343 relations: Academic procession, Academic Ranking of World Universities, African Americans, Alabama Crimson Tide football, All-Pro, American Civil War, American football, American lower class, American middle class, American Revolution, American upper class, Amherst College, Animal House, Army Black Knights football, Asian Americans, Associated Press, Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women championships, Baptists, Barack Obama, Barnard College, Basketball, Bates College, Benjamin Franklin, Big Three (colleges), Bill Clarke Field, Bill Clinton, Black Ivy League, Boston, Boston College, Bowdoin College, Bright-Landry Hockey Center, Brooks Brothers, Brown Bears, Brown Bears football, Brown Stadium, Brown University, Brown–Rhode Island football rivalry, Bryn Mawr College, Burnham Field, Calvin Hill, Calvinism, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Charles F. Berman Field, Chicago Public Library, Church of England, Class of 1923 Arena, Colby College, Colby-Bates-Bowdoin Consortium, Colgate Raiders football, College and university rankings, ..., College baseball, College basketball, College football, College Football Hall of Fame, College football national championships in NCAA Division I FBS, College ice hockey, College lacrosse, College of William & Mary, College recruiting, College rowing (United States), College rugby, College soccer, College softball, College-preparatory school, Collegiate wrestling, Colonial colleges, Columbia College (New York), Columbia Daily Spectator, Columbia Law School, Columbia Lions, Columbia University, Congregationalism in the United States, Connecticut, Cornell Big Red, Cornell Big Red football, Cornell Big Red men's lacrosse, Cornell University, Cornell–Harvard hockey rivalry, Cross country running, Dartmouth Big Green, Dartmouth College, Dartmouth–New Hampshire rivalry, David Starr Jordan, Derrick Harmon, Diving, Doctor of Medicine, Doctor of Philosophy, Doctorate, Donald Trump, Dooney & Bourke, Duke University, Eastern Intercollegiate Baseball League, Eastern Intercollegiate Basketball League, Eastern Intercollegiate Wrestling Association, ECAC Hockey, Elite, Elitism, Episcopal Church (United States), Equestrianism, Fencing, Field hockey, Field lacrosse, Financial endowment, Folk etymology, Forbes, Fordham Rams football, Fordham University, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Franklin Field, Franklin Pierce, George H. W. Bush, George W. Bush, George Whitefield, Georgetown University, Gerald Ford, Golf, Great Awakening, Hanover, New Hampshire, Harvard Business School, Harvard Crimson, Harvard Crimson football, Harvard Law School, Harvard Stadium, Harvard University, Harvard–Yale football rivalry, Harvard–Yale Regatta, Haverford College, Helms Athletic Foundation, Hidden Ivies, Hispanic and Latino Americans, Hobey Baker Memorial Rink, Holy Cross Crusaders football, Hoy Field, Hunting, Ice hockey, Ingalls Rink, Intercollegiate Rowing Association, Ithaca, New York, Ivy Council, Ivy Day (United States), Ivy League (clothes), Ivy Rugby Conference, Izod, J. Press, Jadwin Gymnasium, James Madison, Jesuit Ivy, Jim Finn, John Adams, John F. Kennedy, John Kieran, John Quincy Adams, Jonathan Maxcy, Jordan Field, Joseph J. O'Donnell Field, Kevin Boothe, L.L.Bean, Lacoste, Lacrosse, Lafayette Leopards football, Lake Winnipesaukee, Lavietes Pavilion, Leede Arena, Lehigh Mountain Hawks football, Levien Gymnasium, Liberal arts college, Lilly Pulitzer, List of college athletics championship game outcomes, List of Ivy League business schools, List of Ivy League law schools, List of Ivy League medical schools, List of NCAA conferences, List of Nobel laureates, Lists of institutions of higher education by endowment, Little Ivies, Little Three, Louis Auchincloss, Lynah Rink, Massachusetts, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Master of Business Administration, Matt Birk, Maureen Dowd, Meehan Auditorium, Meiklejohn Stadium, Memorial Field (Dartmouth), Methodism, Michael Dukakis, Michigan Wolverines football, Mixed-sex education, Mount Holyoke College, Mr. Irrelevant, Murray Stadium, National Collegiate Athletic Association, National Football League, NCAA Division I, NCAA Division I Football Championship, NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament, NCAA Division I Women's Basketball Tournament, New England, New Hampshire, New Hampshire Wildcats football, New Haven, Connecticut, New Jersey, New York (state), New York City, New York Herald Tribune, New-York Tribune, Newman Arena, Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, Nobel Prize, Non-Hispanic whites, Nonsectarian, Northeastern United States, Northwestern University, Notre Dame Fighting Irish football, Old money, One-game playoff, Oxford English Dictionary, Palestra, Palm Beach, Florida, Patriot League, Payne Whitney Gymnasium, Pell Grant, Penn Quakers, Penn Quakers football, Penn Quakers men's basketball, Penn–Princeton basketball rivalry, Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pizzitola Sports Center, Preppy, Presbyterianism, President of the United States, Princeton Tigers, Princeton Tigers men's lacrosse, Princeton University, Princeton University Stadium, Princeton, New Jersey, Pro Bowl, Protestantism, Providence, Rhode Island, Public Ivy, Puritans, Radcliffe College, Red Rolfe Field at Biondi Park, Redshirt (college sports), Reese Stadium, Rhode Island, Rhode Island Rams football, Robert K. Kraft Field at Lawrence A. Wien Stadium, Roberts Stadium (soccer stadium), Robertson Field at Satow Stadium, Romeyn Berry, Rowing (sport), Rowing Association of American Colleges, Rugby football, Russell Baker, Rutgers Scarlet Knights football, Rutgers University, Rutherford B. Hayes, Sailing, Schoellkopf Field, Sean Morey (American football), Seven Sisters (colleges), Simmons College, Smith College, Social class, Southeastern Conference, Southern Ivy, Sprint football, Squash (sport), Stanford University, Stanley Woodward, Stanley Woodward (editor), State university system, Stevenson Field, Student financial aid (United States), Super Bowl, Swimming (sport), Syracuse University, Tennis, The Christian Science Monitor, The Cornell Daily Sun, The Daily Pennsylvanian, The Daily Princetonian, The Dartmouth, The Harvard Crimson, The Ithaca Journal, The Liberty Cup, The Rivalry (Lehigh–Lafayette), Theodore Roosevelt, Thirteen Colonies, Thomas Cooper (U.S. politician), Thompson Arena, U.S. News & World Report, Undershirt, United