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Italo Calvino

Index Italo Calvino

Italo Calvino (. RAI (circa 1970), retrieved 25 October 2012. 15 October 1923 – 19 September 1985) was an Italian journalist and writer of short stories and novels. [1]

194 relations: Agronomy, Aimee Bender, Albert Einstein, Alfonso Gatto, Allegory, Amanda Filipacchi, Ambrose Bierce, American Academy in Rome, Anarchism, Andrea De Carlo, Arte, Austrian State Prize for European Literature, Avocado, École pratique des hautes études, Bagutta Prize, BBC, Benito Mussolini, Blackshirts, Boccaccio '70, Botany, Botteghe Oscure, Brothers Grimm, Castiglione della Pescaia, Cesare Pavese, Charles Eliot Norton Lectures, Che Guevara, Civitavecchia, Claude Lévi-Strauss, Cold War, Communist Party of Italy, Corriere della Sera, Cosmicomics, Cyrano de Bergerac, Damian Pettigrew, Daniele Del Giudice, Dante Alighieri, Difficult Loves, Docufiction, Edgar Allan Poe, Elio Vittorini, Elsa De Giorgi, Ernest Hemingway, Eugenio Montale, Eugenio Scalfari, Fable, Fantaghirò series, Fantasy, Federico Fellini, Feltrinelli Prize, Floriculture, ..., Ford Foundation, Franz Kafka, Freemasonry, French Riviera, Galileo Galilei, Georges Perec, Giacomo Leopardi, Gianni Celati, Giorgio Bassani, Giulio Angioni, Giulio Einaudi, Gore Vidal, Grapefruit, Harvard University, Havana, Honoré de Balzac, Hungarian Revolution of 1956, If on a winter's night a traveler, Ignatius of Loyola, Il Menabò di letteratura, Il Politecnico, Institut national de l'audiovisuel, Intracerebral hemorrhage, Invisible Cities, Ismail Kadare, Italian Communist Party, Italian Folktales, Italian resistance movement, Italian Social Republic, Italo Calvino, Johan Huizinga, Jorge Luis Borges, Joseph Conrad, Joseph Stalin, L'espresso, L'Unità, La Repubblica, Lamberto Bava, Le chant du Styrène, Legion of Honour, Leonardo Sciascia, Libretto, Liev Schreiber, Liguria, List of agriculture ministries, List of minor planets: 22001–23000, Luciano Berio, Ludovico Ariosto, Marcovaldo, Mario Monicelli, Mario Rigoni Stern, Maritime Alps, Martin McLaughlin, Marxism, Max Planck, May 1968 events in France, Mexican Revolution, Mexico, Middle class, Miguel de Cervantes, Milan, Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities and Tourism (Italy), Mr. Palomar, Natalia Ginzburg, National Fascist Party, National Film Board of Canada, Nazism, Neorealism (art), Neri Marcorè, New York Institute for the Humanities, Norberto Bobbio, Opera Nazionale Balilla, Orhan Pamuk, Orlando Furioso, Oulipo, Our Ancestors, Pacifism, Palmiro Togliatti, Pantheon, Rome, Partisan (political), Patrick Creagh, Peter Kropotkin, Pietro Citati, Pino Zac, Playboy, Postmodernism, Poverty, RAI, Raymond Queneau, Republicanism, Robert Louis Stevenson, Roccamare, Roland Barthes, Rudyard Kipling, Salman Rushdie, Samuel Beckett, Sanremo, Santa Maria della Scala (Siena), Santiago de las Vegas, Sassari, Schutzstaffel, Scuola Italiana Italo Calvino, Siena, Silvina Ocampo, Six Memos for the Next Millennium, Soviet Union, Stresa, T zero, The Baron in the Trees, The Blue Flowers, The Burning of the Abominable House, The Castle of Crossed Destinies, The Cloven Viscount, The Complete Cosmicomics, The Crow Comes Last, The Jungle Book, The Nonexistent Knight, The Path to the Nest of Spiders, The State and Revolution, Tim Parks, Tommaso Landolfi, Turin, Umberto Eco, Un re in ascolto, Under the Jaguar Sun, University of Florence, University of Paris, University of Pavia, University of Turin, Urbino, Venice Film Festival, Viareggio Prize, Victory in Europe Day, Vladimir Lenin, Vladimir Nabokov, Vladimir Propp, Voltaire, W. G. Sebald, Waldensians, Werner Heisenberg, William Shakespeare, William Weaver, Working class, World Fantasy Award. Expand index (144 more) »


Agronomy (Ancient Greek ἀγρός agrós 'field' + νόμος nómos 'law') is the science and technology of producing and using plants for food, fuel, fiber, and land reclamation.

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Aimee Bender

Aimee Bender (born June 28, 1969) is an American novelist and short story writer, known for her surreal plots and characters.

