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Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe. [1]

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'Ndrangheta

The 'Ndràngheta is an organized crime group centered in Calabria, Italy.

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Abruzzo

Abruzzo (Aquiliano: Abbrùzzu) is a region of Southern Italy, with an area of 10,763 square km (4,156 sq mi) and a population of 1.2 million.

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Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film

The Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film is one of the Academy Awards handed out annually by the U.S.-based Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS).

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Academy Awards

The Academy Awards, also known as the Oscars, are a set of 24 awards for artistic and technical merit in the American film industry, given annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), to recognize excellence in cinematic achievements as assessed by the Academy's voting membership.

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Academy Honorary Award

The Academy Honorary Award – instituted in 1948 for the 21st Academy Awards (previously called the Special Award, which was first presented in early 1929) – is given annually by the Board of Governors of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS) to celebrate motion picture achievements that are not covered by existing Academy Awards, although prior winners of competitive Academy Awards are not excluded from receiving the Honorary Award.

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Accademia degli Arcadi

The Accademia degli Arcadi or Accademia dell'Arcadia, "Academy of Arcadia" or "Academy of the Arcadians", was an Italian literary academy founded in Rome in 1690.

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Accounting

Accounting or accountancy is the measurement, processing, and communication of financial information about economic entities such as businesses and corporations.

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Acrobatics

Acrobatics (from Greek ἀκροβατέω akrobateō, "walk on tiptoe, strut") is the performance of extraordinary human feats of balance, agility, and motor coordination.

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Adriatic Sea

The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula.

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Aeolian Islands

The Aeolian Islands (Isole Eolie,, Ìsuli Eoli, Αιολίδες Νήσοι, Aiolides Nisoi) are a volcanic archipelago in the Tyrrhenian Sea north of Sicily, named after the demigod of the winds Aeolus.

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Aeolian wall lizard

The Aeolian wall lizard (Podarcis raffonei) is a species of lizard in the family Lacertidae.

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Afghanistan

Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.

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Age of Discovery

The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration (approximately from the beginning of the 15th century until the end of the 18th century) is an informal and loosely defined term for the period in European history in which extensive overseas exploration emerged as a powerful factor in European culture and was the beginning of globalization.

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Agrigento

Agrigento (Sicilian: Girgenti or Giurgenti) is a city on the southern coast of Sicily, Italy and capital of the province of Agrigento.

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Agusta A129 Mangusta

The Agusta A129 Mangusta (Mongoose) is an attack helicopter originally designed and produced by Italian company Agusta.

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Airline hub

Airline hubs or hub airports are used by one or more airlines to concentrate passenger traffic and flight operations at a given airport.

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Alban Hills

The Alban Hills are the site of a quiescent volcanic complex in Italy, located southeast of Rome and about north of Anzio.

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Albania

Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia or Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the Republic of Albania (Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe.

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Albanian language

Albanian (shqip, or gjuha shqipe) is a language of the Indo-European family, in which it occupies an independent branch.

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Albanians

The Albanians (Shqiptarët) are a European ethnic group that is predominantly native to Albania, Kosovo, western Macedonia, southern Serbia, southeastern Montenegro and northwestern Greece, who share a common ancestry, culture and language.

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Alcide De Gasperi

Alcide Amedeo Francesco De Gasperi (3 April 1881 – 19 August 1954) was an Italian statesman who founded the Christian Democracy party.

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Aldo Moro

Aldo Romeo Luigi Moro (23 September 1916 – 9 May 1978) was an Italian statesman and a prominent member of the Christian Democracy party.

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Alenia C-27J Spartan

The Alenia C-27J Spartan is a military transport aircraft developed and manufactured by Leonardo's Aircraft Division (formerly Alenia Aermacchi until 2016).

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Alessandro Bonci

Alessandro Bonci (February 10, 1870 – August 9, 1940) was an Italian lyric tenor known internationally for his association with the bel canto repertoire.

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Alessandro Cruto

Alessandro Cruto was an Italian inventor, born in the village of Piossasco, who created the incandescent light bulb.

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Alessandro Manzoni

Alessandro Francesco Tommaso Antonio Manzoni (7 March 1785 – 22 May 1873) was an Italian poet and novelist.

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Alessandro Volta

Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta (18 February 1745 – 5 March 1827) was an Italian physicist, chemist, and a pioneer of electricity and power,Giuliano Pancaldi, "Volta: Science and culture in the age of enlightenment", Princeton University Press, 2003.

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Alfa Romeo

Alfa Romeo Automobiles S.p.A. is a car manufacturer, founded by Frenchman Alexandre Darracq as A.L.F.A. (" Anonima Lombarda Fabbrica Automobili", "Lombard Automobile Factory Company") on 24 June 1910, in Milan.

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All-time Olympic Games medal table

The all-time medal table for all Olympic Games from 1896 to 2018, including Summer Olympic Games, Winter Olympic Games, and a combined total of both, is tabulated below.

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Allied invasion of Sicily

The Allied invasion of Sicily, codenamed Operation Husky, was a major campaign of World War II, in which the Allies took the island of Sicily from the Axis powers (Italy and Nazi Germany).

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Allies of World War I

The Allies of World War I, or Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers in the First World War.

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Almond

The almond (Prunus dulcis, syn. Prunus amygdalus) is a species of tree native to Mediterranean climate regions of the Middle East, from Syria and Turkey to India and Pakistan, although it has been introduced elsewhere.

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Alpine ibex

The Alpine ibex (Capra ibex), also known as the steinbock, bouquetin, or simply ibex, is a species of wild goat that lives in the mountains of the European Alps.

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Alpine marmot

The alpine marmot (Marmota marmota) is a species of marmot found in mountainous areas of central and southern Europe.

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Alpine skiing

Alpine skiing, or downhill skiing, is the pastime of sliding down snow-covered slopes on skis with fixed-heel bindings, unlike other types of skiing (cross-country, Telemark, or ski jumping) which use skis with free-heel bindings.

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Alps

The Alps (Alpes; Alpen; Alpi; Alps; Alpe) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe,The Caucasus Mountains are higher, and the Urals longer, but both lie partly in Asia.

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Altamura Man

The Altamura Man is a fossil of the genus Homo discovered in 1993 in a karst sinkhole in the Lamalunga Cave near the city of Altamura, Italy.

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Ambrose

Aurelius Ambrosius (– 397), better known in English as Ambrose, was a bishop of Milan who became one of the most influential ecclesiastical figures of the 4th century.

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Ambrosio Film

Ambrosio Film was an Italian film production and distribution company which played a leading role in Italian cinema during the silent era.

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Amedeo Avogadro

Amedeo Carlo Avogadro, Count of Quaregna and Cerreto (9 August 17769 July 1856), was an Italian scientist, most noted for his contribution to molecular theory now known as Avogadro's law, which states that equal volumes of gases under the same conditions of temperature and pressure will contain equal numbers of molecules.

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Amerigo Vespucci

Amerigo Vespucci (March 9, 1454February 22, 1512) was an Italian explorer, financier, navigator and cartographer.

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Ancient Carthage

Carthage (from Carthago; Punic:, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the Phoenician state, including, during the 7th–3rd centuries BC, its wider sphere of influence, known as the Carthaginian Empire.

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Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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Ancient Greek cuisine

Ancient Greek cuisine was characterized by its frugality, reflecting agricultural hardship.

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Ancient Roman cuisine

Ancient Roman cuisine changed over the long duration of the ancient Roman civilization.

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Ancient Rome

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.

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Ancona

Ancona ((elbow)) is a city and a seaport in the Marche region in central Italy, with a population of around 101,997.

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Ancus Marcius

Ancus Marcius (–617 BC; reigned 642–617 BC)"Ancus Marcius" in The New Encyclopædia Britannica.

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Andrea Bocelli

Andrea Bocelli, (born 22 September 1958) is an Italian singer, songwriter, and record producer.

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Andrea del Verrocchio

Andrea del Verrocchio (1435 – 1488), born Andrea di Michele di Francesco de' Cioni, was an Italian painter, sculptor, and goldsmith who was a master of an important workshop in Florence.

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Andrea Mantegna

Andrea Mantegna (September 13, 1506) was an Italian painter, a student of Roman archeology, and son-in-law of Jacopo Bellini.

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Andrea Palladio

Andrea Palladio (30 November 1508 – 19 August 1580) was an Italian architect active in the Republic of Venice.

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Annibale Carracci

Annibale Carracci (November 3, 1560 – July 15, 1609) was an Italian painter, active in Bologna and later in Rome.

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Anno Domini

The terms anno Domini (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.

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Anti-fascism

Anti-fascism is opposition to fascist ideologies, groups and individuals.

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Antiochus of Syracuse

Antiochus of Syracuse (Ἀντίοχος ὁ Συρακούσιος) was a Greek historian, who flourished around 420 BC.

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Antiproton

The antiproton,, (pronounced p-bar) is the antiparticle of the proton.

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Antonio Canova

Antonio Canova (1 November 1757 – 13 October 1822) was an Italian Neoclassical sculptor, famous for his marble sculptures.

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Antonio Meucci

Antonio Santi Giuseppe Meucci (13 April 1808 – 18 October 1889) was an Italian inventor and an associate of Giuseppe Garibaldi (a major political figure in the history of Italy).

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Antonio Pacinotti

Antonio Pacinotti (17 June 1841 – 24 March 1912) was an Italian physicist, who was Professor of Physics at the University of Pisa.

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Antonio Vivaldi

Antonio Lucio Vivaldi (4 March 1678 – 28 July 1741) was an Italian Baroque musical composer, virtuoso violinist, teacher and cleric.

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Aosta

Aosta (Aoste; Aoûta; Augusta Praetoria Salassorum; Augschtal; Osta) is the principal city of Aosta Valley, a bilingual region in the Italian Alps, north-northwest of Turin.

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Aosta Valley

The Aosta Valley (Valle d'Aosta (official) or Val d'Aosta (usual); Vallée d'Aoste (official) or Val d'Aoste (usual); Val d'Outa (usual); Augschtalann or Ougstalland; Val d'Osta) is a mountainous autonomous region in northwestern Italy.

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Apennine Mountains

The Apennines or Apennine Mountains (Ἀπέννινα ὄρη; Appenninus or Apenninus Mons—a singular used in the plural;Apenninus has the form of an adjective, which would be segmented Apenn-inus, often used with nouns such as mons (mountain) or Greek ὄρος oros, but just as often used alone as a noun. The ancient Greeks and Romans typically but not always used "mountain" in the singular to mean one or a range; thus, "the Apennine mountain" refers to the entire chain and is translated "the Apennine mountains". The ending can vary also by gender depending on the noun modified. The Italian singular refers to one of the constituent chains rather than to a single mountain and the Italian plural refers to multiple chains rather than to multiple mountains. Appennini) are a mountain range consisting of parallel smaller chains extending along the length of peninsular Italy.

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Apennine yellow-bellied toad

The Apennine yellow-bellied toad (Bombina pachypus) is a species of toad in the Bombinatoridae family endemic to Italy.

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Apple

An apple is a sweet, edible fruit produced by an apple tree (Malus pumila).

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Apricot

An apricot is a fruit, or the tree that bears the fruit, of several species in the genus Prunus (stone fruits).

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Apulia

Apulia (Puglia; Pùglia; Pulia; translit) is a region of Italy in Southern Italy bordering the Adriatic Sea to the east, the Ionian Sea to the southeast, and the Strait of Òtranto and Gulf of Taranto to the south.

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Arab Spring

The Arab Spring (الربيع العربي ar-Rabīʻ al-ʻArabī), also referred to as Arab Revolutions (الثورات العربية aṯ-'awrāt al-ʻarabiyyah), was a revolutionary wave of both violent and non-violent demonstrations, protests, riots, coups, foreign interventions, and civil wars in North Africa and the Middle East that began on 18 December 2010 in Tunisia with the Tunisian Revolution.

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Arabic

Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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Arbëresh language

Arbëresh (also known as Arbërisht, Arbërishtja or T'arbrisht) is the variety of Albanian spoken by the Arbëreshë people in Italy.

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Arcangelo Corelli

Arcangelo Corelli (17 February 1653 – 8 January 1713) was an Italian violinist and composer of the Baroque era.

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Architectural design values

Architectural design values make up an important part of what influences architects and designers when they make their design decisions.

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Architecture

Architecture is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings or any other structures.

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Ariete

The C1 Ariete is the main battle tank of the Italian Army, developed by a consortium formed by Iveco-Fiat and Oto Melara (CIO, Consorzio Iveco Oto Melara).

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Aristotle

Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.

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Armando Trovajoli

Armando Trovajoli (also Trovaioli, 2 September 1917 – 28 February 2013) was an Italian film composer and pianist with over 300 credits as composer and/or conductor, many of them jazz scores for exploitation films of the Commedia all'italiana genre.

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Armani

Giorgio Armani S.P.A. is an Italian fashion house founded by Giorgio Armani which designs, manufactures, distributes and retails haute couture, ready-to-wear, leather goods, shoes, watches, jewelry, accessories, eyewear, cosmetics and home interiors.

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Armistice of 11 November 1918

The Armistice of 11 November 1918 was the armistice that ended fighting on land, sea and air in World War I between the Allies and their last opponent, Germany.

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Armistice of Cassibile

The Armistice of Cassibile was an armistice signed on 3 September 1943 by Walter Bedell Smith and Giuseppe Castellano, and made public on 8 September, between the Kingdom of Italy and the Allies during World War II.

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Armistice of Villa Giusti

The Armistice of Villa Giusti ended warfare between Italy and Austria-Hungary on the Italian Front during World War I. The armistice was signed on 3 November 1918 in the Villa Giusti, outside Padua in the Veneto, northern Italy, and took effect 24 hours later.

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Artemisia Gentileschi

Artemisia Gentileschi (July 8, 1593c. 1656) was an Italian Baroque painter, today considered one of the most accomplished painters in the generation following that of Caravaggio.

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Artichoke

The globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus)Rottenberg, A., and D. Zohary, 1996: "The wild ancestry of the cultivated artichoke." Genet.

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Assassination of Julius Caesar

The assassination of Julius Caesar was the result of a conspiracy by many Roman senators led by Gaius Cassius Longinus, Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus, and Marcus Junius Brutus.

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Assemblies of God

The Assemblies of God (AG), officially the World Assemblies of God Fellowship, is a group of over 140 autonomous but loosely associated national groupings of churches which together form the world's largest Pentecostal denomination.

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Association football

Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.

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Assumption of Mary

The Assumption of Mary into Heaven (often shortened to the Assumption and also known as the Feast of Saint Mary the Virgin, Mother of Our Lord Jesus Christ and the Falling Asleep of the Blessed Virgin Mary (the Dormition)) is, according to the beliefs of the Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy, and parts of Anglicanism, the bodily taking up of the Virgin Mary into Heaven at the end of her earthly life.

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Astatine

Astatine is a radioactive chemical element with symbol At and atomic number 85.

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Atlantia (company)

Atlantia S.p.A. (formerly Autostrade S.p.A.) is an Italian holding company whose primary asset is Autostrade per l'Italia, the largest concessionaire on the Italian autostrade network.

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Attack helicopter

An attack helicopter is an armed helicopter with the primary role of an attack aircraft, with the capability of engaging targets on the ground, such as enemy infantry and armored fighting vehicles.

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Auguste and Louis Lumière

The Lumière brothers, Auguste Marie Louis Nicolas; 19 October 1862 – 10 April 1954) and Louis Jean; 5 October 1864 – 7 June 1948), were among the first filmmakers in history. They patented an improved cinematograph, which in contrast to Thomas Edison's "peepshow" kinetoscope allowed simultaneous viewing by multiple parties.

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Augustus

Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.

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Australian Bureau of Statistics

The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) is the independent statistical agency of the Government of Australia.

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Austria

Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.

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Austria-Hungary

Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.

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Austrian Empire

The Austrian Empire (Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling Kaisertum Österreich) was a Central European multinational great power from 1804 to 1919, created by proclamation out of the realms of the Habsburgs.

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Austrian Littoral

The Austrian Littoral (Österreichisches Küstenland, Litorale Austriaco, Avstrijsko primorje, Austrijsko primorje, Osztrák Partvidék) was a crown land (Kronland) of the Austrian Empire, established in 1849.

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Austro-Prussian War

The Austro-Prussian War or Seven Weeks' War (also known as the Unification War, the War of 1866, or the Fraternal War, in Germany as the German War, and also by a variety of other names) was a war fought in 1866 between the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia, with each also being aided by various allies within the German Confederation.

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Automotive industry in Italy

The automotive industry in Italy is a quite large employer in the country, it had over 2,131 firms and employed almost 250,000 people in 2006.

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Aviano Air Base

Aviano Air Base (Base aerea di Aviano) is a NATO base in northeastern Italy, in the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region.

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Avogadro constant

In chemistry and physics, the Avogadro constant (named after scientist Amedeo Avogadro) is the number of constituent particles, usually atoms or molecules, that are contained in the amount of substance given by one mole.

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Avogadro's law

Avogadro's law (sometimes referred to as Avogadro's hypothesis or Avogadro's principle) is an experimental gas law relating the volume of a gas to the amount of substance of gas present.

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Axis powers

The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.

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B1 Centauro

The Centauro is a family of Italian military vehicles originating from a wheeled tank destroyer for light to medium territorial defense and tactical reconnaissance.

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B61 nuclear bomb

The B61 nuclear bomb is the primary thermonuclear gravity bomb in the United States Enduring Stockpile following the end of the Cold War.

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Baldassare Castiglione

Baldassare Castiglione (December 6, 1478 – February 2, 1529),Dates of birth and death, and cause of the latter, from, Italica, Rai International online.

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Balkan Campaign (World War II)

The Balkan Campaign of World War II began with the Italian invasion of Greece on 28 October 1940.

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Balkans

The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.

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Banco del Mutuo Soccorso

Banco del Mutuo Soccorso (English: Bank of Mutual Relief) is an Italian rock band.

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Barbaresco

Barbaresco is an Italian wine made with the Nebbiolo grape.

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Barbera d'Asti

Barbera d'Asti is an Italian red wine made from the Barbera grape variety.

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Bari

Bari (Barese: Bare; Barium; translit) is the capital city of the Metropolitan City of Bari and of the Apulia region, on the Adriatic Sea, in southern Italy.

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Barolo

Barolo is a red Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita (DOCG) wine produced in the northern Italian region of Piedmont.

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Barometer

A barometer is a scientific instrument used in meteorology to measure atmospheric pressure.

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Bartolomeo Manfredi

Bartolomeo Manfredi (baptised 25 August 1582 – 12 December 1622) was an Italian painter, a leading member of the Caravaggisti (followers of Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio) of the early 17th century.

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Basilicata

Basilicata, also known with its ancient name Lucania, is a region in Southern Italy, bordering on Campania to the west, Apulia (Puglia) to the north and east, and Calabria to the south.

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Basketball

Basketball is a team sport played on a rectangular court.

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Basketball at the 2004 Summer Olympics

Basketball at the 2004 Summer Olympics took place at the Helliniko Olympic Indoor Arena, a part of the Hellinikon Olympic Complex, in Athens, for the preliminary rounds, with the later stages being held in the Olympic Indoor Hall at the Athens Olympic Sports Complex.

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Battle of Legnano

The Battle of Legnano was fought on May 29, 1176, between the forces of the Holy Roman Empire, led by Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, and the Lombard League.

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Battle of the Oranges

The Battle of the Oranges is a festival in the Northern Italian city of Ivrea, which includes a tradition of throwing of oranges between organized groups.

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Battle of Vittorio Veneto

The Battle of Vittorio Veneto was fought from 24 October to 3 November 1918 near Vittorio Veneto on the Italian Front during World War I. The Italian victory marked the end of the war on the Italian Front, secured the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and contributed to the end of the First World War just one week later.

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BBC News

BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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Befana

In Italian folklore, Befana is an old woman who delivers gifts to children throughout Italy on Epiphany Eve (the night of January 5) in a similar way to St Nicholas or Santa Claus.

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Belgium

Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.

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Bell pepper

The bell pepper (also known as sweet pepper, pepper or capsicum) is a cultivar group of the species Capsicum annuum.

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Ben-Hur (1959 film)

Ben-Hur is a 1959 American epic religious drama film, directed by William Wyler, produced by Sam Zimbalist for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and starring Charlton Heston as the title character.

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Benedetto Croce

Benedetto Croce (25 February 1866 – 20 November 1952) was an Italian idealist philosopher, historian and politician, who wrote on numerous topics, including philosophy, history, historiography and aesthetics.

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Benito Mussolini

Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician and journalist who was the leader of the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF).

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Benny Benassi

Marco "Benny" Benassi (born 13 July 1967) is an Italian DJ, record producer and remixer.

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Berlin Wall

The Berlin Wall (Berliner Mauer) was a guarded concrete barrier that physically and ideologically divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989.

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Berne Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats

The Bern Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats, also known as the Bern Convention (or Berne Convention), is a binding international legal instrument in the field of Nature Conservation, it covers the natural heritage in Europe, as well as in some African countries.

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Bernstein's problem

In differential geometry, Bernstein's problem is as follows: if the graph of a function on Rn−1 is a minimal surface in Rn, does this imply that the function is linear? This is true in dimensions n at most 8, but false in dimensions n at least 9.

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Bettino Craxi

Benedetto "Bettino" Craxi (24 February 1934 – 19 January 2000) was an Italian politician, leader of the Italian Socialist Party from 1976 to 1993 and Prime Minister of Italy from 1983 to 1987.

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Bicameralism

A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses.

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Bicycle Thieves

Bicycle Thieves (Ladri di biciclette; sometimes known in the United States as The Bicycle Thief) is a 1948 Italian film directed by Vittorio De Sica.

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Biennio Rosso

The Biennio Rosso (English: "Red Biennium" or "Two Red Years") was a two-year period, between 1919 and 1920, of intense social conflict in Italy, following the First World War.

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Big Four (Western Europe)

The Big Four, also known as G4 or EU4, refers to France, Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom.

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Biodiversity

Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.

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Black Box (band)

Black Box is an Italian house music group popular in the late 1980s and early 1990s.

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Black Death

The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague, the Black Plague, or simply the Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.

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Blackshirts

The Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale (MVSN, "Voluntary Militia for National Security"), commonly called the Blackshirts (Camicie Nere, CCNN, singular: Camicia Nera) or squadristi (singular: squadrista), was originally the paramilitary wing of the National Fascist Party and, after 1923, an all-volunteer militia of the Kingdom of Italy.

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Blue Grotto (Capri)

The Blue Grotto is a sea cave on the coast of the island of Capri, southern Italy.

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Blue-water navy

A blue-water navy is a maritime force capable of operating globally, essentially across the deep waters of open oceans.

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Bob Dylan

Bob Dylan (born Robert Allen Zimmerman, May 24, 1941) is an American singer-songwriter, author, and painter who has been an influential figure in popular music and culture for more than five decades.

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Boboli Gardens

The Boboli Gardens (Giardino di Boboli) is a park in Florence, Italy, that is home to a collection of sculptures dating from the 16th through the 18th centuries, with some Roman antiquities.

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Bologna

Bologna (Bulåggna; Bononia) is the capital and largest city of the Emilia-Romagna Region in Northern Italy.

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Bologna massacre

The Bologna massacre (strage di Bologna) was a terrorist bombing of the Central Station at Bologna, Italy, on the morning of 2 August 1980, which killed 85 people and wounded more than 200.

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Bord Bia

Bord Bia (English: Irish Food Board) is an Irish state agency with the aim of promoting sales of Irish food and horticulture both abroad and in Ireland itself.

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Boxer Rebellion

The Boxer Rebellion (拳亂), Boxer Uprising or Yihetuan Movement (義和團運動) was a violent anti-foreign, anti-colonial and anti-Christian uprising that took place in China between 1899 and 1901, toward the end of the Qing dynasty.

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Brand Finance

Brand Finance is an independent branded business valuation consultancy.

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Brothers of Italy

Brothers of Italy (Fratelli d'Italia, FdI) is a national-conservative political party in Italy led by Giorgia Meloni.

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Brown cave salamander

The Brown Cave Salamander, Gene's Cave Salamander, Sardinian Cave Salamander, or simply Sardinian Salamander (Atylodes genei) is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae.

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Brunello di Montalcino

Brunello di Montalcino is a red DOCG Italian wine produced in the vineyards surrounding the town of Montalcino located about 80 km south of Florence in the Tuscany wine region.

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Bruno Munari

Bruno Munari (October 24, 1907, Milan – September 30, 1998, Milan) was an Italian artist, designer, and inventor who contributed fundamentals to many fields of visual arts (painting, sculpture, film, industrial design, graphic design) in modernism, futurism, and concrete art, and in non visual arts (literature, poetry) with his research on games, didactic method, movement, tactile learning, kinesthetic learning, and creativity.

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Bruno Rossi

Bruno Benedetto Rossi (13 April 1905 – 21 November 1993) was an Italian experimental physicist.

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Byzantine architecture

Byzantine architecture is the architecture of the Byzantine Empire, also known as the Later Roman or Eastern Roman Empire.

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Byzantine cuisine

Byzantine cuisine (βυζαντινή κουζίνα) was marked by a merger of Greek and Roman gastronomy.

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Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).

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Cagliari

Cagliari (Casteddu; Caralis) is an Italian municipality and the capital of the island of Sardinia, an autonomous region of Italy.

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Calabria

Calabria (Calàbbria in Calabrian; Calavría in Calabrian Greek; Καλαβρία in Greek; Kalavrì in Arbëresh/Albanian), known in antiquity as Bruttium, is a region in Southern Italy.

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Calcio Fiorentino

Calcio fiorentino (also known as calcio storico "historic football") is an early form of football that originated in 16th-century Italy.

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Caldera

A caldera is a large cauldron-like depression that forms following the evacuation of a magma chamber/reservoir.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour

Camillo Paolo Filippo Giulio Benso, Count of Cavour, Isolabella and Leri (10 August 1810 – 6 June 1861), generally known as Cavour, was an Italian statesman and a leading figure in the movement toward Italian unification.

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Camillo Golgi

Camillo Golgi (7 July 1843 – 21 January 1926) was an Italian biologist and pathologist known for his works on the central nervous system.

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Campania

Campania is a region in Southern Italy.

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Campione d'Italia

Campione d'Italia is a comune (municipality) of the Province of Como in the Lombardy region of Italy and an exclave surrounded by the Swiss canton of Ticino.

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Campobasso

Campobasso (Campobassan dialect Cambuàsce) is a city and comune in southern Italy, the capital of the region of Molise and of the province of Campobasso.

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Camunni

The Camuni or Camunni were an ancient population located in Val Camonica during the Iron Age (1st millennium BC); the Latin name Camunni was attributed to them by the authors of the 1st century.

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Canaletto

Giovanni Antonio Canal (18 October 1697 – 19 April 1768), better known as Canaletto, was an Italian painter of city views or vedute, of Venice, Rome, and London.

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Canovaccio

A canovaccio is a scenario used by commedia dell'arte players.

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Canticle of the Sun

The Canticle of the Sun, also known as Laudes Creaturarum (Praise of the Creatures) and Canticle of the Creatures, is a religious song composed by Saint Francis of Assisi.

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Capetian House of Anjou

The Capetian House of Anjou was a royal house and cadet branch of the direct French House of Capet, part of the Capetian dynasty.

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Capitalism

Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.

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Capri

Capri (usually pronounced by English speakers) is an island located in the Tyrrhenian Sea off the Sorrentine Peninsula, on the south side of the Gulf of Naples in the Campania region of Italy.

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Capture of Rome

The capture of Rome (Presa di Roma) on 20 September 1870 was the final event of the long process of Italian unification known as the Risorgimento, marking both the final defeat of the Papal States under Pope Pius IX and the unification of the Italian peninsula under King Victor Emmanuel II of the House of Savoy.

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Caput Mundi

Roma Caput Mundi is a Latin phrase taken to mean "Rome capital of the world" and "Roma capitale del mondo" in Italian (literally: "head of the world"; see capital, capitol).

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Car

A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation.

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Carabinieri

The Carabinieri (formally Arma dei Carabinieri, "Carabinieri Force" or previously Corpo dei Carabinieri Reali, "Royal Carabinieri Corps") is the fourth Italian military force charged with police duties under the authority of the Ministry of Defense.

