176 relations: Anna of Cilli, Anna of Poland, Countess of Celje, Anna, Grand Duchess of Lithuania, Antipope Clement VII, Archbishop of Kraków, Battle of Nicopolis, Beatification, Bodzanta, Bolesław I the Brave, Bolesław II of Masovia, Bolesław the Pious, Buda, Cambridge University Press, Canon law of the Catholic Church, Canonization, Capetian House of Anjou, Carpathian Mountains, Casimir I of Kuyavia, Casimir III the Great, Catherine of Hungary (1370–1378), Catherine of Hungary, Queen of Serbia, Catholic Church, Charles I of Hungary, Charles II of Naples, Charles Martel of Anjou, Christendom, Christianization of Lithuania, Church of the Visitation of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Kraków, Clemence of Austria, Columbia University Press, Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, Consummation, Coronation, Croatia in union with Hungary, Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, Crucifix, Dalmatia, Demetrius of Esztergom, Diarchy, Dijon, Divine inspiration, Dobrogost of Nowy Dwór, Dobrzyń Land, Dower, Duchy of Belz, Dymitr of Goraj, Elizabeth of Bosnia, Elizabeth of Hungary, Elizabeth of Kuyavia, Elizabeth of Poland, Duchess of Pomerania, ..., Elizabeth of Poland, Queen of Hungary, Elizabeth of Pomerania, Elizabeth of Serbia, Euphrosyne of Opole, Franciscans, Gertrude of Hohenberg, Gniewków, Gniewosz of Dalewice, Golden Horde, Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, Greater Poland, Hainburg an der Donau, Hedwig of Silesia, History of Poland during the Jagiellonian dynasty, History of Poland during the Piast dynasty, Holy Roman Empire, House of Luxembourg, Jadwiga of Kalisz, Jagiellonian University, Jan Długosz, Jan of Czarnków, Jesus, Kalisz, Kazimierz III of Gniewkowo, King of Hungary, King of the Romans, Kinga of Poland, Kingdom of Bohemia, Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia, Kingdom of Hungary, Kingdom of Poland, Kingdom of Poland (1025–1385), Košice, Konrad I of Masovia, Konrad von Jungingen, Konrad von Wallenrode, Kraków, Kuyavia, Ladislaus of Naples, Leopold III, Duke of Austria, Lesser Poland, Lida, List of archbishops of Gniezno and primates of Poland, List of Bishops of Poznań, List of Polish monarchs, List of rulers of Lithuania, List of rulers of Moldavia, Lithuanian mythology, Louis I of Hungary, Lublin, Lviv, Marcello Bacciarelli, Margraviate of Brandenburg, Mary of Hungary, Queen of Naples, Mary, mother of Jesus, Mary, Queen of Hungary, Mass in the Catholic Church, Nicholas I Garai, Oskar Halecki, Osprey Publishing, Ottoman Empire, Palatine of Hungary, Petru II of Moldavia, Piast dynasty, Piotr Wysz Radoliński, Poland, Pope Boniface IX, Pope John Paul II, Pope Urban VI, Prijezda I, Ban of Bosnia, Prince-elector, Privilege of Koszyce, Queen consort, Queen regnant, Radomsko, Religious vows, Republic of Venice, Robert I. Frost, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Esztergom-Budapest, Rudolf I of Germany, Salomea of Poland, Sandomierz, Sejm of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Siemowit I of Masovia, Siemowit III, Duke of Masovia, Siemowit IV, Duke of Masovia, Sieradz, Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor, Skirgaila, Slavonia, Sponsalia de futuro, Stanisław of Skarbimierz, Stará Ľubovňa, Starosta, Stefan Dragutin, Stephen I of Moldavia, Stephen I, Ban of Bosnia, Stephen II, Ban of Bosnia, Stibor of Stiboricz, Suzerainty, Szlachta, Tęczyński, Teutonic Order, Timur, Treviso, Trojden I, Duke of Masovia, Union of Krewo, Union of Lublin, Vienna, Vlad I of Wallachia, Vladislaus II of Opole, Vytautas, Wallachia, Wawel Castle, Wawel Cathedral, Władysław I the Elbow-high, Władysław II Jagiełło, Władysław the White, Włocławek, Wenceslaus IV of Bohemia, Wiślica, William, Duke of Austria, Yolanda of Poland, Zadar, Ziemomysł of Kuyavia, Zvolen. Expand index (126 more) » « Shrink index
Anna of Cilli or Anne of Celje (– 21 May 1416) was Queen consort of Poland (1402–1416).
Anna of Poland (1366–1425) was countess consort of Celje (Cilli), a medieval Slovenian feudal state within the HRE, and an influential woman in politics of Poland.
Anna (Ona Vytautienė; died on 31 July 1418 in Trakai) was Grand Duchess of Lithuania (1392–1418).
