palm) is the highest prize awarded at the Cannes Film Festival.
Paolo Borsellino (January 19, 1940 – July 19, 1992) was an Italian judge and prosecuting magistrate.
Paolo Cesare Maldini (born 26 June 1968) is an Italian former professional footballer who played as a left-back and central defender for A.C. Milan and the Italy national team.
Paolo Portoghesi (born 2 November 1931, Rome) is an Italian architect, theorist, historian and professor of architecture at the University La Sapienza in Rome.
Paolo Rossi (born 23 September 1956) is an Italian former professional footballer, who played as a forward.
Paolo Ruffini (September 22, 1765 – May 10, 1822) was an Italian mathematician and philosopher.
The Papal States, officially the State of the Church (Stato della Chiesa,; Status Ecclesiasticus; also Dicio Pontificia), were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula under the direct sovereign rule of the Pope, from the 8th century until 1870.
Parma (Pärma) is a city in the northern Italian region of Emilia-Romagna famous for its prosciutto (ham), cheese, architecture, music and surrounding countryside.
Pavia (Lombard: Pavia; Ticinum; Medieval Latin: Papia) is a town and comune of south-western Lombardy, northern Italy, south of Milan on the lower Ticino river near its confluence with the Po.
The Pax Romana (Latin for "Roman Peace") was a long period of relative peace and stability experienced by the Roman Empire between the accession of Caesar Augustus, founder of the Roman principate, and the death of Marcus Aurelius, last of the "good emperors".
Penology (from "penal", Latin poena, "punishment" and the Greek suffix -logia, "study of") is a section of criminology that deals with the philosophy and practice of various societies in their attempts to repress criminal activities, and satisfy public opinion via an appropriate treatment regime for persons convicted of criminal offences.
The Pentri (Greek: Πέντροι) were a tribe of the Samnites, and apparently one of the most important of the subdivisions of that nation.
Pepin the Short (Pippin der Kurze, Pépin le Bref, c. 714 – 24 September 768) was the King of the Franks from 751 until his death.
The peplum film (pepla plural), also known as sword-and-sandal, is a genre of largely Italian-made historical or Biblical epics (costume dramas) that dominated the Italian film industry from 1958 to 1965, eventually being replaced in 1965 by Eurospy films and Spaghetti Westerns.
Peter Astbury Brunt, FBA (23 June 19175 November 2005), known as P. A. Brunt, was a British academic and ancient historian.
Francesco Petrarca (July 20, 1304 – July 18/19, 1374), commonly anglicized as Petrarch, was a scholar and poet of Renaissance Italy who was one of the earliest humanists.
The Peucetians (Peukétioi; Peucetii, later also Poidikloi; Poediculi) were a Iapygian tribe which inhabited western and central Apulia in classical antiquity.
Piacenza (Piacentino: Piaṡëinsa) is a city and comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy.
The name Picentes or Picentini (Πίκεντες, Πικεντῖνοι) refers to the population of Picenum, on the northern Adriatic coastal plain of ancient Italy.
Piedmont (Piemonte,; Piedmontese, Occitan and Piemont; Piémont) is a region in northwest Italy, one of the 20 regions of the country.
Piedmontese (Piemontèis or Lenga Piemontèisa, in Italian: Piemontese) is a Romance language spoken by some 700,000 people in Piedmont, northwestern region of Italy.
Pier Carlo Bontempi (born 1954) is an Italian architect.
Pier Luigi Nervi (21 June 1891 – 9 January 1979) was an Italian engineer and architect.
Pier Paolo Pasolini (5 March 1922 – 2 November 1975) was an Italian film director, poet, writer, and intellectual.
Pietro Anastasi (born 7 April 1948), nicknamed Petruzzu 'u turcu by fans, is a former Italian footballer who played mainly in the role of a striker.
Pietro Bembo, (20 May 1470 – either 11 January or 18 January, 1547) was an Italian scholar, poet, literary theorist, member of the Knights Hospitaller and a cardinal.
Pietro da Cortona (1 November 1596/716 May 1669) was an Italian Baroque painter and architect.
In particle physics, a pion (or a pi meson, denoted with the Greek letter pi) is any of three subatomic particles:,, and.