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Caravaggio

Michelangelo Merisi (Michele Angelo Merigi or Amerighi) da Caravaggio (28 September 1571 – 18 July 1610) was an Italian painter active in Rome, Naples, Malta, and Sicily from the early 1590s to 1610.

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Carbon cycle

The carbon cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged among the biosphere, pedosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere of the Earth.

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Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.

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Carbonari

The Carbonari (Italian for "charcoal makers") was an informal network of secret revolutionary societies active in Italy from about 1800 to 1831.

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Carlo Collodi

Carlo Lorenzini, better known by the pen name Carlo Collodi (24 November 1826 – 26 October 1890), was an Italian author and journalist, widely known for his world-renowned fairy tale novel The Adventures of Pinocchio.

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Carlo Gesualdo

Carlo Gesualdo da Venosa (8 March 1566 – 8 September 1613) was Prince of Venosa and Count of Conza.

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Carlo Goldoni

Carlo Osvaldo Goldoni (25 February 1707 – 6 February 1793) was an Italian playwright and librettist from the Republic of Venice.

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Carlo Rubbia

Carlo Rubbia, (born 31 March 1934) is an Italian particle physicist and inventor who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1984 with Simon van der Meer for work leading to the discovery of the W and Z particles at CERN.

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Carlo Saraceni

Carlo Saraceni (1579 – 16 June 1620) was an Italian early-Baroque painter, whose reputation as a "first-class painter of the second rank" was improved with the publication of a modern monograph in 1968.

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Carnegie Endowment for International Peace

The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (CEIP) is a foreign-policy think tank with centers in Washington D.C., Moscow, Beirut, Beijing, Brussels, and New Delhi.

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Carnival in Italy

The most famous carnivals of Italy are those held in Venice, Viareggio, Ivrea, Cento, Gambettola, Satriano, and Acireale.

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Carnival of Satriano di Lucania

The Carnival of Satriano (Carnevale di Satriano), held in Satriano di Lucania, Italy every February, is one of the country's many carnivals.

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Carnival of Venice

The Carnival of Venice (Carnevale di Venezia) is an annual festival held in Venice, Italy.

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Carnival of Viareggio

The Carnival of Viareggio (Carnevale di Viareggio) is a carnival event annually held in the Tuscan city of Viareggio, in Italy.

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Cassata

Cassata or Cassata siciliana is a traditional sweet from Sicily, Italy.

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Castel del Monte, Apulia

Castel del Monte (Italian for "Castle of the Mountain"; Barese: Castídde d'u Monte) is a 13th-century citadel and castle situated on a hill in Andria in the Apulia region of southeast Italy.

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Castel Sant'Angelo

The Mausoleum of Hadrian, usually known as Castel Sant'Angelo (English: Castle of the Holy Angel), is a towering cylindrical building in Parco Adriano, Rome, Italy.

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Catalan language

Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.

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Catanzaro

Catanzaro (Catanzarese: Catanzaru;, or Κατασταρίοι Λοκροί, Katastarioi Lokroi; Catacium), also known as the city of the two seas, is an Italian city of 91,000 inhabitants (2013) and the capital of the Calabria region and of its province.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

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Celts

The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.

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Central European Initiative

The Central European Initiative (CEI) is a forum of regional cooperation in Central and Eastern Europe, counting 18 member states.

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Central European Summer Time

Central European Summer Time (CEST), sometime referred also as Central European Daylight Time (CEDT), is the standard clock time observed during the period of summer daylight-saving in those European countries which observe Central European Time (UTC+1) during the other part of the year.

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Central European Time

Central European Time (CET), used in most parts of Europe and a few North African countries, is a standard time which is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).

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Central Intelligence Agency

The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).

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Central Italy

Central Italy (Italia centrale or just Centro) is one of the five official statistical regions of Italy used by the National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT), a first level NUTS region and a European Parliament constituency.

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Ceprano Man

Ceprano Man, Argil, and Ceprano Calvarium, refers to a Middle Pleistocene archaic human fossil, a single skull cap (calvaria), accidentally unearthed in a highway construction project in 1994 near Ceprano in the province of Frosinone, Italy.

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CERN

The European Organization for Nuclear Research (Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire), known as CERN (derived from the name Conseil européen pour la recherche nucléaire), is a European research organization that operates the largest particle physics laboratory in the world.

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Cesare Beccaria

Cesare Bonesana-Beccaria, Marquis of Gualdrasco and Villareggio (15 March 173828 November 1794) was an Italian criminologist, jurist, philosopher, and politician, who is widely considered as the most talented jurist and one of the greatest thinkers of the Age of Enlightenment.

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Chamber of Deputies (Italy)

The Chamber of Deputies (Camera dei deputati) is a house of the bicameral Parliament of Italy (the other being the Senate of the Republic).

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Charlemagne

Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.

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Chef

A chef is a trained professional cook who is proficient in all aspects of food preparation, often focusing on a particular cuisine.

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Chernobyl disaster

The Chernobyl disaster, also referred to as the Chernobyl accident, was a catastrophic nuclear accident.

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Cherry

A cherry is the fruit of many plants of the genus Prunus, and is a fleshy drupe (stone fruit).

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Chianti

A Chianti wine is any wine produced in the Chianti region, in central Tuscany, Italy.

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Chicago Pile-1

Chicago Pile-1 (CP-1) was the world's first nuclear reactor.

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China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Chiusaforte

Chiusaforte (Kluže, Klausen, Sclûse.) is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Udine in the Italian region Friuli-Venezia Giulia.

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Christendom

Christendom has several meanings.

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Christian Democracy (Italy)

Christian Democracy (Democrazia Cristiana, DC) was a Christian democratic political party in Italy.

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Christopher Columbus

Christopher Columbus (before 31 October 145120 May 1506) was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer.

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Cimabue

Cimabue (1240 – 1302),Vasari, G. Lives of the Artists.

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Cinecittà

Cinecittà (Italian for Cinema City) is a large film studio in Rome, Italy.

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Cinema of Italy

The Cinema of Italy comprises the films made within Italy or by Italian directors.

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Circumboreal Region

The Circumboreal Region in phytogeography is a floristic region within the Holarctic Kingdom in Eurasia and North America, as delineated by such geobotanists as Josias Braun-Blanquet and Armen Takhtajan.

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Cisalpine Gaul

Cisalpine Gaul (Gallia Cisalpina), also called Gallia Citerior or Gallia Togata, was the part of Italy inhabited by Celts (Gauls) during the 4th and 3rd centuries BC.

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Citrus

Citrus is a genus of flowering trees and shrubs in the rue family, Rutaceae.

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Civil law (legal system)

Civil law, civilian law, or Roman law is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of Roman law, the main feature of which is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law.

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Classical antiquity

Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.

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Classical music

Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture, including both liturgical (religious) and secular music.

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Claudio Monteverdi

Claudio Giovanni Antonio Monteverdi (15 May 1567 (baptized) – 29 November 1643) was an Italian composer, string player and choirmaster.

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Cleopatra (1963 film)

Cleopatra is a 1963 American epic historical drama film chronicling the struggles of Cleopatra, the young Queen of Egypt, to resist the imperial ambitions of Rome.

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Client state

A client state is a state that is economically, politically, or militarily subordinate to another more powerful state in international affairs.

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Coffee

Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, which are the seeds of berries from the Coffea plant.

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Colonies in antiquity

Colonies in antiquity were city-states founded from a mother-city (its "metropolis"), not from a territory-at-large.

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Colosseum

The Colosseum or Coliseum, also known as the Flavian Amphitheatre (Latin: Amphitheatrum Flavium; Italian: Anfiteatro Flavio or Colosseo), is an oval amphitheatre in the centre of the city of Rome, Italy.

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Commedia dell'arte

(comedy of the profession) was an early form of professional theatre, originating from Italy, that was popular in Europe from the 16th through the 18th century.

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Comune

The comune (plural: comuni) is a basic administrative division in Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality.

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Concordat of Worms

The Concordat of Worms (Concordatum Wormatiense), sometimes called the Pactum Calixtinum by papal historians, was an agreement between Pope Callixtus II and Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor on September 23, 1122, near the city of Worms.

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Condottieri

Condottieri (singular condottiero and condottiere) were the leaders of the professional military free companies (or mercenaries) contracted by the Italian city-states and the Papacy from the late Middle Ages and throughout the Renaissance.

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Congress of Vienna

The Congress of Vienna (Wiener Kongress) also called Vienna Congress, was a meeting of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich, and held in Vienna from November 1814 to June 1815, though the delegates had arrived and were already negotiating by late September 1814.

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Constituent Assembly of Italy

The Italian Constituent Assembly (Italian: Assemblea Costituente della Repubblica Italiana) was a parliamentary chamber which existed in Italy from 25 June 1946 until 31 January 1948.

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Constituent state

A constituent state is a territorial and constitutional entity forming part of a sovereign state.

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Constitution

A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed.

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Constitution of Italy

The Constitution of the Italian Republic (Costituzione della Repubblica Italiana) was enacted by the Constituent Assembly on 22 December 1947, with 453 votes in favour and 62 against.

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Constitutional Court of Italy

The Constitutional Court of the Italian Republic (Corte costituzionale della Repubblica Italiana) is the highest court of Italy in matters of constitutional law.

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Consul (representative)

A consul is an official representative of the government of one state in the territory of another, normally acting to assist and protect the citizens of the consul's own country, and to facilitate trade and friendship between the people of the two countries.

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Continental shelf

The continental shelf is an underwater landmass which extends from a continent, resulting in an area of relatively shallow water known as a shelf sea.

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Cooking

Cooking or cookery is the art, technology, science and craft of preparing food for consumption.

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Corriere della Sera

The Corriere della Sera (English: Evening Courier) is an Italian daily newspaper published in Milan with an average daily circulation of 410,242 copies in December 2015.

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Corsican red deer

Corsican red deer (Cervus elaphus corsicanus or Cervus corsicanus), also known simply as Corsican or Sardinian deer, is a subspecies of the red deer (Cervus elaphus), endemic to the Mediterranean islands of Sardinia (Italy) and Corsica (France).

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Costumes in commedia dell'arte

Each character in Commedia dell'arte is distinctly different, and defined by their movement, actions, masks, and costumes.

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Council of Europe

The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe) is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.

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Council of Ministers (Italy)

The Council of Ministers (Consiglio dei Ministri, CdM) is the principal executive organ of the Government of Italy.

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Coup d'état

A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.

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Courage

Courage (also called bravery or valour) is the choice and willingness to confront agony, pain, danger, uncertainty, or intimidation.

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Court (royal)

A court is an extended royal household in a monarchy, including all those who regularly attend on a monarch, or another central figure.

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Crested porcupine

The crested porcupine (Hystrix cristata) is a species of rodent in the family Hystricidae found in Italy, North Africa, and sub-Saharan Africa.

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Croatia

Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.

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Croatian language

Croatian (hrvatski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used by Croats, principally in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina and other neighboring countries.

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Crown of Aragon

The Crown of Aragon (Corona d'Aragón, Corona d'Aragó, Corona de Aragón),Corona d'AragónCorona AragonumCorona de Aragón) also referred by some modern historians as Catalanoaragonese Crown (Corona catalanoaragonesa) or Catalan-Aragonese Confederation (Confederació catalanoaragonesa) was a composite monarchy, also nowadays referred to as a confederation of individual polities or kingdoms ruled by one king, with a personal and dynastic union of the Kingdom of Aragon and the County of Barcelona. At the height of its power in the 14th and 15th centuries, the Crown of Aragon was a thalassocracy (a state with primarily maritime realms) controlling a large portion of present-day eastern Spain, parts of what is now southern France, and a Mediterranean "empire" which included the Balearic Islands, Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia, Malta, Southern Italy (from 1442) and parts of Greece (until 1388). The component realms of the Crown were not united politically except at the level of the king, who ruled over each autonomous polity according to its own laws, raising funds under each tax structure, dealing separately with each Corts or Cortes. Put in contemporary terms, it has sometimes been considered that the different lands of the Crown of Aragon (mainly the Kingdom of Aragon, the Principality of Catalonia and the Kingdom of Valencia) functioned more as a confederation than as a single kingdom. In this sense, the larger Crown of Aragon must not be confused with one of its constituent parts, the Kingdom of Aragon, from which it takes its name. In 1469, a new dynastic familial union of the Crown of Aragon with the Crown of Castile by the Catholic Monarchs, joining what contemporaries referred to as "the Spains" led to what would become the Kingdom of Spain under King Philip II. The Crown existed until it was abolished by the Nueva Planta decrees issued by King Philip V in 1716 as a consequence of the defeat of Archduke Charles (as Charles III of Aragon) in the War of the Spanish Succession.

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Crusades

The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.

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Cuisine

A cuisine is a style of cooking characterized by distinctive ingredients, techniques and dishes, and usually associated with a specific culture or geographic region.

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Culture of ancient Rome

The culture of ancient Rome existed throughout almost 1200-year history of the civilization of Ancient Rome.

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Cycle sport

Cycle sport is competitive physical activity using bicycles.

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Cyprus

Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.

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Dalmatia

Dalmatia (Dalmacija; see names in other languages) is one of the four historical regions of Croatia, alongside Croatia proper, Slavonia and Istria.

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Dante Alighieri

Durante degli Alighieri, commonly known as Dante Alighieri or simply Dante (c. 1265 – 1321), was a major Italian poet of the Late Middle Ages.

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Dardo IFV

The Dardo is an infantry fighting vehicle designed for the Italian Army as a replacement for the M113 APC.

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Dario Argento

Dario Argento (born 7 September 1940) is an Italian film director, producer, film critic and screenwriter.

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Dario Fo

Dario Fo (24 March 1926 – 13 October 2016) was an Italian actor–playwright, comedian, singer, theatre director, stage designer, songwriter, painter, political campaigner for the Italian left-wing and the recipient of the 1997 Nobel Prize in Literature.

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David (Michelangelo)

David is a masterpiece of Renaissance sculpture created in marble between 1501 and 1504 by the Italian artist Michelangelo.

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Davis Cup

The Davis Cup is the premier international team event in men's tennis.

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Death of Benito Mussolini

The death of Benito Mussolini, the deposed Italian fascist dictator, occurred on 28 April 1945, in the final days of World War II in Europe, when he was summarily executed by Italian partisans in the small village of Giulino di Mezzegra in northern Italy.

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Democracy

Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.

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Democratic Party (Italy)

The Democratic Party (Partito Democratico, PD) is a social-democratic political party in Italy.

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Denominazione di origine controllata

Denominazione di origine controllata (DOC;; English: controlled designation of origin) is a quality assurance label for Italian wines.

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Desktop computer

A desktop computer is a personal computer designed for regular use at a single location on or near a desk or table due to its size and power requirements.

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Deutsche Welle

Deutsche Welle ("German wave" in German) or DW is Germany's public international broadcaster.

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Developed country

A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.

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Diocese of Rome

The Diocese of Rome (Dioecesis Urbis seu Romana, Diocesi di Roma) is a diocese of the Catholic Church in Rome.

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Diocletian

Diocletian (Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus), born Diocles (22 December 244–3 December 311), was a Roman emperor from 284 to 305.

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Dionysius of Halicarnassus

Dionysius of Halicarnassus (Διονύσιος Ἀλεξάνδρου Ἁλικαρνασσεύς, Dionysios Alexandrou Halikarnasseus, "Dionysios son of Alexandros of Halikarnassos"; c. 60 BCafter 7 BC) was a Greek historian and teacher of rhetoric, who flourished during the reign of Caesar Augustus.

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Diplomacy

Diplomacy is the art and practice of conducting negotiations between representatives of states.

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Disco

Disco is a musical style that emerged in the mid 1960s and early 1970s from America's urban nightlife scene, where it originated in house parties and makeshift discothèques, reaching its peak popularity between the mid-1970s and early 1980s.

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Divine Comedy

The Divine Comedy (Divina Commedia) is a long narrative poem by Dante Alighieri, begun c. 1308 and completed in 1320, a year before his death in 1321.

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Dolce & Gabbana

Dolce & Gabbana is an Italian fashion house founded in 1985 in Legnano by Italian designers Domenico Dolce and Stefano Gabbana.

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Dolce Stil Novo

Dolce Stil Novo (Italian for "sweet new style", modern Italian stile nuovo), or stilnovismo, is the name given to the most important literary movement of the 13th century in Italy.

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Dolomites

The Dolomites (Dolomiti; Ladin: Dolomites; Dolomiten; Dołomiti: Dolomitis) are a mountain range located in northeastern Italy.

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Domenico Scarlatti

Giuseppe Domenico Scarlatti (Naples, 26 October 1685 Madrid, 23 July 1757) was an Italian composer who spent much of his life in the service of the Portuguese and Spanish royal families.

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Donatello

Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi (c. 1386 – 13 December 1466), better known as Donatello, was an Italian Renaissance sculptor from Florence.

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Drum machine

A drum machine is an electronic musical instrument that creates percussion.

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Duchy of Amalfi

The Duchy of Amalfi (Ducato di Amalfi) or the Republic of Amalfi (Repubblica di Amalfi) was a de facto independent state centered on the Southern Italian city of Amalfi during the 10th and 11th centuries.

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Duchy of Milan

The Duchy of Milan was a constituent state of the Holy Roman Empire in northern Italy.

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Early Middle Ages

The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history.

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East Side Beat

East Side Beat was an Italian dance-pop music project which achieved success in Europe in the early 1990s.

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Eastern Europe

Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.

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Eastern Orthodox Church

The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.

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Economy of Italy

The economy of Italy is the 3rd-largest national economy in the eurozone, the 8th-largest by nominal GDP in the world, and the 12th-largest by GDP (PPP).

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Education in Italy

Education in Italy is compulsory from 6 to 16 years of age, and is divided into five stages: kindergarten (scuola dell'infanzia), primary school (scuola primaria or scuola elementare), lower secondary school (scuola secondaria di primo grado or scuola media inferiore), upper secondary school (scuola secondaria di secondo grado or scuola media superiore) and university (università).

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Effie Pedaliu

Effie Pedaliu is Fellow at LSE IDEAS.

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Egbert of Liège

Egbert of Liège, in Latin Ecbertus Leodiensis, was an 11th-century educator and author, working at the cathedral school in Liège (in what is now Belgium).

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Eiffel 65

Eiffel 65 is an Italian pop music and dance music group consisting of Jeffrey Jey, Maurizio Lobina and Gabry Ponte.

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Eight per thousand

Eight per thousand (otto per mille) is an Italian law under which Italian taxpayers devolve a compulsory 8.

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Eight-Nation Alliance

The Eight-Nation Alliance was an international military coalition set up in response to the Boxer Rebellion in China.

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El Greco

Doménikos Theotokópoulos (Δομήνικος Θεοτοκόπουλος; October 1541 7 April 1614), most widely known as El Greco ("The Greek"), was a painter, sculptor and architect of the Spanish Renaissance.

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Electric battery

An electric battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells with external connections provided to power electrical devices such as flashlights, smartphones, and electric cars.

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Electronic dance music

Electronic dance music (also known as EDM, dance music, club music, or simply dance) is a broad range of percussive electronic music genres made largely for nightclubs, raves, and festivals.

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Electronic music

Electronic music is music that employs electronic musical instruments, digital instruments and circuitry-based music technology.

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Elisabetta Casellati

Maria Elisabetta Alberti, married Casellati (Rovigo, 12 August 1946) is an Italian politician and current President of the Italian Senate, she is the first woman to have ever held this office.

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Elliptic partial differential equation

Second order linear partial differential equations (PDEs) are classified as either elliptic, hyperbolic, or parabolic.

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Elvenking (band)

Elvenking is a folk/power metal band from Sacile, Italy.

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Elymians

The Elymians (Greek: Ἔλυμοι; Latin: Elymi) were an ancient people who inhabited the western part of Sicily during the Bronze Age and Classical antiquity.

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Emigration

Emigration is the act of leaving a resident country or place of residence with the intent to settle elsewhere.

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Emilia-Romagna

Emilia-Romagna (Emilian and Emélia-Rumâgna) is an administrative Region of Northeast Italy comprising the historical regions of Emilia and Romagna.

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Emilio Salgari

Emilio Salgari (but often erroneously pronounced; 21 August 1862 – 25 April 1911) was an Italian writer of action adventure swashbucklers and a pioneer of science fiction.

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Emilio Segrè

Emilio Gino Segrè (1 February 1905 – 22 April 1989) was an Italian-American physicist and Nobel laureate, who discovered the elements technetium and astatine, and the antiproton, a subatomic antiparticle, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1959.

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Emirate of Sicily

The Emirate of Sicily (إِمَارَةُ صِقِلِّيَة) was an emirate on the island of Sicily which existed from 831 to 1091.

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Enclave and exclave

An enclave is a territory, or a part of a territory, that is entirely surrounded by the territory of one other state.

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Encyclopædia Britannica

The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.

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Endemism

Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere.

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Engineering

Engineering is the creative application of science, mathematical methods, and empirical evidence to the innovation, design, construction, operation and maintenance of structures, machines, materials, devices, systems, processes, and organizations.

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English Renaissance

The English Renaissance was a cultural and artistic movement in England dating from the late 15th century to the early 17th century.

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Ennio de Giorgi

Ennio De Giorgi (8 February 1928 – 25 October 1996) was an Italian mathematician, member of the House of Giorgi, who worked on partial differential equations and the foundations of mathematics.

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Ennio Morricone

Ennio Morricone, Grand Officer OMRI (born 10 November 1928) is an Italian composer, orchestrator, conductor, and former trumpet player.

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Enrico Caruso

Enrico Caruso (25 February 1873 – 2 August 1921) was an Italian operatic tenor.

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Enrico Castellani

Enrico Castellani (August 4, 1930 – December 1, 2017) was an Italian painter associated with the zero movement and Azimuth.

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Enrico Fermi

Enrico Fermi (29 September 1901 – 28 November 1954) was an Italian-American physicist and the creator of the world's first nuclear reactor, the Chicago Pile-1.

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Enrico Letta

Enrico Letta (born 20 August 1966) is an Italian politician who was Prime Minister of Italy from 2013 to 2014, leading a grand coalition comprising the centre-left Democratic Party, the centre-right People of Freedom, and the centrist Civic Choice.

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Epiphany (holiday)

Epiphany, also Theophany, Little Christmas, or Three Kings' Day, is a Christian feast day that celebrates the revelation of God incarnate as Jesus Christ.

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Eros Ramazzotti

Eros Walter Luciano Ramazzotti (born 28 October 1963) is an Italian musician and singer-songwriter.

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Ersatz good

An ersatz good is a substitute good, especially one that is considered inferior to the good it replaces.

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Eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79

Mount Vesuvius, a stratovolcano in modern-day Italy, erupted in 79 AD in one of the most catastrophic volcanic eruptions in European history.

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Espresso

Espresso is coffee brewed by expressing or forcing out a small amount of nearly boiling water under pressure through finely ground coffee beans.

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Ethnic cleansing

Ethnic cleansing is the systematic forced removal of ethnic or racial groups from a given territory by a more powerful ethnic group, often with the intent of making it ethnically homogeneous.

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Etruscan civilization

The Etruscan civilization is the modern name given to a powerful and wealthy civilization of ancient Italy in the area corresponding roughly to Tuscany, western Umbria and northern Lazio.

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Etruscan shrew

The Etruscan shrew (Suncus etruscus), also known as the Etruscan pygmy shrew or the white-toothed pygmy shrew, is the smallest known mammal by mass, weighing only about on average.

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Ettore Majorana

Ettore Majorana (born on 5 August 1906 – probably died after 1959) was an Italian theoretical physicist who worked on neutrino masses.

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Ettore Sottsass

Ettore Sottsass (14 September 1917 – 31 December 2007) was an Italian architect and designer during the 20th century.

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Eugenio Montale

Eugenio Montale (12 October 1896 – 12 September 1981) was an Italian poet, prose writer, editor and translator, and recipient of the 1975 Nobel Prize in Literature.

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Eurasia

Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.

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Euripides

Euripides (Εὐριπίδης) was a tragedian of classical Athens.

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Euro

The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union.

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Euro disco

Euro disco (or Eurodisco) is the variety of European forms of electronic dance music that evolved from disco in the later 1970s; incorporating elements of pop, new wave and rock into a disco-like continuous dance atmosphere.

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Euro sign

The euro sign (€) is the currency sign used for the euro, the official currency of the Eurozone in the European Union (EU).

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EuroBasket 1983

The 1983 FIBA European Championship, commonly called FIBA EuroBasket 1983, was the 23rd FIBA EuroBasket regional basketball championship, held by FIBA Europe.

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EuroBasket 1999

The 1999 FIBA European Championship, commonly called FIBA EuroBasket 1999, was the 31st FIBA EuroBasket regional basketball championship held by FIBA Europe, which also served as Europe qualifier for the 2000 Olympic Tournament, giving a berth to the top five (or six, depending on Yugoslavia reaching one of the top five places) teams in the final standings.

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Eurodance

Eurodance (sometimes known as Euro-NRG or Euro) is a genre of electronic dance music that originated in the late 1980s in Europe.

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European Car of the Year

The European Car of the Year award is an international award established in 1964, by a collective of automobile magazines from different countries in Europe.

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European Central Bank

The European Central Bank (ECB) is the central bank for the euro and administers monetary policy of the euro area, which consists of 19 EU member states and is one of the largest currency areas in the world.

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European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages

The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML) is a European treaty (CETS 148) adopted in 1992 under the auspices of the Council of Europe to protect and promote historical regional and minority languages in Europe.

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European Commission

The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.

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European Economic Community

The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states.

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European migrant crisis

The European migrant crisis, or the European refugee crisis, is a term given to a period beginning in 2015 when rising numbers of people arrived in the European Union (EU), travelling across the Mediterranean Sea or overland through Southeast Europe.

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European national basketball league rankings

The European national basketball league rankings are the rankings for each of the different European regional and domestic basketball leagues that are eligible to participate in Europe's international continental-wide professional club basketball competitions, such as the EuroLeague and the EuroCup.

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European snow vole

The European snow vole or snow vole (Chionomys nivalis, previously Arvicola nivalis and Microtus nivalis) is a species of rodent in the family Cricetidae.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Eurostat

Eurostat is a Directorate-General of the European Commission located in Luxembourg.

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Eurovision Song Contest

The Eurovision Song Contest (Concours Eurovision de la chanson), often simply called Eurovision, is an international song competition held primarily among the member countries of the European Broadcasting Union.

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Eurozone

No description.

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Evangelicalism

Evangelicalism, evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide, crossdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity which maintains the belief that the essence of the Gospel consists of the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ's atonement.

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Evangelista Torricelli

Evangelista Torricelli; 15 October 1608 – 25 October 1647) was an Italian physicist and mathematician, best known for his invention of the barometer, but is also known for his advances in optics and work on the method of indivisibles.

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Exarchate of Ravenna

The Exarchate of Ravenna or of Italy (Esarcato d'Italia) was a lordship of the Byzantine Empire in Italy, from 584 to 751, when the last exarch was put to death by the Lombards.

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Experimental music

Experimental music is a general label for any music that pushes existing boundaries and genre definitions.

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Extrajudicial killing

An extrajudicial killing (also known as extrajudicial execution) is the killing of a person by governmental authorities without the sanction of any judicial proceeding or legal process.

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Fall of Constantinople

The Fall of Constantinople (Ἅλωσις τῆς Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Halōsis tēs Kōnstantinoupoleōs; İstanbul'un Fethi Conquest of Istanbul) was the capture of the capital of the Byzantine Empire by an invading Ottoman army on 29 May 1453.

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Fall of the Fascist regime in Italy

The Fall of the Fascist regime in Italy, also known in Italy as 25 Luglio (Venticinque Luglio,; Italian for "25 July") denotes the events in spring and summer 1943 in Italy, which culminated with the meeting of the Grand Council of Fascism on 24–25 July 1943, the passing of a vote of no confidence against Benito Mussolini, and the change of the Italian government.

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Fall of the Western Roman Empire

The Fall of the Western Roman Empire (also called Fall of the Roman Empire or Fall of Rome) was the process of decline in the Western Roman Empire in which it failed to enforce its rule, and its vast territory was divided into several successor polities.

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Faraglioni

In Italian, faraglioni (singular faraglione) are stacks, a coastal and oceanic rock formation eroded by waves.

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Fashion capital

A fashion capital is a city which has a major influence on international fashion trends and in which the design, production and retailing of fashion products – plus events such as fashion weeks, awards and trade fairs – generate significant economic output.

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Fauna

Fauna is all of the animal life of any particular region or time.

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Feast of Saints Peter and Paul

The Feast of Saints Peter and Paul or Solemnity of Saints Peter and Paul is a liturgical feast in honour of the martyrdom in Rome of the apostles Saint Peter and Saint Paul, which is observed on 29 June.

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Fed Cup

Fed Cup is the premier international team competition in women's tennis, launched in 1963 to celebrate the 50th Anniversary of the International Tennis Federation (ITF).

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Federico Fellini

Federico Fellini, Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI (20 January 1920 – 31 October 1993) was an Italian film director and screenwriter.

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Fendi

Fendi is an Italian luxury fashion house producing fur, ready-to-wear, leather goods, shoes, fragrances, eyewear, timepieces and accessories.

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Ferragosto

Ferragosto is a public holiday celebrated on 15 August in Italy and San Marino.

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Ferrara

Ferrara (Ferrarese: Fràra) is a town and comune in Emilia-Romagna, northern Italy, capital of the Province of Ferrara.

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Ferrari

Ferrari N.V. is an Italian luxury sports car manufacturer based in Maranello.

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Ferrovie dello Stato Italiane

Ferrovie dello Stato Italiane S.p.A. (previously Ferrovie dello Stato, FS) (in English Italian State Railways) is a state-owned holding company that manages infrastructure and services on the Italian rail network.

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Festa della Repubblica

Festa della Repubblica (in English, Republic Day) is the Italian National Day and Republic Day, which is celebrated on 2 June each year.

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Festival dei Due Mondi

The Festival dei Due Mondi (Festival of the Two Worlds) is an annual summer music and opera festival held each June to early July in Spoleto, Italy, since its founding by composer Gian Carlo Menotti in 1958.

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Feudalism

Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.

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Fiat Automobiles

Fiat Automobiles S.p.A. (originally FIAT, lit) is the largest automobile manufacturer in Italy, a subsidiary of FCA Italy S.p.A., which is part of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles (previously Fiat S.p.A.). Fiat Automobiles was formed in January 2007 when Fiat reorganized its automobile business, and traces its history back to 1899 when the first Fiat automobile, the Fiat 4 HP, was produced.

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Fiat Chrysler Automobiles

Fiat Chrysler Automobiles N.V. (abbreviated as FCA) is an Italian/American corporation and currently the world’s eighth largest auto maker.

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Fibonacci

Fibonacci (c. 1175 – c. 1250) was an Italian mathematician from the Republic of Pisa, considered to be "the most talented Western mathematician of the Middle Ages".

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Fiera Milano

Fiera Milano SpA is a trade fair and exhibition organiser headquartered in Milan, Italy.

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FIFA World Cup

The FIFA World Cup, often simply called the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the sport's global governing body.

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Filippo Brunelleschi

Filippo Brunelleschi (1377 – April 15, 1446) was an Italian designer and a key figure in architecture, recognised to be the first modern engineer, planner and sole construction supervisor.

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Filippo Lippi

Fra' Filippo Lippi, O.Carm. (c. 1406 – 8 October 1469), also called Lippo Lippi, was an Italian painter of the Quattrocento (15th century).

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Filippo Tommaso Marinetti

Filippo Tommaso Emilio Marinetti (22 December 1876 – 2 December 1944) was an Italian poet, editor, art theorist, and founder of the Futurist movement.

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Film genre

A film genre is a motion picture category based on similarities in either the narrative elements or the emotional response to the film (namely, serious, comic, etc.). Most theories of film genre are borrowed from literary genre criticism.

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Financial crisis of 2007–2008

The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.

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Financial Times

The Financial Times (FT) is a Japanese-owned (since 2015), English-language international daily newspaper headquartered in London, with a special emphasis on business and economic news.

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First Family Church

First Family Church (FFC) was a large Evangelical Christian church located in Overland Park in southern Johnson County, Kansas, on in the southwestern portion of the Kansas City Metropolitan Area of the United States.

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First French Empire

The First French Empire (Empire Français) was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century.

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First Italian War of Independence

The First Italian War of Independence (Prima guerra d'indipendenza italiana.) was part of the Risorgimento.

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FIS Alpine Ski World Cup

The FIS Alpine Ski World Cup is the top international circuit of alpine skiing competitions, launched in 1966 by a group of ski racing friends and experts which included French journalist Serge Lang and the alpine ski team directors from France (Honore Bonnet) and the USA (Bob Beattie).

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FIS Alpine World Ski Championships

The FIS Alpine World Ski Championships are organized by the International Ski Federation (FIS).

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FIVB Volleyball Men's World Championship

The FIVB Volleyball Men's World Championship is an international volleyball competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of Fédération Internationale de Volleyball (FIVB), the sport's global governing body.

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FIVB World Rankings

The FIVB World Ranking is a ranking system for men's and women's national teams in volleyball.

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Five Star Movement

The Five Star Movement (Movimento 5 Stelle, M5S) is a political party in Italy.

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Fleshgod Apocalypse

Fleshgod Apocalypse is an Italian death metal band.

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Flora

Flora is the plant life occurring in a particular region or time, generally the naturally occurring or indigenous—native plant life.

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Florence

Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.

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Florence Cathedral

Florence Cathedral, formally the Cattedrale di Santa Maria del Fiore (in English "Cathedral of Saint Mary of the Flower") is the cathedral of Florence, Italy, or Il Duomo di Firenze, in Italian.

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Foibe massacres

The 'foibe massacres', or simply 'the foibe', literally refers to mass killings by which the corpses were thrown into foibas (deep natural sinkholes; by extension also mine shafts etc.), perpetrated mainly by Yugoslav Partisans (but possibly also by Germans or fascists), mainly in Venezia Giulia, Istria and Dalmatia, against the local Italian population, during and after World War II.

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Folklore of Italy

Folklore of Italy refers to the folklore and urban legends of Italy.

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FoodDrinkEurope

Founded in 1982, FoodDrinkEurope is a Food industry confederation in the European Union.

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Forgotten Tomb

Forgotten Tomb is an Italian black metal band, originating in the city of Piacenza.

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Forza Italia (2013)

Forza ItaliaThe name is not usually translated into English: forza is the second-person singular imperative of ''forzare'', in this case translating to "to compel" or "to press", and so means something like "Forward, Italy", "Come on, Italy" or "Go, Italy!".

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Founding of Rome

The founding of Rome can be investigated through archaeology, but traditional stories handed down by the ancient Romans themselves explain the earliest history of their city in terms of legend and myth.

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Fra Angelico

Fra Angelico (born Guido di Pietro; February 18, 1455) was an Early Italian Renaissance painter described by Vasari in his Lives of the Artists as having "a rare and perfect talent".

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France

France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Francesco Hayez

Francesco Hayez (10 February 1791 – 21 December 1882) was an Italian painter, the leading artist of Romanticism in mid-19th-century Milan, renowned for his grand historical paintings, political allegories and exceptionally fine portraits.

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Francesco Podesti

Francesco Podesti (March 21, 1800 – February 10, 1895) was an Italian painter, active in a Romantic style.

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Francesco Redi

Francesco Redi (18 February 1626 – 1 March 1697) was an Italian physician, naturalist, biologist and poet.

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Francia

Francia, also called the Kingdom of the Franks (Regnum Francorum), or Frankish Empire was the largest post-Roman Barbarian kingdom in Western Europe.

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Franciacorta DOCG

Franciacorta is a sparkling wine from the Province of Brescia (Lombardy) with DOCG status produced from grapes grown within the boundaries of the territory of Franciacorta, on the hills located between the southern shore of Lake Iseo and the city of Brescia.

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Francis of Assisi

Saint Francis of Assisi (San Francesco d'Assisi), born Giovanni di Pietro di Bernardone, informally named as Francesco (1181/11823 October 1226), was an Italian Catholic friar, deacon and preacher.

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Francisco Franco

Francisco Franco Bahamonde (4 December 1892 – 20 November 1975) was a Spanish general who ruled over Spain as a military dictator from 1939, after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War, until his death in 1975.

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Franco-Provençal language

No description.

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Franco-Prussian War

The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War (Deutsch-Französischer Krieg, Guerre franco-allemande), often referred to in France as the War of 1870 (19 July 1871) or in Germany as 70/71, was a conflict between the Second French Empire of Napoleon III and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia.

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Francoist Spain

Francoist Spain (España franquista) or the Franco regime (Régimen de Franco), formally known as the Spanish State (Estado Español), is the period of Spanish history between 1939, when Francisco Franco took control of Spain after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War establishing a dictatorship, and 1975, when Franco died and Prince Juan Carlos was crowned King of Spain.

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Frascati DOC

Frascati is an Italian white wine named after the town of Frascati, located 25 km southeast of Rome, in Lazio, Italy.

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Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor

Frederick I (Friedrich I, Federico I; 1122 – 10 June 1190), also known as Frederick Barbarossa (Federico Barbarossa), was the Holy Roman Emperor from 2 January 1155 until his death.

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Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor

Frederick II (26 December 1194 – 13 December 1250; Fidiricu, Federico, Friedrich) was King of Sicily from 1198, King of Germany from 1212, King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor from 1220 and King of Jerusalem from 1225.

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Free and Equal (Italy)

Free and Equal (Liberi e Uguali, LeU) is a left-wing federation of parties in Italy, launched on 3 December 2017 by the Democratic and Progressive Movement, Italian Left and Possible.

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Free Territory of Trieste

The Free Territory of Trieste (Territorio libero di Trieste, Svobodno tržaško ozemlje; Slobodni Teritorij Trsta) was an independent territory situated in Central Europe between northern Italy and Yugoslavia, facing the north part of the Adriatic Sea, under direct responsibility of the United Nations Security Council in the aftermath of World War II.

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.

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French Renaissance

The French Renaissance was the cultural and artistic movement in France between the 15th and early 17th centuries.

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French Revolution

The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.

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Friuli-Venezia Giulia

Friuli-Venezia Giulia (Friûl-Vignesie Julie; Furlanija-Julijska krajina, Friaul-Julisch Venetien; Friul-Venesia Julia; Friul-Unieja Julia) is one of the 20 regions of Italy, and one of five autonomous regions with special statute.

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Friulian language

Friulian or Friulan (or, affectionately, marilenghe in Friulian, friulano in Italian, Furlanisch in German, furlanščina in Slovene; also Friulian) is a Romance language belonging to the Rhaeto-Romance family, spoken in the Friuli region of northeastern Italy.

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Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster

The was an energy accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Ōkuma, Fukushima Prefecture, initiated primarily by the tsunami following the Tōhoku earthquake on 11 March 2011.

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Futurism

Futurism (Futurismo) was an artistic and social movement that originated in Italy in the early 20th century.

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G20

The G20 (or Group of Twenty) is an international forum for the governments and central bank governors from Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States and the European Union.

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Gabriele D'Annunzio

General Gabriele D'Annunzio, Prince of Montenevoso, Duke of Gallese (12 March 1863 – 1 March 1938), sometimes spelled d'Annunzio, was an Italian writer, poet, journalist, playwright and soldier during World War I. He occupied a prominent place in Italian literature from 1889 to 1910 and later political life from 1914 to 1924.

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Gabry Ponte

Gabriele "Gabry" Ponte (born 20 April 1973) is an Italian DJ, remixer, record producer, and radio personality, best known for his membership in the Italian dance group Eiffel 65.

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Gaetano Donizetti

Domenico Gaetano Maria Donizetti (29 November 1797 – 8 April 1848) was an Italian composer.

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Galileo Ferraris

Galileo Ferraris (31 October 1847 – 7 February 1897) was an Italian physicist and electrical engineer, one of the pioneers of AC power system and an inventor of the three-phase induction motor.

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Galileo Galilei

Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564Drake (1978, p. 1). The date of Galileo's birth is given according to the Julian calendar, which was then in force throughout Christendom. In 1582 it was replaced in Italy and several other Catholic countries with the Gregorian calendar. Unless otherwise indicated, dates in this article are given according to the Gregorian calendar. – 8 January 1642) was an Italian polymath.

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Galleria Borghese

The Galleria Borghese (English: Borghese Gallery) is an art gallery in Rome, Italy, housed in the former Villa Borghese Pinciana.

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Galleria dell'Accademia

The Galleria dell'Accademia di Firenze, or "Gallery of the Academy of Florence", is an art museum in Florence, Italy.

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Gangs of New York

Gangs of New York is a 2002 American epic period drama film directed by Martin Scorsese, set in the mid-19th century in the Five Points district of New York City.

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Garrigue

Garigue or phrygana is a type of low, soft-leaved scrubland ecoregion and plant community in the Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub biome.

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Gastronomy

Gastronomy is the study of the relationship between food and culture, the art of preparing and serving rich or delicate and appetizing food, the cooking styles of particular regions, and the science of good eating.

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Gelato

Gelato is ice cream made in the Italian style.

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Gendarmerie

Wrong info! --> A gendarmerie or gendarmery is a military component with jurisdiction in civil law enforcement.

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General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) was a legal agreement between many countries, whose overall purpose was to promote international trade by reducing or eliminating trade barriers such as tariffs or quotas.

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Genoa

Genoa (Genova,; Zêna; English, historically, and Genua) is the capital of the Italian region of Liguria and the sixth-largest city in Italy.

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Geocentric model

In astronomy, the geocentric model (also known as geocentrism, or the Ptolemaic system) is a superseded description of the universe with Earth at the center.

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Geographic coordinate system

A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.

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Geographica

The Geographica (Ancient Greek: Γεωγραφικά Geōgraphiká), or Geography, is an encyclopedia of geographical knowledge, consisting of 17 'books', written in Greek by Strabo, an educated citizen of the Roman Empire of Greek descent.

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Geographical indications and traditional specialities in the European Union

Three European Union schemes of geographical indications and traditional specialties, known as protected designation of origin (PDO), protected geographical indication (PGI), and traditional specialities guaranteed (TSG), promote and protect names of quality agricultural products and foodstuffs.

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German Empire

The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.

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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.

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Germanic peoples

The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.

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Gerolamo Cardano

Gerolamo (or Girolamo, or Geronimo) Cardano (Jérôme Cardan; Hieronymus Cardanus; 24 September 1501 – 21 September 1576) was an Italian polymath, whose interests and proficiencies ranged from being a mathematician, physician, biologist, physicist, chemist, astrologer, astronomer, philosopher, writer, and gambler.

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Ghedi

Ghedi is a town and comune in the province of Brescia, in Lombardy, Italy.

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Giacomo Balla

Giacomo Balla (18 July 1871 – 1 March 1958) was an Italian painter, art teacher and poet best known as a key proponent of Futurism.

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Giacomo da Lentini

Giacomo da Lentini, also known as Jacopo (il) Notaro, was an Italian poet of the 13th century.

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Giacomo Leopardi

Giacomo Taldegardo Francesco di Sales Saverio Pietro Leopardi (29 June 1798 – 14 June 1837) was an Italian philosopher, poet, essayist, and philologist.

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Giacomo Puccini

Giacomo Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria Puccini (22 December 1858 29 November 1924) was an Italian opera composer who has been called "the greatest composer of Italian opera after Verdi".

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Giallo

Giallo (plural gialli) is a 20th-century Italian thriller or horror genre of literature and film.

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Giambattista Basile

Giambattista Basile (February 1566 – February 1632) was a Neapolitan poet, courtier, and fairy tale collector.

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Giambattista Marino

Giambattista Marino (also Giovan Battista Marini) (14 October 1569 – 26 March 1625) was an Italian poet who was born in Naples.

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Giambattista Vico

Giambattista Vico (B. Giovan Battista Vico, 23 June 1668 – 23 January 1744) was an Italian political philosopher and rhetorician, historian and jurist, of the Age of Enlightenment.

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Gianni Oliva

Giovanni Oliva (short Gianni, born in Torino) is an Italian historian and politician.

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Gigi D'Agostino

Luigino Celestino "Gigi" D'Agostino (born December 17, 1967), known also as GIGI DAG, is an Italian DJ, remixer, singer and record producer.

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Gina Lollobrigida

Luigina "Gina" Lollobrigida (born 4 July 1927) is an Italian actress, photojournalist and sculptor.

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Gio Ponti

Giovanni "Gio" Ponti (18 November 1891 – 16 September 1979) was an Italian architect, industrial designer, furniture designer, artist, and publisher.

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Gioacchino Toma

Gioacchino Toma (24 January 183812 January 1891) was an Italian painter, mainly of historic and genre subjects, painted in a Romantic style.

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Gioachino Rossini

Gioachino Antonio Rossini (29 February 1792 – 13 November 1868) was an Italian composer who wrote 39 operas as well as some sacred music, songs, chamber music, and piano pieces.

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Giordano Bruno

Giordano Bruno (Iordanus Brunus Nolanus; 1548 – 17 February 1600), born Filippo Bruno, was an Italian Dominican friar, philosopher, mathematician, poet, and cosmological theorist.

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Giorgio de Chirico

Giorgio de Chirico (10 July 1888 – 20 November 1978) was an Italian artist and writer.

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Giorgio Moroder

Giovanni Giorgio Moroder (born 26 April 1940) is an Italian singer, songwriter, DJ and record producer.

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Giorgione

Giorgione (born Giorgio Barbarelli da Castelfranco; c. 1477/78–1510) was an Italian painter of the Venetian school in the High Renaissance from Venice, whose career was ended by his death at a little over 30.

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Giostra della Quintana

The Giostra della Quintana was a historical jousting tournament in Foligno, central Italy.

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Giosuè Carducci

Giosuè Alessandro Giuseppe Carducci (27 July 1835 – 16 February 1907) was an Italian poet and teacher.

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Giotto

Giotto di Bondone (1267 – January 8, 1337), known mononymously as Giotto and Latinised as Giottus, was an Italian painter and architect from Florence during the Late Middle Ages.

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Giovanni Battista Tiepolo

Giovanni Battista Tiepolo (March 5, 1696 – March 27, 1770), also known as Gianbattista or Giambattista Tiepolo, was an Italian painter and printmaker from the Republic of Venice.

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Giovanni Bellini

Giovanni Bellini (c. 1430 – 26 November 1516) was an Italian Renaissance painter, probably the best known of the Bellini family of Venetian painters.

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Giovanni Boccaccio

Giovanni Boccaccio (16 June 1313 – 21 December 1375) was an Italian writer, poet, correspondent of Petrarch, and an important Renaissance humanist.

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Giovanni Boldini

Giovanni Boldini (31 December 1842 – 11 July 1931) was an Italian genre and portrait painter who lived and worked in Paris for most of his career.

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Giovanni da Verrazzano

Giovanni da Verrazzano (sometimes also incorrectly spelled Verrazano) (1485–1528) was an Italian explorer of North America, in the service of King Francis I of France.

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Giovanni Domenico Cassini

Giovanni Domenico Cassini (8 June 1625 – 14 September 1712) was an Italian (naturalised French) mathematician, astronomer and engineer.

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Giovanni Fattori

Giovanni Fattori (September 6, 1825August 30, 1908) was an Italian artist, one of the leaders of the group known as the Macchiaioli.

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Giovanni Francesco Straparola

Giovanni Francesco "Gianfrancesco" Straparola, also known as Zoan or Zuan Francesco Straparola da Caravaggio (ca. 1485?-1558), was a writer of poetry, and collector and writer of short stories.

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Giovanni Paisiello

Giovanni Paisiello (or Paesiello; 9 May 1740 – 5 June 1816) was an Italian composer of the Classical era, and was the most popular opera composer of the late 1700s.

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Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina

Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (1525 – 2 February 1594) was an Italian Renaissance composer of sacred music and the best-known 16th-century representative of the Roman School of musical composition.

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Giovanni Schiaparelli

Giovanni Virginio Schiaparelli FRS(For) HFRSE (14 March 1835 Savigliano – 4 July 1910 Milan) was an Italian astronomer and science historian.

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Giovanni Spadolini

Giovanni Spadolini (21 June 1925 – 4 August 1994) was a Republican Italian politician, the 44th Prime Minister of Italy, newspaper editor, journalist and a historian.

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Giovanni Verga

Giovanni Carmelo Verga (2 September 1840 – 27 January 1922) was an Italian realist (Verismo) writer, best known for his depictions of life in his native Sicily, especially the short story (and later play) "Cavalleria rusticana" and the novel I Malavoglia (The House by the Medlar Tree).

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Giro d'Italia

The Giro d'Italia (Tour of Italy; also known as the Giro) is an annual multiple-stage bicycle race primarily held in Italy, while also occasionally passing through nearby countries.

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Giudicati

The giudicati (Italian; judicati in Latin; judicadus, logus or rennus in Sardinian), in English referred to as Sardinian Judgedoms or Judicatures, were independent states that took power in Sardinia in the Middle Ages, between the ninth and fifteenth centuries.

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Giulietta Masina

Giulietta Masina (22 February 1921 – 23 March 1994) was an Italian film and stage actress.

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Giulio Natta

Giulio Natta (26 February 1903 – 2 May 1979) was an Italian chemist and Nobel laureate.

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Giuseppe Bezzuoli

Giuseppe Bezzuoli (28 November 1784 – 13 September 1855) was an Italian painter of the Neoclassic period, active in Milan, Rome, and his native city of Florence.

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Giuseppe Conte

Giuseppe Conte (born 8 August 1964) is an Italian jurist and politician serving as the 58th and current Prime Minister of Italy since 1 June 2018.

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Giuseppe Garibaldi

Giuseppe Garibaldi; 4 July 1807 – 2 June 1882) was an Italian general, politician and nationalist. He is considered one of the greatest generals of modern times and one of Italy's "fathers of the fatherland" along with Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, Victor Emmanuel II of Italy and Giuseppe Mazzini. Garibaldi has been called the "Hero of the Two Worlds" because of his military enterprises in Brazil, Uruguay and Europe. He personally commanded and fought in many military campaigns that led eventually to the Italian unification. Garibaldi was appointed general by the provisional government of Milan in 1848, General of the Roman Republic in 1849 by the Minister of War, and led the Expedition of the Thousand on behalf and with the consent of Victor Emmanuel II. His last military campaign took place during the Franco-Prussian War as commander of the Army of the Vosges. Garibaldi was very popular in Italy and abroad, aided by exceptional international media coverage at the time. Many of the greatest intellectuals of his time, such as Victor Hugo, Alexandre Dumas, and George Sand, showered him with admiration. The United Kingdom and the United States helped him a great deal, offering him financial and military support in difficult circumstances. In the popular telling of his story, he is associated with the red shirts worn by his volunteers, the Garibaldini, in lieu of a uniform.

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Giuseppe Mazzini

Giuseppe Mazzini (22 June 1805 – 10 March 1872) was an Italian politician, journalist, activist for the unification of Italy and spearhead of the Italian revolutionary movement.

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Giuseppe Occhialini

Giuseppe Paolo Stanislao "Beppo" Occhialini ForMemRS (5 December 1907 – 30 December 1993) was an Italian physicist, who contributed to the discovery of the pion or pi-meson decay in 1947, with César Lattes and Cecil Frank Powell (Nobel Prize for Physics).

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Giuseppe Pellizza da Volpedo

Giuseppe Pellizza da Volpedo (July 28, 1868 – June 14, 1907) was an Italian divisionist painter.

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Giuseppe Verdi

Giuseppe Fortunino Francesco Verdi (9 or 10 October 1813 – 27 January 1901) was an Italian opera composer.

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Gladiator (2000 film)

Gladiator is a 2000 epic historical drama film directed by Ridley Scott and written by David Franzoni, John Logan, and William Nicholson.

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Global Language Monitor

The Global Language Monitor (GLM) is an Austin, Texas-based company that collectively documents, analyzes, and tracks trends in language usage worldwide, with a particular emphasis upon the English language.

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Goblin (band)

Goblin (also Back to the Goblin, New Goblin, Goblin Rebirth, the Goblin Keys, The Goblins and Claudio Simonetti's Goblin) is an Italian progressive rock band known for their soundtrack work.

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Gold reserve

A gold reserve was the gold held by a national central bank, intended mainly as a guarantee to redeem promises to pay depositors, note holders (e.g. paper money), or trading peers, during the eras of the gold standard, and also as a store of value, or to support the value of the national currency.

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Golden age (metaphor)

A golden age is a period in a field of endeavor when great tasks were accomplished.

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Golden Bear

The Golden Bear (Goldener Bär) is the highest prize awarded for the best film at the Berlin International Film Festival.

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Golden Globe Award

Golden Globe Awards are accolades bestowed by the 93 members of the Hollywood Foreign Press Association beginning in January 1944, recognizing excellence in film and television, both domestic and foreign.

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Golden Lion

The Golden Lion (Leone d'Oro) is the highest prize given to a film at the Venice Film Festival.

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Golgi apparatus

The Golgi apparatus, also known as the Golgi complex, Golgi body, or simply the Golgi, is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells.

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Gonars concentration camp

Monument for Slovenes The Gonars concentration camp was one of the several Italian concentration camps and it was established on February 23, 1942, near Gonars, Italy.

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Gothic art

Gothic art was a style of medieval art that developed in Northern France out of Romanesque art in the 12th century AD, led by the concurrent development of Gothic architecture.

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Gothic War (535–554)

The Gothic War between the Byzantine Empire during the reign of Emperor Justinian I and the Ostrogothic Kingdom of Italy took place from 535 until 554 in the Italian peninsula, Dalmatia, Sardinia, Sicily and Corsica.

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Government debt

Government debt (also known as public interest, public debt, national debt and sovereign debt) is the debt owed by a government.

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Graham Island (Mediterranean Sea)

Graham Island (also Graham Bank or Graham Shoal; Isola Ferdinandea) is a submerged volcanic island in the Mediterranean Sea.

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Grain

A grain is a small, hard, dry seed, with or without an attached hull or fruit layer, harvested for human or animal consumption.

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Grammy Award

A Grammy Award (stylized as GRAMMY, originally called Gramophone Award), or Grammy, is an award presented by The Recording Academy to recognize achievement in the music industry.

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Grand coalition (Italy)

The Grand coalition (Grande coalizione), also known as Government of broad agreements (Governo di larghe intese), was a political coalition in Italy formed on 28 April 2013 in support of the government of Enrico Letta.

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Grand Prix motor racing

Grand Prix motor racing has its roots in organised automobile racing that began in France as far back as 1894.

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Grand Tour (cycling)

In road bicycle racing, a Grand Tour is one of the three major European professional cycling stage races: Tour de France, Giro d'Italia and Vuelta a España.

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Grape

A grape is a fruit, botanically a berry, of the deciduous woody vines of the flowering plant genus Vitis.

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Graun im Vinschgau

Graun im Vinschgau (Curon Venosta) is a comune (municipality) in South Tyrol in northern Italy, located about northwest of Bolzano, on the border with Austria and Switzerland.

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Gravina in Puglia

Gravina in Puglia (Barese: Gravéine; Silvium; translit) is a town and comune of the Metropolitan City of Bari, Apulia, southern Italy.

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Grazia Deledda

Grazia Maria Cosima Damiana Deledda (28 September 1871 – 15 August 1936) was an Italian writer who received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1926 "for her idealistically inspired writings which with plastic clarity picture the life on her native island and with depth and sympathy deal with human problems in general".

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Great power

A great power is a sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale.

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Great Recession

The Great Recession was a period of general economic decline observed in world markets during the late 2000s and early 2010s.

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Greco-Roman world

The Greco-Roman world, Greco-Roman culture, or the term Greco-Roman; spelled Graeco-Roman in the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth), when used as an adjective, as understood by modern scholars and writers, refers to those geographical regions and countries that culturally (and so historically) were directly, long-term, and intimately influenced by the language, culture, government and religion of the ancient Greeks and Romans. It is also better known as the Classical Civilisation. In exact terms the area refers to the "Mediterranean world", the extensive tracts of land centered on the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins, the "swimming-pool and spa" of the Greeks and Romans, i.e. one wherein the cultural perceptions, ideas and sensitivities of these peoples were dominant. This process was aided by the universal adoption of Greek as the language of intellectual culture and commerce in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, and of Latin as the tongue for public management and forensic advocacy, especially in the Western Mediterranean. Though the Greek and the Latin never became the native idioms of the rural peasants who composed the great majority of the empire's population, they were the languages of the urbanites and cosmopolitan elites, and the lingua franca, even if only as corrupt or multifarious dialects to those who lived within the large territories and populations outside the Macedonian settlements and the Roman colonies. All Roman citizens of note and accomplishment regardless of their ethnic extractions, spoke and wrote in Greek and/or Latin, such as the Roman jurist and Imperial chancellor Ulpian who was of Phoenician origin, the mathematician and geographer Claudius Ptolemy who was of Greco-Egyptian origin and the famous post-Constantinian thinkers John Chrysostom and Augustine who were of Syrian and Berber origins, respectively, and the historian Josephus Flavius who was of Jewish origin and spoke and wrote in Greek.

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Greece

No description.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Greek scholars in the Renaissance

The migration waves of Byzantine scholars and émigrés in the period following the Crusader sacking of Constantinople and the end of the Byzantine Empire in 1453, is considered by many scholars key to the revival of Greek and Roman studies that led to the development of the Renaissance humanism and science.

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Gregorian calendar

The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used civil calendar in the world.

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Gross domestic product

Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.

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Grotta dell'Addaura

The Addaura cave (Italian: Grotta dell'Addaura) is a complex of three natural grottoes located on the northeast side of Mount Pellegrino in Palermo, Sicily, southern Italy.

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Group of Seven

The Group of Seven (G7) is a group consisting of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

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Guardia di Finanza

The Guardia di Finanza (GdF) (Financial Guard) is an Italian law enforcement agency under the authority of the Minister of Economy and Finance.

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Gucci

Gucci is an Italian luxury brand of fashion and leather goods, which is owned by the French holding company Kering.

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Guelphs and Ghibellines

The Guelphs and Ghibellines (guelfi e ghibellini) were factions supporting the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor, respectively, in the Italian city-states of central and northern Italy.

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Guglielmo Marconi

Guglielmo Marconi, 1st Marquis of Marconi (25 April 187420 July 1937) was an Italian inventor and electrical engineer known for his pioneering work on long-distance radio transmission and for his development of Marconi's law and a radio telegraph system.

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Guido Cavalcanti

Guido Cavalcanti (between 1250 and 1259 – August 1300) was an Italian poet and troubadour, as well as an intellectual influence on his best friend, Dante Alighieri.

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Guido Guinizelli

Guido Guinizelli (c. 1230–1276), born in Bologna, in present-day Emilia-Romagna, Northern Italy, was an Italian poet and 'founder' of the Dolce Stil Novo.

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Gulf of Salerno

The Gulf of Salerno is a gulf of the Tyrrhenian Sea in the coast of the province of Salerno in south-western Italy.

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Gulf of Taranto

The Gulf of Taranto (Italian: Golfo di Taranto, Latin: Sinus Tarentinus) is a gulf of the Ionian Sea, in Southern Italy.

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Gurdwara

A gurdwara (ਗੁਰਦੁਆਰਾ, or ਗੁਰਦਵਾਰਾ,; meaning "door to the guru") is a place of worship for Sikhs.

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Habitats Directive

The Habitats Directive (more formally known as Council Directive 92/43/EEC on the Conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora) is a European Union directive adopted in 1992 as an EU response to the Berne Convention.

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Habsburg Monarchy

The Habsburg Monarchy (Habsburgermonarchie) or Empire is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1521 and 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918.

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Habsburg Spain

Habsburg Spain refers to the history of Spain over the 16th and 17th centuries (1516–1700), when it was ruled by kings from the House of Habsburg (also associated with its role in the history of Central Europe).

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Harris Insights & Analytics

Harris Insights & Analytics, headquartered in Rochester, New York, is a market research firm, known for "The Harris Poll".

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Hazelnut

The hazelnut is the nut of the hazel and therefore includes any of the nuts deriving from species of the genus Corylus, especially the nuts of the species Corylus avellana.

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Head of government

A head of government (or chief of government) is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments.

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Head of state

A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.

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Hellenization

Hellenization or Hellenisation is the historical spread of ancient Greek culture, religion and, to a lesser extent, language, over foreign peoples conquered by Greeks or brought into their sphere of influence, particularly during the Hellenistic period following the campaigns of Alexander the Great in the fourth century BC.

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Herculaneum

Located in the shadow of Mount Vesuvius, Herculaneum (Italian: Ercolano) was an ancient Roman town destroyed by volcanic pyroclastic flows in 79 AD.

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High Renaissance

In art history, the High Renaissance is the period denoting the apogee of the visual arts in the Italian Renaissance.

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Hilbert's nineteenth problem

Hilbert's nineteenth problem is one of the 23 Hilbert problems, set out in a list compiled in 1900 by David Hilbert.

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Hindi

Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.

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Histology

Histology, also microanatomy, is the study of the anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals using microscopy.

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History of Christianity

The history of Christianity concerns the Christian religion, Christendom, and the Church with its various denominations, from the 1st century to the present.

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History of Islam in southern Italy

The history of Islam in Sicily and Southern Italy began with the first Muslim settlement in Sicily, at Mazara, which was captured in 827.

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History of Italian fashion

The history of Italian fashion is a chronological record of the events and characters that marked the Italian fashion through time and impacted the way it evolved into what it is today.

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History of Italy

In archaic times, ancient Greeks, Etruscans and Celts established settlements in the south, the centre and the north of Italy respectively, while various Italian tribes and Italic peoples inhabited the Italian peninsula and insular Italy.

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History of Rome (Mommsen)

The History of Rome (Römische Geschichte) is a multi-volume history of ancient Rome written by Theodor Mommsen (1817–1903).

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History of Sardinia

Archaeological evidence of prehistoric human settlement on the island of Sardinia is present in the form of nuraghes and others prehistoric monuments, which dot the land.

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History of science in the Renaissance

During the Renaissance, great advances occurred in geography, astronomy, chemistry, physics, mathematics, manufacturing, anatomy and engineering.

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Hohenstaufen

The Staufer, also known as the House of Staufen, or of Hohenstaufen, were a dynasty of German kings (1138–1254) during the Middle Ages.

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Hollywood on the Tiber

Hollywood on the Tiber is a phrase used to describe the period in the 1950s and 1960s when the Italian capital of Rome emerged as a major location for international filmmaking attracting a large number of foreign productions to the Cinecittà studios.

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Holy Roman Emperor

The Holy Roman Emperor (historically Romanorum Imperator, "Emperor of the Romans") was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire (800-1806 AD, from Charlemagne to Francis II).

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Holy Roman Empire

The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.

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Holy See

The Holy See (Santa Sede; Sancta Sedes), also called the See of Rome, is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity.

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Homo sapiens

Homo sapiens is the systematic name used in taxonomy (also known as binomial nomenclature) for the only extant human species.

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Horace

Quintus Horatius Flaccus (December 8, 65 BC – November 27, 8 BC), known in the English-speaking world as Horace, was the leading Roman lyric poet during the time of Augustus (also known as Octavian).

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Horticulture

Horticulture is the science and art of growing plants (fruits, vegetables, flowers, and any other cultivar).

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House of Este

The House of Este (Casa d'Este; originally House of Welf-Este) is a European princely dynasty.

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House of Gonzaga

The House of Gonzaga was a princely family that ruled Mantua, in northern Italy, from 1328 to 1708; they also ruled Monferrato in Piedmont and Nevers in France, and also many other lesser fiefs throughout Europe.

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House of Medici

The House of Medici was an Italian banking family and political dynasty that first began to gather prominence under Cosimo de' Medici in the Republic of Florence during the first half of the 15th century.

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House of Savoy

The House of Savoy (Casa Savoia) is a royal family that was established in 1003 in the historical Savoy region. Through gradual expansion, the family grew in power from ruling a small county in the Alps of northern Italy to absolute rule of the kingdom of Sicily in 1713 to 1720 (exchanged for Sardinia). Through its junior branch, the House of Savoy-Carignano, it led the unification of Italy in 1861 and ruled the Kingdom of Italy from 1861 until 1946 and, briefly, the Kingdom of Spain in the 19th century. The Savoyard kings of Italy were Victor Emmanuel II, Umberto I, Victor Emmanuel III, and Umberto II. The last monarch ruled for a few weeks before being deposed following the Constitutional Referendum of 1946, after which the Italian Republic was proclaimed.

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House of Sforza

The House of Sforza was a ruling family of Renaissance Italy, based in Milan.

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House of Valois-Anjou

The House of Valois-Anjou (Casa Valois-Angiò) was a noble French family, deriving from the royal family, the House of Valois.

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Household debt

Household debt is defined as the combined debt of all people in a household.

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Human body

The human body is the entire structure of a human being.

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Human Development Index

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.

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Humanism

Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism and empiricism) over acceptance of dogma or superstition.

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Humid continental climate

A humid continental climate (Köppen prefix D and a third letter of a or b) is a climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, which is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold in the northern areas) winters.

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Humid subtropical climate

A humid subtropical climate is a zone of climate characterized by hot and humid summers, and mild to cool winters.

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Il Canto degli Italiani

"Il Canto degli Italiani" ("The Song of the Italians" or "The Chant of the Italians") is the national anthem of Italy.

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Il Canzoniere

Il Canzoniere (Song Book), also known as the Rime Sparse (Scattered Rhymes), but originally titled Rerum vulgarium fragmenta (Fragments of common things, that is Fragments composed in vernacular), is a collection of poems by the Italian humanist, poet, and writer Petrarch.

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Il Postino: The Postman

Il Postino: The Postman ('The Postman'; the title used for the original US release) is a 1994 Italian film directed by Michael Radford and Massimo Troisi.

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Illegal immigration

Illegal immigration is the illegal entry of a person or a group of persons across a country's border, in a way that violates the immigration laws of the destination country, with the intention to remain in the country, as well as people who remain living in another country when they do not have the legal right to do so.

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Implementation Force

The Implementation Force (IFOR) was a NATO-led multinational peace enforcement force in Bosnia and Herzegovina under a one-year mandate from 20 December 1995 to 20 December 1996 under the codename Operation Joint Endeavour.

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Impressionism

Impressionism is a 19th-century art movement characterised by relatively small, thin, yet visible brush strokes, open composition, emphasis on accurate depiction of light in its changing qualities (often accentuating the effects of the passage of time), ordinary subject matter, inclusion of movement as a crucial element of human perception and experience, and unusual visual angles.

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Improvisational theatre

Improvisational theatre, often called improv or impro, is the form of theatre, often comedy, in which most or all of what is performed is unplanned or unscripted: created spontaneously by the performers.

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Index of Italy-related articles

The following is an alphabetical list of articles related to Italy.

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Industrial design

Industrial design is a process of design applied to products that are to be manufactured through techniques of mass production.

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Industrial district

http://pda.ulsan.go.kr/Common/Detail.neo?id.

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Infantry fighting vehicle

An infantry fighting vehicle (IFV), also known as a mechanized infantry combat vehicle (MICV), is a type of armoured fighting vehicle used to carry infantry into battle and provide direct-fire support.

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Inigo Jones

Inigo Jones (15 July 1573 – 21 June 1652) was the first significant English architect (of Welsh ancestry) in the early modern period, and the first to employ Vitruvian rules of proportion and symmetry in his buildings.

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Inner Carniola

Inner Carniola (Notranjska) is a traditional region of Slovenia, the southwestern part of the larger Carniola region. It comprises the Hrušica karst plateau up to Postojna Gate, bordering the Slovenian Littoral (Goriška) in the west. Its administrative and economic center of the region is Postojna, while other minor centers include Logatec, Cerknica, Pivka and Ilirska Bistrica.

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Inner Six

The Inner Six, or simply "the Six", were the six founding member states of the European Communities.

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Innichen

Innichen (San Candido) is a market town and comune (municipality) in South Tyrol in northern Italy.

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Innocenzo Manzetti

Innocenzo Vincenzo Bartolomeo Luigi Carlo Manzetti (17 March 1826 – 15 March 1877) was an Italian inventor born in Aosta.

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Insular Italy

Insular Italy (Italia insulare or just Isole) is one of the five official statistical regions of Italy used by the National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT), a first level NUTS region and a European Parliament constituency.

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Intangible cultural heritage

An intangible cultural heritage (ICH) is a practice, representation, expression, knowledge, or skill, as well as the instruments, objects, artefacts, and cultural spaces that are considered by UNESCO to be part of a place's cultural heritage.

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Inter Press Service

Inter Press Service (IPS) is a global news agency.

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International Futures

International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.

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International Institute for Strategic Studies

The International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) is a British research institute (or think tank) in the area of international affairs.

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International Obesity Taskforce

The International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) is an organization designed to combat obesity around the world.

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International security

International security, also called global security, refers to the amalgamation of measures taken by states and international organizations, such as the United Nations, European Union, and others, to ensure mutual survival and safety.

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International trade

International trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and services across international borders or territories.

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Investiture Controversy

The Investiture controversy or Investiture contest was a conflict between church and state in medieval Europe over the ability to appoint local church officials through investiture.

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Ionian Sea

The Ionian Sea (Ιόνιο Πέλαγος,, Mar Ionio,, Deti Jon) is an elongated bay of the Mediterranean Sea, south of the Adriatic Sea.

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Iraq

Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.

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Irreligion

Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.

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Ischia

Ischia is a volcanic island in the Tyrrhenian Sea.

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Istrian-Dalmatian exodus

The term Istrian-Dalmatian exodus refers to the post-World War II expulsion and departure of ethnic Italians from the Yugoslav territory of Istria, as well as the cities of Zadar and Rijeka.

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Italian Aesculapian snake

The Italian Aesculapian snake (Zamenis lineatus) is a species of snake in the Colubridae family.

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Italian Air Force

The Italian Air Force (Italian: Aeronautica Militare; AM) is the aerial defence force of the Italian Republic.

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Italian Armed Forces

The Italian Armed Forces (italian: Forze armate italiane) encompass the Italian Army, the Italian Navy and the Italian Air Force.

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Italian Army

The Italian Army (Italian: Esercito Italiano) is the land defence force of the Italian Armed Forces of the Italian Republic.

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Italian Baroque

Italian Baroque (or Barocco) is a stylistic period in Italian history and art that spanned from the late 16th century to the early 18th century.

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Italian Campaign (World War II)

The Italian Campaign of World War II consisted of the Allied operations in and around Italy, from 1943 to the end of the war in Europe.

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Italian cave salamander

The Italian cave salamander (Speleomantes italicus) is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae.

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Italian city-states

The Italian city-states were a political phenomenon of small independent states mostly in the central and northern Italian peninsula between the 9th and the 15th centuries.

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Italian Civil War

The Italian Civil War (Italian: La guerra civile) is the period between September 8, 1943 (the date of the armistice of Cassibile), and May 2, 1945 (the date of the surrender of German forces in Italy) in which the Italian Resistance and the Italian Co-Belligerent Army joined the allies fighting Axis forces including continuing Italian Fascists Italian Social Republic.

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Italian concession of Tientsin

The Italian concession of Tientsin (Concessione italiana di Tientsin) was a small territory (concession) in central Tianjin (formerly romanized as Tientsin), China, controlled by the Kingdom of Italy between 1901 and 1947.

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Italian conquest of British Somaliland

No description.

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Italian constitutional referendum, 2016

A constitutional referendum was held in Italy on Sunday 4 December 2016.

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Italian diaspora

The Italian diaspora is the large-scale emigration of Italians from Italy.

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Italian economic miracle

The Italian economic miracle or the Italian economic boom (il miracolo economico, or boom economico) is the term used by historians, economists and the mass media to designate the prolonged period of strong economic growth in Italy after the Second World War from the 1950s to the late 1960s, and in particular the years from 1950 to 1963.

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Italian Empire

The Italian Empire (Impero Italiano) comprised the colonies, protectorates, concessions, dependencies and trust territories of the Kingdom of Italy and, after 1946, the Italian Republic.

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Italian Eritrea

Italian Eritrea was a colony of the Kingdom of Italy in the territory of present-day Eritrea.

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Italian Fascism

Italian Fascism (fascismo italiano), also known simply as Fascism, is the original fascist ideology as developed in Italy.

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Italian folk music

Italian folk music has a deep and complex history.

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Italian general election, 1948

General elections were held in Italy on Sunday 18 April 1948 to elect the First Republican Parliament.

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Italian general election, 2013

A general election took place on 24–25 February 2013 to determine the 630 members of the Chamber of Deputies and the 315 elective members of the Senate of the Republic for the 17th Parliament of the Italian Republic.

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Italian general election, 2018

The 2018 Italian general election was held on 4 March 2018 after the Italian Parliament was dissolved by President Sergio Mattarella on 28 December 2017.

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Italian government debt

The Italian government debt is the public debt owed by the government of Italy to all public and private lenders.

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Italian hip hop

Italian hip hop started in the 1980s.

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Italian institutional referendum, 1946

An institutional referendum (referendum istituzionale, or referendum sulla forma istituzionale dello Stato, in Italian) was held in Italy on 2 June 1946,Dieter Nohlen & Philip Stöver (2010) Elections in Europe: A data handbook, p1047 a key event of Italian contemporary history.

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Italian invasion of Albania

The Italian invasion of Albania (April 7–12, 1939) was a brief military campaign by the Kingdom of Italy against the Albanian Kingdom.

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Italian invasion of Egypt

The Italian invasion of Egypt (Operazione E) was an Italian offensive against British, Commonwealth and Free French forces during the Western Desert Campaign (1940–1943) of the Second World War.

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Italian Islands of the Aegean

The Italian Islands of the Aegean (Isole italiane dell'Egeo; Ἰταλικαὶ Νῆσοι Αἰγαίου Πελάγους) were a group of twelve major islands (the Dodecanese) in the southeastern Aegean Sea, which — together with the surrounding islets — were ruled by the Kingdom of Italy from 1912 to 1943 and the Italian Social Republic from 1943 to 1945.

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Italian Jews

Italian Jews (Ebrei italiani, יהודים איטלקים Yehudim Italkim) can be used in a broad sense to mean all Jews living or with roots in Italy, or, in a narrower sense, to mean the Italkim, an ancient community who use the Italian liturgy as distinct from the communities dating from medieval or modern times who use the Sephardic liturgy or the Nusach Ashkenaz.

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Italian language

Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.

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Italian Libya

Italian Libya (Libia Italiana; ليبيا الإيطالية) was a unified colony of Italian North Africa (Africa Settentrionale Italiana, or ASI) established in 1934 in what is now modern Libya.

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Italian lira

The lira (plural lire) was the currency of Italy between 1861 and 2002 and of the Albanian Kingdom between 1941 and 1943.

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Italian National Institute of Statistics

The Italian National Institute of Statistics (Italian: Istituto Nazionale di Statistica; Istat) is the main producer of official statistics in Italy.

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Italian nationalism

Italian nationalism builds upon the idea that Italians are the ethnic, cultural, and linguistic successors of the ancient Romans who inhabited the Italian Peninsula for over a millennium.

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Italian nationality law

Italian nationality law is the law of Italy governing the acquisition, transmission and loss of Italian citizenship.

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Italian Navy

The Italian Navy (Marina Militare, "Military Navy"; abbreviated as MM) is the maritime defence force of the Italian Republic.

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Italian neorealism

Italian neorealism (Neorealismo), also known as the Golden Age, is a national film movement characterized by stories set amongst the poor and the working class, filmed on location, frequently using non-professional actors.

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Italian newt

The Italian newt (Lissotriton italicus) is a species of salamander in the family Salamandridae found only in Italy.

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Italian Open (tennis)

The Italian Open (known also as Rome Masters for male edition, as well as sponsored name Internazionali BNL d'Italia) is an annual tennis tournament held in Rome, Italy.

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Italian opera

Italian opera is both the art of opera in Italy and opera in the Italian language.

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Italian Parliament

The Italian Parliament (Parlamento Italiano) is the national parliament of the Italian Republic.

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Italian participation in the Eastern Front

The Italian participation in the Eastern Front during World War II began after the launch of Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of the Soviet Union, on 22 June 1941.

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Italian Peninsula

The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Penisola italiana, Penisola appenninica) extends from the Po Valley in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south.

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Italian philosophy

Italy over the ages has had a vast influence on Western philosophy, beginning with the Greeks and Romans, and going onto Renaissance humanism, the Age of Enlightenment and modern philosophy.

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Italian Racial Laws

The Italian Racial Laws (Leggi razziali) were a set of laws promulgated by Fascist Italy from 1938 to 1943 to enforce racial discrimination in Italy, directed mainly against the Italian Jews and the native inhabitants of the colonies.

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Italian referendums, 1987

Five nationwide popular referendums were held in Italy on 8 November 1987, with three questions about nuclear energy after the Chernobyl disaster, and two questions about justice.

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Italian Regency of Carnaro

The Italian Regency of Carnaro (Reggenza Italiana del Carnaro) was a self-proclaimed state in the city of Fiume (now Rijeka, Croatia) led by Gabriele d'Annunzio between 1919 and 1920.

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Italian Renaissance

The Italian Renaissance (Rinascimento) was the earliest manifestation of the general European Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement that began in Italy during the 14th century (Trecento) and lasted until the 17th century (Seicento), marking the transition between Medieval and Modern Europe.

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Italian resistance movement

The Italian resistance movement (Resistenza italiana or just la Resistenza) is an umbrella term for resistance groups that opposed the occupying German forces and the Italian Fascist puppet regime of the Italian Social Republic during the later years of World War II.

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Italian Riviera

The Italian Riviera, or Ligurian Riviera (Riviera ligure; Rivêa ligure) is the narrow coastal strip which lies between the Ligurian Sea and the mountain chain formed by the Maritime Alps and the Apennines.

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Italian Rococo art

Italian Rococo art refers to painting and the plastic arts in Italy during the Rococo period, which went from about the early/mid-18th to the late 18th century.

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Italian Social Republic

The Italian Social Republic (Repubblica Sociale Italiana,; RSI), informally known as the Republic of Salò (Repubblica di Salò), was a German puppet state with limited recognition that was created during the later part of World War II, existing from the beginning of German occupation of Italy in September 1943 until the surrender of German troops in Italy in May 1945.

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Italian Socialist Party

The Italian Socialist Party (PSI) was a socialist and later social-democratic political party in Italy.

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Italian Somaliland

Italian Somaliland (Somalia italiana, الصومال الإيطالي Al-Sumal Al-Italiy, Dhulka Talyaaniga ee Soomaaliya), also known as Italian Somalia, was a colony of the Kingdom of Italy in present-day northeastern, central and southern Somalia.

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Italian stream frog

The Italian stream frog (Rana italica) is a species of frog in the Ranidae family found in Italy and San Marino.

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Italian unification

Italian unification (Unità d'Italia), or the Risorgimento (meaning "the Resurgence" or "revival"), was the political and social movement that consolidated different states of the Italian peninsula into the single state of the Kingdom of Italy in the 19th century.

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Italian war crimes

Italian war crimes have mainly been associated with Fascist Italy in the Pacification of Libya, the Second Italo-Ethiopian War, and World War II.

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Italian Wars

The Italian Wars, often referred to as the Great Italian Wars or the Great Wars of Italy and sometimes as the Habsburg–Valois Wars or the Renaissance Wars, were a series of conflicts from 1494 to 1559 that involved, at various times, most of the city-states of Italy, the Papal States, the Republic of Venice, most of the major states of Western Europe (France, Spain, the Holy Roman Empire, England, and Scotland) as well as the Ottoman Empire.

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Italian wine

Italy is home to some of the oldest wine-producing regions in the world, and Italian wines are known worldwide for their broad variety.

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Italian wolf

The Italian wolf (Canis lupus italicus), also known as the Apennine wolf, is a subspecies of grey wolf native to the Italian Peninsula.

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Italianate architecture

The Italianate style of architecture was a distinct 19th-century phase in the history of Classical architecture.

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Italianization

Italianization (Italianizzazione; talijanizacija; poitaljančevanje; Italianisierung; Ιταλοποίηση) is the spread of Italian culture, people, or language, either by integration or assimilation.

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Italians

The Italians (Italiani) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation native to the Italian peninsula.

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Italic League

The Italic League or Most Holy League was an international agreement concluded in Venice on 30 August 1454, between the Papal States, the Republic of Venice, the Duchy of Milan, the Republic of Florence and the Kingdom of Naples, following the Treaty of Lodi a few months previously.

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Italic peoples

The Italic peoples are an Indo-European ethnolinguistic group identified by speaking Italic languages.

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Italo Calvino

Italo Calvino (. RAI (circa 1970), retrieved 25 October 2012. 15 October 1923 – 19 September 1985) was an Italian journalist and writer of short stories and novels.

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Italo dance

Italo dance, also known as nu Italo disco, nu-Italo or just Italo, is an offshoot of the Eurodance music genre, which was especially popular in Europe in the late 1990s to the early 2000s.

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Italo disco

Italo disco (sometimes hyphenated, such as Italo-disco, subjected to varying capitalization, or abbreviated as Italo) is a music genre which originated in Italy and was mainly produced from the late 1970s to the late 1980s.

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Italo house

Italo house (often simply referred to as "Italian" or "Italian House" in the UK) is a form of house music originating in Italy.

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Italo-Norman

The Italo-Normans, or Siculo-Normans when referring to Sicily and Southern Italy, are the Italian-born descendants of the first Norman conquerors to travel to southern Italy in the first half of the eleventh century.

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Italus

Italus or Italos (from) was a legendary king of the Oenotrians, who were among the earliest inhabitants of Italy.

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Italy at the Olympics

Italy has competed at all the modern Olympic Games Italy has taken part in all the Winter Olympic Games, winning 124 medals, and 577 medals at the Summer Olympic Games.

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Italy men's national volleyball team

The Italy men's national volleyball team dominated international volleyball competitions in the 1990s and early 2000s, by winning three World Championships in a row (1990, 1994 and 1998), six European Championships, one World Cup (1995) and eight World League (1990, 1991, 1992, 1994, 1995, 1997, 1999 and 2000).

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Italy national basketball team

The Italian national basketball team (Nazionale di pallacanestro dell'Italia) is administered by the Federazione Italiana Pallacanestro (Italian Basketball Federation).

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Italy national football team

The Italy national football team (Nazionale di calcio dell'Italia) represents Italy in association football and is controlled by the Italian Football Federation (FIGC), the governing body for football in Italy.

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Italy national rugby union team

The Italy national rugby union team competes annually in the Six Nations Championship against the other top rugby teams in Europe.

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Italy women's national volleyball team

The Italy women's national volleyball team is governed by the Federazione Italiana Pallavolo (FIPAV).

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Ivrea

Ivrea (Eporedia) is a town and comune of the Metropolitan City of Turin in the Piedmont region of northwestern Italy.

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Jazz

Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and developed from roots in blues and ragtime.

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Jehovah's Witnesses

Jehovah's Witnesses is a millenarian restorationist Christian denomination with nontrinitarian beliefs distinct from mainstream Christianity.

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Jerusalem Delivered

Jerusalem Delivered (La Gerusalemme liberata) is an epic poem by the Italian poet Torquato Tasso, first published in 1581, that tells a largely mythified version of the First Crusade in which Christian knights, led by Godfrey of Bouillon, battle Muslims in order to take Jerusalem.

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Jewish cuisine

Jewish cuisine is a diverse collection of cooking traditions of the Jewish people worldwide.

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Joachim Murat

Joachim-Napoléon Murat (born Joachim Murat; Gioacchino Napoleone Murat; Joachim-Napoleon Murat; 25 March 1767 – 13 October 1815) was a Marshal of France and Admiral of France under the reign of Napoleon.

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John Cabot

John Cabot (Giovanni Caboto; c. 1450 – c. 1500) was a Venetian navigator and explorer whose 1497 discovery of the coast of North America under the commission of Henry VII of England was the first European exploration of coastal North America since the Norse visits to Vinland in the eleventh century.

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Joint session

A joint session or joint convention is, most broadly, when two normally separate decision-making groups meet together, often in a special session or other extraordinary meeting, for a specific purpose.

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Joseph-Louis Lagrange

Joseph-Louis Lagrange (or;; born Giuseppe Lodovico Lagrangia, Encyclopædia Britannica or Giuseppe Ludovico De la Grange Tournier, Turin, 25 January 1736 – Paris, 10 April 1813; also reported as Giuseppe Luigi Lagrange or Lagrangia) was an Italian Enlightenment Era mathematician and astronomer.