Robert of Geneva (Robert de Genève) (1342 – 16 September 1394) was elected to the papacy as Clement VII (Clément VII) by the French cardinals who opposed Urban VI, and was the first antipope residing in Avignon, France.
The Archbishop of Kraków is the head of the archdiocese of Kraków.
The Battle of Nicopolis (Битка при Никопол, Bitka pri Nikopol; Niğbolu Savaşı, Nikápolyi csata, Bătălia de la Nicopole) took place on 25 September 1396 and resulted in the rout of an allied crusader army of Hungarian, Croatian, Bulgarian, Wallachian, French, English, Burgundian, German and assorted troops (assisted by the Venetian navy) at the hands of an Ottoman force, raising of the siege of the Danubian fortress of Nicopolis and leading to the end of the Second Bulgarian Empire. It is often referred to as the Crusade of Nicopolis as it was one of the last large-scale Crusades of the Middle Ages, together with the Crusade of Varna in 1443–1444.
Beatification (from Latin beatus, "blessed" and facere, "to make") is a recognition accorded by the Catholic Church of a dead person's entrance into Heaven and capacity to intercede on behalf of individuals who pray in his or her name.
Bodzanta or Bodzęta of Kosowice (Bodzęta z Kosowic) (1320–1388) of Szeliga coat of arms was an archbishop of Gniezno (1382–1388), Polish noble, governor of Kraków–Sandomierz lands (1350, 1357–1370, 1372–1379, 1381).
Bolesław I the Brave (Bolesław I Chrobry, Boleslav Chrabrý; 967 – 17 June 1025), less often known as Bolesław I the Great (Bolesław I Wielki), was Duke of Poland from 992 to 1025, and the first King of Poland in 1025.
Bolesław II of Masovia or Bolesław II of Płock (pl: Bolesław II mazowiecki (płocki); ca. 1253/58 – 20 April 1313), was a Polish prince member of the House of Piast, Duke of Masovia during 1262-1275 jointly with his brother, since 1275 sole ruler over Płock, since 1294 ruler over all Masovia and Duke of Kraków and Sandomierz during 1288-1289.
Bolesław the Pious (Bolesław Pobożny) (1224/27 – 14 April 1279) was a Duke of Greater Poland during 1239–1247 (according to some historians during 1239–1241 sole Duke of Ujście), Duke of Kalisz during 1247–1249, Duke of Gniezno during 1249–1250, Duke of Gniezno-Kalisz during 1253–1257, Duke of whole Greater Poland and Poznań during 1257–1273, in 1261 ruler over Ląd, regent of the Duchies of Mazovia, Płock and Czersk during 1262–1264, ruler over Bydgoszcz during 1268–1273, Duke of Inowrocław during 1271–1273, and Duke of Gniezno-Kalisz from 1273 until his death.
Buda was the ancient capital of the Kingdom of Hungary and since 1873 has been the western part of the Hungarian capital Budapest, on the west bank of the Danube.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
The canon law of the Catholic Church is the system of laws and legal principles made and enforced by the hierarchical authorities of the Catholic Church to regulate its external organization and government and to order and direct the activities of Catholics toward the mission of the Church.
Canonization is the act by which a Christian church declares that a person who has died was a saint, upon which declaration the person is included in the "canon", or list, of recognized saints.
The Capetian House of Anjou was a royal house and cadet branch of the direct French House of Capet, part of the Capetian dynasty.
The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians are a mountain range system forming an arc roughly long across Central and Eastern Europe, making them the second-longest mountain range in Europe (after the Scandinavian Mountains). They provide the habitat for the largest European populations of brown bears, wolves, chamois, and lynxes, with the highest concentration in Romania, as well as over one third of all European plant species.
Casimir I of Kuyavia (Kazimierz I kujawski) (c. 1211 – 14 December 1267), was a Polish prince member of the House of Piast, Duke of Kujawy since 1233, ruler over Ląd during 1239-1261, ruler over Wyszogród since 1242, Duke of Sieradz during 1247-1261, Duke of Łęczyca since 1247 and Duke of Dobrzyń since 1248.
Casimir III the Great (Kazimierz III Wielki; 30 April 1310 – 5 November 1370) reigned as the King of Poland from 1333 to 1370.
Catherine of Hungary (Katalin, Katarzyna; July 1370 – May 1378), a member of the Capetian House of Anjou, was heir presumptive to the thrones of Hungary and Poland as eldest child of King Louis the Great and his second wife, Elizabeth of Bosnia.
Catherine of Hungary (Katalin, Каталина/Katalina; c. 1256 – after 1314) was the second daughter of Stephen V of Hungary and his wife Queen Elizabeth, daughter of Seyhan, chieftain of the Cumans.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Charles I, also known as Charles Robert (Károly Róbert; Karlo Robert; