155 relations: Adriatic Sea, Adriatic Veneti, Aequi, Aequian language, Africa, Agriculture, Alois Walde, Alps, Alveolar consonant, Ancient Rome, Antoine Meillet, Apennine Mountains, Archaeology, Arval Brethren, Aspirated consonant, Balkans, Calvert Watkins, Catholic Church, Cato the Elder, Celtic languages, Celts, Central Europe, Centum and satem languages, Ceramic, Cicero, Civita Castellana, Dacia, Daughter language, Diplomacy, Dorian invasion, Elymian language, Etruscan civilization, Etruscan language, Extinct language, Falerii Veteres, Faliscan language, Gaul, Gaulish language, Germanic languages, Germany, Giacomo Devoto, Greek alphabet, Greek language, Greeks, Gubbio, Historical linguistics, Horace, Iguvine Tablets, Illyria, Illyrian languages, ..., Imperfect, Indo-European languages, Indo-Iranian languages, Infinitive, Iron Age, Isogloss, Italian Peninsula, Italic peoples, Italo-Celtic, Italy, Julius Caesar, Labial consonant, Language family, Languages of Italy, Late Latin, Latin, Latin America, Latino-Faliscan languages, Latins (Italic tribe), Latium, Lazio, Lemnos, Lepontic language, Lexicon, Liburnian language, Liburnians, Ligurian language (ancient), List of ancient peoples of Italy, Literature, Lusitanian language, Marsi, Medicine, Mediterranean Sea, Messapian language, Metal, Military history of ancient Rome, Morphology, Mycenaean Greek, North Africa, North Picene language, Oceania, Old Italic script, Old Latin, Oscan language, Osco-Umbrian languages, Ovid, Oxford University Press, Palatalization (sound change), Pannonia, Parataxis, Phonetics, Phonological change, Plautus, Pre-Indo-European languages, Pre-Samnite language, Proto-Greek language, Proto-Indo-European language, Proto-Indo-European religion, Proto-Italic language, Proto-Villanovan culture, Raetia, Realis mood, Religion, Rhaetian language, Rhineland, Rhotacism (sound change), Roman Empire, Roman Republic, Romance languages, Romanization (cultural), Rome, Sabines, Salii, Sallust, Samnites, Sardinia, Science, Sibilant, Sicels, Sicily, South Picene language, Southern Italy, Spain, Sprachbund, Stratum (linguistics), Subjunctive mood, Syncopation, Syntax, Terence, Terramare culture, Toponymy, Tyrsenian languages, Umbrian language, Unclassified language, University of Salamanca, Vatican City, Velar consonant, Venetic language, Veneto, Vestini, Vestinian language, Virgil, Volscian language, Vulgar Latin, World War II. Expand index (105 more) » « Shrink index
The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula.
The Veneti (in Latin, also Heneti) were an Indo-European people who inhabited northeastern Italy, in an area corresponding to the modern-day region of Veneto.
Location of the Aequi (Equi) in central Italy, 5th century BC. The Aequi (Αἴκουοι and Αἴκοι) were an Italic tribe on a stretch of the Apennine Mountains to the east Latium in central of Italy who appear in the early history of ancient Rome.
Aequian is an extinct language presumed spoken by the people the Romans termed Aequi and Aequicoli living in the Alban hills of northeast Latium and the central Apennines east of them during the early and middle Roman Republic; that is, approximately from the 5th to the 3rd century BC, when they were defeated by the armies of Rome and were subsequently Romanized.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Alois Walde (November 30, 1869 – October 3, 1924) was an Austrian linguist.
The Alps (Alpes; Alpen; Alpi; Alps; Alpe) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe,The Caucasus Mountains are higher, and the Urals longer, but both lie partly in Asia.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Paul Jules Antoine Meillet (11 November 1866, Moulins, France – 21 September 1936, Châteaumeillant, France) was one of the most important French linguists of the early 20th century.