Pisa is a city in the Tuscany region of Central Italy straddling the Arno just before it empties into the Ligurian Sea.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
The Po Valley, Po Plain, Plain of the Po, or Padan Plain (Pianura Padana, or Val Padana) is a major geographical feature of Northern Italy.
Poliziotteschi films constitute a subgenre of crime and action film that emerged in Italy in the late 1960s and reached the height of their popularity in the 1970s.
A polymath (πολυμαθής,, "having learned much,"The term was first recorded in written English in the early seventeenth century Latin: uomo universalis, "universal man") is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas—such a person is known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problems.
A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.
Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (29 September 106 BC – 28 September 48 BC), usually known in English as Pompey or Pompey the Great, was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic.
The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.
Pope Francis (Franciscus; Francesco; Francisco; born Jorge Mario Bergoglio; 17 December 1936) is the 266th and current Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State.
Pope Saint Leo III (Leo; 12 June 816) was pope from 26 December 795 to his death in 816.
Pope Pius IX (Pio; 13 May 1792 – 7 February 1878), born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, was head of the Catholic Church from 16 June 1846 to his death on 7 February 1878.
The Populares (populares, "favouring the people", singular popularis) were a grouping in the late Roman Republic which favoured the cause of the plebeians (the commoners).
Portuguese people are an ethnic group indigenous to Portugal that share a common Portuguese culture and speak Portuguese.
The prehistory of Italy began in the Paleolithic, when the Homo species colonized for the first time the Italian territory and ends in the Iron Age, when the first written records appeared in the peninsula and in the islands.
Premiata Forneria Marconi (PFM) (translation: Award-winning Marconi Bakery) is an Italian progressive rock band.
Probability is the measure of the likelihood that an event will occur.
Progressive rock (shortened as prog; sometimes called art rock, classical rock or symphonic rock) is a broad genre of rock music that developed in the United Kingdom and United States throughout the mid to late 1960s.
Provence (Provençal: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm) is a geographical region and historical province of southeastern France, which extends from the left bank of the lower Rhône River to the west to the Italian border to the east, and is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the south.
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
Marcus Fabius Quintilianus (35 – 100 AD) was a Roman rhetorician from Hispania, widely referred to in medieval schools of rhetoric and in Renaissance writing.
Radagaisus (died 23 August 406) was a Gothic king who led an invasion of Roman Italy in late 405 and the first half of 406.
Radio is the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating properties of electromagnetic energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width.
Basilica of Santa Maria Assunta. Randazzo (Rannazzu) is a town and comune in the Metropolitan City of Catania, Sicily, southern Italy.
Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino (March 28 or April 6, 1483April 6, 1520), known as Raphael, was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance.
In mathematics, a real number is a value of a continuous quantity that can represent a distance along a line.
Reggio Emilia (also; Rèz, Regium Lepidi) is a city in northern Italy, in the Emilia-Romagna region.
Regional Italian, sometimes also called dialects of Italian, is any regionalRegional in the broad sense of the word; not to be confused with the Italian endonym regione for Italy's administrative units variety of the Italian language.
The Remedello culture (Italian Cultura di Remedello) developed during the Copper Age (3rd millennium BC) in Northern Italy, particularly in the area of the Po valley.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
Renaissance architecture is the European architecture of the period between the early 14th and early 17th centuries in different regions, demonstrating a conscious revival and development of certain elements of ancient Greek and Roman thought and material culture.
Renzo Piano, (born 14 September 1937) is an Italian architect and engineer.
The Republic of Genoa (Repúbrica de Zêna,; Res Publica Ianuensis; Repubblica di Genova) was an independent state from 1005 to 1797 in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast, incorporating Corsica from 1347 to 1768, and numerous other territories throughout the Mediterranean.
The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia, later: Repubblica Veneta; Repùblica de Venèsia, later: Repùblica Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima (Most Serene Republic of Venice) (Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia; Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for a millennium between the 8th century and the 18th century.
The Raeti (spelling variants: Rhaeti, Rheti or Rhaetii; Ancient Greek: Ῥαιτοί: transcription Rhaitoí) were a confederation of Alpine tribes, whose language and culture may have derived, at least in part, from the Etruscans.