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Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).

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Alfonso Gatto

Alfonso Gatto (17 July 1909 – 6 March 1976) was an Italian author.

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As a literary device, an allegory is a metaphor in which a character, place or event is used to deliver a broader message about real-world issues and occurrences.

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Amanda Filipacchi

Amanda Filipacchi (born October 10, 1967) is an American novelist.

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Ambrose Bierce

Ambrose Gwinnett Bierce (June 24, 1842 – circa 1914) was an American short story writer, journalist, poet, and Civil War veteran.

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American Academy in Rome

The American Academy in Rome is a research and arts institution located on the Gianicolo (Janiculum Hill) in Rome.

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Anarchism is a political philosophy that advocates self-governed societies based on voluntary institutions.

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Andrea De Carlo

Andrea De Carlo (born December 11, 1952 in Milan) is a popular Italian writer.

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ARTE (Association relative à la télévision européenne) is a public Franco-German TV network that promotes programming in the areas of culture and the arts.

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Austrian State Prize for European Literature

The Austrian State Prize for European Literature (Österreichischer Staatspreis für Europäische Literatur), also known in Austria as the European Literary Award (Europäischer Literaturpreis), is an Austrian literary prize awarded by the Federal Chancellery for Arts, Culture, and Media to European writers.

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The avocado (Persea americana) is a tree, long thought to have originated in South Central Mexico, classified as a member of the flowering plant family Lauraceae.

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École pratique des hautes études

The École pratique des hautes études, abbreviated EPHE, is a Grand Établissement in Paris, France, and a constituent college of PSL Research University.

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Bagutta Prize

The Bagutta Prize is an Italian literary prize that is awarded annually to Italian writers.

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The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.

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Benito Mussolini

Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician and journalist who was the leader of the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF).

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The Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale (MVSN, "Voluntary Militia for National Security"), commonly called the Blackshirts (Camicie Nere, CCNN, singular: Camicia Nera) or squadristi (singular: squadrista), was originally the paramilitary wing of the National Fascist Party and, after 1923, an all-volunteer militia of the Kingdom of Italy.

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Boccaccio '70

Boccaccio '70 is a 1962 Italian anthology film directed by Mario Monicelli, Federico Fellini, Luchino Visconti and Vittorio De Sica, from an idea by Cesare Zavattini.

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Botany, also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology.

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Botteghe Oscure

Botteghe Oscure was a literary journal, published and edited in Rome by Marguerite Caetani (Princess di Bassiano) from 1948 until 1960.

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Brothers Grimm

The Brothers Grimm (die Brüder Grimm or die Gebrüder Grimm), Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm, were German academics, philologists, cultural researchers, lexicographers and authors who together collected and published folklore during the 19th century.

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Castiglione della Pescaia

Castiglione della Pescaia, regionally simply abbreviated as Castiglione, is an ancient seaside town in the province of Grosseto, in Tuscany, Italy.

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Cesare Pavese

Cesare Pavese (9 September 1908 – 27 August 1950) was an Italian poet, novelist, literary critic and translator.

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Charles Eliot Norton Lectures

The Charles Eliot Norton Professorship of Poetry at Harvard University was established in 1925 as an annual lectureship in "poetry in the broadest sense" and named for the university's former professor of fine arts.

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Che Guevara

Ernesto "Che" Guevara (June 14, 1928 – October 9, 1967)The date of birth recorded on was June 14, 1928, although one tertiary source, (Julia Constenla, quoted by Jon Lee Anderson), asserts that he was actually born on May 14 of that year.

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Civitavecchia (meaning "ancient town") is a town and comune of the Metropolitan City of Rome in the central Italian region of Lazio.

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Claude Lévi-Strauss

Claude Lévi-Strauss (28 November 1908, Brussels – 30 October 2009, Paris) was a French anthropologist and ethnologist whose work was key in the development of the theory of structuralism and structural anthropology.

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Cold War

The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).

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Communist Party of Italy

The Communist Party of Italy (Partito Comunista d'Italia, PCd'I) was a communist political party in Italy which existed from 1921 to 1926 when it was outlawed by Benito Mussolini's Fascist regime.

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Corriere della Sera

The Corriere della Sera (English: Evening Courier) is an Italian daily newspaper published in Milan with an average daily circulation of 410,242 copies in December 2015.

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Cosmicomics (Le cosmicomiche) is a collection of twelve short stories by Italo Calvino first published in Italian in 1965 and in English in 1968.

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Cyrano de Bergerac

Savinien de Cyrano de Bergerac (6 March 1619 – 28 July 1655) was a French novelist, playwright, epistolarian and duelist.

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Damian Pettigrew

Damian (also Damien) Pettigrew (born in Quebec) is a Canadian filmmaker, screenwriter, producer, author, and multimedia artist, best known for his cinematic portraits of Balthus, Federico Fellini and Jean Giraud.