The Apennines or Apennine Mountains (Ἀπέννινα ὄρη; Appenninus or Apenninus Mons—a singular used in the plural;Apenninus has the form of an adjective, which would be segmented Apenn-inus, often used with nouns such as mons (mountain) or Greek ὄρος oros, but just as often used alone as a noun. The ancient Greeks and Romans typically but not always used "mountain" in the singular to mean one or a range; thus, "the Apennine mountain" refers to the entire chain and is translated "the Apennine mountains". The ending can vary also by gender depending on the noun modified. The Italian singular refers to one of the constituent chains rather than to a single mountain and the Italian plural refers to multiple chains rather than to multiple mountains. Appennini) are a mountain range consisting of parallel smaller chains extending along the length of peninsular Italy.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
In ancient Roman religion, the Arval Brethren (Fratres Arvales, "Brothers of the Fields") or Arval Brothers were a body of priests who offered annual sacrifices to the Lares and gods to guarantee good harvests.
In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
Calvert Watkins (March 13, 1933 – March 20, 2013) was an American linguist and philologist.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Cato the Elder (Cato Major; 234–149 BC), born and also known as (Cato Censorius), (Cato Sapiens), and (Cato Priscus), was a Roman senator and historian known for his conservatism and opposition to Hellenization.
The Celtic languages are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic"; a branch of the greater Indo-European language family.
The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.
Languages of the Indo-European family are classified as either centum languages or satem languages according to how the dorsal consonants (sounds of "K" and "G" type) of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) developed.
A ceramic is a non-metallic solid material comprising an inorganic compound of metal, non-metal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds.
Marcus Tullius Cicero (3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC.
Civita Castellana is a town and comune in the province of Viterbo, north of Rome.
In ancient geography, especially in Roman sources, Dacia was the land inhabited by the Dacians.
In historical linguistics, a daughter language or son language, also known as offspring language, is a language descended from another language through a process of genetic descent.
Diplomacy is the art and practice of conducting negotiations between representatives of states.
The Dorian invasion is a concept devised by historians of Ancient Greece to explain the replacement of pre-classical dialects and traditions in southern Greece by the ones that prevailed in Classical Greece.
Elymian is the extinct language of the ancient Elymian people of western Sicily.
The Etruscan civilization is the modern name given to a powerful and wealthy civilization of ancient Italy in the area corresponding roughly to Tuscany, western Umbria and northern Lazio.
The Etruscan language was the spoken and written language of the Etruscan civilization, in Italy, in the ancient region of Etruria (modern Tuscany plus western Umbria and northern Latium) and in parts of Corsica, Campania, Veneto, Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna.
An extinct language is a language that no longer has any speakers, especially if the language has no living descendants.
Falerii Veteres, now Civita Castellana, was one of the chief cities of the duodecim populi of ancient Etruria.
The Faliscan language is the extinct Italic language of the ancient Falisci.
Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.
Gaulish was an ancient Celtic language that was spoken in parts of Europe as late as the Roman Empire.
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Giacomo Devoto (19 July 1897 – 25 December 1974) was an Italian historical linguist and one of the greatest exponents of the twentieth century of the discipline.
The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BC.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
Gubbio is a town and comune in the far northeastern part of the Italian province of Perugia (Umbria).
Historical linguistics, also called diachronic linguistics, is the scientific study of language change over time.
Quintus Horatius Flaccus (December 8, 65 BC – November 27, 8 BC), known in the English-speaking world as Horace, was the leading Roman lyric poet during the time of Augustus (also known as Octavian).
The Iguvine Tablets, also known as the Eugubian Tablets or Eugubine Tables, are a series of seven bronze tablets from ancient Iguvium (modern Gubbio), Italy.
In classical antiquity, Illyria (Ἰλλυρία, Illyría or Ἰλλυρίς, Illyrís; Illyria, see also Illyricum) was a region in the western part of the Balkan Peninsula inhabited by the Illyrians.