States Military Academy, United States Naval Academy, University, University of California, University of Cambridge, University of Chicago, University of Edinburgh, University of Oxford, University of Pennsylvania, University of Pittsburgh, University of South Carolina, University of St Andrews, Upper middle class in the United States, USC Trojans football, Vassar College, Volleyball, Walter Camp, Washington Monthly, Washingtonian (magazine), Wellesley College, Wesleyan University, White Anglo-Saxon Protestant, William Henry Harrison, William Howard Taft, Williams College, Women's college, Woodrow Wilson, Working class in the United States, World War II, Yacht, Yale Blue, Yale Bowl, Yale Bulldogs, Yale Bulldogs football, Yale Daily News, Yale Field, Yale Law School, Yale University, Yale University Press, Zak DeOssie, 1999 NFL Draft, 2009 NCAA Division I Men's Lacrosse Championship, 2011–12 Harvard Crimson men's basketball team, 2012–13 Harvard Crimson men's basketball team, 2013 NCAA Division I FCS football season, 2013–14 Harvard Crimson men's basketball team. 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An academic procession is a traditional ceremony in which university dignitaries march together wearing traditional academic dress.
Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU), also known as Shanghai Ranking, is one of the annual publications of world university rankings.
African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa.
The Alabama Crimson Tide football program represents the University of Alabama (variously Alabama, UA, or 'Bama) in the sport of American football.
An All-Pro is an American football player in the National Football League (NFL) voted as one of the best players of their position during a given season.
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
American football, referred to as football in the United States and Canada and also known as gridiron, is a team sport played by two teams of eleven players on a rectangular field with goalposts at each end.
In the United States, the lower class are those at or near the lower end of the socio-economic hierarchy.
The American middle class is a social class in the United States.
The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783.
The American upper class is a social group consisting of the people who have the highest social rank and who are usually rich.
Amherst College is a private liberal arts college located in Amherst, Massachusetts, United States.
National Lampoon's Animal House is a 1978 American comedy film directed by John Landis and written by Harold Ramis, Douglas Kenney and Chris Miller.
The Army Black Knights football team, previously known as the Army Cadets, represents the United States Military Academy in college football.
Asian Americans are Americans of Asian descent.
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.
The Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women was founded in 1971 to govern collegiate women’s athletics and to administer national championships.
Baptists are Christians distinguished by baptizing professing believers only (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism), and doing so by complete immersion (as opposed to affusion or sprinkling).
Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from January 20, 2009, to January 20, 2017.
Barnard College is a private women's liberal arts college in New York City, New York, United States.
Basketball is a team sport played on a rectangular court.
Bates College (Bates; officially the President and Trustees of Bates College) is a private liberal arts college in Lewiston, Maine.
Benjamin Franklin (April 17, 1790) was an American polymath and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.
The Big Three is a historical term used in the United States to refer to Harvard, Yale, and Princeton.
Bill Clarke Field is a baseball venue in Princeton, New Jersey, United States.
William Jefferson Clinton (born August 19, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.
The Black Ivy League is a colloquial term that at times referred to the historically black colleges in the United States that attracted the majority of high-performing and affluent African American students prior to the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s.
Boston is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States.
Boston College (also referred to as BC) is a private Jesuit Catholic research university located in the affluent village of Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts, United States, west of downtown Boston.
Bowdoin College is a private liberal arts college located in Brunswick, Maine.
The Bright-Landry Hockey Center is a 3,095-seat ice-hockey arena in Boston, Massachusetts, United States.
Brooks Brothers is the oldest men's clothier in the United States and is headquartered on Madison Avenue in Manhattan, New York City.
The Brown Bears are the sports teams at Brown University, located in Providence, Rhode Island in the United States.
The Brown Bears football program is the intercollegiate American football team for Brown University located in the U.S. state of Rhode Island.
Brown Stadium is a football stadium located in Providence, Rhode Island.
Brown University is a private Ivy League research university in Providence, Rhode Island, United States.
The Brown–Rhode Island football rivalry is an American college football rivalry between the Brown Bears and Rhode Island Rams.
Bryn Mawr College (Welsh) is a women's liberal arts college in Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania.
Burnham Field is a soccer-specific stadium located on the campus of Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire, and used exclusively for Dartmouth's men's and women's soccer teams.
Calvin G. Hill (born January 2, 1947) is a retired American football player.
Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.
Cambridge is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, and part of the Boston metropolitan area.
Charles F. Berman Field is a multi-use stadium in Ithaca, New York on the campus of Cornell University.
The Chicago Public Library (CPL) is the public library system that serves the City of Chicago in the U.S. state of Illinois.
The Church of England (C of E) is the state church of England.
The Class of 1923 Arena is the skating rink of the University of Pennsylvania.
Colby College is a private liberal arts college in Waterville, Maine.