In mathematics, a Riccati equation in the narrowest sense is any first-order ordinary differential equation that is quadratic in the unknown function.
In mathematics, Ricci calculus constitutes the rules of index notation and manipulation for tensors and tensor fields.
Rijeka (Fiume; Reka; Sankt Veit am Flaum; see other names) is the principal seaport and the third-largest city in Croatia (after Zagreb and Split).
Rimini (Rémin; Ariminum) is a city of about 150,000 inhabitants in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy and capital city of the Province of Rimini.
The Rinaldone culture was a Copper Age culture that spread in Tuscany and northern Lazio between the 3rd and the first half of the 2nd millennium BC.
Rita Levi-Montalcini, (22 April 1909 – 30 December 2012) was an Italian Nobel laureate, honored for her work in neurobiology.
Robert Heinrich Hermann Koch (11 December 1843 – 27 May 1910) was a German physician and microbiologist.
Roberto Baggio (born 18 February 1967) is an Italian former professional footballer who mainly played as a second striker, or as an attacking midfielder, although he was capable of playing in several offensive positions.
Roberto Bettega (born 27 December 1950 in Turin, Piedmont) is an Italian former footballer who played as a forward.
Roberto Boninsegna (born 13 November 1943 in Mantua) is an Italian former football player, who mainly played as a forward.
Roger Bacon (Rogerus or Rogerius Baconus, Baconis, also Rogerus), also known by the scholastic accolade Doctor, was an English philosopher and Franciscan friar who placed considerable emphasis on the study of nature through empiricism.
Roger I (– 22 June 1101), nicknamed Roger Bosso and The Great Count, was a Norman nobleman who became the first Count of Sicily from 1071 to 1101.
The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC).
The Roman expansion in Italy covers a series of conflicts in which the city-state of Rome grew from being the dominant state in Latium to become the ruler of all of Italy.
"Italia" was the name of the Italian Peninsula during the Roman era.
Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome, including the legal developments spanning over a thousand years of jurisprudence, from the Twelve Tables (c. 449 BC), to the Corpus Juris Civilis (AD 529) ordered by Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I. Roman law forms the basic framework for civil law, the most widely used legal system today, and the terms are sometimes used synonymously.
The Roman Senate (Senatus Romanus; Senato Romano) was a political institution in ancient Rome.
A tribus, or tribe, was a division of the Roman people, constituting the voting units of a legislative assembly of the Roman Republic.
The term Romano-Germanic describes the conflation of Roman culture with that of various Germanic peoples in areas successively ruled by the Roman Empire and Germanic "barbarian monarchies".
The Romansh people (also spelled Romansch, Rumantsch, or Romanche; Romansh:, rumàntsch, or) are a people and ethnic group of Switzerland, native speakers of the Romansh language.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
Romeo Benetti (born 20 October 1945 in Albaredo d'Adige) is a former Italian footballer, who played as a defensive midfielder.
Flavius Romulus Augustus (c. AD 460–after AD 476; possibly still alive as late as AD 507), known derisively and historiographically as Romulus Augustulus, was a Roman emperor and alleged usurper who ruled the Western Roman Empire from 31 October AD 475 until 4 September AD 476.
In mathematics, Ruffini's rule is an efficient technique for dividing a polynomial by a binomial of the form x − r. It was described by Paolo Ruffini in 1804.
Rugby union, commonly known in most of the world as rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century.
The Rugby World Cup is a men's rugby union tournament contested every four years between the top international teams.
The Rugii, also Rugians, Rygir, Ulmerugi, or Holmrygir (Rugiere, Rugier) were an East Germanic tribe who migrated from southwest Norway to Pomerania around 100 AD, and from there to the Danube River valley.
The Rutuli or Rutulians (ancient italic Rudhuli, "the red ones" with the meaning of "the blond ones") were members of a legendary Italic tribe.
The Sabines (Sabini; Σαβῖνοι Sabĩnoi; Sabini, all exonyms) were an Italic tribe which lived in the central Apennines of ancient Italy, also inhabiting Latium north of the Anio before the founding of Rome.