The Illyrian languages are a group of Indo-European languages that were spoken in the western part of the Balkans in former times by groups identified as Illyrians: Ardiaei, Delmatae, Pannonii, Autariates, Taulantii (see list of ancient tribes in Illyria).
The imperfect (abbreviated) is a verb form, found in various languages, which combines past tense (reference to a past time) and imperfective aspect (reference to a continuing or repeated event or state).
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
The Indo-Iranian languages or Indo-Iranic languages, or Aryan languages, constitute the largest and easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European language family.
Infinitive (abbreviated) is a grammatical term referring to certain verb forms existing in many languages, most often used as non-finite verbs.
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
An isogloss, also called a heterogloss (see Etymology below), is the geographic boundary of a certain linguistic feature, such as the pronunciation of a vowel, the meaning of a word, or the use of some morphological or syntactic feature.
The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Penisola italiana, Penisola appenninica) extends from the Po Valley in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south.
The Italic peoples are an Indo-European ethnolinguistic group identified by speaking Italic languages.
In historical linguistics, Italo-Celtic is a grouping of the Italic and Celtic branches of the Indo-European language family on the basis of features shared by these two branches and no others.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.
A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family.
There are approximately thirty-four living spoken languages and related dialects in Italy; most of which are indigenous evolutions of Vulgar Latin, and are therefore classified as Romance languages.
Late Latin is the scholarly name for the written Latin of Late Antiquity.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.
The Latino-Faliscan or Latino-Venetic languages are a group of languages originating from Italy belonging to the Italic languages, a group of the Indo-European languages.
The Latins (Latin: Latini), sometimes known as the Latians, were an Italic tribe which included the early inhabitants of the city of Rome.
Latium is the region of central western Italy in which the city of Rome was founded and grew to be the capital city of the Roman Empire.
Lazio (Latium) is one of the 20 administrative regions of Italy.
Lemnos (Λήμνος) is a Greek island in the northern part of the Aegean Sea.
Lepontic is an ancient Alpine Celtic language that was spoken in parts of Rhaetia and Cisalpine Gaul (what is now Northern Italy) between 550 and 100 BC.
A lexicon, word-hoard, wordbook, or word-stock is the vocabulary of a person, language, or branch of knowledge (such as nautical or medical).
The Liburnian language is an extinct language which was spoken by the ancient Liburnians, who occupied Liburnia in classical times.
The Liburnians (or Liburni) were an ancient Illyrian tribe inhabiting the district called Liburnia, a coastal region of the northeastern Adriatic between the rivers Arsia (Raša) and Titius (Krka) in what is now Croatia.
The Ligurian language was spoken in pre-Roman times and into the Roman era by an ancient people of north-western Italy and south-eastern France known as the Ligures.
This list of ancient peoples living in Italy summarises groupings existing before the Roman expansion and conquest.
Literature, most generically, is any body of written works.
Lusitanian (so named after the Lusitani or Lusitanians) was an Indo-European Paleohispanic language.
Marsi is the Latin exonym for an Italic people of ancient Italy, whose chief centre was Marruvium, on the eastern shore of Lake Fucinus (which was drained for agricultural land in the late 19th century).
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Messapian (also known as Messapic) is an extinct Indo-European language of southeastern Italy, once spoken in the region of Apulia.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
The military history of ancient Rome is inseparable from its political system, based from an early date upon competition within the ruling elite.
Morphology, from the Greek and meaning "study of shape", may mean.
Mycenaean Greek is the most ancient attested form of the Greek language, on the Greek mainland, Crete and Cyprus in Mycenaean Greece (16th to 12th centuries BC), before the hypothesised Dorian invasion, often cited as the terminus post quem for the coming of the Greek language to Greece.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
North Picene, also known as North Picenian or Northern Picene is an ancient language, believed to have been spoken in part of central-eastern Italy.
Oceania is a geographic region comprising Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia and Australasia.
Old Italic is one of several now extinct alphabet systems used on the Italian Peninsula in ancient times for various Indo-European languages (predominantly Italic) and non-Indo-European (e.g. Etruscan) languages.
Old Latin, also known as Early Latin or Archaic Latin, refers to the Latin language in the period before 75 BC: before the age of Classical Latin.
Oscan is an extinct Indo-European language of southern Italy.
The Osco-Umbrian, Sabellic or Sabellian languages are a group of Italic languages, the Indo-European languages that were spoken in Central and Southern Italy by the Osco-Umbrians before Latin replaced them, as the power of Ancient Rome expanded.
Publius Ovidius Naso (20 March 43 BC – 17/18 AD), known as Ovid in the English-speaking world, was a Roman poet who lived during the reign of Augustus.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
In linguistics, palatalization is a sound change that either results in a palatal or palatalized consonant or a front vowel, or is triggered by one of them.
Pannonia was a province of the Roman Empire bounded north and east by the Danube, coterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia.
Parataxis (from Greek παράταξις "act of placing side by side", from παρα para "beside" + τάξις táxis "arrangement") is a literary technique, in writing or speaking, that favors short, simple sentences, with the use of coordinating rather than subordinating conjunctions.
Phonetics (pronounced) is the branch of linguistics that studies the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign.
In historical linguistics, phonological change is any sound change which alters the distribution of phonemes in a language.
Titus Maccius Plautus (c. 254 – 184 BC), commonly known as Plautus, was a Roman playwright of the Old Latin period.
Pre-Indo-European languages are any of several ancient languages, not necessarily related to one another, that existed in prehistoric Europe and South Asia before the arrival of speakers of Indo-European languages.
Pre-Samnite was an ancient language spoken in southern Campania, in Italy.
The Proto-Greek language (also known as Proto-Hellenic) is the assumed last common ancestor of all known varieties of Greek, including Mycenaean Greek, the subsequent ancient Greek dialects (i.e., Attic, Ionic, Aeolic, Doric, Ancient Macedonian and Arcadocypriot) and, ultimately, Koine, Byzantine and Modern Greek.
Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.
Proto-Indo-European religion is the belief system adhered to by the Proto-Indo-Europeans.
The Proto-Italic language is the ancestor of the Italic languages, including notably Latin and thus its descendants, the Romance languages.
The Proto-Villanovan culture was a late bronze age culture that appeared in Italy in the first half of the 12th century BC and lasted until the 10th century BC.
Raetia (also spelled Rhaetia) was a province of the Roman Empire, named after the Rhaetian (Raeti or Rhaeti) people.
A realis mood (abbreviated) is a grammatical mood which is used principally to indicate that something is a statement of fact; in other words, to express what the speaker considers to be a known state of affairs, as in declarative sentences.
Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.
Rhaetian or Rhaetic (Raetic) was a language spoken in the ancient region of Rhaetia in the Eastern Alps in pre-Roman and Roman times.
The Rhineland (Rheinland, Rhénanie) is the name used for a loosely defined area of Western Germany along the Rhine, chiefly its middle section.
Rhotacism or rhotacization is a sound change that converts one consonant (usually a voiced alveolar consonant:,,, or) to a rhotic consonant in a certain environment.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
Romanization or Latinization (or Romanisation or Latinisation), in the historical and cultural meanings of both terms, indicate different historical processes, such as acculturation, integration and assimilation of newly incorporated and peripheral populations by the Roman Republic and the later Roman Empire.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
The Sabines (Sabini; Σαβῖνοι Sabĩnoi; Sabini, all exonyms) were an Italic tribe which lived in the central Apennines of ancient Italy, also inhabiting Latium north of the Anio before the founding of Rome.
In ancient Roman religion, the Salii were the "leaping priests" (from the verb saliō "leap, jump") of Mars supposed to have been introduced by King Numa Pompilius.