The Colby-Bates-Bowdoin Consortium is an association and athletic conference of three liberal arts colleges in the U.S. State of Maine.
The Colgate Raiders football team represents Colgate University in NCAA Division I Football Championship Subdivision (FCS) college football competition as a member of the Patriot League.
College and university rankings are rankings of institutions in higher education which have been ranked on the basis of various combinations of various factors.
College baseball is baseball that is played on the intercollegiate level at institutions of higher education.
College basketball today is governed by collegiate athletic bodies including the United States' National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA), the United States Collegiate Athletic Association (USCAA), the National Junior College Athletic Association (NJCAA), and the National Christian College Athletic Association (NCCAA).
College football is American football played by teams of student athletes fielded by American universities, colleges, and military academies, or Canadian football played by teams of student athletes fielded by Canadian universities.
The College Football Hall of Fame is a hall of fame and museum devoted to college football.
A national championship in the highest level of college football in the United States, currently the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS), is a designation awarded annually by various organizations to their selection of the best college football team.
College ice hockey is played in Canada and the United States, though leagues exist outside North America.
College lacrosse is played by student-athletes at colleges and universities in the United States and Canada.
The College of William & Mary (also known as William & Mary, or W&M) is a public research university in Williamsburg, Virginia. Founded in 1693 by letters patent issued by King William III and Queen Mary II, it is the second-oldest institution of higher education in the United States, after Harvard University. William & Mary educated American Presidents Thomas Jefferson (third), James Monroe (fifth), and John Tyler (tenth) as well as other key figures important to the development of the nation, including the fourth U.S. Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall of Virginia, Speaker of the House of Representatives Henry Clay of Kentucky, sixteen members of the Continental Congress, and four signers of the Declaration of Independence, earning it the nickname "the Alma Mater of the Nation." A young George Washington (1732–1799) also received his surveyor's license through the college. W&M students founded the Phi Beta Kappa academic honor society in 1776 and W&M was the first school of higher education in the United States to install an honor code of conduct for students. The establishment of graduate programs in law and medicine in 1779 makes it one of the earliest higher level universities in the United States. In addition to its undergraduate program (which includes an international joint degree program with the University of St Andrews in Scotland and a joint engineering program with Columbia University in New York City), W&M is home to several graduate programs (including computer science, public policy, physics, and colonial history) and four professional schools (law, business, education, and marine science). In his 1985 book Public Ivies: A Guide to America's Best Public Undergraduate Colleges and Universities, Richard Moll categorized William & Mary as one of eight "Public Ivies".
In college athletics in the United States, recruiting is the process in which college coaches add prospective student athletes to their roster each off-season.
Rowing is the oldest intercollegiate sport in the United States.
College rugby, more specifically rugby union, is played throughout universities in the United States of America.
College soccer is played by teams composed of soccer players who are enrolled in colleges and universities.
College softball is softball as played on the intercollegiate level at institutions of higher education, predominantly in the United States.
A college-preparatory school (shortened to preparatory school, prep school, or college prep) is a type of secondary school.
Collegiate wrestling, sometimes known in the United States as folkstyle wrestling, is a style of amateur wrestling practiced at the college and university level in the United States.
The colonial colleges are nine institutions of higher education chartered in the Thirteen Colonies before the United States of America became a sovereign nation after the American Revolution.
Columbia College is the oldest undergraduate college at Columbia University, situated on the university's main campus in Morningside Heights in the borough of Manhattan in New York City.
Columbia Daily Spectator is the weekly student newspaper of Columbia University.
Columbia Law School (often referred to as Columbia Law or CLS) is a professional graduate school of Columbia University, a member of the Ivy League.
The Columbia University Lions are the collective athletic teams and their members from Columbia University, an Ivy League institution in New York City, United States.
Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.
Congregationalism in the United States consists of Protestant churches in the Reformed tradition that have a congregational form of church government and trace their origins mainly to Puritan settlers of colonial New England.
Connecticut is the southernmost state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
The Cornell Big Red is the informal name of the sports teams, and other competitive teams, at Cornell University.
The Cornell Big Red football team represents Cornell University in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I Football Championship Subdivision (FCS) college football competition as a member of the Ivy League.
The Cornell Big Red men's lacrosse team represents Cornell University in NCAA Division I men's lacrosse.
Cornell University is a private and statutory Ivy League research university located in Ithaca, New York.
The Cornell–Harvard hockey rivalry is a men's ice hockey sports rivalry between the Big Red of Cornell University and Crimson of Harvard University dating back to 1910.
Cross country running is a sport in which teams and individuals run a race on open-air courses over natural terrain such as dirt or grass.
The Dartmouth College Big Green are the varsity and club athletic teams of Dartmouth College, an American university located in Hanover, New Hampshire.
Dartmouth College is a private Ivy League research university in Hanover, New Hampshire, United States.
The Dartmouth–New Hampshire rivalry is an intrastate college sports rivalry between the Dartmouth Big Green and New Hampshire Wildcats.
David Starr Jordan (January 19, 1851 – September 19, 1931) was an American ichthyologist, educator, eugenicist, and peace activist.
Derrick Todd Harmon (born April 26, 1963) is a former professional American football player who played running back for the San Francisco 49ers from 1984 to 1986.
Diving is the sport of jumping or falling into water from a platform or springboard, usually while performing acrobatics.
A Doctor of Medicine (MD from Latin Medicinae Doctor) is a medical degree, the meaning of which varies between different jurisdictions.
A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD or Ph.D.; Latin Philosophiae doctor) is the highest academic degree awarded by universities in most countries.
A doctorate (from Latin docere, "to teach") or doctor's degree (from Latin doctor, "teacher") or doctoral degree (from the ancient formalism licentia docendi) is an academic degree awarded by universities that is, in most countries, a research degree that qualifies the holder to teach at the university level in the degree's field, or to work in a specific profession.
Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946) is the 45th and current President of the United States, in office since January 20, 2017.
Dooney & Bourke is a company specializing in fashion accessories, such as handbags, iPod cases, luggage, bracelets, watches, and briefcases, as well as a limited clothing line, which includes sweaters, shoes, jackets, and scarves.
Duke University is a private, non-profit, research university located in Durham, North Carolina.
The Eastern Intercollegiate Baseball League was a baseball-only conference that existed from 1930 to 1992.
The Eastern Intercollegiate Basketball League was an athletic conference for men’s college basketball, beginning with the 1901–02 season and ending with the 1954–55 season.
The Eastern Intercollegiate Wrestling Association (EIWA) is an NCAA Division I collegiate wrestling conference.
ECAC Hockey is one of the six conferences that compete in NCAA Division I ice hockey.
In political and sociological theory, the elite (French élite, from Latin eligere) are a small group of powerful people who hold a disproportionate amount of wealth, privilege, political power, or skill in a society.
Elitism is the belief or attitude that individuals who form an elite — a select group of people with a certain ancestry, intrinsic quality, high intellect, wealth, special skills, or experience — are more likely to be constructive to society as a whole, and therefore deserve influence or authority greater than that of others.
The Episcopal Church is the United States-based member church of the worldwide Anglican Communion.
Equestrianism (from Latin equester, equestr-, equus, horseman, horse), more often known as riding, horse riding (British English) or horseback riding (American English), refers to the skill of riding, driving, steeplechasing or vaulting with horses.
Fencing is a group of three related combat sports.
Field hockey is a team game of the hockey family.
Field lacrosse is a full contact outdoor men's sport played with ten players on each team.
A financial endowment is a donation of money or property to a nonprofit organization for the ongoing support of that organization.
Folk etymology or reanalysis – sometimes called pseudo-etymology, popular etymology, or analogical reformation – is a change in a word or phrase resulting from the replacement of an unfamiliar form by a more familiar one.
Forbes is an American business magazine.
The Fordham Rams football program is the intercollegiate American football team for Fordham University located in the U.S. state of New York.
Fordham University is a private research university in New York City.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.
Franklin Field is the home of the Penn Relays, and is the University of Pennsylvania's stadium for football, track and field, lacrosse and formerly for soccer, field hockey and baseball.
Franklin Pierce (November 23, 1804 – October 8, 1869) was the 14th President of the United States (1853–1857), a northern Democrat who saw the abolitionist movement as a fundamental threat to the unity of the nation.
George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 41st President of the United States from 1989 to 1993.
George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009.
George Whitefield (30 September 1770), also spelled Whitfield, was an English Anglican cleric who was one of the founders of Methodism and the evangelical movement.
Georgetown University is a private research university in the Georgetown neighborhood of Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States.
Gerald Rudolph Ford Jr. (born Leslie Lynch King Jr; July 14, 1913 – December 26, 2006) was an American politician who served as the 38th President of the United States from August 1974 to January 1977.
Golf is a club-and-ball sport in which players use various clubs to hit balls into a series of holes on a course in as few strokes as possible.
The Great Awakening refers to a number of periods of religious revival in American Christian history.
Hanover is a town along the Connecticut River in Grafton County, New Hampshire, United States.
Harvard Business School (HBS) is the graduate business school of Harvard University in Boston, Massachusetts.
The Harvard Crimson are the athletic teams of Harvard University.
The Harvard Crimson football program represents Harvard University in college football at the NCAA Division I Football Championship Subdivision (formerly Division I-AA).
Harvard Law School (also known as Harvard Law or HLS) is one of the professional graduate schools of Harvard University located in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Harvard Stadium is a U-shaped college football stadium in the northeast United States, located in the Allston neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts.
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
The Harvard–Yale football rivalry is renewed annually with The Game, an American college football contest between the Harvard Crimson football team of Harvard University and the Yale Bulldogs football team of Yale University.
The Harvard-Yale Regatta or Yale-Harvard Boat Race (often abbreviated The Race) is an annual rowing race between the men's heavyweight rowing crews of Harvard University and Yale University.
Haverford College is a private, coeducational liberal arts college in Haverford, Pennsylvania.
Founded in 1936 by Bill Schroeder and Paul Helms, the Helms Athletic Foundation was based in Los Angeles, California.
Hidden Ivies: Thirty Colleges of Excellence is a college educational guide published in 2000.
Hispanic Americans and Latino Americans (Estadounidenses hispanos) are people in the United States who are descendants of people from countries of Latin America and Spain.
Hobey Baker Memorial Rink is a 2,092-seat hockey arena in Princeton, New Jersey.
The Holy Cross Crusaders football team is the collegiate American football program of the College of the Holy Cross in Worcester, Massachusetts.
David F. Hoy Field, usually referred to simply as Hoy Field, is a baseball field at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, where the Big Red's baseball team plays.
Hunting is the practice of killing or trapping animals, or pursuing or tracking them with the intent of doing so.
Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice, usually in a rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponent's net to score points.
David S. Ingalls Rink is a hockey rink in New Haven, Connecticut, designed by architect Eero Saarinen and built between 1953 and 1958 for Yale University.
The Intercollegiate Rowing Association runs the IRA National Championship Regatta, which is considered to be the United States collegiate national championship of rowing.
Ithaca is a city in the Finger Lakes region of New York.
The Ivy Council is a 501(c)3 federal tax-exempt organization of student government leaders, student organization leaders, and students at large from the colleges and universities of the Ivy League.
Ivy Day is an annual ceremony in which an ivy stone is placed on either a residential, academic or administrative building or ground to commemorate academic excellence.
Ivy League is a style of men's dress, popular during the late 1950s in the Northeastern United States, and said to have originated on college campuses, particularly those of the Ivy League.
The Ivy Rugby Conference is an annual rugby union competition played among the eight member schools of the Ivy League.
The Izod Corporation (officially stylized as IZOD) is a mid-range clothing company that produces dressy-casual clothing, sportswear for men, as well as footwear and accessories.
The L. Stockwell Jadwin Gymnasium is a 6,854-seat multi-purpose arena at Princeton University in Princeton, New Jersey.
James Madison Jr. (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836) was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the fourth President of the United States from 1809 to 1817.
"Jesuit Ivy" is the title of a commencement speech delivered at Boston College, a Jesuit university in Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts, United States.
James Finn Jr. (born December 9, 1976) is a former American football fullback.
John Adams (October 30 [O.S. October 19] 1735 – July 4, 1826) was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the first Vice President (1789–1797) and second President of the United States (1797–1801).
John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), commonly referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963.
John Francis Kieran (August 2, 1892 – December 9, 1981) was an American author, journalist, amateur naturalist and radio and television personality.
John Quincy Adams (July 11, 1767 – February 23, 1848) was an American statesman who served as a diplomat, minister and ambassador to foreign nations, and treaty negotiator, United States Senator, U.S. Representative (Congressman) from Massachusetts, and the sixth President of the United States from 1825 to 1829.
Jonathan Maxcy (September 2, 1768 – June 4, 1820) was the second president of Brown University (then known as the College in the English Colony of Rhode Island & Providence Plantations); the third president of Union College; and the first president of the University of South Carolina (then known as the South Carolina College).
Jordan Field (formerly called Soldiers Field Soccer Stadium) is a multi-purpose stadium on the campus of Harvard University in the Allston neighborhood of Boston.
Joseph J. O'Donnell Field is a baseball venue in Boston, Massachusetts, United States.
Kevin Mark Boothe (born July 5, 1983) is a former American football offensive lineman.
L.L.Bean is an American, privately held retail company founded in 1912 by Leon Leonwood Bean.
Lacoste is a French clothing company, founded in 1933 by tennis player René Lacoste and André Gillier.
Lacrosse is a team sport played with a lacrosse stick and a lacrosse ball.
The Lafayette Leopards football program represents Lafayette College in college football.
Lake Winnipesaukee is the largest lake in the U.S. state of New Hampshire, located in the Lakes Region.
The Ray Lavietes Basketball Pavilion at the Briggs Athletic Center is a 2,195-seat multi-purpose arena in the Allston neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts.
Edward Leede Arena is a 2,100-seat, multi-purpose arena in Hanover, New Hampshire.
The Lehigh Mountain Hawks football program represents Lehigh University in college football.
Francis S. Levien Gymnasium is a 2,500-seat arena at Columbia University in New York City.
A liberal arts college is a college with an emphasis on undergraduate study in the liberal arts and sciences.
Lillian Pulitzer Rousseau (born Lillian Lee McKim; November 10, 1931 – April 7, 2013), better known as Lilly Pulitzer, was an American socialite and fashion designer.
The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), founded in 1906, is the major governing body for intercollegiate athletics in the United States and currently conducts national championships in its sponsored sports, except for the top level of football.
This list of Ivy League business schools outlines the six universities of the Ivy League that host a business school.
This list of Ivy League law schools outlines the five universities of the Ivy League that host a law school.
This list of Ivy League medical schools outlines the seven universities of the Ivy League that host a medical school.
The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) is divided into three divisions, based roughly on school size.
The Nobel Prizes (Nobelpriset, Nobelprisen) are prizes awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Swedish Academy, the Karolinska Institutet, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee to individuals and organizations who make outstanding contributions in the fields of chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine.
The following are lists of institutions of higher education by endowment.
The Little Ivies (singularly Little Ivy) are a group of small, highly academically competitive private liberal arts colleges in the Northeastern United States.
The Little Three is a term started by and used in reference to, three private liberal arts colleges in the New England area.
Louis Stanton Auchincloss (September 27, 1917 – January 26, 2010)Holcomb B. Noble and Charles McGrath, The New York Times.
Lynah Rink (pronounced LIE-nuh) is a 4,267-seat hockey arena at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, that opened in 1957.
Massachusetts, officially known as the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.
The Master of Business Administration (MBA or M.B.A.) is a master's degree in business administration (management).
Matthew Robert "Matt" Birk (born July 23, 1976) is a former American football center.
Maureen Brigid Dowd (born January 14, 1952) is an American columnist for The New York Times, and an author.
The George V. Meehan Auditorium is a 3,059-seat hockey arena, in Providence, Rhode Island.
Meiklejohn Stadium is a ballpark in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Memorial Field is a football stadium located in Hanover, New Hampshire, USA.
Methodism or the Methodist movement is a group of historically related denominations of Protestant Christianity which derive their inspiration from the life and teachings of John Wesley, an Anglican minister in England.
Michael Stanley Dukakis (born November 3, 1933) is a retired American politician who served as the 65th Governor of Massachusetts, from 1975 to 1979 and again from 1983 to 1991.
The Michigan Wolverines football program represents the University of Michigan in college football at the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision (formerly Division I-A) level.
Mixed-sex education, also known as mixed-gender education, co-education or coeducation (abbreviated to co-ed or coed), is a system of education where males and females are educated together.
Mount Holyoke College is a liberal arts college for women, in South Hadley, Massachusetts, United States.
Murray Stadium is a baseball venue in Providence, Rhode Island, United States.
The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) is a non-profit organization which regulates athletes of 1,281 institutions and conferences.
The National Football League (NFL) is a professional American football league consisting of 32 teams, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC).
NCAA Division I (D-I) is the highest level of intercollegiate athletics sanctioned by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) in the United States.
The NCAA Division I Football Championship is an American college football tournament played each year to determine the champion of the NCAA Division I Football Championship Subdivision (FCS).
The NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament, also informally known and branded as NCAA March Madness, is a single-elimination tournament played each spring in the United States, currently featuring 68 college basketball teams from the Division I level of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), to determine the national championship.
The NCAA Division I Women's Basketball Tournament is an annual college basketball tournament for women.
New England is a geographical region comprising six states of the northeastern United States: Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut.
New Hampshire is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
The New Hampshire Wildcats football program is the intercollegiate American football team for the University of New Hampshire located in the U.S. state of New Hampshire.
New Haven is a coastal city in the U.S. state of Connecticut.
New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the Northeastern United States.
New York is a state in the northeastern United States.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
The New York Herald Tribune was a newspaper published between 1924 and 1966.
The New-York Tribune was an American newspaper, first established in 1841 by editor Horace Greeley (1811–1872).
Newman Arena is a 4,473-seat multi-purpose arena at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, located in Bartels Hall, which is adjacent to Lynah Rink.
The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences (officially Sveriges riksbanks pris i ekonomisk vetenskap till Alfred Nobels minne, or the Swedish National Bank's Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel), commonly referred to as the Nobel Prize in Economics, is an award for outstanding contributions to the field of economics, and generally regarded as the most prestigious award for that field.
The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.
Non-Hispanic whites or whites not of Hispanic or Latino origin (commonly referred to as Anglo-Americans)Mish, Frederic C., Editor in Chief Webster's Tenth New Collegiate Dictionary Springfield, Massachusetts, U.S.A.:1994--Merriam-Webster See original definition (definition #1) of Anglo in English: It is defined as a synonym for Anglo-American--Page 86 are European Americans who are not of Hispanic or Latino origin/ethnicity, as defined by the United States Census Bureau.
Nonsectarian institutions are secular institutions or other organizations not affiliated with or restricted to a particular religious group.
The Northeastern United States, also referred to as the American Northeast or simply the Northeast, is a geographical region of the United States bordered to the north by Canada, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Southern United States, and to the west by the Midwestern United States.
Northwestern University (NU) is a private research university based in Evanston, Illinois, United States, with other campuses located in Chicago and Doha, Qatar, and academic programs and facilities in Miami, Florida, Washington, D.C., and San Francisco, California.
The Notre Dame Fighting Irish football team is the intercollegiate football team representing the University of Notre Dame in Notre Dame, Indiana.
Old money is "the inherited wealth of established upper-class families (i.e. gentry, patriciate)" or "a person, family, or lineage possessing inherited wealth".
A one-game playoff, sometimes known as a pennant playoff, tiebreaker game or knockout game, is a tiebreaker in certain sports—usually but not always professional—to determine which of two teams, tied in the final standings, will qualify for a post-season tournament.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
The Palestra, often called the Cathedral of College Basketball, is a historic arena and the home gym of the University of Pennsylvania Quakers men's and women's basketball teams, volleyball teams, wrestling team, and Philadelphia Big 5 basketball.
The Town of Palm Beach is an incorporated town in Palm Beach County, Florida, United States.
The Patriot League is a collegiate athletic conference comprising private institutions of higher education and two United States service academies based in the Northeastern United States.
The Payne Whitney Gymnasium is the gymnasium of Yale University.
A Pell Grant is a subsidy the U.S. federal government provides for students who need it to pay for college.
The Penn Quakers are the athletic teams of the University of Pennsylvania.
The Penn Quakers football team is the college football team at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
The Penn Quakers men's basketball team is the college basketball program representing the University of Pennsylvania.
The Penn–Princeton basketball rivalry is an American college basketball rivalry between the Penn Quakers men's basketball team of the University of Pennsylvania and Princeton Tigers men's basketball team of Princeton University.
Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania German: Pennsylvaani or Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States.
Philadelphia is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863.
The Paul Bailey Pizzitola Memorial Sports Center, often referred to as "the Pitz" by students, at ivyleaguesports.com.
Preppy (also spelled preppie) or prep (all abbreviations of the word preparatory) refers to a subculture in the United States associated with the old private Northeastern university-preparatory schools.
Presbyterianism is a part of the reformed tradition within Protestantism which traces its origins to Britain, particularly Scotland, and Ireland.
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
The Princeton Tigers are the athletic teams of Princeton University.
The Princeton Tigers men's lacrosse team represents Princeton University in NCAA Division I men's lacrosse play.
Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey.
Princeton University Stadium is a stadium in Princeton, New Jersey, United States.
Princeton is a municipality with a borough form of government in Mercer County, New Jersey, United States, that was established in its current form on January 1, 2013, through the consolidation of the Borough of Princeton and Princeton Township.
The Pro Bowl is the all-star game of the National Football League (NFL).
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Providence is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Rhode Island and is one of the oldest cities in the United States.
"Public Ivy" is a term coined by Richard Moll in his 1985 book Public Ivies: A Guide to America's Best Public Undergraduate Colleges and Universities to refer to US universities that are claimed to provide an Ivy League collegiate experience at a public school price.
The Puritans were English Reformed Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries who sought to "purify" the Church of England from its "Catholic" practices, maintaining that the Church of England was only partially reformed.