The Salassi were a Celtic or Celticized Italic or Ligurian tribe whose lands lay on the Italian side of the Little St Bernard Pass across the Graian Alps to Lyons, and the Great St Bernard Pass over the Pennine Alps.
Gaius Sallustius Crispus, usually anglicised as Sallust (86 – c. 35 BC), was a Roman historian, politician, and novus homo from an Italian plebeian family.
Salvatore Quasimodo (August 20, 1901 – June 14, 1968) was an Sicilian novelist and poet.
The Samnites were an ancient Italic people who lived in Samnium in south-central Italy.
Samnium (Sannio) is a Latin exonym for a region of Southern Italy anciently inhabited by the Samnites.
Sandro Salvadore (29 November 1939 – 4 January 2007) was an Italian footballer who played as a defender.
The Festival della canzone italiana di Sanremo (in English: Italian song festival of Sanremo) is the most popular Italian song contest and awards, held annually in the town of Sanremo, Liguria, and consisting of a competition amongst previously unreleased songs.
The Sardinians, or also the Sards (Sardos or Sardus; Italian and Sassarese: Sardi; Catalan: Sards or Sardos; Gallurese: Saldi; Ligurian: Sordi), are the native people and ethnic group from which Sardinia, a western Mediterranean island and autonomous region of Italy, derives its name.
Savoy (Savouè,; Savoie; Savoia) is a cultural region in Western Europe.
Schiavone (singular; plural Schiavoni) is an Italian ethnonym literally meaning "Slavs" in Old Italian: originally, this term indicated origins in the lands of Dalmatia and Istria (in present-day Croatia), when under the rule of the Republic of Venice.
The Schola Medica Salernitana (Scuola Medica Salernitana) was a late Medieval medical school, the first and most important of its kind.
The Scientific Revolution was a series of events that marked the emergence of modern science during the early modern period, when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology (including human anatomy) and chemistry transformed the views of society about nature.
Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus (236–183 BC), also known as Scipio the African, Scipio Africanus-Major, Scipio Africanus the Elder and Scipio the Great, was a Roman general and later consul who is often regarded as one of the greatest generals and military strategists of all time.
The Scirii (also Sciri, Scirians, Skirii, Skiri or Skirians) were an East Germanic tribe of Eastern Europe, attested in historical works between the 2nd century BC and 5th century AD.
The Scotland national rugby union team is administered by the Scottish Rugby Union.
The second Catilinarian conspiracy, also known simply as the Catiline conspiracy, was a plot, devised by the Roman senator Lucius Sergius Catilina (or Catiline), with the help of a group of fellow aristocrats and disaffected veterans of Lucius Cornelius Sulla, to overthrow the consulship of Marcus Tullius Cicero and Gaius Antonius Hybrida.
The Segusini were a Gaulish tribe whose territory largely corresponded with the ancient Roman province of Alpes Cottiae, in the Cottian Alps.
The Sele is a river in southwestern Italy.
Seneca the Younger AD65), fully Lucius Annaeus Seneca and also known simply as Seneca, was a Roman Stoic philosopher, statesman, dramatist, and—in one work—satirist of the Silver Age of Latin literature.
The Senones (Σήνωνες) were an ancient Celtic Gallic culture.
Sergio Leone (3 January 1929 – 30 April 1989) was an Italian film director, producer and screenwriter, credited as the inventor of the "Spaghetti Western" genre.
Set theory is a branch of mathematical logic that studies sets, which informally are collections of objects.
Shooting sports is a collective group of competitive and recreational sporting activities involving proficiency tests of accuracy, precision and speed in using various types of ranged weapons, mainly referring to man-portable guns (firearms and airguns, in forms such as handguns, rifles and shotguns) and bows/crossbows.
The Sicani (Greek Σικανοί Sikanoi) or Sicanians were one of three ancient peoples of Sicily present at the time of Phoenician and Greek colonization.
The Sicels (Siculi; Σικελοί Sikeloi) were an Italic tribe who inhabited eastern Sicily during the Iron Age.
Sicilians or the Sicilian people (Siciliani in Italian and Sicilian, or also Siculi in Italian) are a Southern European ethnic group from or with origins in the Italian island of Sicily, the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea as well as the largest and most populous of the autonomous regions of Italy.
Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.
The Theme of Sicily (θέμα Σικελίας, thema Sikelias) was a Byzantine province (theme) existing from the late 7th to the 10th century, encompassing the island of Sicily and the region of Calabria in the Italian mainland.
The Siege of Jerusalem in the year 70 CE was the decisive event of the First Jewish–Roman War.
Siena (in English sometimes spelled Sienna; Sena Iulia) is a city in Tuscany, Italy.
Silvio Piola (29 September 1913 – 4 October 1996) was an Italian footballer from Robbio Lomellina, province of Pavia who played as a striker.
Six Characters in Search of an Author (Sei personaggi in cerca d'autore) is an Italian play by Luigi Pirandello, written and first performed in 1921.
The Six Nations Championship (recently known as the NatWest 6 Nations for sponsorship reasons) is an annual international rugby union competition between the teams of England, France, Ireland, Italy, Scotland and Wales.
George Castriot (Gjergj Kastrioti, 6 May 1405 – 17 January 1468), known as Skanderbeg (Skënderbej or Skënderbeu from اسکندر بگ İskender Bey), was an Albanian nobleman and military commander, who served the Ottoman Empire in 1423–43, the Republic of Venice in 1443–47, and lastly the Kingdom of Naples until his death.
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.
Slovenia (Slovenija), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene:, abbr.: RS), is a country in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes.
The Social War (from socii ("allies"), thus Bellum Sociale; also called the Italian War, the War of the Allies or the Marsic War) was a war waged from 91 to 88 BC between the Roman Republic and several of the other cities in Italy, which prior to the war had been Roman allies for centuries.
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.
Sonata (Italian:, pl. sonate; from Latin and Italian: sonare, "to sound"), in music, literally means a piece played as opposed to a cantata (Latin and Italian cantare, "to sing"), a piece sung.
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
Southern Italy or Mezzogiorno (literally "midday") is a macroregion of Italy traditionally encompassing the territories of the former Kingdom of the two Sicilies (all the southern section of the Italian Peninsula and Sicily), with the frequent addition of the island of Sardinia.
Spaghetti Western, also known as Italian Western or Macaroni Western (primarily in Japan), is a broad subgenre of Western films that emerged in the mid-1960s in the wake of Sergio Leone's film-making style and international box-office success.
Spaniards are a Latin European ethnic group and nation.
Spoleto (Latin Spoletium) is an ancient city in the Italian province of Perugia in east-central Umbria on a foothill of the Apennines.
Athletics is a collection of sporting events that involve competitive running, jumping, throwing, and walking.
The Statielli, Statiellātes, or Statiellenses were a small Ligurian tribe which inhabited an area south of the river Padus (today the Po).
Statistics Canada (Statistique Canada), formed in 1971, is the Government of Canada government agency commissioned with producing statistics to help better understand Canada, its population, resources, economy, society, and culture.
Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
The Strait of Otranto (Kanali i Otrantos; Canale d'Otranto; Otranska Vrata) connects the Adriatic Sea with the Ionian Sea and separates Italy from Albania.
Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (c. 138 BC – 78 BC), known commonly as Sulla, was a Roman general and statesman.
The Summer Olympic Games (Jeux olympiques d'été) or the Games of the Olympiad, first held in 1896, is an international multi-sport event that is hosted by a different city every four years.
Swabians (Schwaben, singular Schwabe) are an ethnic German people who are native to or have ancestral roots in the cultural and linguistic region of Swabia, which is now mostly divided between the modern states of Baden-Württemberg and Bavaria, in southwest Germany.
Swiss Italians of Australia are Italian-speaking Swiss that settled in Australia during the 1850s and 1860s.