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Jovanotti

Lorenzo Cherubini (born 27 September 1966), better known as Jovanotti, is an Italian singer-songwriter and rapper.

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Juggling

Juggling is a physical skill, performed by a juggler, involving the manipulation of objects for recreation, entertainment, art or sport.

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Julian March

The Julian March (Serbo-Croatian, Slovene: Julijska krajina) or Julian Venetia (Venezia Giulia; Venesia Julia; Vignesie Julie; Julisch Venetien) is an area of southeastern Europe which is divided among Croatia, Italy and Slovenia.

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Julius Caesar

Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.

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Justinian I

Justinian I (Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus; Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós; 482 14 November 565), traditionally known as Justinian the Great and also Saint Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church, was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565.

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Köppen climate classification

The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.

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Kingdom of Italy

The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.

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Kingdom of Italy (Napoleonic)

The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia; Royaume d'Italie) was a French client state founded in Northern Italy by Napoleon I, fully influenced by revolutionary France, that ended with his defeat and fall.

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Kingdom of Naples

The Kingdom of Naples (Regnum Neapolitanum; Reino de Nápoles; Regno di Napoli) comprised that part of the Italian Peninsula south of the Papal States between 1282 and 1816.

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Kingdom of Sardinia

The Kingdom of SardiniaThe name of the state was originally Latin: Regnum Sardiniae, or Regnum Sardiniae et Corsicae when the kingdom was still considered to include Corsica.

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Kingdom of Sicily

The Kingdom of Sicily (Regnum Siciliae, Regno di Sicilia, Regnu di Sicilia, Regne de Sicília, Reino de Sicilia) was a state that existed in the south of the Italian peninsula and for a time Africa from its founding by Roger II in 1130 until 1816.

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Kiwifruit

Kiwifruit (often abbreviated as kiwi), or Chinese gooseberry is the edible berry of several species of woody vines in the genus Actinidia.

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Kosovo Force

The Kosovo Force (KFOR) is a NATO-led international peacekeeping force which was responsible for establishing a secure environment in Kosovo.

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L'Aquila

L'Aquila (meaning "The Eagle") is a city and comune in Southern Italy, both the capital city of the Abruzzo region and of the Province of L'Aquila.

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La Dolce Vita

La Dolce Vita (Italian for "the sweet life" or "the good life")Kezich, 203 is a 1960 Italian drama film directed and co-written by Federico Fellini.

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La Fenice

Teatro La Fenice ("The Phoenix") is an opera house in Venice, Italy.

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La Scala

La Scala (abbreviation in Italian language for the official name Teatro alla Scala) is an opera house in Milan, Italy.

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Lacuna Coil

Lacuna Coil is a gothic metal band from Milan Italy.

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Ladin language

Ladin (or; Ladin: Ladin, Ladino, Ladinisch) is a Romance language consisting of a group of dialects that some consider part of a unitary Rhaeto-Romance language, mainly spoken in the Dolomite Mountains in Northern Italy in the provinces of South Tyrol, the Trentino, and the Belluno, by the Ladin people.

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Lago di Lei

Lago di Lei is a reservoir in the Valle di Lei, powering the Hinterrhein storage power stations.

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Lake Bolsena

Lake Bolsena (Lago di Bolsena) is a crater lake of central Italy, of volcanic origin.

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Lake Como

Lake Como (Lago di Como or locally in Italian, also known as Lario, after the Latin name of the lake; Lagh de Còmm in Lombard; Latin: Larius Lacus) is a lake of glacial origin in Lombardy, Italy.

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Lake Garda

Lake Garda (Lago di Garda or Lago Benàco, Benacus; Lach de Garda; Łago de Garda) is the largest lake in Italy.

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Lake Maggiore

Lake Maggiore (Lago Maggiore, literally 'Greater Lake') or Lago Verbàno (Lacus Verbanus) is a large lake located on the south side of the Alps.

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Lake Trasimeno

Lake Trasimeno (Lago Trasimeno,; Trasumennus; Etruscan Tarśmina), also referred to as Trasimene or Thrasimene in English, is a lake in the province of Perugia, in the Umbria region of Italy.

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Lamborghini

Automobili Lamborghini S.p.A. is an Italian brand and manufacturer of luxury sports cars and SUVs based in Sant'Agata Bolognese and tractors Lamborghini Trattori in Pieve di Cento, Italy.

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Lampedusa

Lampedusa (Lampidusa; Λοπαδούσσα Lopadoussa) is the largest island of the Italian Pelagie Islands in the Mediterranean Sea.

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Lampione

Lampione (Lampiuni, Lantern) is a small rocky island located in the Mediterranean Sea, which belongs geographically to the Pelagie Islands and administratively to the comune of Lampedusa e Linosa, Province of Agrigento, region of Sicily, Italy.

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Lancia

Lancia is an Italian automobile manufacturer founded in 1906 by Vincenzo Lancia as Lancia & C..

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Languages of Italy

There are approximately thirty-four living spoken languages and related dialects in Italy; most of which are indigenous evolutions of Vulgar Latin, and are therefore classified as Romance languages.

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Larderello

Larderello is a frazione of the comune of Pomarance, in Tuscany in central Italy.

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Lateran Treaty

The Lateran Treaty (Patti Lateranensi; Pacta Lateranensia) was one of the Lateran Pacts of 1929 or Lateran Accords, agreements made in 1929 between the Kingdom of Italy and the Holy See, settling the "Roman Question".

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Latin

Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Latin alphabet

The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.

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Latin script

Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.

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Latins

The Latins were originally an Italic tribe in ancient central Italy from Latium.

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Latins (Italic tribe)

The Latins (Latin: Latini), sometimes known as the Latians, were an Italic tribe which included the early inhabitants of the city of Rome.

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Laura Pausini

Laura Pausini, (born 16 May 1974) is an Italian pop singer-songwriter, record producer and television personality.

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Law enforcement in Italy

Law enforcement in Italy is provided by multiple police forces, five of which are national agencies with full powers.

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Lazio

Lazio (Latium) is one of the 20 administrative regions of Italy.

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Lazzaro Spallanzani

Lazzaro Spallanzani (10 January 1729 – 12 February 1799) was an Italian Catholic priest, biologist and physiologist who made important contributions to the experimental study of bodily functions, animal reproduction, and animal echolocation.

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Lazzi

Lazzi (from the Italian lazzo, a joke or witticism) are stock comedic routines that are traditionally associated with Commedia dell'arte.

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Le Orme

Le Orme (Italian: "The Footprints") is an Italian progressive rock band formed in 1966 in Marghera, a frazione of Venice.

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League of Nations

The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.

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Leaning Tower of Pisa

The Leaning Tower of Pisa (Torre pendente di Pisa) or simply the Tower of Pisa (Torre di Pisa) is the campanile, or freestanding bell tower, of the cathedral of the Italian city of Pisa, known worldwide for its unintended tilt.

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Lega Basket Serie A

The Lega Basket Serie A, officially abbreviated as LBA, (English: Serie A Basketball League) and known for sponsorship reasons as the Serie A PosteMobile, is a professional men's club basketball league that has been organised in Italy since 1920.

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Lega Nord

Lega Nord (LN; italic), whose complete name is Lega Nord per l'Indipendenza della Padania (Northern League for the Independence of Padania), is a regionalist political party in Italy.

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Legacy of the Roman Empire

The legacy of the Roman Empire includes the set of cultural values, religious beliefs, technological advancements, engineering and language.

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Lemon

The lemon, Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck, is a species of small evergreen tree in the flowering plant family Rutaceae, native to Asia.

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Leon Battista Alberti

Leon Battista Alberti (February 14, 1404 – April 25, 1472) was an Italian humanist author, artist, architect, poet, priest, linguist, philosopher and cryptographer; he epitomised the Renaissance Man.

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Leonardo Bruni

Leonardo Bruni (or Leonardo Aretino) (c. 1370 – March 9, 1444) was an Italian humanist, historian and statesman, often recognized as the most important humanist historian of the early Renaissance.

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Leonardo da Vinci

Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (15 April 14522 May 1519), more commonly Leonardo da Vinci or simply Leonardo, was an Italian polymath of the Renaissance, whose areas of interest included invention, painting, sculpting, architecture, science, music, mathematics, engineering, literature, anatomy, geology, astronomy, botany, writing, history, and cartography.

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Leonardo da Vinci–Fiumicino Airport

Leonardo da Vinci International Airport (Fiumicino – Aeroporto Internazionale Leonardo da Vinci) or simply Rome Fiumicino Airport, also known as just Fiumicino Airport, is an international airport in Rome and the major airport in Italy.

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Leopard 1

The Leopard (or Leopard 1) is a main battle tank designed and produced in West Germany that first entered service in 1965.

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Letta Cabinet

The Letta cabinet was the sixty-second cabinet of the government of Italy announced on 27 April 2013.

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Lex Roscia

The Lex Roscia was introduced in 49 BC by the praetor Lucius Roscius Fabatus on behalf of Julius Caesar.

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Life Is Beautiful

Life Is Beautiful (La vita è bella) is a 1997 Italian comedy-drama film directed by and starring Roberto Benigni, who co-wrote the film with Vincenzo Cerami.

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Ligures

The Ligures (singular Ligus or Ligur; English: Ligurians, Greek: Λίγυες) were an ancient Indo-European people who appear to have originated in, and gave their name to, Liguria, a region of north-western Italy.

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Liguria

Liguria (Ligûria, Ligurie) is a coastal region of north-western Italy; its capital is Genoa.

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Ligurian Sea

The Ligurian Sea (Mar Ligure; Mer Ligurienne) is an arm of the Mediterranean Sea, between the Italian Riviera (Liguria) and the island of Corsica.

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List of ancient peoples of Italy

This list of ancient peoples living in Italy summarises groupings existing before the Roman expansion and conquest.

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List of Aragonese monarchs

This is a list of the kings and queens of Aragon.

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List of Baroque composers

Composers of the Baroque era, ordered by date of birth.

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List of birds of Italy

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Italy.

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List of Classical-era composers

This is a list of composers of the Classical music era, roughly from 1730 to 1820.

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List of countries by GDP (nominal)

Gross domestic product (GDP) is the market value of all final goods and services from a nation in a given year.

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List of countries by Human Development Index

This is a list of all the countries by the Human Development Index as included in a United Nations Development Programme's Human Development Report.

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List of countries by life expectancy

This is a collection of lists of countries by average life expectancy at birth.

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List of countries by military expenditures

This article is a list of countries by military expenditure in a given year.

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List of earthquakes in Italy

This is a list of earthquakes in Italy.

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List of European Union member states by population

This is a list of European Union member states by population, which is sorted by the 2017 population figure as provided by Eurostat.

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List of Formula One Grand Prix winners (constructors)

Formula One, abbreviated to F1, is the highest class of open wheeled auto racing defined by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA), motorsport's world governing body.

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List of islands in the Mediterranean

The following is a list describing the islands located in the Mediterranean Sea.

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List of Italian cheeses

This is a list of Italian cheeses.

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List of Italian concentration camps

Italian concentration camps include camps from the Italian colonial wars in Africa as well as camps for the civilian population from areas occupied by Italy during World War II.

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List of Italian DOP cheeses

thumb This List of DOP Italian cheeses includes all the Italian cheeses which have Denominazione di Origine Protetta ("Protected Designation of Origin"), or DOP, status under European Union regulations.

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List of Italian film directors

The following is a list of film directors from Italy.

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List of Italian products with protected designation of origin

This is a list of Italian Protected Designation of Origin (PDO), Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) as defined in the Council Regulation CE 510/2006..

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List of Italian submissions for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film

Italy has submitted films for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film since the conception of the award.

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List of largest church buildings

This article lists the largest church buildings as measured by various criteria.

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List of largest empires

This is a list of the largest empires in world history, but the list is not and cannot be definitive since the decision about which entities to consider as "empires" is difficult and fraught with controversy.

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List of mammals of Italy

This is a list of the mammal species recorded in Italy.

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List of members of the United Nations Security Council

Membership of the United Nations Security Council is held by the five permanent members and ten elected, non-permanent members.

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List of Presidents of the Chamber of Deputies (Italy)

This is a list of the Presidents of the Italian Chamber of Deputies from the Kingdom of Sardinia to present.

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List of Presidents of the Senate (Italy)

This is a list of the Presidents of the Senate of Italy from the Kingdom of Sardinia to the present day.

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List of Romantic-era composers

This is a list of Romantic-era composers.

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List of Secretaries of the Democratic Party (Italy)

The Secretary of the Democratic Party is the leader of the Democratic Party, the main centre-left political party in Italy.

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List of universities in Italy

This is the list of universities in Italy, sorted in ascending order by the name of the city where they are situated.

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List of volcanoes in Italy

This is a list of active and extinct volcanoes in Italy.

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List of wine-producing countries

The following is a list of the top wine-producing countries and their volume of wine production for the year 2014 in metric tonnes, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), which is an agency of the United Nations; this is the latest information available from the FAO.

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List of World Heritage Sites in Italy

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage Sites are places of importance to cultural or natural heritage as described in the UNESCO World Heritage Convention, established in 1972.

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Little Red Riding Hood

"Little Red Riding Hood" is a European fairy tale about a young girl and a Big Bad Wolf.

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Livigno

Livigno (Livigno, local Livígn, Luwin) is a town and comune in the province of Sondrio, in the region of Lombardy, Italy, located in the Italian Alps, near the Swiss border.

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Livy

Titus Livius Patavinus (64 or 59 BCAD 12 or 17) – often rendered as Titus Livy, or simply Livy, in English language sources – was a Roman historian.

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Lockheed Martin C-130J Super Hercules

The Lockheed Martin C-130J Super Hercules is a four-engine turboprop military transport aircraft.

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Lombard League

The Lombard League (Italian and Lombard: Lega Lombarda) was a medieval alliance formed in 1167, supported by the Pope, to counter the attempts by the Hohenstaufen Holy Roman Emperors to assert influence over the Kingdom of Italy as a part of the Holy Roman Empire.

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Lombards

The Lombards or Longobards (Langobardi, Longobardi, Longobard (Western)) were a Germanic people who ruled most of the Italian Peninsula from 568 to 774.

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Lombardy

Lombardy (Lombardia; Lumbardia, pronounced: (Western Lombard), (Eastern Lombard)) is one of the twenty administrative regions of Italy, in the northwest of the country, with an area of.

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London School of Economics

The London School of Economics (officially The London School of Economics and Political Science, often referred to as LSE) is a public research university located in London, England and a constituent college of the federal University of London.

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Lorenzo Ghiberti

Lorenzo Ghiberti (1378 – 1 December 1455), born Lorenzo di Bartolo, was a Florentine Italian artist of the Early Renaissance best known as the creator of the bronze doors of the Florence Baptistery, called by Michelangelo the Gates of Paradise.

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Luca della Robbia

Luca della Robbia (1399/1400–1482) was an Italian sculptor from Florence.

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Luca Pacioli

Fra Luca Bartolomeo de Pacioli (sometimes Paccioli or Paciolo; 1447–1517) was an Italian mathematician, Franciscan friar, collaborator with Leonardo da Vinci, and a seminal contributor to the field now known as accounting.

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Lucania

Lucania (Leukanía) was an ancient area of Southern Italy.

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Luchino Visconti

Luchino Visconti di Modrone, Count of Lonate Pozzolo (2 November 1906 – 17 March 1976), was an Italian theatre, opera and cinema director, as well as a screenwriter.

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Luciano Berio

Luciano Berio, Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI (October 24, 1925 – May 27, 2003) was an Italian composer.

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Luciano Pavarotti

Luciano Pavarotti, Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI (12 October 19356 September 2007) was an Italian operatic tenor who also crossed over into popular music, eventually becoming one of the most commercially successful tenors of all time.

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Lucio Fontana

Lucio Fontana (19 February 1899 – 7 September 1968) was an Italian painter, sculptor and theorist of Argentine birth.

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Lucius Tarquinius Priscus

Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, or Tarquin the Elder, was the legendary fifth king of Rome from 616 to 579 BC.

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Lucius Tarquinius Superbus

Lucius Tarquinius Superbus (died 495 BC) was the legendary seventh and final king of Rome, reigning from 535 BC until the popular uprising in 509 that led to the establishment of the Roman Republic.

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Ludovico Ariosto

Ludovico Ariosto (8 September 1474 – 6 July 1533) was an Italian poet.

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Luigi Capuana

Luigi Capuana (May 28, 1839 – November 29, 1915) was an Italian author and journalist and one of the most important members of the ''verist'' movement (see also ''verismo'' (literature)).

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Luigi Nono

Luigi Nono (29 January 1924 – 8 May 1990) was an Italian avant-garde composer of classical music and remains one of the most prominent composers of the 20th century.

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Luigi Pirandello

Luigi Pirandello (28 June 1867 – 10 December 1936) was an Italian dramatist, novelist, poet, and short story writer whose greatest contributions were his plays.

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Lutheranism

Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.

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M113 armored personnel carrier

The M113 is a fully tracked armored personnel carrier (APC) that was developed by Food Machinery Corp (FMC).

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Ma'an News Agency

Ma'an News Agency (MNA; وكالة معا الإخبارية) is a large wire service created in 2005 in the Palestinian territories.

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Macchiaioli

The Macchiaioli were a group of Italian painters active in Tuscany in the second half of the nineteenth century, who, breaking with the antiquated conventions taught by the Italian academies of art, did much of their painting outdoors in order to capture natural light, shade, and colour.

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Macchina di Santa Rosa

The Macchina of Santa Rosa is a 30 metre high tower, which is rebuilt every year in the months of July and August in honor of Saint Rose of Viterbo, the patron saint of the city of Viterbo, Italy.

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Magna Graecia

Magna Graecia (Latin meaning "Great Greece", Μεγάλη Ἑλλάς, Megálē Hellás, Magna Grecia) was the name given by the Romans to the coastal areas of Southern Italy in the present-day regions of Campania, Apulia, Basilicata, Calabria and Sicily that were extensively populated by Greek settlers; particularly the Achaean settlements of Croton, and Sybaris, and to the north, the settlements of Cumae and Neapolis.

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Maize

Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.

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Major appliance

A major appliance, or domestic appliance, is a large machine in home appliance used for routine housekeeping tasks such as cooking, washing laundry, or food preservation.

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Majorana fermion

A Majorana fermion (uploaded 19 April 2013, retrieved 5 October 2014; and also based on the physicist's name's pronunciation.), also referred to as a Majorana particle, is a fermion that is its own antiparticle.

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Mamoiada

Mamoiada (Mamujada) is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Nuoro in the Italian region of Sardinia, located about north of Cagliari and about southwest of Nuoro.

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Mani pulite

Mani pulite (Italian for "clean hands") was a nationwide judicial investigation into political corruption in Italy held in the 1990s.

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Manifesto of Futurism

Manifesto of Futurism (Italian: Manifesto del Futurismo) is a manifesto written by the Italian poet Filippo Tommaso Marinetti and published in 1909.

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Mannerism

Mannerism, also known as Late Renaissance, is a style in European art that emerged in the later years of the Italian High Renaissance around 1520 and lasted until about the end of the 16th century in Italy, when the Baroque style began to replace it.

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Mantua

Mantua (Mantova; Emilian and Latin: Mantua) is a city and comune in Lombardy, Italy, and capital of the province of the same name.

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Manufacturing

Manufacturing is the production of merchandise for use or sale using labour and machines, tools, chemical and biological processing, or formulation.

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Maquis shrubland

Low Maquis in Corsica High ''macchia'' in Sardinia Maquis (French) or macchia (Italian: macchia mediterranea) is a shrubland biome in the Mediterranean region, typically consisting of densely growing evergreen shrubs.

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Marcello Malpighi

Marcello Malpighi (10 March 1628 – 29 November 1694) was an Italian biologist and physician, who is referred to as the "Father of microscopical anatomy, histology, physiology and embryology".

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March on Rome

The March on Rome (Marcia su Roma) was an organized mass demonstration in October 1922, which resulted in Benito Mussolini's National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, or PNF) acceding to power in the Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia).

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Marche

Marche, or the Marches, is one of the twenty regions of Italy.

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Marco Polo

Marco Polo (1254January 8–9, 1324) was an Italian merchant, explorer, and writer, born in the Republic of Venice.

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Mario Bava

Mario Bava (31 July 1914 – 27 April 1980) was an Italian director, screenwriter, special effects artist, and cinematographer from the "golden age" of Italian horror films.

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Mario Monti

Mario Monti, (born 19 March 1943) is an Italian economist who served as the Prime Minister of Italy from 2011 to 2013, despite never having been an elected politician, leading a government of technocrats in the wake of the Italian debt crisis.

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Maritime republics

The maritime republics (repubbliche marinare) of the Mediterranean Basin were thalassocratic city-states which flourished in Italy and Dalmatia during the Middle Ages.

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Mars (mythology)

In ancient Roman religion and myth, Mars (Mārs) was the god of war and also an agricultural guardian, a combination characteristic of early Rome.

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Marshall Plan

The Marshall Plan (officially the European Recovery Program, ERP) was an American initiative to aid Western Europe, in which the United States gave over $13 billion (nearly $ billion in US dollars) in economic assistance to help rebuild Western European economies after the end of World War II.

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Marsican brown bear

The Marsican brown bear (Ursus arctos marsicanus) (Italian: orso bruno marsicano), also known as the Apennine brown bear, is a critically endangered subspecies of the brown bear, with a range restricted to the Abruzzo National Park, and the surrounding region in Italy.

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Marsilio Ficino

Marsilio Ficino (Latin name: Marsilius Ficinus; 19 October 1433 – 1 October 1499) was an Italian scholar and Catholic priest who was one of the most influential humanist philosophers of the early Italian Renaissance.

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Masaccio

Masaccio (December 21, 1401 – summer 1428), born Tommaso di Ser Giovanni di Simone, was a Florentine artist who is regarded as the first great Italian painter of the Quattrocento period of the Italian Renaissance.

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Mascarpone

Mascarpone is an Italian cream cheese coagulated by the addition of certain acidic substances such as lemon juice, vinegar, citric acid or acetic acid.

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Maserati

Maserati is an Italian luxury vehicle manufacturer established on 1 December 1914, in Bologna.

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Massimo Troisi

Massimo Troisi (19 February 1953 – 4 June 1994) was an Italian actor, film director, and poet.

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Matteo Maria Boiardo

Matteo Maria Boiardo (144019/20 December 1494) was an Italian Renaissance poet.

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Matteo Renzi

Matteo Renzi (born 11 January 1975) is an Italian politician who served as the Prime Minister of Italy from February 2014 until December 2016.

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Mattia Preti

Mattia Preti (24 February 1613 – 3 January 1699) was an Italian Baroque artist who worked in Italy and Malta.

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Maurizio Pollini

Maurizio Pollini (born January 5, 1942) is an Italian classical pianist.

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Max Mara

Max Mara is an Italian fashion business.

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Media of Italy

Mass media of Italy includes a variety of online, print, and broadcast formats, such as radio, television, newspapers, and magazines.

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Medici Chapel

The Medici Chapels (Cappelle medicee) are two structures at the Basilica of San Lorenzo, Florence, Italy, dating from the 16th and 17th centuries, and built as extensions to Brunelleschi's 15th-century church, with the purpose of celebrating the Medici family, patrons of the church and Grand Dukes of Tuscany.

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Medieval art

The medieval art of the Western world covers a vast scope of time and place, over 1000 years of art in Europe, and at times the Middle East and North Africa.

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Medieval commune

Medieval communes in the European Middle Ages had sworn allegiances of mutual defense (both physical defense and of traditional freedoms) among the citizens of a town or city.

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Mediterranean Basin

In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin (also known as the Mediterranean region or sometimes Mediterranea) is the region of lands around the Mediterranean Sea that have a Mediterranean climate, with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers, which supports characteristic Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub vegetation.

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Mediterranean climate

A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by rainy winters and dry summers.

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Mediterranean diet

The Mediterranean diet is a diet inspired by the eating habits of Greece, Southern Italy, and Spain in the 1940s and 1950s.

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Mediterranean monk seal

The Mediterranean monk seal (Monachus monachus) is a monk seal belonging to the family Phocidae.

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Mediterranean Sea

The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.

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Menander

Menander (Μένανδρος Menandros; c. 342/41 – c. 290 BC) was a Greek dramatist and the best-known representative of Athenian New Comedy.

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Meson

In particle physics, mesons are hadronic subatomic particles composed of one quark and one antiquark, bound together by strong interactions.

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Mesopotamia (Roman province)

Mesopotamia was the name of two distinct Roman provinces, the one a short-lived creation of the Roman Emperor Trajan in 116–117 and the other established by Emperor Septimius Severus in ca.

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Methodism

Methodism or the Methodist movement is a group of historically related denominations of Protestant Christianity which derive their inspiration from the life and teachings of John Wesley, an Anglican minister in England.

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Metropolitan cities of Italy

The metropolitan city (città metropolitana in Italian) is an administrative division of Italy, operative since 2015.

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Metropolitan City of Bari

The Metropolitan City of Bari (Città Metropolitana di Bari) is a metropolitan city in the Apulia region of Italy.

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Metropolitan City of Bologna

The Metropolitan City of Bologna (Città Metropolitana di Bologna) is a metropolitan city in the Emilia Romagna region, Italy.

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Metropolitan City of Cagliari

The Metropolitan City of Cagliari (Città metropolitana di Cagliari) is a metropolitan city in Sardinia, Italy.

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Metropolitan City of Catania

The Metropolitan City of Catania (Città metropolitana di Catania) is a metropolitan city in Sicily, Italy.

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Metropolitan City of Florence

The Metropolitan City of Florence (Città Metropolitana di Firenze) is a metropolitan city in the Tuscany region, Italy.

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Metropolitan City of Genoa

The Metropolitan City of Genoa (Città Metropolitana di Genova) is one of the ten Metropolitan cities of Italy, located in the region of Liguria.

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Metropolitan City of Messina

The Metropolitan City of Messina (Città metropolitana di Messina) is a metropolitan city in Sicily, Italy.

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Metropolitan City of Milan

The Metropolitan City of Milan (Città Metropolitana di Milano) is a metropolitan city in the Lombardy region, Italy.

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Metropolitan City of Naples

The Metropolitan City of Naples (Italian: Città metropolitana di Napoli) is an Italian Metropolitan City in Campania region, established on January 1, 2015.

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Metropolitan City of Palermo

The Metropolitan City of Palermo (Città metropolitana di Palermo) is a metropolitan city in Sicily, Italy.

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Metropolitan City of Reggio Calabria

The Metropolitan City of Reggio Calabria (Città Metropolitana di Reggio Calabria) is a future metropolitan city in the Calabria region of southern Italy.

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Metropolitan City of Rome Capital

The administrative area of the Metropolitan City of Rome Capital (Città metropolitana di Roma Capitale) is one of the constitutional Metropolitan cities of Italy in the Lazio region, Italy.

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Metropolitan City of Turin

The Metropolitan City of Turin (Città metropolitana di Torino) is a metropolitan city in the Piedmont region, Italy.

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Metropolitan City of Venice

The Metropolitan City of Venice (Città Metropolitana di Venezia) is a metropolitan city in the Veneto region, Italy.

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Michelangelo

Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni or more commonly known by his first name Michelangelo (6 March 1475 – 18 February 1564) was an Italian sculptor, painter, architect and poet of the High Renaissance born in the Republic of Florence, who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art.

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Michelangelo Antonioni

Michelangelo Antonioni, Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI (29 September 1912 – 30 July 2007), was an Italian film director, screenwriter, editor, and short story writer.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Middle East

The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).

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Middle school

A middle school (also known as intermediate school or junior high school) is an educational stage which exists in some countries, providing education between primary school and secondary school.

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Migration Period

The Migration Period was a period during the decline of the Roman Empire around the 4th to 6th centuries AD in which there were widespread migrations of peoples within or into Europe, mostly into Roman territory, notably the Germanic tribes and the Huns.

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Milan

Milan (Milano; Milan) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,380,873 while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,235,000.

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Milan Cathedral

Milan Cathedral (Duomo di Milano; Lombard: Domm de Milan) is the cathedral church of Milan, Lombardy, Italy.

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Milan Furniture Fair

The Milan Furniture Fair (Salone Internazionale del Mobile di Milano) is a furniture fair held annually in Milan.

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Milan–Malpensa Airport

Milan–Malpensa Airport, formerly City of Busto Arsizio Airport, is the largest international airport in the Milan metropolitan area in northern Italy.

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Military police

Military police (MP) are law enforcement agencies connected with, or part of, the military of a state.

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Mina (Italian singer)

Anna Maria Mazzini (born 25 March 1940), Anna Maria Quaini (for the Swiss civil registry), known as Mina Mazzini or simply Mina, is an Italian singer.

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Minimal surface

In mathematics, a minimal surface is a surface that locally minimizes its area.

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Ministry of Defence (Italy)

The Ministry of Defence (Ministero della Difesa, or MDD) is the government body of the Italian Republic responsible for military and civil defence matters and managing the Italian Armed Forces.

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Minority language

A minority language is a language spoken by a minority of the population of a territory.

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Missoni

Missoni is a high-end Italian fashion house based in Varese, and known for its colorful knitwear designs.

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Mixed economy

A mixed economy is variously defined as an economic system blending elements of market economies with elements of planned economies, free markets with state interventionism, or private enterprise with public enterprise.

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Molecule

A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.

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Molise

Molise is a region of Southern Italy.

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Monarchy of Italy

The monarchy of Italy (Monarchia italiana) was the system of government in which a hereditary monarch was the sovereign of the Kingdom of Italy from 1861 to 1946.

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Monigo

Monigo was a prison camp opened during World War II aimed at civilian prisoners (mostly Slovenes and Croats).

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Mont Blanc

Mont Blanc (Monte Bianco), meaning "White Mountain", is the highest mountain in the Alps and the highest in Europe west of Russia's Caucasus peaks.

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Monte Albo cave salamander

The Monte Albo cave salamander or Stefani's salamander (Speleomantes flavus) is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae, endemic to Sardinia.

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Monte Amiata

Mount Amiata is the largest of the lava domes in the Amiata lava dome complex located about 20 km northwest of Lake Bolsena in the southern Tuscany region of Italy.

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Monte Poggiolo

Monte Poggiolo is a hill near Forlì, Italy in the Emilia-Romagna area.

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Monte Vulture

Mount Vulture (pronounced "Vooltooreh") is an extinct volcano located north of the city Potenza in the Basilicata region (Italy).

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Montepulciano d'Abruzzo

Montepulciano d'Abruzzo is a red Italian wine made from the Montepulciano wine grape in the Abruzzo region of east-central Italy.

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Monti Cimini

The Monti Cimini, in English: Cimini Hills, are a range of densely wooded volcanic hills approximately north-west of Rome.

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Monti Volsini

The Monti Volsini or Vulsini are a minor mountain range in northern Lazio, Italy, near the Lake Bolsena.

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Morellino di Scansano

Morellino di Scansano DOCG is an Italian red wine made in the hilly environs of the village of Scansano, GR, in the Maremma region of coastal Tuscany, which has an ancient but obscure tradition of winemaking.

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Moroccans

Moroccans (Berber: ⵉⵎⵖⵕⴰⴱⵉⵢⵏ, Imɣṛabiyen) are people inhabiting or originating from Morocco that share a common Moroccan culture and Maghrebi ancestry.

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Morocco

Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.

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Moschino

Moschino is an Italian luxury fashion house, specialising in leather accessories, shoes, luggage, fragrances etc.

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Moses (Michelangelo)

The Moses (Mosè; c. 1513–1515) is a sculpture by the Italian High Renaissance artist Michelangelo Buonarroti, housed in the church of San Pietro in Vincoli in Rome.

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Motorsport

Motorsport or motor sport is a global term used to encompass the group of competitive sporting events which primarily involve the use of motorised vehicles, whether for racing or non-racing competition.

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Mount Etna

Mount Etna, or Etna (Etna or Mongibello; Mungibeddu or â Muntagna; Aetna), is an active stratovolcano on the east coast of Sicily, Italy, in the Metropolitan City of Catania, between the cities of Messina and Catania.

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Mount Vesuvius

Mount Vesuvius (Monte Vesuvio; Vesuvio; Mons Vesuvius; also Vesevus or Vesaevus in some Roman sources) is a somma-stratovolcano located on the Gulf of Naples in Campania, Italy, about east of Naples and a short distance from the shore.

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Mudflow

A mudflow or mud flow is a form of mass wasting involving "very rapid to extremely rapid surging flow" of debris that has become partially or fully liquified by the addition of significant amounts of water to the source material.

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Museo Egizio

The Museo Egizio is an archaeological museum in Turin, Piedmont, Italy, specialising in Egyptian archaeology and anthropology.

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Mutilated victory

The mutilated victory (Italian: vittoria mutilata) was a term coined by a famous Italian poet, Gabriele D'Annunzio.

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Mycenaean Greece

Mycenaean Greece (or Mycenaean civilization) was the last phase of the Bronze Age in Ancient Greece, spanning the period from approximately 1600–1100 BC.

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Naples

Naples (Napoli, Napule or; Neapolis; lit) is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy after Rome and Milan.

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Napoleonic Code

The Napoleonic Code (officially Code civil des Français, referred to as (le) Code civil) is the French civil code established under Napoléon I in 1804.

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Napoleonic Wars

The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.

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National Archaeological Museum, Naples

The National Archaeological Museum of Naples (italic, sometimes abbreviated to MANN) is an important Italian archaeological museum, particularly for ancient Roman remains.

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National Fascist Party

The National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF) was an Italian political party, created by Benito Mussolini as the political expression of fascism (previously represented by groups known as Fasci).

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National park

A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes.

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National wealth

National net wealth, also known as national net worth, is the total sum of the value of a nation's assets minus its liabilities.

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Nationalencyklopedin

Nationalencyklopedin, abbreviated NE, is a comprehensive contemporary Swedish-language encyclopedia, initiated by a favourable loan from the Government of Sweden of 17 million Swedish kronor in 1980, which was repaid by December 1990.

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NATO

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.

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Nazi Germany

Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).

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Neanderthal

Neanderthals (also; also Neanderthal Man, taxonomically Homo neanderthalensis or Homo sapiens neanderthalensis) are an extinct species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo, who lived in Eurasia during at least 430,000 to 38,000 years ago.

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Neoclassical architecture

Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century.

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Nerve growth factor

Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a neurotrophic factor and neuropeptide primarily involved in the regulation of growth, maintenance, proliferation, and survival of certain target neurons.

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Neuron doctrine

The neuron doctrine is the concept that the nervous system is made up of discrete individual cells, a discovery due to decisive neuro-anatomical work of Santiago Ramón y Cajal and later presented by, among others, H. Waldeyer-Hartz.

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New World

The New World is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).

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Niccolò Machiavelli

Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (3 May 1469 – 21 June 1527) was an Italian diplomat, politician, historian, philosopher, humanist, and writer of the Renaissance period.

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Niccolò Paganini

Niccolò (or Nicolò) Paganini (27 October 178227 May 1840) was an Italian violinist, violist, guitarist, and composer.

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Niche market

A niche market is the subset of the market on which a specific product is focused.

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Nicolaus Copernicus

Nicolaus Copernicus (Mikołaj Kopernik; Nikolaus Kopernikus; Niklas Koppernigk; 19 February 1473 – 24 May 1543) was a Renaissance-era mathematician and astronomer who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at the center of the universe, likely independently of Aristarchus of Samos, who had formulated such a model some eighteen centuries earlier.

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Nola

Nola is a town and a modern municipality in the Metropolitan City of Naples in Italy.

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Norman conquest of southern Italy

The Norman conquest of southern Italy lasted from 999 to 1139, involving many battles and independent conquerors.

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Northern Italy

Northern Italy (Italia settentrionale or just Nord) is a geographical region in the northern part of Italy.

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Northern Renaissance

The Northern Renaissance was the Renaissance that occurred in Europe north of the Alps.

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Nu-disco

Nu-disco, sometimes called disco house, which can also refer to funky house and to a style of French house, is a 21st-century dance music genre associated with a renewed interest in 1970s and 1980s US disco, early to end-1980s Italo disco and Funk, as well as other synthesizer-heavy European dance styles.

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Nuclear sharing

Nuclear sharing is a concept in NATO's policy of nuclear deterrence, which involves member countries without nuclear weapons of their own in the planning for the use of nuclear weapons by NATO.

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Nuclear weapon

A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).

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Numa Pompilius

Numa Pompilius (753–673 BC; reigned 715–673 BC) was the legendary second king of Rome, succeeding Romulus.

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Nuragic civilization

The Nuragic civilization was a civilization in Sardinia, the second largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, which lasted from the 18th century BC (Bronze Age) to the 2nd century AD.

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Occitan language

Occitan, also known as lenga d'òc (langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language.

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Oceanic climate

An oceanic or highland climate, also known as a marine or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features cool summers (relative to their latitude) and cool winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates.

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Odoacer

Flavius Odoacer (c. 433Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire, Vol. 2, s.v. Odovacer, pp. 791–793 – 493 AD), also known as Flavius Odovacer or Odovacar (Odoacre, Odoacer, Odoacar, Odovacar, Odovacris), was a soldier who in 476 became the first King of Italy (476–493).

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OECD

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.

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Oenotrians

The Oenotrians ("tribe led by Oenotrus" or "people from the land of vines - Οἰνωτρία") were an ancient people of uncertain origin who inhabited a territory from Paestum to southern Calabria in southern Italy.

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Olive

The olive, known by the botanical name Olea europaea, meaning "European olive", is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, found in the Mediterranean Basin from Portugal to the Levant, the Arabian Peninsula, and southern Asia as far east as China, as well as the Canary Islands and Réunion.

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Olive oil

Olive oil is a liquid fat obtained from olives (the fruit of Olea europaea; family Oleaceae), a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin.

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Olympic Games

The modern Olympic Games or Olympics (Jeux olympiques) are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions.

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Once Upon a Time in the West

Once Upon a Time in the West is a 1968 epic Spaghetti Western film co-written and directed by Sergio Leone.

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Open border

An open border is a border that enables free movement of people between different jurisdictions with few or no restrictions on movement, that is to say lacking substantive border control.

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Operation Alba

Operation Alba ("Sunrise" or "Dawn" in Italian) was a multinational peacekeeping force sent to Albania in 1997.

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Operation Enduring Freedom

Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) is the official name used by the U.S. government for the Global War on Terrorism.

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Orange (fruit)

The orange is the fruit of the citrus species ''Citrus'' × ''sinensis'' in the family Rutaceae.

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Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe

The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the world's largest security-oriented intergovernmental organization.

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Organized crime in Italy

Organized crime in Italy and its criminal organizations have been prevalent in Italy, especially Southern Italy, for centuries and have affected the social and economic life of many Italian regions since at least the 19th century.

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Orient

The Orient is the East, traditionally comprising anything that belongs to the Eastern world, in relation to Europe.

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Orlando Furioso

Orlando Furioso ("The Frenzy of Orlando", more literally "Raging Roland"; in Italian titled "Orlando furioso" as the "F" is never capitalized) is an Italian epic poem by Ludovico Ariosto which has exerted a wide influence on later culture.

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Orlando Innamorato

Orlando Innamorato (known in English as "Orlando in Love"; in Italian titled "Orlando innamorato" as the "I" is never capitalized) is an epic poem written by the Italian Renaissance author Matteo Maria Boiardo.

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Oscan language

Oscan is an extinct Indo-European language of southern Italy.

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Osci

The Osci (also called Opici, Opsci, Obsci, Opicans, Ὀπικοί, Ὀσκοί), were an Italic people of Campania and Latium adiectum during Roman times.

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Ostia Antica

Ostia Antica is a large archaeological site, close to the modern town of Ostia, that is the location of the harbour city of ancient Rome, 15 miles (25 kilometres) southwest of Rome.

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Ostrogothic Kingdom

The Ostrogothic Kingdom, officially the Kingdom of Italy (Latin: Regnum Italiae), was established by the Ostrogoths in Italy and neighbouring areas from 493 to 553.

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Ostrogoths

The Ostrogoths (Ostrogothi, Austrogothi) were the eastern branch of the later Goths (the other major branch being the Visigoths).

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Ottava rima

Ottava rima is a rhyming stanza form of Italian origin.

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Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

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Ottoman Turks

The Ottoman Turks (or Osmanlı Turks, Osmanlı Türkleri) were the Turkish-speaking population of the Ottoman Empire who formed the base of the state's military and ruling classes.

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Outline of Italy

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Italy: Italy – unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe, located primarily upon the Italian Peninsula.

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Ovid

Publius Ovidius Naso (20 March 43 BC – 17/18 AD), known as Ovid in the English-speaking world, was a Roman poet who lived during the reign of Augustus.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Pact of Steel

The Pact of Steel (Stahlpakt, Patto d'Acciaio), known formally as the Pact of Friendship and Alliance between Germany and Italy, was a military and political alliance between the Kingdom of Italy and Nazi Germany.

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Padua

Padua (Padova; Pàdova) is a city and comune in Veneto, northern Italy.

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Palazzo Madama

Palazzo Madama in Rome is the seat of the Senate of the Italian Republic.

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Palazzo Montecitorio

The Palazzo Montecitorio is a palace in Rome and the seat of the Italian Chamber of Deputies.

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Palazzo Pitti

The Palazzo Pitti, in English sometimes called the Pitti Palace, is a vast, mainly Renaissance, palace in Florence, Italy.

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Paleolithic

The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 95% of human technological prehistory.

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Palermo

Palermo (Sicilian: Palermu, Panormus, from Πάνορμος, Panormos) is a city of Southern Italy, the capital of both the autonomous region of Sicily and the Metropolitan City of Palermo.

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Palestinian National Authority

The Palestinian National Authority (PA or PNA; السلطة الوطنية الفلسطينية) is the interim self-government body established in 1994 following the Gaza–Jericho Agreement to govern the Gaza Strip and Areas A and B of the West Bank, as a consequence of the 1993 Oslo Accords.

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Palio di Siena

The Palio di Siena (known locally simply as Il Palio) is a horse race that is held twice each year, on 2 July and 16 August, in Siena, Italy.

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Palladian architecture

Palladian architecture is a European style of architecture derived from and inspired by the designs of the Venetian architect Andrea Palladio (1508–1580).

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Palme d'Or

The Palme d'Or (Golden Palm) is the highest prize awarded at the Cannes Film Festival.

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Pandemic

A pandemic (from Greek πᾶν pan "all" and δῆμος demos "people") is an epidemic of infectious disease that has spread across a large region; for instance multiple continents, or even worldwide.

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Paolo Gentiloni

Paolo Gentiloni Silveri (born 22 November 1954) is an Italian politician, who served as the 57th Prime Minister of Italy from 12 December 2016 to 1 June 2018.

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Paolo Sorrentino

Paolo Sorrentino (born 31 May 1970) is an Italian film director and screenwriter.

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Paolo Uccello

Paolo Uccello (1397 – 10 December 1475), born Paolo di Dono, was an Italian painter and mathematician who was notable for his pioneering work on visual perspective in art.

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Papal States

The Papal States, officially the State of the Church (Stato della Chiesa,; Status Ecclesiasticus; also Dicio Pontificia), were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula under the direct sovereign rule of the Pope, from the 8th century until 1870.

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Parliamentary republic

A parliamentary republic is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament).

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Parliamentary system

A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.

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Paso

A Paso (Spanish: "Episode of the Passion of Christ") is an elaborate float made for religious processions.

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Pasta

Pasta is a staple food of traditional Italian cuisine, with the first reference dating to 1154 in Sicily.

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Patronage

Patronage is the support, encouragement, privilege, or financial aid that an organization or individual bestows to another.

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Peacekeeping

Peacekeeping refers to activities intended to create conditions that favour lasting peace.

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Peach

The peach (Prunus persica) is a deciduous tree native to the region of Northwest China between the Tarim Basin and the north slopes of the Kunlun Mountains, where it was first domesticated and cultivated.

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Pear

The pear is any of several tree and shrub species of genus Pyrus, in the family Rosaceae.

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Pentamerone

The Pentamerone (Neapolitan subtitle: Lo cunto de li cunti, "The Tale of Tales") is a seventeenth-century fairy tale collection by Italian poet and courtier Giambattista Basile.

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Pentecostalism

Pentecostalism or Classical Pentecostalism is a renewal movement"Spirit and Power: A 10-Country Survey of Pentecostals",.

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Peplum (film genre)

The peplum film (pepla plural), also known as sword-and-sandal, is a genre of largely Italian-made historical or Biblical epics (costume dramas) that dominated the Italian film industry from 1958 to 1965, eventually being replaced in 1965 by Eurospy films and Spaghetti Westerns.

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Personal computer

A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use.

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Perspective (graphical)

Perspective (from perspicere "to see through") in the graphic arts is an approximate representation, generally on a flat surface (such as paper), of an image as it is seen by the eye.

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Perugia

Perugia (Perusia) is the capital city of both the region of Umbria in central Italy, crossed by the river Tiber, and of the province of Perugia.

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Petrarch

Francesco Petrarca (July 20, 1304 – July 18/19, 1374), commonly anglicized as Petrarch, was a scholar and poet of Renaissance Italy who was one of the earliest humanists.

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Phaedra (Seneca)

Phaedra, is a Roman tragedy with Greek subject of c. 1280 lines of verse by philosopher and dramatist Lucius Annaeus Seneca, which tells the story of Phaedra, wife of King Theseus of Athens, and her consuming lust for her stepson, Hippolytus.

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Philippines

The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.

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Phlegraean Fields

The Phlegraean Fields (Campi Flegrei; Campe Flegree, from Greek φλέγω, "to burn") are a large volcanic area situated to the west of Naples, Italy.

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Phoenicia

Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη, meaning "purple country") was a thalassocratic ancient Semitic civilization that originated in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the west of the Fertile Crescent.

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Piedmont

Piedmont (Piemonte,; Piedmontese, Occitan and Piemont; Piémont) is a region in northwest Italy, one of the 20 regions of the country.

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Piemonte (wine)

Piemonte wine is the range of Italian wines made in the region of Piedmont in the northwestern corner of Italy.

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Pier Giorgio Perotto

Pier Giorgio Perotto (Turin, December 24, 1930 – Genoa, January 23, 2002) was an Italian electrical engineer and inventor.

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Pier Paolo Pasolini

Pier Paolo Pasolini (5 March 1922 – 2 November 1975) was an Italian film director, poet, writer, and intellectual.

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Piero della Francesca

Piero della Francesca (c. 1415 – 12 October 1492) was an Italian painter of the Early Renaissance.

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Piero Manzoni

Meroni Manzoni di Chiosca e Poggiolo, better known as Piero Manzoni (July 13, 1933 – February 6, 1963) was an Italian artist best known for his ironic approach to avant-garde art.

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Piero Piccioni

Piero Piccioni (6 December 1921 – 23 July 2004) was an Italian lawyer and film score composer.

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Piero Umiliani

Piero Umiliani (17 July 1926 – 14 February 2001) was an Italian composer of film scores, and is most famous for his song "Mah Nà Mah Nà" and orchestra score "Arrivano I Marines".

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Pietà (Michelangelo)

The Pieta (The Pity; 1498–1499) is a work of Renaissance sculpture by Michelangelo Buonarroti, housed in St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City.

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Pietro Metastasio

Pietro Antonio Domenico Trapassi, better known by his pseudonym of Pietro Metastasio (3 January 1698 – 12 April 1782), was an Italian poet and librettist, considered the most important writer of opera seria libretti.

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Pinacoteca di Brera

The Pinacoteca di Brera ("Brera Art Gallery") is the main public gallery for paintings in Milan, Italy.

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Pion

In particle physics, a pion (or a pi meson, denoted with the Greek letter pi) is any of three subatomic particles:,, and.

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Pisa

Pisa is a city in the Tuscany region of Central Italy straddling the Arno just before it empties into the Ligurian Sea.

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Pisa Cathedral

Pisa Cathedral (Cattedrale Metropolitana Primaziale di Santa Maria Assunta; Duomo di Pisa) is a medieval Roman Catholic cathedral dedicated to the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, in the Piazza dei Miracoli in Pisa, Italy.

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Pistachio

The pistachio (Pistacia vera), a member of the cashew family, is a small tree originating from Central Asia and the Middle East.

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Plautus

Titus Maccius Plautus (c. 254 – 184 BC), commonly known as Plautus, was a Roman playwright of the Old Latin period.

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Pliny the Elder

Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.

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Pliny the Younger

Gaius Plinius Caecilius Secundus, born Gaius Caecilius or Gaius Caecilius Cilo (61 – c. 113), better known as Pliny the Younger, was a lawyer, author, and magistrate of Ancient Rome.

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Plum

A plum is a fruit of the subgenus Prunus of the genus Prunus. The subgenus is distinguished from other subgenera (peaches, cherries, bird cherries, etc.) in the shoots having terminal bud and solitary side buds (not clustered), the flowers in groups of one to five together on short stems, and the fruit having a groove running down one side and a smooth stone (or pit).

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Po (river)

The Po (Padus and Eridanus; Po; ancient Ligurian: Bodincus or Bodencus; Πάδος, Ἠριδανός) is a river that flows eastward across northern Italy.

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Po Valley

The Po Valley, Po Plain, Plain of the Po, or Padan Plain (Pianura Padana, or Val Padana) is a major geographical feature of Northern Italy.

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Poland

Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.

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Polino

Polino is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Terni in the Italian region Umbria, located about 70 km southeast of Perugia and about 15 km east of Terni.

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Polish language

Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.

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Political career of Silvio Berlusconi

The political career of Silvio Berlusconi began in 1994, when Berlusconi entered politics for the first time serving intermittent terms as Prime Minister of Italy from 1994 to 1995, 2001 to 2006 and 2008 to 2011, his career was racked with controversies and trials; amongst these was his failure to honour his promise to sell his personal assets in Mediaset, the largest television broadcaster network in Italy, in order to dispel any perceived conflicts of interest.

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Political revolution

A political revolution, in the Trotskyist theory, is an upheaval in which the government is replaced, or the form of government altered, but in which property relations are predominantly left intact.

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Politico

Politico, known earlier as The Politico, is an American political journalism company based in Arlington County, Virginia, that covers politics and policy in the United States and internationally.

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Polizia di Stato

The Polizia di Stato (State Police or P.S.) is one of the national police forces of Italy.

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Polymath

A polymath (πολυμαθής,, "having learned much,"The term was first recorded in written English in the early seventeenth century Latin: uomo universalis, "universal man") is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas—such a person is known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problems.

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Polymer

A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.

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Pompeii

Pompeii was an ancient Roman city near modern Naples in the Campania region of Italy, in the territory of the comune of Pompei.

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Pontormo

Jacopo Carucci (May 24, 1494 – January 2, 1557), usually known as Jacopo da Pontormo, Jacopo Pontormo or simply Pontormo, was an Italian Mannerist painter and portraitist from the Florentine School.

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Pooh (band)

Pooh was an Italian pop band formed in 1966 in Bologna.

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Pope

The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.

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Pope Leo XIII

Pope Leo XIII (Leone; born Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci; 2 March 1810 – 20 July 1903) was head of the Catholic Church from 20 February 1878 to his death.

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Population ageing

Population ageing is an increasing median age in the population of a region due to declining fertility rates and/or rising life expectancy.

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Portugal

Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.

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Potato

The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum.

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Potenza

Potenza (Potentino dialect: Putenz) is a city and comune in the Southern Italian region of Basilicata (former Lucania).

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Prada

Prada S.p.A. is an Italian luxury fashion house, specializing in leather handbags, travel accessories, shoes, ready-to-wear, perfumes and other fashion accessories, founded in 1913 by Mario Prada.

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Premiata Forneria Marconi

Premiata Forneria Marconi (PFM) (translation: Award-winning Marconi Bakery) is an Italian progressive rock band.

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Presidency of the Council of the European Union

The presidency of the Council of the European Union is responsible for the functioning of the Council of the European Union, the upper house of the EU legislature.

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President of Italy

The President of the Italian Republic (Presidente della Repubblica Italiana) is the head of state of Italy and in that role represents national unity and guarantees that Italian politics comply with the Constitution.

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Prime Minister of Italy

The President of the Council of Ministers of the Italian Republic (Italian: Presidente del Consiglio dei ministri della Repubblica Italiana), commonly referred to in Italy as Presidente del Consiglio, or informally as Premier and known in English as the Prime Minister of Italy, is the head of government of the Italian Republic.

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Programma 101

The Olivetti Programma 101, also known as Perottina or P101, is the first commercial programmable "desktop computer" Produced by Italian manufacturer Olivetti, based in Ivrea, Piedmont, and invented by the Italian engineer Pier Giorgio Perotto, the P101 had the main features of large computers of that period.

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Progressive rock

Progressive rock (shortened as prog; sometimes called art rock, classical rock or symphonic rock) is a broad genre of rock music that developed in the United Kingdom and United States throughout the mid to late 1960s.

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Propertius

Sextus Propertius was a Latin elegiac poet of the Augustan age.

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Proportional representation

Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems by which divisions into an electorate are reflected proportionately into the elected body.

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Prosecco

Prosecco is an Italian white wine.

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Protestantism

Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.

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Proto-Indo-Europeans

The Proto-Indo-Europeans were the prehistoric people of Eurasia who spoke Proto-Indo-European (PIE), the ancestor of the Indo-European languages according to linguistic reconstruction.

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Province of Gorizia

The Province of Gorizia (Provincia di Gorizia, Provincie di Gurize; Goriška pokrajina) was a province in the autonomous Friuli–Venezia Giulia region of Italy, which was disbanded on 30 September 2017.

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Province of Trieste

The Province of Trieste (Provincia di Trieste, Tržaška pokrajina; provinzia di Triest) was a province in the autonomous Friuli-Venezia Giulia region of Italy.

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Province of Udine

The province of Udine (provincia di Udine, provincie di Udin, videmska pokrajina, Resian: Vydänskä provinčjä, provinz Udine) was a province in the autonomous region Friuli-Venezia Giulia of Italy, bordering Austria and Slovenia.

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Prussia

Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.

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Puppet state

A puppet state is a state that is supposedly independent but is in fact dependent upon an outside power.

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Pyrenean chamois

The Pyrenean chamois (French: izard or isard, Spanish: rebeco or gamuza, Catalan: isard, Italian: camoscio dei Pirenei, camoscio appenninico, Basque: Pirinioetako sarrioa, Aragonese: sarrio or chizardo), Rupicapra pyrenaica, is a goat antelope that lives in the Pyrenees, Cantabrian Mountains and Apennine Mountains.

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Quality of life

Quality of life (QOL) is the general well-being of individuals and societies, outlining negative and positive features of life.

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Quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.

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Questia Online Library

Questia is an online commercial digital library of books and articles that has an academic orientation, with a particular emphasis on books and journal articles in the humanities and social sciences.

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Rab concentration camp

The Rab concentration camp (Campo di concentramento per internati civili di Guerra – Arbe; Koncentracijski logor Rab; Koncentracijsko taborišče Rab) was one of the several Italian concentration camps and it was established during World War II, in July 1942, on the Italian-occupied island of Rab (now in Croatia).

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Radio

Radio is the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating properties of electromagnetic energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width.

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RAI

RAI – Radiotelevisione italiana S.p.A. (commercially styled Rai; known until 1954 as Radio Audizioni Italiane is the national public broadcasting company of Italy, owned by the Ministry of Economy and Finance. The RAI operates many DVB and Sat television channels and radio stations, broadcasting via digital terrestrial transmission (15 television and 7 radio channels nationwide) and from several satellite platforms. It is the biggest television broadcaster in Italy and competes with Mediaset, and other minor television and radio networks. The RAI has a relatively high television audience share of 33.8%. RAI broadcasts are also received in neighboring countries, including Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Malta, Monaco, Montenegro, San Marino, Slovenia, Vatican City, Switzerland, and Tunisia, and elsewhere on cable and satellite. Sometimes Rai 1 was received even further in Europe via Sporadic E until the digital switch off in July 2012. Half of the RAI's revenues come from broadcast receiving licence fees, the rest from the sale of advertising time Retrieved on 2007-10-10 Italian Ministry of Communications, Retrieved on 2007-10-10. In 1950, the RAI became one of the 23 founding broadcasting organizations of the European Broadcasting Union.

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Rail transport in Italy

The Italian railway system is one of the most important parts of the infrastructure of Italy, with a total length of of which active lines are 16,723 km.