Radcliffe College was a women's liberal arts college in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and functioned as a female coordinate institution for the all-male Harvard College.
Red Rolfe Field at Biondi Park is a baseball venue in Hanover, New Hampshire, United States.
Redshirt, in United States college athletics, is a delay or suspension of an athlete's participation to lengthen his or her period of eligibility.
Reese Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium located on the campus of Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut.
Rhode Island, officially the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, is a state in the New England region of the United States.
The Rhode Island Rams football program is the intercollegiate American football team for the University of Rhode Island located in the U.S. state of Rhode Island.
Robert K. Kraft Field at Lawrence A. Wien Stadium is a stadium in the Inwood neighborhood at the northern tip of the island of Manhattan, New York City.
Roberts Stadium is a 2,356 seat soccer-specific stadium located on the campus of Princeton University in Princeton, New Jersey.
Hal Robertson Field at Phillip Satow Stadium is a baseball venue in New York, New York, United States.
Romeyn Berry (1881-1957) was an American sports administrator and author.
Rowing, often referred to as crew in the United States, is a sport whose origins reach back to Ancient Egyptian times.
The Rowing Association of American Colleges (1870 to 1894) was the first collegiate athletic organization in the United States.
Rugby football refers to the team sports rugby league and rugby union.
Russell Wayne Baker (born August 14, 1925) is an American writer known for his satirical commentary and self-critical prose, as well as for his Pulitzer Prize-winning autobiography Growing Up (1982).
The Rutgers Scarlet Knights football team represents Rutgers University in the Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) of the National Collegiate Athletics Association (NCAA).
Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, commonly referred to as Rutgers University, Rutgers, or RU, is an American public research university and is the largest institution of higher education in New Jersey.
Rutherford Birchard Hayes (October 4, 1822 – January 17, 1893) was the 19th President of the United States from 1877 to 1881, an American congressman, and governor of Ohio.
Sailing employs the wind—acting on sails, wingsails or kites—to propel a craft on the surface of the water (sailing ship, sailboat, windsurfer, or kitesurfer), on ice (iceboat) or on land (land yacht) over a chosen course, which is often part of a larger plan of navigation.
Schoellkopf Field is a 25,597-capacity stadium at Cornell University's Ithaca campus that opened in 1915 and is used for the Cornell Big Red football, sprint football and lacrosse teams.
Sean Joseph Morey (born February 26, 1976) is a former American football wide receiver in the National Football League (NFL).
The Seven Sisters was a name given to seven liberal arts colleges in the Northeastern United States that are historically women's colleges.
Smith College is a private, independent women's liberal arts college with coed graduate and certificate programs in Northampton, Massachusetts.
A social class is a set of subjectively defined concepts in the social sciences and political theory centered on models of social stratification in which people are grouped into a set of hierarchical social categories, the most common being the upper, middle and lower classes.
The Southeastern Conference (SEC) is an American college athletic conference whose member institutions are located primarily in the Southern part of the United States.
Southern Ivy is an informal term, and not an official body, that has been used in the U.S. to compare Southern universities to the schools of the northeastern Ivy League in some way, usually in academic quality or in social prestige.
Sprint football, formerly called lightweight football, is a varsity sport played by United States colleges and universities, under standard American football rules.
Squash is a ball sport played by two (singles) or four players (doubles squash) in a four-walled court with a small, hollow rubber ball.
Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University, colloquially the Farm) is a private research university in Stanford, California.
Stanley Woodward, Sr. (March 12, 1899 – August 17, 1992) was the White House Chief of Protocol under Franklin Delano Roosevelt and Ambassador to Canada under Harry S. Truman.
Rufus Stanley Woodward (June 5, 1895 – November 29, 1965) was an American newspaper editor, sportswriter, and author.
A state university system in the United States is a group of public universities supported by an individual state or a similar entity such as the District of Columbia.
Stevenson-Pincince Field is a stadium in Providence, Rhode Island on the campus of Brown University.
Student financial aid in the United States is funding that is available exclusively to students attending a post-secondary educational institution in the United States.
The Super Bowl is the annual championship game of the National Football League (NFL).
Swimming is an individual or team sport that requires the use of ones arms and legs to move the body through water.
Syracuse University (commonly referred to as Syracuse, 'Cuse, or SU) is a private research university in Syracuse, New York, United States.
Tennis is a racket sport that can be played individually against a single opponent (singles) or between two teams of two players each (doubles).
The Christian Science Monitor (CSM) is a nonprofit news organization that publishes daily articles in electronic format as well as a weekly print edition.
The Cornell Daily Sun is an independent daily newspaper published in Ithaca, New York by students at Cornell University and hired employees.
The Daily Pennsylvanian (The DP) is the independent daily student newspaper of the University of Pennsylvania.
The Daily Princetonian is the award-winning daily independent student newspaper of Princeton University.
The Dartmouth is the daily student newspaper at Dartmouth College and America's oldest college newspaper.
The Harvard Crimson, the daily student newspaper of Harvard University, was founded in 1873.
The Ithaca Journal is a daily morning broadsheet newspaper published in Ithaca, New York.
The Liberty Cup, now defunct, was awarded annually to the winner of the college football game between Columbia University and Fordham University, two of only three National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I (D-1) football programs in New York City.
The Rivalry is an American college football rivalry game played by the Lafayette Leopards football team of Lafayette College and the Lehigh Mountain Hawks football team of Lehigh University.
Theodore Roosevelt Jr. (October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919) was an American statesman and writer who served as the 26th President of the United States from 1901 to 1909.
The Thirteen Colonies were a group of British colonies on the east coast of North America founded in the 17th and 18th centuries that declared independence in 1776 and formed the United States of America.