Gaius Sallustius Crispus, usually anglicised as Sallust (86 – c. 35 BC), was a Roman historian, politician, and novus homo from an Italian plebeian family.
The Samnites were an ancient Italic people who lived in Samnium in south-central Italy.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
Sibilance is an acoustic characteristic of fricative and affricate consonants of higher amplitude and pitch, made by directing a stream of air with the tongue towards the sharp edge of the teeth, which are held close together; a consonant that uses sibilance may be called a sibilant.
The Sicels (Siculi; Σικελοί Sikeloi) were an Italic tribe who inhabited eastern Sicily during the Iron Age.
Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.
South Picene is an extinct Italic language, belonging to the Sabellic subfamily.
Southern Italy or Mezzogiorno (literally "midday") is a macroregion of Italy traditionally encompassing the territories of the former Kingdom of the two Sicilies (all the southern section of the Italian Peninsula and Sicily), with the frequent addition of the island of Sardinia.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
A sprachbund ("federation of languages") – also known as a linguistic area, area of linguistic convergence, diffusion area or language crossroads – is a group of languages that have common features resulting from geographical proximity and language contact.
In linguistics, a stratum (Latin for "layer") or strate is a language that influences, or is influenced by another through contact.
The subjunctive is a grammatical mood (that is, a way of speaking that allows people to express their attitude toward what they are saying) found in many languages.
In music, syncopation involves a variety of rhythms which are in some way unexpected which make part or all of a tune or piece of music off-beat.
In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order.
Publius Terentius Afer (c. 195/185 – c. 159? BC), better known in English as Terence, was a Roman playwright during the Roman Republic, of Berber descent.
Terramare, Terramara, or Terremare is a technology complex mainly of the central Po valley, in Emilia-Romagna, Northern Italy, dating to the Middle and Late Bronze Age ca.
Toponymy is the study of place names (toponyms), their origins, meanings, use, and typology.
Tyrsenian (also Tyrrhenian), named after the Tyrrhenians (Ancient Greek, Ionic: Τυρσηνοί, Tursēnoi), is a hypothetical extinct family of closely related ancient languages proposed by Helmut Rix (1998), that consists of the Etruscan language of central Italy, the Raetic language of the Alps, and the Lemnian language of the Aegean Sea.
Umbrian is an extinct Italic language formerly spoken by the Umbri in the ancient Italian region of Umbria.
An unclassified language is a language whose genetic affiliation has not been established, most often due to a lack of data.
The University of Salamanca (Universidad de Salamanca) is a Spanish higher education institution, located in the city of Salamanca, west of Madrid, in the autonomous community of Castile and León.
Vatican City (Città del Vaticano; Civitas Vaticana), officially the Vatican City State or the State of Vatican City (Stato della Città del Vaticano; Status Civitatis Vaticanae), is an independent state located within the city of Rome.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
Venetic is an extinct Indo-European language, usually classified into the Italic subgroup, that was spoken by the Veneti people in ancient times in the North East of Italy (Veneto) and part of modern Slovenia, between the Po River delta and the southern fringe of the Alps.
Veneto (or,; Vèneto) is one of the 20 regions of Italy.
Vestini (Ὸυηστίνοι) were an Italic tribe who occupied the area of the modern Abruzzo (central Italy) included between the Gran Sasso and the northern bank of the Aterno river.
Vestinian is an extinct Indo-European language documented only in two surviving inscriptions of the Roman Republic.
Publius Vergilius Maro (traditional dates October 15, 70 BC – September 21, 19 BC), usually called Virgil or Vergil in English, was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period.
Volscian was a Sabellic Italic language, which was spoken by the Volsci and closely related to Oscan and Umbrian.
Vulgar Latin or Sermo Vulgaris ("common speech") was a nonstandard form of Latin (as opposed to Classical Latin, the standard and literary version of the language) spoken in the Mediterranean region during and after the classical period of the Roman Empire.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.