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Daniele Del Giudice

Daniele Del Giudice (b. 1949, Rome) is an Italian author and lecturer.

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Dante Alighieri

Durante degli Alighieri, commonly known as Dante Alighieri or simply Dante (c. 1265 – 1321), was a major Italian poet of the Late Middle Ages.

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Difficult Loves

Difficult Loves (Gli amori difficili) is a 1970 short story collection by Italo Calvino.

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Docufiction (or docu-fiction), often confused with docudrama, is the cinematographic combination of documentary and fiction, this term often meaning narrative film.

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Edgar Allan Poe

Edgar Allan Poe (born Edgar Poe; January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was an American writer, editor, and literary critic.

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Elio Vittorini

Elio Vittorini (23 July 1908 – 12 February 1966) was an Italian writer and novelist.

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Elsa De Giorgi

Elsa De Giorgi (26 December 1914 – 12 September 1997) was an Italian film actress.

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Ernest Hemingway

Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 – July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short story writer, and journalist.

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Eugenio Montale

Eugenio Montale (12 October 1896 – 12 September 1981) was an Italian poet, prose writer, editor and translator, and recipient of the 1975 Nobel Prize in Literature.

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Eugenio Scalfari

Eugenio Scalfari (born 6 April 1924 in Civitavecchia) is an Italian journalist, editor of the news magazine L'espresso (1963–1968), former member of parliament in the Italian Chamber of Deputies (1968–1972), co-founder of the newspaper La Repubblica and its editor from 1976 to 1996.

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Fable is a literary genre: a succinct fictional story, in prose or verse, that features animals, legendary creatures, plants, inanimate objects, or forces of nature that are anthropomorphized (given human qualities, such as the ability to speak human language) and that illustrates or leads to a particular moral lesson (a "moral"), which may at the end be added explicitly as a pithy maxim or saying.

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Fantaghirò series

Fantaghirò, alternately titled The Cave of the Golden Rose (La Grotta della Rosa d'Oro), is an Italian fantasy series consisting of five television films directed by Lamberto Bava and released between 1991 and 1996.

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Fantasy is a genre of speculative fiction set in a fictional universe, often without any locations, events, or people referencing the real world.

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Federico Fellini

Federico Fellini, Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI (20 January 1920 – 31 October 1993) was an Italian film director and screenwriter.

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Feltrinelli Prize

The Feltrinelli Prize (from the Italian "Premio Feltrinelli", also known as "International Feltrinelli Prize" or "Antonio Feltrinelli Prize") is an award for achievement in the arts, music, literature, history, philosophy, medicine, and physical and mathematical sciences.

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Floriculture, or flower farming, is a discipline of horticulture concerned with the cultivation of flowering and ornamental plants for gardens and for floristry, comprising the floral industry.

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Ford Foundation

The Ford Foundation is a New York-headquartered, globally oriented private foundation with the mission of advancing human welfare.

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Franz Kafka

Franz Kafka (3 July 1883 – 3 June 1924) was a German-speaking Bohemian Jewish novelist and short story writer, widely regarded as one of the major figures of 20th-century literature.

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Freemasonry or Masonry consists of fraternal organisations that trace their origins to the local fraternities of stonemasons, which from the end of the fourteenth century regulated the qualifications of stonemasons and their interaction with authorities and clients.

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French Riviera

The French Riviera (known in French as the Côte d'Azur,; Còsta d'Azur; literal translation "Coast of Azure") is the Mediterranean coastline of the southeast corner of France.

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Galileo Galilei

Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564Drake (1978, p. 1). The date of Galileo's birth is given according to the Julian calendar, which was then in force throughout Christendom. In 1582 it was replaced in Italy and several other Catholic countries with the Gregorian calendar. Unless otherwise indicated, dates in this article are given according to the Gregorian calendar. – 8 January 1642) was an Italian polymath.

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Georges Perec

Georges Perec (7 March 1936 – 3 March 1982) was a French novelist, filmmaker, documentalist, and essayist.

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Giacomo Leopardi

Giacomo Taldegardo Francesco di Sales Saverio Pietro Leopardi (29 June 1798 – 14 June 1837) was an Italian philosopher, poet, essayist, and philologist.

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Gianni Celati

Gianni Celati (born 1937 in Sondrio, Lombardy) is an Italian writer, translator and literary critic.

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Giorgio Bassani

Giorgio Bassani (4 March 1916 – 13 April 2000) was an Italian novelist, poet, essayist, editor, and international intellectual.

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Giulio Angioni

Giulio Angioni (28 October 1939 – 12 January 2017) was an Italian writer and anthropologist.

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Giulio Einaudi

Giulio Einaudi (2 January 1912 – 5 April 1999) was an Italian book publisher.