Thomas Cooper (October 22, 1759 – May 11, 1839) was an Anglo-American economist, college president and political philosopher.
Rupert C. Thompson Arena is a 3,500-seat hockey arena in Hanover, New Hampshire.
U.S. News & World Report is an American media company that publishes news, opinion, consumer advice, rankings, and analysis.
An undershirt is an article of underwear worn underneath a dress shirt intended to protect it from body sweat and odors.
The United States Military Academy (USMA), also known as West Point, Army, Army West Point, The Academy or simply The Point, is a four-year coeducational federal service academy located in West Point, New York, in Orange County.
The United States Naval Academy (also known as USNA, Annapolis, or simply Navy) is a four-year coeducational federal service academy in Annapolis, Maryland.
A university (universitas, "a whole") is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines.
The University of California (UC) is a public university system in the US state of California.
The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.
The University of Chicago (UChicago, U of C, or Chicago) is a private, non-profit research university in Chicago, Illinois.
The University of Edinburgh (abbreviated as Edin. in post-nominals), founded in 1582, is the sixth oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's ancient universities.
The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.
The University of Pennsylvania (commonly known as Penn or UPenn) is a private Ivy League research university located in University City section of West Philadelphia.
The University of Pittsburgh (commonly referred to as Pitt) is a state-related research university located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
The University of South Carolina (also referred to as UofSC, USC, SC, South Carolina, or simply Carolina) is a public, co-educational research university in Columbia, South Carolina, United States, with seven satellite campuses.
The University of St Andrews (informally known as St Andrews University or simply St Andrews; abbreviated as St And, from the Latin Sancti Andreae, in post-nominals) is a British public research university in St Andrews, Fife, Scotland.
In sociology, the upper middle class of the United States is the social group constituted by higher-status members of the middle class.
The USC Trojans football program, established in 1888, represents the University of Southern California in college football.
Vassar College is a private, coeducational, liberal arts college in the town of Poughkeepsie, New York, in the United States.
Volleyball is a team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net.
Walter Chauncey Camp (April 7, 1859 – March 14, 1925) was an American football player, coach, and sports writer known as the "Father of American Football".
Washington Monthly is a bimonthly nonprofit magazine of United States politics and government that is based in Washington, D.C. The magazine is known for its annual ranking of American colleges and universities, which serve as an alternative to the Forbes and U.S. News & World Report rankings.
The Washingtonian is a monthly magazine distributed in the Washington, D.C. area.
Wellesley College is a private women's liberal arts college located west of Boston in the town of Wellesley, Massachusetts, United States.
Wesleyan University is a private liberal arts college in Middletown, Connecticut, founded in 1831.
White Anglo-Saxon Protestants (WASPs) is an informal acronym that refers to social group of wealthy and well-connected white Americans of Protestant and predominantly British ancestry, many of whom trace their ancestry to the American colonial period.
William Henry Harrison Sr. (February 9, 1773 – April 4, 1841) was an American military officer, a principal contributor in the War of 1812, and the ninth President of the United States (1841).
William Howard Taft (September 15, 1857 – March 8, 1930) was the 27th President of the United States (1909–1913) and the tenth Chief Justice of the United States (1921–1930), the only person to have held both offices.
Williams College is a private liberal arts college in Williamstown, Massachusetts, United States.
Women's colleges in higher education are undergraduate, bachelor's degree-granting institutions, often liberal arts colleges, whose student populations are composed exclusively or almost exclusively of women.
Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924) was an American statesman and academic who served as the 28th President of the United States from 1913 to 1921.
In the United States, the concept of a working class remains vaguely defined, and classifying people or jobs into class can be contentious.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
A yacht is a watercraft used for pleasure or sports.
Yale Blue is the dark azure color used in association with Yale University.
The Yale Bowl is a college football stadium in the northeast United States, located in New Haven, Connecticut, on the border of West Haven, about 1½ miles (2½ km) west of the main campus of Yale University.
The Yale Bulldogs are the athletic teams of Yale University.
The Yale Bulldogs football program represents Yale University in college football at the NCAA Division I Football Championship Subdivision (formerly Division I-AA).
The Yale Daily News is an independent student newspaper published by Yale University students in New Haven, Connecticut since January 28, 1878.
Yale Field is a stadium in West Haven, Connecticut, just across the city line with New Haven, Connecticut.
Yale Law School (often referred to as Yale Law or YLS) is the law school of Yale University, located in New Haven, Connecticut, United States.
Yale University is an American private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut.
Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.
Zackary Robert DeOssie (born May 24, 1984) is an American football long snapper for the New York Giants of the National Football League (NFL).
The 1999 NFL draft was the procedure by which National Football League teams selected amateur college football players.
The 2009 NCAA Division I Men's Lacrosse Tournament was held from May 9 through May 25, 2009.
The 2011–12 Harvard Crimson men's basketball team represented Harvard University in the Ivy League athletic conference during the 2011–12 NCAA Division I men's basketball season.
The 2012–13 Harvard Crimson men's basketball team represents Harvard University during the 2012–13 NCAA Division I men's basketball season.
The 2013 NCAA Division I FCS football season, part of college football in the United States, is organized by the National Collegiate Athletic Association at the Division I Football Championship Subdivision level.
The 2013–14 Harvard Crimson men's basketball team represented Harvard University during the 2013–14 NCAA Division I men's basketball season.
Ancient 8, Ancient Eight, Council of Ivy Group Presidents, Council of ivy group presidents, Evil Eight, Iv league, Ivies, Ivy Council of Presidents, Ivy Group, Ivy League Presidents, Ivy league, Ivy leagues, List of Ivy League presidents, List of Ivy League university presidents, New ivy.