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Raphael

Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino (March 28 or April 6, 1483April 6, 1520), known as Raphael, was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance.

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Realism (arts)

Realism, sometimes called naturalism, in the arts is generally the attempt to represent subject matter truthfully, without artificiality and avoiding artistic conventions, or implausible, exotic, and supernatural elements.

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Refrigerator

A refrigerator (colloquially fridge, or fridgefreezer in the UK) is a popular household appliance that consists of a thermally insulated compartment and a heat pump (mechanical, electronic or chemical) that transfers heat from the inside of the fridge to its external environment so that the inside of the fridge is cooled to a temperature below the ambient temperature of the room.

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Reggio Calabria

Reggio di Calabria (also; Reggino: Rìggiu, Bovesia Calabrian Greek: script; translit, Rhēgium), commonly known as Reggio Calabria or simply Reggio in Southern Italy, is the largest city and the most populated comune of Calabria, Southern Italy.

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Regional Italian

Regional Italian, sometimes also called dialects of Italian, is any regionalRegional in the broad sense of the word; not to be confused with the Italian endonym regione for Italy's administrative units variety of the Italian language.

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Regional power

In international relations, a regional power is a state that has power within a geographic region.

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Regions of Italy

The regions of Italy (Italian: regioni) are the first-level administrative divisions of Italy, constituting its second NUTS administrative level.

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REN21

REN21, the Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st Century, is the global renewable energy policy multi-stakeholder network that connects a wide range of key actors.

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Renaissance

The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.

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Renaissance architecture

Renaissance architecture is the European architecture of the period between the early 14th and early 17th centuries in different regions, demonstrating a conscious revival and development of certain elements of ancient Greek and Roman thought and material culture.

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Renaissance art

Contributions to painting and architecture have been especially rich.

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Renaissance humanism

Renaissance humanism is the study of classical antiquity, at first in Italy and then spreading across Western Europe in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries.

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Renewable energy in Italy

Renewable energy has developed rapidly in Italy over the past decade and provided the country a means of diversifying from its historical dependency on imported fuels.

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Renicci di Anghiari

Renicci is a village in the municipality of Anghiari, which was the site of a fascist concentration camp for civilians from Yugoslavia, mostly rounded up by Italian troops in Slovenia and in particular in the then Province of Ljubljana.

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Representative democracy

Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.

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Republic

A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.

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Republic of Florence

The Republic of Florence, also known as the Florentine Republic (Repubblica Fiorentina), was a medieval and early modern state that was centered on the Italian city of Florence in Tuscany.

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Republic of Genoa

The Republic of Genoa (Repúbrica de Zêna,; Res Publica Ianuensis; Repubblica di Genova) was an independent state from 1005 to 1797 in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast, incorporating Corsica from 1347 to 1768, and numerous other territories throughout the Mediterranean.

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Republic of Pisa

The Republic of Pisa (Repubblica di Pisa) was a de facto independent state centered on the Tuscan city of Pisa during the late 10th and 11th centuries.

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Republic of Venice

The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia, later: Repubblica Veneta; Repùblica de Venèsia, later: Repùblica Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima (Most Serene Republic of Venice) (Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia; Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for a millennium between the 8th century and the 18th century.

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Resistance movement

A resistance movement is an organized effort by some portion of the civil population of a country to withstand the legally established government or an occupying power and to disrupt civil order and stability.

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Revolutions of 1848

The Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations, People's Spring, Springtime of the Peoples, or the Year of Revolution, were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe in 1848.

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Rhaetian people

The Raeti (spelling variants: Rhaeti, Rheti or Rhaetii; Ancient Greek: Ῥαιτοί: transcription Rhaitoí) were a confederation of Alpine tribes, whose language and culture may have derived, at least in part, from the Etruscans.

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Rhapsody of Fire

Rhapsody of Fire (formerly known as Rhapsody) is an Italian symphonic power metal band created by Luca Turilli and Alex Staropoli, widely seen as a pioneer of the symphonic power metal subgenre.

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Rhine

--> The Rhine (Rhenus, Rein, Rhein, le Rhin,, Italiano: Reno, Rijn) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.

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Ricotta

Ricotta (in Italian) is an Italian whey cheese made from sheep, cow, goat, or Italian water buffalo milk whey left over from the production of other cheeses.

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Rijeka

Rijeka (Fiume; Reka; Sankt Veit am Flaum; see other names) is the principal seaport and the third-largest city in Croatia (after Zagreb and Split).

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Rita Levi-Montalcini

Rita Levi-Montalcini, (22 April 1909 – 30 December 2012) was an Italian Nobel laureate, honored for her work in neurobiology.

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River delta

A river delta is a landform that forms from deposition of sediment carried by a river as the flow leaves its mouth and enters slower-moving or stagnant water.

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Roberto Benigni

Roberto Remigio Benigni, Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI (born 27 October 1952) is an Italian actor, comedian, screenwriter and director.

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Roberto Fico

Roberto Fico (born 10 October 1974) is an Italian politician and member of the Five Star Movement.

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Roberto Rossellini

Roberto Gastone Zeffiro Rossellini (8 May 1906 – 3 June 1977) was an Italian film director and screenwriter.

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Roccamonfina

Roccamonfina is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Caserta in the Italian region Campania, located about northwest of Naples and about northwest of Caserta.

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Rock Drawings in Valcamonica

The stone carvings of Val Camonica (Camonica Valley) are located in the Province of Brescia, Italy, and constitute the largest collections of prehistoric petroglyphs in the world.

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Roman art

Roman art refers to the visual arts made in Ancient Rome and in the territories of the Roman Empire.

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Roman Britain

Roman Britain (Britannia or, later, Britanniae, "the Britains") was the area of the island of Great Britain that was governed by the Roman Empire, from 43 to 410 AD.

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Roman Curia

The Roman Curia is the administrative apparatus of the Holy See and the central body through which the Roman Pontiff conducts the affairs of the universal Catholic Church.

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Roman emperor

The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC).

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Roman expansion in Italy

The Roman expansion in Italy covers a series of conflicts in which the city-state of Rome grew from being the dominant state in Latium to become the ruler of all of Italy.

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Roman Forum

The Roman Forum, also known by its Latin name Forum Romanum (Foro Romano), is a rectangular forum (plaza) surrounded by the ruins of several important ancient government buildings at the center of the city of Rome.

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Roman Italy

"Italia" was the name of the Italian Peninsula during the Roman era.

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Roman Kingdom

The Roman Kingdom, or regal period, was the period of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a monarchical form of government of the city of Rome and its territories.

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Roman law

Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome, including the legal developments spanning over a thousand years of jurisprudence, from the Twelve Tables (c. 449 BC), to the Corpus Juris Civilis (AD 529) ordered by Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I. Roman law forms the basic framework for civil law, the most widely used legal system today, and the terms are sometimes used synonymously.

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Roman numerals

The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages.

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Roman province

In Ancient Rome, a province (Latin: provincia, pl. provinciae) was the basic and, until the Tetrarchy (from 293 AD), the largest territorial and administrative unit of the empire's territorial possessions outside Italy.

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Roman Republic

The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.

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Romance languages

The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.

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Romanesque art

Romanesque art is the art of Europe from approximately 1000 AD to the rise of the Gothic style in the 12th century, or later, depending on region.

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Romani people

The Romani (also spelled Romany), or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group, living mostly in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent, from the Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Sindh regions of modern-day India and Pakistan.

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Romania

Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.

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Romanian diaspora

The Romanian diaspora is the ethnically Romanian population outside Romania and Moldova.

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Romanians

The Romanians (români or—historically, but now a seldom-used regionalism—rumâni; dated exonym: Vlachs) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation native to Romania, that share a common Romanian culture, ancestry, and speak the Romanian language, the most widespread spoken Eastern Romance language which is descended from the Latin language. According to the 2011 Romanian census, just under 89% of Romania's citizens identified themselves as ethnic Romanians. In one interpretation of the census results in Moldova, the Moldovans are counted as Romanians, which would mean that the latter form part of the majority in that country as well.Ethnic Groups Worldwide: A Ready Reference Handbook By David Levinson, Published 1998 – Greenwood Publishing Group.At the time of the 1989 census, Moldova's total population was 4,335,400. The largest nationality in the republic, ethnic Romanians, numbered 2,795,000 persons, accounting for 64.5 percent of the population. Source:: "however it is one interpretation of census data results. The subject of Moldovan vs Romanian ethnicity touches upon the sensitive topic of", page 108 sqq. Romanians are also an ethnic minority in several nearby countries situated in Central, respectively Eastern Europe, particularly in Hungary, Czech Republic, Ukraine (including Moldovans), Serbia, and Bulgaria. Today, estimates of the number of Romanian people worldwide vary from 26 to 30 million according to various sources, evidently depending on the definition of the term 'Romanian', Romanians native to Romania and Republic of Moldova and their afferent diasporas, native speakers of Romanian, as well as other Eastern Romance-speaking groups considered by most scholars as a constituent part of the broader Romanian people, specifically Aromanians, Megleno-Romanians, Istro-Romanians, and Vlachs in Serbia (including medieval Vlachs), in Croatia, in Bulgaria, or in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

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Romanization (cultural)

Romanization or Latinization (or Romanisation or Latinisation), in the historical and cultural meanings of both terms, indicate different historical processes, such as acculturation, integration and assimilation of newly incorporated and peripheral populations by the Roman Republic and the later Roman Empire.

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Romano Prodi

Romano Prodi (born 9 August 1939) is an Italian politician who served as the 10th President of the European Commission from 1999 to 2004.

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Romanticism

Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.

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Rome

Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).

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Romeo and Juliet (1968 film)

Romeo and Juliet is a 1968 British-Italian romantic drama film based on the play of the same name (1591–1595) by William Shakespeare.

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Romulus

Romulus was the legendary founder and first king of Rome.

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Romulus Augustulus

Flavius Romulus Augustus (c. AD 460–after AD 476; possibly still alive as late as AD 507), known derisively and historiographically as Romulus Augustulus, was a Roman emperor and alleged usurper who ruled the Western Roman Empire from 31 October AD 475 until 4 September AD 476.

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Rory Carroll

Rory Carroll (born 1972) is an Irish journalist working for The Guardian who has reported from, among other locations, the Balkans, Afghanistan, Iraq and Latin America.

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Rough-toothed dolphin

The rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis) is a species of dolphin that can be found in deep warm and tropical waters around the world.

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Royal Palace of Caserta

The Royal Palace of Caserta (italic; italic) is a former royal residence in Caserta, southern Italy, constructed for the Bourbon kings of Naples.

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Rubicon

The Rubicon (Rubicō, Rubicone) is a shallow river in northeastern Italy, just south of Ravenna.

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Rugby football

Rugby football refers to the team sports rugby league and rugby union.

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Rugby union

Rugby union, commonly known in most of the world as rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century.

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Rugby World Cup

The Rugby World Cup is a men's rugby union tournament contested every four years between the top international teams.

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Russian Revolution

The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.

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Sabines

The Sabines (Sabini; Σαβῖνοι Sabĩnoi; Sabini, all exonyms) were an Italic tribe which lived in the central Apennines of ancient Italy, also inhabiting Latium north of the Anio before the founding of Rome.

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Saint Ubaldo Day

Saint Ubaldo Day is Jessup, Pennsylvania's observance of Gubbio, Italy's La Festa dei Ceri.

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Salumi

Salumi (singular salume) are Italian cold cuts predominantly made from pork.

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Salvatore Ferragamo S.p.A.

Salvatore Ferragamo S.p.A. is an Italian luxury goods company, with headquarters in Florence, Italy.

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Salvatore Quasimodo

Salvatore Quasimodo (August 20, 1901 – June 14, 1968) was an Sicilian novelist and poet.

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Samnites

The Samnites were an ancient Italic people who lived in Samnium in south-central Italy.

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San Marino

San Marino, officially the Republic of San Marino (Repubblica di San Marino), also known as the Most Serene Republic of San Marino (Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino), is an enclaved microstate surrounded by Italy, situated on the Italian Peninsula on the northeastern side of the Apennine Mountains.

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San Venanzo

San Venanzo is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Terni in the Italian region Umbria, located about southwest of Perugia and about northwest of Terni.

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San Vito Lo Capo

San Vito Lo Capo (San Vitu) is a town and comune in North-Western Sicily, Italy, administratively part of the province of Trapani.

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Sandokan

Sandokan is a fictional pirate of the late 19th century, who first appeared in publication in 1883, created by Italian author Emilio Salgari.

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Sandro Botticelli

Alessandro di Mariano di Vanni Filipepi (c. 1445 – May 17, 1510), known as Sandro Botticelli, was an Italian painter of the Early Renaissance.

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Sanremo Music Festival

The Festival della canzone italiana di Sanremo (in English: Italian song festival of Sanremo) is the most popular Italian song contest and awards, held annually in the town of Sanremo, Liguria, and consisting of a competition amongst previously unreleased songs.

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Saracen Joust

The Saracen joust of Arezzo (Giostra del Saracino, Giostra ad burattum) is an ancient game of chivalry.

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Sardinia

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Sardinian brook salamander

The Sardinian brook salamander or Sardinian mountain newt (Euproctus platycephalus) is a species of salamander in the Salamandridae family found only in Sardinia, Italy.

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Sardinian language

Sardinian or Sard (sardu, limba sarda or língua sarda) is the primary indigenous Romance language spoken on most of the island of Sardinia (Italy).

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Sardinian long-eared bat

The Sardinian long-eared bat (Plecotus sardus) is a species of bat endemic to Sardinia, Italy.

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Sardinian people

The Sardinians, or also the Sards (Sardos or Sardus; Italian and Sassarese: Sardi; Catalan: Sards or Sardos; Gallurese: Saldi; Ligurian: Sordi), are the native people and ethnic group from which Sardinia, a western Mediterranean island and autonomous region of Italy, derives its name.

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Sarno

Sarno is a town and comune and former Latin Catholic bishopric of Campania, Italy, in the province of Salerno, 20 km northeast from the city of Salerno and 60 km east of Naples by the main railway.

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Sassari

Sassari (Sassari; Tàtari) is an Italian city and the second-largest of Sardinia in terms of population with 127,525 inhabitants, and a Functional Urban Area of about 222,000 inhabitants.

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Schengen Area

The Schengen Area is an area comprising 26 European states that have officially abolished passport and all other types of border control at their mutual borders.

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Scientific Revolution

The Scientific Revolution was a series of events that marked the emergence of modern science during the early modern period, when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology (including human anatomy) and chemistry transformed the views of society about nature.

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Scuderia Ferrari

Scuderia Ferrari S.p.A. is the racing division of luxury Italian auto manufacturer, Ferrari, and the racing team that competes in Formula One racing.

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Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa

The Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa (SNS) is a public higher learning institution in Pisa, Italy.

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Sea of Sardinia

The Sea of Sardinia is a body of water in the Mediterranean Sea between the Spanish archipelago of Balearic Islands and the Italian island of Sardinia.

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Seamount

A seamount is a mountain rising from the ocean seafloor that does not reach to the water's surface (sea level), and thus is not an island, islet or cliff-rock.

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Second Battle of El Alamein

The Second Battle of El Alamein (23 October – 11 November 1942) was a battle of the Second World War that took place near the Egyptian railway halt of El Alamein. With the Allies victorious, it was the watershed of the Western Desert Campaign. The First Battle of El Alamein had prevented the Axis from advancing further into Egypt. In August 1942, Lieutenant-General Sir Bernard Law Montgomery took command of the Eighth Army following the sacking of General Claude Auchinleck and the death of his replacement Lieutenant-General William Gott in an air crash. The Allied victory turned the tide in the North African Campaign and ended the Axis threat to Egypt, the Suez Canal and the Middle Eastern and Persian oil fields via North Africa. The Second Battle of El Alamein revived the morale of the Allies, being the first big success against the Axis since Operation Crusader in late 1941. The battle coincided with the Allied invasion of French North Africa in Operation Torch, which started on 8 November, the Battle of Stalingrad and the Guadalcanal Campaign.

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Second French Empire

The French Second Empire (Second Empire) was the Imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic, in France.

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Second Italian War of Independence

The Second Italian War of Independence, also called the Franco-Austrian War, Austro-Sardinian War or Italian War of 1859 (Campagne d'Italie), was fought by the French Empire and the Kingdom of Sardinia against the Austrian Empire in 1859 and played a crucial part in the process of Italian unification.

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Second Italo-Ethiopian War

The Second Italo-Ethiopian War, also referred to as the Second Italo-Abyssinian War, was a colonial war from 3 October 1935 until 1939, despite the Italian claim to have defeated Ethiopia by 5 May 1936, the date of the capture of Addis Ababa.

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Secondary education in Italy

Secondary education in Italy lasts eight years and is divided in two stages: scuola secondaria di primo grado (lower secondary school), also known as scuola media, which corresponds to the middle school grades, and scuola secondaria di secondo grado (upper secondary school), which corresponds to the high-school level.

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Secondary school

A secondary school is both an organization that provides secondary education and the building where this takes place.

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Senate of the Republic (Italy)

The Senate of the Republic (Senato della Repubblica) or Senate (Senato) is a house of the bicameral Italian Parliament (the other being the Chamber of Deputies).

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Senator for life

A senator for life is a member of the senate or equivalent upper chamber of a legislature who has life tenure.

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Seneca the Younger

Seneca the Younger AD65), fully Lucius Annaeus Seneca and also known simply as Seneca, was a Roman Stoic philosopher, statesman, dramatist, and—in one work—satirist of the Silver Age of Latin literature.

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Sergio Leone

Sergio Leone (3 January 1929 – 30 April 1989) was an Italian film director, producer and screenwriter, credited as the inventor of the "Spaghetti Western" genre.

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Sergio Mattarella

Sergio Mattarella (born 23 July 1941) is an Italian politician, lawyer and judge serving as the 12th and current President of Italy since 2015.

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Serie A

Serie A, also called Serie A TIM due to sponsorship by TIM, is a professional league competition for football clubs located at the top of the Italian football league system and the winner is awarded the Coppa Campioni d'Italia.

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Servius Tullius

Servius Tullius was the legendary sixth king of Rome, and the second of its Etruscan dynasty.

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Seventh-day Adventist Church

The Seventh-day Adventist Church is a Protestant Christian denomination distinguished by its observance of Saturday, the seventh day of the week in Christian and Jewish calendars, as the Sabbath, and by its emphasis on the imminent Second Coming (advent) of Jesus Christ.

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Seveso disaster

The Seveso disaster was an industrial accident that occurred around 12:37 pm on July 10, 1976, in a small chemical manufacturing plant approximately north of Milan in the Lombardy region of Italy.

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Sexten

Sexten (Sesto) is a comune in South Tyrol in northern Italy.

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Sicani

The Sicani (Greek Σικανοί Sikanoi) or Sicanians were one of three ancient peoples of Sicily present at the time of Phoenician and Greek colonization.

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Sicilian Mafia

The Sicilian Mafia, also known as simply the Mafia and frequently referred to by members as Cosa Nostra (this thing of ours), is a criminal syndicate in Sicily, Italy.

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Sicilian pond turtle

The Sicilian pond turtle (Emys trinacris) is a turtle of the family Emydidae found in Sicily.

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Sicilian wall lizard

The Sicilian wall lizard (Podarcis waglerianus) is a species of lizard in the family Lacertidae.

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Sicily

Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.

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Signoria

A signoria (from signore, or "lord"; an abstract noun meaning (roughly) "government; governing authority; de facto sovereignty; lordship"; plural: signorie) was the governing authority in many of the Italian city states during the medieval and renaissance periods.

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Sikh

A Sikh (ਸਿੱਖ) is a person associated with Sikhism, a monotheistic religion that originated in the 15th century based on the revelation of Guru Nanak.

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Silvio Berlusconi

Silvio Berlusconi (born 29 September 1936) is an Italian media tycoon and politician who has served as Prime Minister of Italy in four governments.

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Six Nations Championship

The Six Nations Championship (recently known as the NatWest 6 Nations for sponsorship reasons) is an annual international rugby union competition between the teams of England, France, Ireland, Italy, Scotland and Wales.

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Slovene language

Slovene or Slovenian (slovenski jezik or slovenščina) belongs to the group of South Slavic languages.

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Slovenia

Slovenia (Slovenija), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene:, abbr.: RS), is a country in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes.

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Small and medium-sized enterprises

Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs, also small and medium enterprises) or small and medium-sized businesses (SMBs) are businesses whose personnel numbers fall below certain limits.

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Social democracy

Social democracy is a political, social and economic ideology that supports economic and social interventions to promote social justice within the framework of a liberal democratic polity and capitalist economy.

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Social War (91–88 BC)

The Social War (from socii ("allies"), thus Bellum Sociale; also called the Italian War, the War of the Allies or the Marsic War) was a war waged from 91 to 88 BC between the Roman Republic and several of the other cities in Italy, which prior to the war had been Roman allies for centuries.

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Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFR Yugoslavia or SFRY) was a socialist state led by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of World War II until its dissolution in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars.

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Solar energy

Solar energy is radiant light and heat from the Sun that is harnessed using a range of ever-evolving technologies such as solar heating, photovoltaics, solar thermal energy, solar architecture, molten salt power plants and artificial photosynthesis.

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Solar System

The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.

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Sonata

Sonata (Italian:, pl. sonate; from Latin and Italian: sonare, "to sound"), in music, literally means a piece played as opposed to a cantata (Latin and Italian cantare, "to sing"), a piece sung.

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Sonnet

A sonnet is a poem in a specific form which originated in Italy; Giacomo da Lentini is credited with its invention.

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Sophia Loren

Sofia Villani Scicolone, known as Sophia Loren, Dame of the Grand Cross, O.M.R.I. (born 20 September 1934) is an Italian film actress and singer.

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South Tyrol

South Tyrol is an autonomous province in northern Italy.

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South Tyrolean People's Party

The South Tyrolean People's Party (Südtiroler Volkspartei, SVP; Partito Popolare Sudtirolese) is an ethnic catch-all, regionalist, and autonomist political party in South Tyrol, an autonomous province in northern Italy.

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Southern Europe

Southern Europe is the southern region of the European continent.

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Southern Italy

Southern Italy or Mezzogiorno (literally "midday") is a macroregion of Italy traditionally encompassing the territories of the former Kingdom of the two Sicilies (all the southern section of the Italian Peninsula and Sicily), with the frequent addition of the island of Sardinia.

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Sovereign state

A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.

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Sovereignty

Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies.

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Spaghetti Western

Spaghetti Western, also known as Italian Western or Macaroni Western (primarily in Japan), is a broad subgenre of Western films that emerged in the mid-1960s in the wake of Sergio Leone's film-making style and international box-office success.

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Spain

Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.

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Spain in the 17th century

Habsburg Spain was at the height of its power and cultural influence at the beginning of the 17th century, but military, political, and economic difficulties were already being discussed within Spain.

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Spanish Civil War

The Spanish Civil War (Guerra Civil Española),Also known as The Crusade (La Cruzada) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War (Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlists, and The Rebellion (La Rebelión) or Uprising (Sublevación) among Republicans.

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Spanish Empire

The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español; Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy (Monarquía Católica) was one of the largest empires in history.

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Spanish language

Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.

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Sparkling wine

Sparkling wine is a wine with significant levels of carbon dioxide in it, making it fizzy.

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Spectacled salamander

The spectacled salamander (Salamandrina terdigitata) is a species of salamander in the Salamandridae family.

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Spice trade

The spice trade refers to the trade between historical civilizations in Asia, Northeast Africa and Europe.

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Spoleto

Spoleto (Latin Spoletium) is an ancient city in the Italian province of Perugia in east-central Umbria on a foothill of the Apennines.

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St Mark's Basilica

The Patriarchal Cathedral Basilica of Saint Mark (Basilica Cattedrale Patriarcale di San Marco), commonly known as Saint Mark's Basilica (Basilica di San Marco; Baxéłega de San Marco), is the cathedral church of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Venice, northern Italy.

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St. Peter's Basilica

The Papal Basilica of St.

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State religion

A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state.

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Statuto Albertino

The Statuto Albertino (English: Albertine Statute), was the constitution that Charles Albert of Sardinia conceded to the Kingdom of Sardinia in Italy on 4 March 1848.

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Stock character

A stock character is a stereotypical fictional character in a work of art such as a novel, play, or film, whom audiences recognize from frequent recurrences in a particular literary tradition.

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Strabo

Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.

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Strait of Messina

The Strait of Messina (Stretto di Messina), is a narrow strait between the eastern tip of Sicily (Punta del Faro) and the western tip of Calabria (Punta Pezzo) in the south of Italy.

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Strait of Sicily

The Strait of Sicily (also known as Sicilian Strait, Sicilian Channel, Channel of Sicily, Sicilian Narrows and Pantelleria Channel; Canale di Sicilia or the Stretto di Sicilia; Canali di Sicilia or Strittu di Sicilia) is the strait between Sicily and Tunisia.

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Strawberry

The garden strawberry (or simply strawberry; Fragaria × ananassa) is a widely grown hybrid species of the genus Fragaria, collectively known as the strawberries.

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Stromboli

Stromboli (Struògnuli, Ancient Greek: Στρογγύλη, Strongulē) is a small island in the Tyrrhenian Sea, off the north coast of Sicily, containing one of the three active volcanoes in Italy.

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Stuck Inside of Mobile with the Memphis Blues Again

"Stuck Inside of Mobile with the Memphis Blues Again" is a song written by Bob Dylan that appears on his 1966 album Blonde on Blonde.

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Sugar beet

A sugar beet is a plant whose root contains a high concentration of sucrose and which is grown commercially for sugar production.

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Sulfur dioxide

Sulfur dioxide (also sulphur dioxide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula.

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Summer Olympic Games

The Summer Olympic Games (Jeux olympiques d'été) or the Games of the Olympiad, first held in 1896, is an international multi-sport event that is hosted by a different city every four years.

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Sun-Sentinel

The Sun-Sentinel is the main daily newspaper of Broward County, Florida.

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Superior Graduate Schools in Italy

A Superior Graduate School (Italian: Scuola Superiore Universitaria) is a completely independent institution from a legal point of view, which offers advanced training and research through university-type courses or is dedicated to teaching at graduate or post-doctoral level.

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Supreme Court of Cassation (Italy)

The Supreme Court of Cassation (Corte Suprema di Cassazione) is the highest court of appeal or court of last resort in Italy.

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Surrealism

Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s, and is best known for its visual artworks and writings.

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Swashbuckler

A swashbuckler is a heroic archetype in European adventure literature that is typified by the use of a sword, acrobatics and chivalric ideals.

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Swiss franc

The franc (sign: Fr. or SFr.; Franken, French and Romansh: franc, franco; code: CHF) is the currency and legal tender of Switzerland and Liechtenstein; it is also legal tender in the Italian exclave Campione d'Italia.

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Switzerland

Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Symphony

A symphony is an extended musical composition in Western classical music, most often written by composers for orchestra.

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Tamil language

Tamil (தமிழ்) is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Burghers, Douglas, and Chindians.

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Tampa Bay Times

The Tampa Bay Times, previously named the St.

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Tank

A tank is an armoured fighting vehicle designed for front-line combat, with heavy firepower, strong armour, tracks and a powerful engine providing good battlefield maneuverability.

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Tank destroyer

A tank destroyer or tank hunter is a type of armoured fighting vehicle, armed with a direct-fire artillery gun or missile launcher, with limited operational capacities and designed specifically to engage enemy tanks.

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Tarvisio

Tarvisio (German and Tarvis, Trbiž) is a comune (town) in the Province of Udine, the northeastern part of the autonomous Friuli Venezia Giulia region in Italy.

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Teatro di San Carlo

The Real Teatro di San Carlo (Royal Theatre of Saint Charles), its original name under the Bourbon monarchy but known today as simply the Teatro di San Carlo, is an opera house in Naples, Italy.

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Technetium

Technetium is a chemical element with symbol Tc and atomic number 43.

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Telephone

A telephone, or phone, is a telecommunications device that permits two or more users to conduct a conversation when they are too far apart to be heard directly.

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Telephone numbers in Italy

Telephone numbers in Italy are defined by a telephone numbering plan that is organized by types of services.

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Telephone numbers in Switzerland

Telephone numbers in Switzerland are defined and assigned according to the Swiss telephone numbering plan administered by the Swiss Federal Office of Communications.