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Gore Vidal

Eugene Luther Gore Vidal (born Eugene Louis Vidal; October 3, 1925 – July 31, 2012) was an American writer and public intellectual known for his patrician manner, epigrammatic wit, and polished style of writing.

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The grapefruit (Citrus × paradisi) is a subtropical citrus tree known for its sour to semi-sweet, somewhat bitter fruit.

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Harvard University

Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

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Havana (Spanish: La Habana) is the capital city, largest city, province, major port, and leading commercial center of Cuba.

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Honoré de Balzac

Honoré de Balzac (born Honoré Balzac, 20 May 1799 – 18 August 1850) was a French novelist and playwright.

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Hungarian Revolution of 1956

The Hungarian Revolution of 1956, or Hungarian Uprising of 1956 (1956-os forradalom or 1956-os felkelés), was a nationwide revolt against the Marxist-Leninist government of the Hungarian People's Republic and its Soviet-imposed policies, lasting from 23 October until 10 November 1956.

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If on a winter's night a traveler

If on a winter's night a traveler (Se una notte d'inverno un viaggiatore) is a 1979 novel by the Italian writer Italo Calvino.

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Ignatius of Loyola

Saint Ignatius of Loyola (Ignazio Loiolakoa, Ignacio de Loyola; – 31 July 1556) was a Spanish Basque priest and theologian, who founded the religious order called the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) and became its first Superior General.

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Il Menabò di letteratura

Il Menabò di letteratura was an Italian cultural and literary magazine published between 1959 and 1967.

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Il Politecnico

Il Politecnico (meaning the Polytechnic in English) was an Italian language Communist culture and literary magazine published in Italy between 1945 and 1947.

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Institut national de l'audiovisuel

The Institut national de l'audiovisuel (or INA, French for National Audiovisual Institute) is a repository of all French radio and television audiovisual archives.

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Intracerebral hemorrhage

Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), also known as cerebral bleed, is a type of intracranial bleed that occurs within the brain tissue or ventricles.

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Invisible Cities

Invisible Cities (Le città invisibili) is a novel by Italian writer Italo Calvino.

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Ismail Kadare

Ismail Kadare (also spelled Kadaré; born 28 January 1936) is an Albanian novelist, poet, essayist and playwright.

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Italian Communist Party

The Italian Communist Party (Partito Comunista Italiano, PCI) was a communist political party in Italy.

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Italian Folktales

Italian Folktales (Fiabe italiane) is a collection of 200 Italian folktales published in 1956 by Italo Calvino.

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Italian resistance movement

The Italian resistance movement (Resistenza italiana or just la Resistenza) is an umbrella term for resistance groups that opposed the occupying German forces and the Italian Fascist puppet regime of the Italian Social Republic during the later years of World War II.

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Italian Social Republic

The Italian Social Republic (Repubblica Sociale Italiana,; RSI), informally known as the Republic of Salò (Repubblica di Salò), was a German puppet state with limited recognition that was created during the later part of World War II, existing from the beginning of German occupation of Italy in September 1943 until the surrender of German troops in Italy in May 1945.

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Italo Calvino

Italo Calvino (. RAI (circa 1970), retrieved 25 October 2012. 15 October 1923 – 19 September 1985) was an Italian journalist and writer of short stories and novels.

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Johan Huizinga

Johan Huizinga (7 December 1872 – 1 February 1945) was a Dutch historian and one of the founders of modern cultural history.

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Jorge Luis Borges

Jorge Francisco Isidoro Luis Borges Acevedo (24 August 1899 – 14 June 1986) was an Argentine short-story writer, essayist, poet and translator, and a key figure in Spanish-language literature.

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Joseph Conrad

Joseph Conrad (born Józef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowski; 3 December 1857 – 3 August 1924) was a Polish-British writer regarded as one of the greatest novelists to write in the English language.

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Joseph Stalin

Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.

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L'Espresso is an Italian weekly news magazine.

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L'Unità was an Italian newspaper, founded as official newspaper of the Italian Communist Party.

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La Repubblica

la Repubblica (the Republic) is an Italian daily general-interest newspaper.

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Lamberto Bava

Lamberto Bava (born 3 April 1944) is an Italian film director.

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Le chant du Styrène

Le chant du Styrène (lit. "the song of the styrene") is a 13 minutes long French documentary film from 1958 directed by Alain Resnais.

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Legion of Honour

The Legion of Honour, with its full name National Order of the Legion of Honour (Ordre national de la Légion d'honneur), is the highest French order of merit for military and civil merits, established in 1802 by Napoléon Bonaparte and retained by all the divergent governments and regimes later holding power in France, up to the present.

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Leonardo Sciascia

Leonardo Sciascia (8 January 1921 – 20 November 1989) was an Italian writer, novelist, essayist, playwright, and politician.