The Swiss (die Schweizer, les Suisses, gli Svizzeri, ils Svizzers) are the citizens of Switzerland, or people of Swiss ancestry. The number of Swiss nationals has grown from 1.7 million in 1815 to 7 million in 2016. More than 1.5 million Swiss citizens hold multiple citizenship. About 11% of citizens live abroad (0.8 million, of whom 0.6 million hold multiple citizenship). About 60% of those living abroad reside in the European Union (0.46 million). The largest groups of Swiss descendants and nationals outside Europe are found in the United States and Canada. Although the modern state of Switzerland originated in 1848, the period of romantic nationalism, it is not a nation-state, and the Swiss are not usually considered to form a single ethnic group, but a confederacy (Eidgenossenschaft) or Willensnation ("nation of will", "nation by choice", that is, a consociational state), a term coined in conscious contrast to "nation" in the conventionally linguistic or ethnic sense of the term. The demonym Swiss (formerly in English also Switzer) and the name of Switzerland, ultimately derive from the toponym Schwyz, have been in widespread use to refer to the Old Swiss Confederacy since the 16th century.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
Swordsmanship or sword fighting refers to the skills of a swordsman, a person versed in the art of the sword.
A symphony is an extended musical composition in Western classical music, most often written by composers for orchestra.
Syracuse (Siracusa,; Sarausa/Seragusa; Syrācūsae; Συράκουσαι, Syrakousai; Medieval Συρακοῦσαι) is a historic city on the island of Sicily, the capital of the Italian province of Syracuse.
Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (–) was a senator and a historian of the Roman Empire.
The Taurini were an ancient Celtic people, who occupied the upper valley of the river Po, in the centre of modern Piedmont.
The Real Teatro di San Carlo (Royal Theatre of Saint Charles), its original name under the Bourbon monarchy but known today as simply the Teatro di San Carlo, is an opera house in Naples, Italy.
Technetium is a chemical element with symbol Tc and atomic number 43.
Telefoni Bianchi ("white telephones") films were made in Italy in the 1930s in imitation of American comedies of the time.
A telephone, or phone, is a telecommunications device that permits two or more users to conduct a conversation when they are too far apart to be heard directly.
A telescope is an optical instrument that aids in the observation of remote objects by collecting electromagnetic radiation (such as visible light).
Tennis is a racket sport that can be played individually against a single opponent (singles) or between two teams of two players each (doubles).
In mathematics, tensor calculus or tensor analysis is an extension of vector calculus to tensor fields (tensors that may vary over a manifold, e.g. in spacetime).
Terra di Lavoro (Liburia in Latin) is the name of a historical region of Southern Italy.
Terramare, Terramara, or Terremare is a technology complex mainly of the central Po valley, in Emilia-Romagna, Northern Italy, dating to the Middle and Late Bronze Age ca.
The Teutoburg Forest (Teutoburger Wald,, colloquially: Teuto) is a range of low, forested hills in the German states of Lower Saxony and North Rhine-Westphalia.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
De vita Caesarum (Latin; literal translation: About the Life of the Caesars), commonly known as The Twelve Caesars, is a set of twelve biographies of Julius Caesar and the first 11 emperors of the Roman Empire written by Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus.
Theoderic the Great (454 – 30 August 526), often referred to as Theodoric (*𐌸𐌹𐌿𐌳𐌰𐍂𐌴𐌹𐌺𐍃,, Flāvius Theodericus, Teodorico, Θευδέριχος,, Þēodrīc, Þjōðrēkr, Theoderich), was king of the Ostrogoths (475–526), ruler of Italy (493–526), regent of the Visigoths (511–526), and a patricius of the Roman Empire.
The theory of relativity usually encompasses two interrelated theories by Albert Einstein: special relativity and general relativity.
The Third Punic War (Latin: Tertium Bellum Punicum) (149–146 BC) was the third and last of the Punic Wars fought between the former Phoenician colony of Carthage and the Roman Republic.
Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225 – 7 March 1274) was an Italian Dominican friar, Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church.
Thucydides (Θουκυδίδης,, Ancient Attic:; BC) was an Athenian historian and general.
Titus (Titus Flavius Caesar Vespasianus Augustus; 30 December 39 – 13 September 81 AD) was Roman emperor from 79 to 81.
Torquato Tasso (11 March 1544 – 25 April 1595) was an Italian poet of the 16th century, best known for his poem Gerusalemme liberata (Jerusalem Delivered, 1581), in which he depicts a highly imaginative version of the combats between Christians and Muslims at the end of the First Crusade, during the Siege of Jerusalem.