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Telescope

A telescope is an optical instrument that aids in the observation of remote objects by collecting electromagnetic radiation (such as visible light).

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Temperate climate

In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth.

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Temple of Concordia, Agrigento

The Temple of Concordia (Tempio della Concordia) is an ancient Greek temple in the Valle dei Templi (Valley of the Temples) in Agrigento (Greek: Akragas) on the south coast of Sicily, Italy.

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Tennis

Tennis is a racket sport that can be played individually against a single opponent (singles) or between two teams of two players each (doubles).

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Terza rima

Terza rima is a rhyming verse stanza form that consists of an interlocking three-line rhyme scheme.

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The Adventures of Pinocchio

The Adventures of Pinocchio (Le avventure di Pinocchio) is a novel for children by Italian author Carlo Collodi, written in Pescia.

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The Betrothed (Manzoni novel)

The Betrothed (I promessi sposi) is an Italian historical novel by Alessandro Manzoni, first published in 1827, in three volumes.

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The Big Four (World War I)

The Big Four or The Four Nations refer to the four top Allied powers of the World War I and their leaders who met at the Paris Peace Conference in January 1919.

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The Book of the Courtier

The Book of the Courtier (Il Cortegiano) is a courtesy book.

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The Boston Globe

The Boston Globe (sometimes abbreviated as The Globe) is an American daily newspaper founded and based in Boston, Massachusetts, since its creation by Charles H. Taylor in 1872.

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The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), often informally known as the Mormon Church, is a nontrinitarian, Christian restorationist church that is considered by its members to be the restoration of the original church founded by Jesus Christ.

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The City of the Sun

The City of the Sun (La città del Sole; Civitas Solis) is a philosophical work by the Italian Dominican philosopher Tommaso Campanella.

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The Daily Telegraph

The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.

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The Decameron

The Decameron (Italian title: "Decameron" or "Decamerone"), subtitled "Prince Galehaut" (Old Prencipe Galeotto and sometimes nicknamed "Umana commedia", "Human comedy"), is a collection of novellas by the 14th-century Italian author Giovanni Boccaccio (1313–1375).

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The English Patient (film)

The English Patient is a 1996 American romantic war drama film directed by Anthony Minghella from his own script based on the novel of the same name by Michael Ondaatje and produced by Saul Zaentz.

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The Facetious Nights of Straparola

The Facetious Nights of Straparola (1550-1555; Italian: Le piacevoli notti), also known as The Nights of Straparola, is a two-volume collection of 75Nancy Canepa.

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The Good, the Bad and the Ugly

The Good, the Bad and the Ugly (Il buono, il brutto, il cattivo) is a 1966 epic Spaghetti Western film directed by Sergio Leone and starring Clint Eastwood, Lee Van Cleef, and Eli Wallach in their respective title roles.

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The Great Beauty

The Great Beauty (La grande bellezza) is a 2013 Italian art drama film co-written and directed by Paolo Sorrentino.

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The Guardian

The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.

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The Holocaust

The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.

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The Last Supper (Leonardo da Vinci)

The Last Supper (Il Cenacolo or L'Ultima Cena) is a late 15th-century mural painting by Leonardo da Vinci housed by the refectory of the Convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie in Milan.

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The Local

The Local is an English-language digital news publisher with local editions in Sweden, Germany, France, Spain, Switzerland, Norway, Denmark, Austria and Italy.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The Passion of the Christ

The Passion of the Christ (also known simply as The Passion) is a 2004 American biblical drama film directed by Mel Gibson, written by Gibson and Benedict Fitzgerald, and starring Jim Caviezel as Jesus Christ, Maia Morgenstern as the Virgin Mary and Monica Bellucci as Mary Magdalene.

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The Prince

The Prince (Il Principe) is a 16th-century political treatise by the Italian diplomat and political theorist Niccolò Machiavelli.

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The World Factbook

The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.

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Theatre of ancient Rome

Theatre of ancient Rome refers to the time period of theatrical practice and performance in Rome beginning in the 4th century B.C., following the state’s transition from Monarchy to Republic.

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Theocracy

Theocracy is a form of government in which a deity is the source from which all authority derives.

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Third Italian War of Independence

The Third Italian War of Independence (Terza Guerra d'Indipendenza Italiana) was a war between the Kingdom of Italy and the Austrian Empire fought between June and August 1866.

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Thucydides

Thucydides (Θουκυδίδης,, Ancient Attic:; BC) was an Athenian historian and general.

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Tiber

The Tiber (Latin Tiberis, Italian Tevere) is the third-longest river in Italy, rising in the Apennine Mountains in Emilia-Romagna and flowing through Tuscany, Umbria and Lazio, where it is joined by the river Aniene, to the Tyrrhenian Sea, between Ostia and Fiumicino.

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Times Colonist

The Times Colonist is an English-language daily newspaper in Victoria, British Columbia, Canada.

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Tintoretto

Tintoretto (born Jacopo Comin, late September or early October, 1518 – May 31, 1594) was an Italian painter and a notable exponent of the Venetian school.

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Tiramisu

Tiramisu (from the Italian language, spelled tiramisù, from the Venetian tiramesù, meaning "pick me up", "cheer me up" or "lift me up") is a coffee-flavoured Italian dessert.

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Titian

Tiziano Vecelli or Tiziano Vecellio (1488/1490 – 27 August 1576), known in English as Titian, was an Italian painter, the most important member of the 16th-century Venetian school.

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Tiziano Ferro

Tiziano Ferro (born 21 February 1980) is an Italian singer-songwriter, producer and author.

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Toblach

Toblach (Dobbiaco) is a comune/Gemeinde (municipality) in South Tyrol in northern Italy, located in the Puster Valley about northeast of the city of Bolzano, on the border with Austria.

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Tolfa

Tolfa is a town and comune of the Metropolitan City of Rome, in the Lazio region of central Italy; it lies to the ENE of Civitavecchia by road.

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Tomato

The tomato (see pronunciation) is the edible, often red, fruit/berry of the plant Solanum lycopersicum, commonly known as a tomato plant.

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Tommaso Campanella

Tommaso Campanella OP (5 September 1568 – 21 May 1639), baptized Giovanni Domenico Campanella, was a Dominican friar, Italian philosopher, theologian, astrologer, and poet.

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Torquato Tasso

Torquato Tasso (11 March 1544 – 25 April 1595) was an Italian poet of the 16th century, best known for his poem Gerusalemme liberata (Jerusalem Delivered, 1581), in which he depicts a highly imaginative version of the combats between Christians and Muslims at the end of the First Crusade, during the Siege of Jerusalem.

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Total fertility rate

The total fertility rate (TFR), sometimes also called the fertility rate, absolute/potential natality, period total fertility rate (PTFR), or total period fertility rate (TPFR) of a population is the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime if.

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Totalitarianism

Benito Mussolini Totalitarianism is a political concept where the state recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to control every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible.

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Tour de France

The Tour de France is an annual male multiple stage bicycle race primarily held in France, while also occasionally making passes through nearby countries.

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Trade Commissioner Service

Part of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada, the Canadian Trade Commissioner Service (TCS) is a network of more than 1000 trade professionals working in Canadian embassies, high commissions, and consulates located in 161 cities around the world and with offices across Canada.

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Trajan

Trajan (Imperator Caesar Nerva Trajanus Divi Nervae filius Augustus; 18 September 538August 117 AD) was Roman emperor from 98 to 117AD.

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Treaty of Lodi

The Treaty of Lodi, also known as the Peace of Lodi was a peace agreement between Milan, Naples, and Florence signed on 9 April 1454 at Lodi in Lombardy, on the banks of the Adda.

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Treaty of London (1915)

London Pact (Patto di Londra), or more correctly, the Treaty of London, 1915, was a secret pact between the Triple Entente and the Kingdom of Italy.

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Treaty of Peace with Italy, 1947

The Treaty of Peace with Italy (one of the Paris Peace Treaties) was signed on 10 February 1947 between Italy and the victorious powers of World War II, formally ending hostilities.

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Treaty of Rapallo (1920)

The Treaty of Rapallo was a treaty between the Kingdom of Italy and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (renamed Yugoslavia in 1929), signed to solve the dispute over some territories in the former Austrian Littoral in the upper Adriatic, and in Dalmatia.

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Treaty of Rome (1924)

The Treaty of Rome of January 27, 1924, was an agreement by which Italy and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes agreed that Fiume would be annexed to Italy as the Province of Fiume, while the town of Sušak was assigned to the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.

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Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (1919)

The Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye was signed on 10 September 1919 by the victorious Allies of World War I on the one hand and by the Republic of German-Austria on the other.

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Trench warfare

Trench warfare is a type of land warfare using occupied fighting lines consisting largely of military trenches, in which troops are well-protected from the enemy's small arms fire and are substantially sheltered from artillery.

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Trentino

Trentino, officially the Autonomous Province of Trento, is an autonomous province of Italy, in the country's far north.

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Trentino Tyrolean Autonomist Party

The Trentino Tyrolean Autonomist Party (Partito Autonomista Trentino Tirolese, PATT) is a regionalist, autonomist, Christian-democratic, and centrist political party in Trentino, Italy.

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Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol

Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol (Trentino-Alto Adige,; Trentino-Südtirol; Trentin-Südtirol) is an autonomous region in Northern Italy.

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Trento

Trento (anglicized as Trent; local dialects: Trènt; Trient) is a city on the Adige River in Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol in Italy.

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Trieste

Trieste (Trst) is a city and a seaport in northeastern Italy.

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Tripartite Pact

The Tripartite Pact, also known as the Berlin Pact, was an agreement between Germany, Italy and Japan signed in Berlin on 27 September 1940 by, respectively, Joachim von Ribbentrop, Galeazzo Ciano and Saburō Kurusu.

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Triple Alliance (1882)

The Triple Alliance was a secret agreement between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy.

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Trompe-l'œil

Trompe-l'œil (French for "deceive the eye", pronounced) is an art technique that uses realistic imagery to create the optical illusion that the depicted objects exist in three dimensions.

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Trussardi

Trussardi is an Italian fashion house, founded in 1911.

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Tullus Hostilius

Tullus Hostilius (r. 673–642 BC) was the legendary third king of Rome.

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Tunisia

Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.

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Turin

Turin (Torino; Turin) is a city and an important business and cultural centre in northern Italy.

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Tuscan wine

Tuscan wine (Italian Toscana) is Italian wine from the Tuscany region.

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Tuscany

Tuscany (Toscana) is a region in central Italy with an area of about and a population of about 3.8 million inhabitants (2013).

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Tyrrhenian Sea

The Tyrrhenian Sea (Mar Tirreno, Mer Tyrrhénienne, Mare Tirrenu, Mari Tirrenu, Mari Tirrenu, Mare Tirreno) is part of the Mediterranean Sea off the western coast of Italy.

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UCI Road World Championships – Men's road race

The UCI Road World Championships, often referred to as the World Cycling Championships, is the annual world championship for bicycle road racing organized by the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI).

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UEFA coefficient

In European football, the UEFA coefficients are statistics used for ranking and seeding teams in club and international competitions.

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Uffizi

The Uffizi Gallery (italic) is a prominent art museum located adjacent to the Piazza della Signoria in the Historic Centre of Florence in the region of Tuscany, Italy.

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Ugo Foscolo

Ugo Foscolo (6 February 1778 in Zakynthos10 September 1827 in Turnham Green), born Niccolò Foscolo, was an Italian writer, freemason, revolutionary and poet.

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Ukraine

Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.

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Ukrainian language

No description.

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Umberto Boccioni

Umberto Boccioni (19 October 1882 – 17 August 1916) was an influential Italian painter and sculptor.

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Umberto Eco

Umberto Eco (5 January 1932 – 19 February 2016) was an Italian novelist, literary critic, philosopher, semiotician, and university professor.

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Umberto II of Italy

Umberto II (Umberto Nicola Tommaso Giovanni Maria di Savoia; 15 September 190418 March 1983) was the last King of Italy.

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Umbri

The Umbri were Italic peoples of ancient Italy.

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Umbria

Umbria is a region of central Italy.

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Umbrian language

Umbrian is an extinct Italic language formerly spoken by the Umbri in the ancient Italian region of Umbria.

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Unemployment

Unemployment is the situation of actively looking for employment but not being currently employed.

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UNESCO

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.

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UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists

UNESCO established its Lists of Intangible Cultural Heritage with the aim of ensuring better protection of important intangible cultural heritages worldwide and the awareness of their significance.

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Unified Task Force

The Unified Task Force (UNITAF) was a US-led, United Nations-sanctioned multinational force, which operated in Somalia between 5 December 1992 – 4 May 1993.

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Union for the Mediterranean

The Union for the Mediterranean (UfM; Union pour la Méditerranée, الاتحاد من أجل المتوسط) is an intergovernmental organization of 43 member states from Europe and the Mediterranean Basin: the 28 EU member states and 15 Mediterranean partner countries from North Africa, Western Asia and Southern Europe.

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Union of Methodist and Waldensian Churches

The Union of Methodist and Waldensian Churches (Unione delle Chiese Metodiste e Valdesi) is an Italian united Protestant denomination.

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Unitary state

A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.

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United Nations Integrated Mission in East Timor

The United Nations Integrated Mission in East Timor (UNMIT) was established on 25 August 2006 by UN Security Council Resolution 1704.

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United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon

The United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (قوة الأمم المتحدة المؤقتة في لبنان), or UNIFIL (يونيفيل) and also known as the UN, is a demilitarized zone created by the United Nations, with the adoption of Security Council Resolution 425 and 426 on 19 March 1978, to confirm Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon which Israel had invaded five days prior, restore international peace and security, and help the government of Lebanon restore its effective authority in the area.

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United Nations Operation in Mozambique

The United Nations Operations in Mozambique (UNOMOZ) was a UN peace mission to Mozambique established in December 1992 under Security Council Resolution 797 with the assignment to monitor the implementation of the Rome General Peace Accords agreed upon by the Mozambican president Joaquim Chissano (FRELIMO) and Afonso Dhlakama of RENAMO.

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United Nations Security Council

The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.

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United Nations Security Council Resolution 109

United Nations Security Council Resolution 109, adopted on December 14, 1955, after being instructed by the General Assembly to consider the applications for membership of Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, Cambodia, Ceylon, Finland, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Jordan, Laos, Libya, Nepal, Portugal, Romania, and Spain the Council recommended all of the above-named countries for admission to the United Nations.

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United States Commercial Service

The United States Commercial Service (CS) is the trade promotion arm of the U.S. Department of Commerce's International Trade Administration.

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Uniting for Consensus

Uniting for Consensus (UfC) is a movement, nicknamed the Coffee Club, that developed in the 1990s in opposition to the possible expansion of permanent seats in the United Nations Security Council.

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Universal Newsreel

Universal Newsreel (sometimes known as Universal-International Newsreel or just U-I Newsreel) was a series of 7- to 10-minute newsreels that were released twice a week between 1929 and 1967 by Universal Studios.

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Urban design

Urban design is the process of designing and shaping the physical features of cities, towns and villages.

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Vajont Dam

The Vajont Dam (or Vaiont Dam) is a disused dam, completed in 1959 in the valley of the Vajont River under Monte Toc, in the municipality of Erto e Casso, 100 km (60 miles) north of Venice, Italy.

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Valentino SpA

Valentino SpA is a clothing company founded in 1960 by Valentino Garavani.

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Valle dei Templi

The Valle dei Templi (English: Valley of the Temples; Vaddi di li Tempri) is an archaeological site in Agrigento (ancient Greek Akragas), Sicily, southern Italy.

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Varia di Palmi

The Varia di Palmi is a Catholic festival that takes place on the last Sunday of August, in Palmi, Italy, in honor of the city's patron saint and protector, the Virgin Mary, known as Our Lady of the Sacred Letter.

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Vascular plant

Vascular plants (from Latin vasculum: duct), also known as tracheophytes (from the equivalent Greek term trachea) and also higher plants, form a large group of plants (c. 308,312 accepted known species) that are defined as those land plants that have lignified tissues (the xylem) for conducting water and minerals throughout the plant.

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Vatican City

Vatican City (Città del Vaticano; Civitas Vaticana), officially the Vatican City State or the State of Vatican City (Stato della Città del Vaticano; Status Civitatis Vaticanae), is an independent state located within the city of Rome.

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Venaria Reale

Venaria Reale (La Venerìa) is a comune (municipality) in the Metropolitan City of Turin in the Italian region Piedmont, located about northwest of Turin.

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Venetian Plain

The Venetian Plain, or Venetian-Friulan Plain (Pianura Veneta or Pianura Veneto-friulana) is a major geographical feature of Italy.

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Veneto

Veneto (or,; Vèneto) is one of the 20 regions of Italy.

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Venice

Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.

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Venice Film Festival

The Venice Film Festival or Venice International Film Festival (Mostra Internazionale d'Arte Cinematografica della Biennale di Venezia, "International Exhibition of Cinematographic Art of the Venice Biennale") is the oldest film festival in the world and one of the "Big Three" film festivals, alongside the Cannes Film Festival and Berlin International Film Festival.

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Venice National Archaeological Museum

The National Archaeological Museum (Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Venezia) is a museum located right on Piazza San Marco in Venice.

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Verismo (literature)

Verismo (from, meaning "true") was an Italian literary movement which peaked between approximately 1875 and the early 1900s.

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Verona

Verona (Venetian: Verona or Veròna) is a city on the Adige river in Veneto, Italy, with approximately 257,000 inhabitants and one of the seven provincial capitals of the region.

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Versace

Gianni Versace S.p.A. usually referred to simply as Versace, is an Italian luxury fashion company and trade name founded by Gianni Versace in 1978.

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Vibo Valentia

Vibo Valentia (Monteleone before 1861; Monteleone di Calabria from 1961 to 1928; Calabrian: Vibbu Valenzia or Muntalauni) is a city and comune (municipality) in the Calabria region of southern Italy, near the Tyrrhenian Sea.

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Vico nel Lazio

Vico nel Lazio is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Frosinone in the Italian region Lazio, located about east of Rome and about north of Frosinone.

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Victor Emmanuel II of Italy

Victor Emmanuel II (Vittorio Emanuele Maria Alberto Eugenio Ferdinando Tommaso di Savoia; 14 March 1820 – 9 January 1878) was King of Sardinia from 1849 until 17 March 1861.

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Victor Emmanuel III of Italy

Victor Emmanuel III (Vittorio Emanuele Ferdinando Maria Gennaro di Savoia; Vittorio Emanuele III, Viktor Emanueli III; 11 November 1869 – 28 December 1947) was the King of Italy from 29 July 1900 until his abdication on 9 May 1946.

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Villa d'Este

The Villa d'Este is a 16th-century villa in Tivoli, near Rome, famous for its terraced hillside Italian Renaissance garden and especially for its profusion of fountains.

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Vincenzo Bellini

Vincenzo Salvatore Carmelo Francesco Bellini (3 November 1801 – 23 September 1835) was an Italian opera composer,Lippmann and McGuire 1998, in Sadie, p. 389 who was known for his long-flowing melodic lines for which he was named "the Swan of Catania".

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Vineyard

A vineyard is a plantation of grape-bearing vines, grown mainly for winemaking, but also raisins, table grapes and non-alcoholic grape juice.

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Virgil

Publius Vergilius Maro (traditional dates October 15, 70 BC – September 21, 19 BC), usually called Virgil or Vergil in English, was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period.

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Visconti of Milan

Visconti is the family name of important Italian noble dynasties of the Middle Ages.

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Viterbo

Viterbo (Viterbese: Veterbe, Viterbium) is an ancient city and comune in the Lazio region of central Italy, the capital of the province of Viterbo.

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Vittorio Alfieri

Count Vittorio Alfieri (16 January 17498 October 1803) was an Italian dramatist and poet, considered the "founder of Italian tragedy.".

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Vittorio De Sica

Vittorio De Sica (7 July 1901 – 13 November 1974) was an Italian director and actor, a leading figure in the neorealist movement.

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Vogue Italia

Vogue Italia is the Italian edition of Vogue magazine.

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Volcanology of Italy

Italy is a volcanically active country, containing the only active volcanoes in mainland Europe.

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Volleyball

Volleyball is a team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net.

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Volsci

The Volsci were an Italic tribe, well known in the history of the first century of the Roman Republic.

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Voyages of Christopher Columbus

In 1492, a Spanish-based transatlantic maritime expedition led by Christopher Columbus encountered the Americas, a continent which was largely unknown in Europe and outside the Old World political and economic system.

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Vuelta a España

The Vuelta a España (Tour of Spain) is an annual multi-stage bicycle race primarily held in Spain, while also occasionally making passes through nearby countries.

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Vulcan (mythology)

Vulcan (Latin: Volcānus or Vulcānus) is the god of fire including the fire of volcanoes, metalworking, and the forge in ancient Roman religion and myth.

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Vulcano

Vulcano (Vurcanu) is a small volcanic island in the Tyrrhenian Sea, about north of Sicily and located at the southernmost end of the eight Aeolian Islands.

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W and Z bosons

The W and Z bosons are together known as the weak or more generally as the intermediate vector bosons. These elementary particles mediate the weak interaction; the respective symbols are,, and.

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Waldensians

The Waldensians (also known variously as Waldenses, Vallenses, Valdesi or Vaudois) are a pre-Protestant Christian movement founded by Peter Waldo in Lyon around 1173.

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War of the Spanish Succession

The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) was a European conflict of the early 18th century, triggered by the death of the childless Charles II of Spain in November 1700.

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Washing machine

A washing machine (laundry machine, clothes washer, or washer) is a device used to wash laundry.

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Waterway

A waterway is any navigable body of water.

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WebCite

WebCite is an on-demand archiving service, designed to digitally preserve scientific and educationally important material on the web by making snapshots of Internet contents as they existed at the time when a blogger, or a scholar or a Wikipedia editor cited or quoted from it.

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Western painting

The history of Western painting represents a continuous, though disrupted, tradition from antiquity until the present time.

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Western Roman Empire

In historiography, the Western Roman Empire refers to the western provinces of the Roman Empire at any one time during which they were administered by a separate independent Imperial court, coequal with that administering the eastern half, then referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire.

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Western world

The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.

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Wind power

Wind power is the use of air flow through wind turbines to mechanically power generators for electricity.

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Winter Olympic Games

The Winter Olympic Games (Jeux olympiques d'hiver) is a major international sporting event held once every four years for sports practised on snow and ice.

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Wolf Prize in Mathematics

The Wolf Prize in Mathematics is awarded almost annually by the Wolf Foundation in Israel.

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Wolf Prize in Physics

The Wolf Prize in Physics is awarded once a year by the Wolf Foundation in Israel.

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World Bank

The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.

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World Health Organization ranking of health systems in 2000

The World Health Organization (WHO) ranked the health systems of its 191 member states in its World Health Report 2000.

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World Heritage site

A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.

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World Heritage Sites by country

As of June 2018, there are a total of 1,080 World Heritage Sites located in 167 "States Parties" Of the 1,080 sites, 839 are cultural, 206 are natural and 35 are mixed properties.

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World Rugby

World Rugby is the world governing body for the sport of rugby union and rugby sevens.

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World Tourism Organization

The World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) is the United Nations agency responsible for the promotion of responsible, sustainable and universally accessible tourism.

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World Tourism rankings

The World Tourism rankings are compiled by the United Nations World Tourism Organization as part of their World Tourism Barometer publication, which is released three times throughout the year.

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World Trade Organization

The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.

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World Travel and Tourism Council

The World Travel & Tourism Council (WTTC) is a forum for the travel and tourism industry.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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World War II casualties

World War II was the deadliest military conflict in history in absolute terms of total casualties.

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World Wind Energy Association

The World Wind Energy Association (WWEA) is an international non-profit association representing the wind power sector worldwide, with members in 100 countries, amongst them the leading national and regional wind energy associations.

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Years of Lead (Italy)

The Years of Lead (Anni di piombo) is a term used for a period of social and political turmoil in Italy that lasted from the late 1960s until the early 1980s, marked by a wave of both left-wing and right-wing incidents of political terrorism.

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Young Italy (historical)

Young Italy (La Giovane Italia) was a political movement for Italian youth (under age 40) founded in 1831 by Giuseppe Mazzini.

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Youth unemployment in Italy

Youth unemployment in Italy discusses the statistics, trends, causes and consequences concerning the topic of unemployment among young Italians.

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Yugoslav Partisans

The Yugoslav Partisans,Serbo-Croatian, Macedonian, Slovene: Partizani, Партизани or the National Liberation Army,Narodnooslobodilačka vojska (NOV), Народноослободилачка војска (НОВ); Народноослободителна војска (НОВ); Narodnoosvobodilna vojska (NOV) officially the National Liberation Army and Partisan Detachments of Yugoslavia,Narodnooslobodilačka vojska i partizanski odredi Jugoslavije (NOV i POJ), Народноослободилачка војска и партизански одреди Југославије (НОВ и ПОЈ); Народноослободителна војска и партизански одреди на Југославија (НОВ и ПОЈ); Narodnoosvobodilna vojska in partizanski odredi Jugoslavije (NOV in POJ) was the Communist-led resistance to the Axis powers (chiefly Germany) in occupied Yugoslavia during World War II.

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Zadar

Zadar (see other names) is the oldest continuously inhabited Croatian city.

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Zanussi

Zanussi is an Italian producer of home appliances that was bought by Electrolux in 1984.

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Zucchero Fornaciari

Adelmo Fornaciari Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI (born 25 September 1955), more commonly known by his stage name Zucchero Fornaciari or simply Zucchero, is an Italian singer-songwriter and musician, with an Order of Merit of the Italian Republic.

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.eu

.eu is the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the European Union (EU).

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.it

.it is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Italy.

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1629–31 Italian plague

The Italian Plague of 1629–31 was a series of outbreaks of bubonic plague which ravaged northern and central Italy.

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1896 Summer Olympics

The 1896 Summer Olympics (Θερινοί Ολυμπιακοί Αγώνες 1896), officially known as the Games of the I Olympiad, was the first international Olympic Games held in modern history.

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1956 Winter Olympics

The 1956 Winter Olympics, officially known as the VII Olympic Winter Games (French: Les VIIes Jeux olympiques d'hiver) (Italian: VII Giochi olimpici invernali), was a winter multi-sport event celebrated in Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy.

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1960 Summer Olympics

The 1960 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XVII Olympiad (Italian: Giochi della XVII Olimpiade), was an international multi-sport event that was held from August 25 to September 11, 1960, in Rome, Italy.

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1973 oil crisis

The 1973 oil crisis began in October 1973 when the members of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries proclaimed an oil embargo.

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19th meridian east

The meridian 19° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Atlantic Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.

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2004 enlargement of the European Union

The 2004 enlargement of the European Union was the largest single expansion of the European Union (EU), in terms of territory, number of states, and population to date; however, it was not the largest in terms of gross domestic product.

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2006 Winter Olympics

The 2006 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XX Olympic Winter Games (Les XXes Jeux olympiques d'hiver, XX Giochi olimpici invernali) and commonly known as Turin 2006 or italic, was a winter multi-sport event which was held in Turin, Piedmont, Italy from February 10 to 26, 2006.

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2009 Messina floods and mudslides

The 2009 Messina floods and mudslides occurred in Sicily on the night of 1–2 October, mainly along the Ionian coast in the Province of Messina.

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35th parallel north

The 35th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 35 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.

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47th parallel north

The 47th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 47 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.

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49ers (band)

49ers are an Italian house and Eurodance act, featuring producers and DJs Gianfranco Bortolotti, Luca Cittadini, Diego Leoni and Pieradis Rossini with vocalist Ann-Marie Smith.

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6th meridian east

The meridian 6° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Atlantic Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.

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8½ (Italian title: Otto e mezzo) is a 1963 surrealist comedy-drama film directed by Federico Fellini.

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Redirects here:

Administrative divisions of Italy, Administrative subdivisions of Italy, Austrian Empire (Italy), Environment of Italy, Environmental issues in Italy, Etymology of Italy, ISO 3166-1:IT, ITALY, ItalY, Itali, Italia, Italian Republic, Italie, Italija, Italiën, Itàlia, Pollution in Italy, Repubblica Italiana, Republic of Italy, Subdivisions of Italy, The Italian Republic, The Italian republic.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italy

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