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A libretto is the text used in, or intended for, an extended musical work such as an opera, operetta, masque, oratorio, cantata or musical.

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Liev Schreiber

Isaac Liev Schreiber (born October 4, 1967) is an American actor, director, screenwriter, and producer.

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Liguria (Ligûria, Ligurie) is a coastal region of north-western Italy; its capital is Genoa.

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List of agriculture ministries

An agriculture ministry (also called an agriculture department, agriculture board, agriculture council, or agriculture agency, or ministry of rural development) is a ministry charged with agriculture.

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List of minor planets: 22001–23000

#fefefe | 22668 || || August 26, 1998 || Višnjan Observatory || Višnjan Obs.

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Luciano Berio

Luciano Berio, Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI (October 24, 1925 – May 27, 2003) was an Italian composer.

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Ludovico Ariosto

Ludovico Ariosto (8 September 1474 – 6 July 1533) was an Italian poet.

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Marcovaldo is a collection of 20 short stories written by Italo Calvino.

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Mario Monicelli

Mario Monicelli (16 May 1915 – 29 November 2010) was an Italian director and screenwriter and one of the masters of the Commedia all'Italiana (Comedy Italian style).

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Mario Rigoni Stern

Mario Rigoni Stern (1 November 1921 – 16 June 2008) was an Italian author and World War II veteran.

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Maritime Alps

The Maritime Alps (Alpes Maritimes; Alpi Marittime) are a mountain range in the southwestern part of the Alps.

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Martin McLaughlin

Martin L. McLaughlin is Professor of Italian and Agnelli-Serena Professor of Italian Studies in the Faculty of Medieval and Modern Languages, University of Oxford where he is a Fellow of Magdalen College.

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Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.

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Max Planck

Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, FRS (23 April 1858 – 4 October 1947) was a German theoretical physicist whose discovery of energy quanta won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918.

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May 1968 events in France

The volatile period of civil unrest in France during May 1968 was punctuated by demonstrations and massive general strikes as well as the occupation of universities and factories across France.

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Mexican Revolution

The Mexican Revolution (Revolución Mexicana) was a major armed struggle,, that radically transformed Mexican culture and government.

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Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.

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Middle class

The middle class is a class of people in the middle of a social hierarchy.

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Miguel de Cervantes

Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (29 September 1547 (assumed)23 April 1616 NS) was a Spanish writer who is widely regarded as the greatest writer in the Spanish language and one of the world's pre-eminent novelists.

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Milan (Milano; Milan) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,380,873 while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,235,000.

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Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities and Tourism (Italy)

The Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities and Tourism (Ministero dei Beni e delle Attività Culturali e del Turismo - MiBACT) is the culture ministry of the Italian Republic.

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Mr. Palomar


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Natalia Ginzburg

Natalia Ginzburg, (14 July 1916 – 7 October 1991), was an Italian author whose work explored family relationships, politics during and after the Fascist years and World War II, and philosophy.

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National Fascist Party

The National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF) was an Italian political party, created by Benito Mussolini as the political expression of fascism (previously represented by groups known as Fasci).

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National Film Board of Canada

The National Film Board of Canada (or simply National Film Board or NFB) (French: Office national du film du Canada, or ONF) is Canada's public film and digital media producer and distributor.

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National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.

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Neorealism (art)

In art, neorealism refers to a few movements.

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Neri Marcorè

Neri Marcorè (born 31 July 1966) is an Italian actor, dubber, imitator, TV presenter and singer.

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New York Institute for the Humanities

The New York Institute for the Humanities (NYIH) is an academic organisation affiliated with New York University, founded by Richard Sennett in 1976 to promote the exchange of ideas between academics, professionals and the general public.

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Norberto Bobbio

Norberto Bobbio (18 October 1909 – 9 January 2004) was an Italian philosopher of law and political sciences and a historian of political thought.

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Opera Nazionale Balilla

Opera Nazionale Balilla (ONB) was an Italian Fascist youth organization functioning between 1926 and 1937, when it was absorbed into the Gioventù Italiana del Littorio (GIL), a youth section of the National Fascist Party.

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Orhan Pamuk

Ferit Orhan Pamuk (generally known simply as Orhan Pamuk; born 7 June 1952) is a Turkish novelist, screenwriter, academic and recipient of the 2006 Nobel Prize in Literature.

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Orlando Furioso

Orlando Furioso ("The Frenzy of Orlando", more literally "Raging Roland"; in Italian titled "Orlando furioso" as the "F" is never capitalized) is an Italian epic poem by Ludovico Ariosto which has exerted a wide influence on later culture.

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Oulipo (short for Ouvroir de littérature potentielle; roughly translated: "workshop of potential literature") is a loose gathering of (mainly) French-speaking writers and mathematicians who seek to create works using constrained writing techniques.

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Our Ancestors

Our Ancestors (Italian: I Nostri Antenati) is the name of Italo Calvino's "heraldic trilogy" that comprises The Cloven Viscount (1952), The Baron in the Trees (1957), and The Nonexistent Knight (1959).

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Pacifism is opposition to war, militarism, or violence.

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Palmiro Togliatti

Palmiro Togliatti (26 March 1893 – 21 August 1964) was an Italian politician and leader of the Italian Communist Party from 1927 until his death.

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Pantheon, Rome

The Pantheon (or; Pantheum,Although the spelling Pantheon is standard in English, only Pantheum is found in classical Latin; see, for example, Pliny, Natural History: "Agrippae Pantheum decoravit Diogenes Atheniensis". See also Oxford Latin Dictionary, s.v. "Pantheum"; Oxford English Dictionary, s.v.: "post-classical Latin pantheon a temple consecrated to all the gods (6th cent.; compare classical Latin pantheum". from Greek Πάνθειον Pantheion, " of all the gods") is a former Roman temple, now a church, in Rome, Italy, on the site of an earlier temple commissioned by Marcus Agrippa during the reign of Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD). It was completed by the emperor Hadrian and probably dedicated about 126 AD. Its date of construction is uncertain, because Hadrian chose not to inscribe the new temple but rather to retain the inscription of Agrippa's older temple, which had burned down. The building is circular with a portico of large granite Corinthian columns (eight in the first rank and two groups of four behind) under a pediment. A rectangular vestibule links the porch to the rotunda, which is under a coffered concrete dome, with a central opening (oculus) to the sky. Almost two thousand years after it was built, the Pantheon's dome is still the world's largest unreinforced concrete dome. The height to the oculus and the diameter of the interior circle are the same,. It is one of the best-preserved of all Ancient Roman buildings, in large part because it has been in continuous use throughout its history, and since the 7th century, the Pantheon has been used as a church dedicated to "St. Mary and the Martyrs" (Sancta Maria ad Martyres) but informally known as "Santa Maria Rotonda". The square in front of the Pantheon is called Piazza della Rotonda. The Pantheon is a state property, managed by Italy's Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities and Tourism through the Polo Museale del Lazio; in 2013 it was visited by over 6 million people. The Pantheon's large circular domed cella, with a conventional temple portico front, was unique in Roman architecture. Nevertheless, it became a standard exemplar when classical styles were revived, and has been copied many times by later architects.

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Partisan (political)

In politics, a partisan is a committed member of a political party or political coalitions.

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Patrick Creagh

John Patrick Brasier-Creagh, best known as Patrick Creagh (23 October 1930 - 19 September 2012) was a British poet and translator.

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Peter Kropotkin

Pyotr Alexeevich Kropotkin (Пётр Алексе́евич Кропо́ткин; December 9, 1842 – February 8, 1921) was a Russian activist, revolutionary, scientist and philosopher who advocated anarcho-communism.

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Pietro Citati

Pietro Citati (born 1930, Florence) is an Italian writer and literary critic.

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Pino Zac

Giuseppe Zaccaria (23 April 1930 – 25 August 1985), best known as Pino Zac, was an Italian illustrator, cartoonist and animator.

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Playboy is an American men's lifestyle and entertainment magazine.

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Postmodernism is a broad movement that developed in the mid- to late-20th century across philosophy, the arts, architecture, and criticism and that marked a departure from modernism.

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Poverty is the scarcity or the lack of a certain (variant) amount of material possessions or money.

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RAI – Radiotelevisione italiana S.p.A. (commercially styled Rai; known until 1954 as Radio Audizioni Italiane is the national public broadcasting company of Italy, owned by the Ministry of Economy and Finance. The RAI operates many DVB and Sat television channels and radio stations, broadcasting via digital terrestrial transmission (15 television and 7 radio channels nationwide) and from several satellite platforms. It is the biggest television broadcaster in Italy and competes with Mediaset, and other minor television and radio networks. The RAI has a relatively high television audience share of 33.8%. RAI broadcasts are also received in neighboring countries, including Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Malta, Monaco, Montenegro, San Marino, Slovenia, Vatican City, Switzerland, and Tunisia, and elsewhere on cable and satellite. Sometimes Rai 1 was received even further in Europe via Sporadic E until the digital switch off in July 2012. Half of the RAI's revenues come from broadcast receiving licence fees, the rest from the sale of advertising time Retrieved on 2007-10-10 Italian Ministry of Communications, Retrieved on 2007-10-10. In 1950, the RAI became one of the 23 founding broadcasting organizations of the European Broadcasting Union.

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Raymond Queneau

Raymond Queneau (21 February 1903 – 25 October 1976) was a French novelist, poet, critic, editor and co-founder and president of Oulipo (Ouvroir de littérature potentielle), notable for his wit and cynical humour.

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Republicanism is an ideology centered on citizenship in a state organized as a republic under which the people hold popular sovereignty.

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Robert Louis Stevenson

Robert Louis Balfour Stevenson (13 November 1850 – 3 December 1894) was a Scottish novelist, poet, essayist, musician and travel writer.

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Roccamare is a village in Tuscany, central Italy, administratively a frazione of the comune of Castiglione della Pescaia, province of Grosseto.

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Roland Barthes

Roland Gérard Barthes (12 November 1915 – 26 March 1980) was a French literary theorist, philosopher, linguist, critic, and semiotician.

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Rudyard Kipling

Joseph Rudyard Kipling (30 December 1865 – 18 January 1936)The Times, (London) 18 January 1936, p. 12 was an English journalist, short-story writer, poet, and novelist.

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Salman Rushdie

Sir Ahmed Salman Rushdie (born 19 June 1947) is a British Indian novelist and essayist.

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Samuel Beckett

Samuel Barclay Beckett (13 April 1906 – 22 December 1989) was an Irish avant-garde novelist, playwright, theatre director, poet, and literary translator who lived in Paris for most of his adult life.

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Sanremo or San Remo (Sanrému, locally date The name of the city is a phonetic contraction of Sant'Eremo di San Romolo, which refers to Romulus of Genoa, the successor to Syrus of Genoa. It is often stated in modern folk stories that Sanremo is a translation of "Saint Remus", a deceased Saint. In Ligurian, his name is San Rœmu. The spelling San Remo is on all ancient maps of Liguria, the ancient Republic of Genoa, Italy in the Middle Ages, the Kingdom of Sardinia, and the Kingdom of Italy. It was used in 1924 in official documents under Mussolini. This form of the name appears still on some road signs and, more rarely, in unofficial tourist information. It has been the most widely used form of the name in English at least since the 19th century.

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Santa Maria della Scala (Siena)

Santa Maria della Scala (also referred to as the Hospital, Ospedale, and Spedale) is located in Siena, Italy.

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Santiago de las Vegas

Santiago de las Vegas is a ward of Boyeros, a municipality of Havana, Cuba, located south of the city center.

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Sassari (Sassari; Tàtari) is an Italian city and the second-largest of Sardinia in terms of population with 127,525 inhabitants, and a Functional Urban Area of about 222,000 inhabitants.

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The Schutzstaffel (SS; also stylized as with Armanen runes;; literally "Protection Squadron") was a major paramilitary organization under Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (NSDAP) in Nazi Germany, and later throughout German-occupied Europe during World War II.

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Scuola Italiana Italo Calvino

The Scuola italiana "Italo Calvino" ("Italo Calvino Italian School"; Итальянская школа "Итало Кальвино") is the only Italian curriculum school in Russia.

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Siena (in English sometimes spelled Sienna; Sena Iulia) is a city in Tuscany, Italy.

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Silvina Ocampo

Silvina Ocampo Aguirre (July 21, 1903 – December 14, 1993) was an Argentine poet and short-fiction writer.

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Six Memos for the Next Millennium

Six Memos for the Next Millennium (Lezioni americane.) is a book based on a series of lectures written by Italo Calvino for the Charles Eliot Norton Lectures at Harvard, but never delivered as Calvino died before leaving Italy.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Stresa is a town and comune of about 5,000 residents on the shores of Lake Maggiore in the province of Verbano-Cusio-Ossola in the Piedmont region of northern Italy, about northwest of Milan.

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T zero

t zero (original title: Ti con zero) is a 1967 collection of short stories by Italian author Italo Calvino.

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The Baron in the Trees

The Baron in the Trees (Il barone rampante) is a 1957 novel by Italian writer Italo Calvino.

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The Blue Flowers

The Blue Flowers, also known as Between Blue and Blue (original French title: Les fleurs bleues), is a French novel written by Raymond Queneau in 1965.

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The Burning of the Abominable House

"The Burning of the Abominable House" (Italian title: L'incendio della casa abominevole) is a short story by the Italian novelist Italo Calvino.

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The Castle of Crossed Destinies

The Castle of Crossed Destinies (Il castello dei destini incrociati) is a 1973 novel by the Italian writer Italo Calvino.

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The Cloven Viscount

The Cloven Viscount (Il visconte dimezzato) is a fantasy novel by Italian writer Italo Calvino.

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The Complete Cosmicomics

The Complete Cosmicomics is a 2009 book that collects almost all of the Cosmicomic stories by Italian postmodern writer Italo Calvino.

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The Crow Comes Last

The Crow Comes Last (Ultimo viene il corvo) is a short story collection by Italo Calvino published in 1949.

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The Jungle Book

The Jungle Book (1894) is a collection of stories by the English author Rudyard Kipling.