Torture (from the Latin tortus, "twisted") is the act of deliberately inflicting physical or psychological pain in order to fulfill some desire of the torturer or compel some action from the victim.
Tosca is an opera in three acts by Giacomo Puccini to an Italian libretto by Luigi Illica and Giuseppe Giacosa.
The Tour de France is an annual male multiple stage bicycle race primarily held in France, while also occasionally making passes through nearby countries.
Traditional pop (also classic pop or pop standards) is music that was recorded or performed after the Big Band era and before the advent of rock music.
Trajan (Imperator Caesar Nerva Trajanus Divi Nervae filius Augustus; 18 September 538August 117 AD) was Roman emperor from 98 to 117AD.
Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol (Trentino-Alto Adige,; Trentino-Südtirol; Trentin-Südtirol) is an autonomous region in Northern Italy.
Trieste (Trst) is a city and a seaport in northeastern Italy.
Troina (Sicilian: Traina) is a town, former bishopric, comune (municipality) and Latin Catholic titular see in the province of Enna, Sicily, Italy.
Tullio Levi-Civita, FRS (29 March 1873 – 29 December 1941) was an Italian mathematician, most famous for his work on absolute differential calculus (tensor calculus) and its applications to the theory of relativity, but who also made significant contributions in other areas.
The Tumulus culture (Hügelgräberkultur) dominated Central Europe during the Middle Bronze Age (c. 1600 to 1200 BC).
Turandot (see below) is an opera in three acts by Giacomo Puccini, completed by Franco Alfano, and set to a libretto in Italian by Giuseppe Adami and Renato Simoni.
The Turcilingi (also spelled Torcilingi or Thorcilingi) were an obscure barbarian people who first appear in historical sources as living in Gaul in the mid-fifth century and last appeared in Italy during the reign of Romulus Augustulus (475–76).
Turin (Torino; Turin) is a city and an important business and cultural centre in northern Italy.
Tuscan (dialetto toscano) is a set of Italo-Dalmatian varieties mainly spoken in Tuscany, Italy.
Tuscany (Toscana) is a region in central Italy with an area of about and a population of about 3.8 million inhabitants (2013).
Tyrol (Tirol; Tirolo) is a federal state (Bundesland) in western Austria.
The UCI world championships are annual competitions promoted by the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI) to determine world champion cyclists.
The UEFA Cup Winners' Cup (abbreviated as CWC) was a football club competition contested annually by the most recent winners of all European domestic cup competitions.
The UEFA Europa League is an annual football club competition organised by UEFA since 1971 for eligible European football clubs.
Ugo Foscolo (6 February 1778 in Zakynthos10 September 1827 in Turnham Green), born Niccolò Foscolo, was an Italian writer, freemason, revolutionary and poet.
Umberto Eco (5 January 1932 – 19 February 2016) was an Italian novelist, literary critic, philosopher, semiotician, and university professor.
Umberto II (Umberto Nicola Tommaso Giovanni Maria di Savoia; 15 September 190418 March 1983) was the last King of Italy.
The Umbri were Italic peoples of ancient Italy.
Umbria is a region of central Italy.
Umbrian is an extinct Italic language formerly spoken by the Umbri in the ancient Italian region of Umbria.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
The Únětice culture (Czech Únětická kultura, German Aunjetitzer Kultur, Polish Kultura unietycka) is an archaeological culture at the start of the Central European Bronze Age, dated roughly to about 2300–1600BC.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Census Bureau (USCB; officially the Bureau of the Census, as defined in Title) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy.
The University of Bologna (Università di Bologna, UNIBO), founded in 1088, is the oldest university in continuous operation, as well as one of the leading academic institutions in Italy and Europe.
The University of Paris (Université de Paris), metonymically known as the Sorbonne (one of its buildings), was a university in Paris, France, from around 1150 to 1793, and from 1806 to 1970.
Uruguay, officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay (República Oriental del Uruguay), is a sovereign state in the southeastern region of South America.
Valentino Rossi (born 16 February 1979) is an Italian professional motorcycle road racer and multiple MotoGP World Champion.
The Vandals were a large East Germanic tribe or group of tribes that first appear in history inhabiting present-day southern Poland.
Vatican City (Città del Vaticano; Civitas Vaticana), officially the Vatican City State or the State of Vatican City (Stato della Città del Vaticano; Status Civitatis Vaticanae), is an independent state located within the city of Rome.
Veneto (or,; Vèneto) is one of the 20 regions of Italy.
Venezuela, officially denominated Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela),Previously, the official name was Estado de Venezuela (1830–1856), República de Venezuela (1856–1864), Estados Unidos de Venezuela (1864–1953), and again República de Venezuela (1953–1999).
Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
A Venn diagram (also called primary diagram, set diagram or logic diagram) is a diagram that shows all possible logical relations between a finite collection of different sets.
Verona (Venetian: Verona or Veròna) is a city on the Adige river in Veneto, Italy, with approximately 257,000 inhabitants and one of the seven provincial capitals of the region.
The Vertamocorii were a Celtic people that lived in Cisalpine Gaul around Novara, in Eastern Piedmont (Italy).
Vestini (Ὸυηστίνοι) were an Italic tribe who occupied the area of the modern Abruzzo (central Italy) included between the Gran Sasso and the northern bank of the Aterno river.
Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative, comma-shaped bacterium.
Vicenza is a city in northeastern Italy.
Victor Emmanuel II (Vittorio Emanuele Maria Alberto Eugenio Ferdinando Tommaso di Savoia; 14 March 1820 – 9 January 1878) was King of Sardinia from 1849 until 17 March 1861.
Victor Emmanuel III (Vittorio Emanuele Ferdinando Maria Gennaro di Savoia; Vittorio Emanuele III, Viktor Emanueli III; 11 November 1869 – 28 December 1947) was the King of Italy from 29 July 1900 until his abdication on 9 May 1946.
The Villanovan culture was the earliest Iron Age culture of central and northern Italy, abruptly following the Bronze Age Terramare culture and giving way in the 7th century BC to an increasingly orientalizing culture influenced by Greek traders, which was followed without a severe break by the Etruscan civilization.
Vincenzo Salvatore Carmelo Francesco Bellini (3 November 1801 – 23 September 1835) was an Italian opera composer,Lippmann and McGuire 1998, in Sadie, p. 389 who was known for his long-flowing melodic lines for which he was named "the Swan of Catania".
Publius Vergilius Maro (traditional dates October 15, 70 BC – September 21, 19 BC), usually called Virgil or Vergil in English, was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period.
Volleyball is a team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net.
The Volsci were an Italic tribe, well known in the history of the first century of the Roman Republic.
The Vuelta a España (Tour of Spain) is an annual multi-stage bicycle race primarily held in Spain, while also occasionally making passes through nearby countries.
The W and Z bosons are together known as the weak or more generally as the intermediate vector bosons. These elementary particles mediate the weak interaction; the respective symbols are,, and.
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.
Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, European civilization,is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe.
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
The Winter Olympic Games (Jeux olympiques d'hiver) is a major international sporting event held once every four years for sports practised on snow and ice.
The Wolf Prize in Mathematics is awarded almost annually by the Wolf Foundation in Israel.
The Wolf Prize in Physics is awarded once a year by the Wolf Foundation in Israel.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Wrestling is a combat sport involving grappling type techniques such as clinch fighting, throws and takedowns, joint locks, pins and other grappling holds.
The WWE Championship is a world heavyweight championship created and promoted by the American professional wrestling promotion WWE on the SmackDown brand.
X-ray astronomy is an observational branch of astronomy which deals with the study of X-ray observation and detection from astronomical objects.
Young Europe (Giovine Europa) was an international association formed in 1834 by Giuseppe Mazzini on the model of Young Italy.
Zadar (see other names) is the oldest continuously inhabited Croatian city.
Zealandia, also known as the New Zealand continent or Tasmantis is an almost entirely submerged mass of continental crust that sank after breaking away from Australia 60–85 million years ago, having separated from Antarctica between 85 and 130 million years ago.