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The Nonexistent Knight

The Nonexistent Knight (Italian: Il cavaliere inesistente) is an allegorical fantasy novel by Italian writer Italo Calvino, first published in Italian in 1959 and in English translation in 1962.

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The Path to the Nest of Spiders

The Path to the Nest of Spiders (Il sentiero dei nidi di ragno) is a 1947 novel by the Italian writer Italo Calvino.

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The State and Revolution

The State and Revolution (1917), by Vladimir Lenin, describes the role of the State in society, the necessity of proletarian revolution, and the theoretic inadequacies of social democracy in achieving revolution to establish the dictatorship of the proletariat.

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Tim Parks

Timothy Harold Parks (born 19 December 1954 in Manchester) is a British novelist, translator, author and professor of literature.

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Tommaso Landolfi

Tommaso Landolfi (9 August 1908 – 8 July 1979) was an Italian author, translator and literary critic.

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Turin (Torino; Turin) is a city and an important business and cultural centre in northern Italy.

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Umberto Eco

Umberto Eco (5 January 1932 – 19 February 2016) was an Italian novelist, literary critic, philosopher, semiotician, and university professor.

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Un re in ascolto

Un re in ascolto (A King Listens) is an opera by Luciano Berio, who also wrote the Italian libretto.

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Under the Jaguar Sun

Under the Jaguar Sun is a collection of three short stories by Italo Calvino.

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University of Florence

The University of Florence (Italian: Università degli Studi di Firenze, UniFI) is an Italian public research university located in Florence, Italy.

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University of Paris

The University of Paris (Université de Paris), metonymically known as the Sorbonne (one of its buildings), was a university in Paris, France, from around 1150 to 1793, and from 1806 to 1970.

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University of Pavia

The University of Pavia (Università degli Studi di Pavia, UNIPV or Università di Pavia; Ticinensis Universitas) is a university located in Pavia, Lombardy, Italy.

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University of Turin

The University of Turin (Italian: Università degli Studi di Torino, or often abbreviated to UNITO) is a university in the city of Turin in the Piedmont region of north-western Italy.

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Urbino is a walled city in the Marche region of Italy, south-west of Pesaro, a World Heritage Site notable for a remarkable historical legacy of independent Renaissance culture, especially under the patronage of Federico da Montefeltro, duke of Urbino from 1444 to 1482.

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Venice Film Festival

The Venice Film Festival or Venice International Film Festival (Mostra Internazionale d'Arte Cinematografica della Biennale di Venezia, "International Exhibition of Cinematographic Art of the Venice Biennale") is the oldest film festival in the world and one of the "Big Three" film festivals, alongside the Cannes Film Festival and Berlin International Film Festival.

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Viareggio Prize

The Viareggio Prize (italic or Premio Letterario Viareggio-Rèpaci) is an Italian literary prize, first awarded in 1930.

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Victory in Europe Day

Victory in Europe Day, generally known as V-E Day, VE Day or simply V Day, celebrated on May 8, 1945 to mark the formal acceptance by the Allies of World War II of Nazi Germany's unconditional surrender of its armed forces.

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Vladimir Lenin

Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.

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Vladimir Nabokov

Vladimir Vladimirovich Nabokov (Влади́мир Влади́мирович Набо́ков, also known by the pen name Vladimir Sirin; 2 July 1977) was a Russian-American novelist, poet, translator and entomologist.

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Vladimir Propp

Vladimir Yakovlevich Propp (Владимир Яковлевич Пропп; – 22 August 1970) was a Soviet folklorist and scholar who analyzed the basic plot components of Russian folk tales to identify their simplest irreducible narrative elements.

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François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on Christianity as a whole, especially the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech and separation of church and state.

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W. G. Sebald

Winfried Georg Sebald (18 May 1944 – 14 December 2001), known as W. G. Sebald or Max Sebald, was a German writer and academic.

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The Waldensians (also known variously as Waldenses, Vallenses, Valdesi or Vaudois) are a pre-Protestant Christian movement founded by Peter Waldo in Lyon around 1173.

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Werner Heisenberg

Werner Karl Heisenberg (5 December 1901 – 1 February 1976) was a German theoretical physicist and one of the key pioneers of quantum mechanics.

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William Shakespeare

William Shakespeare (26 April 1564 (baptised)—23 April 1616) was an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as both the greatest writer in the English language, and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.

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William Weaver

William Fense Weaver (24 July 1923 – 12 November 2013) was an English language translator of modern Italian literature.

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Working class

The working class (also labouring class) are the people employed for wages, especially in manual-labour occupations and industrial work.

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World Fantasy Award

The World Fantasy Awards are a set of awards given each year for the best fantasy fiction published during the previous calendar year.

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Calvino, Italo Calvino bibliography.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italo_Calvino

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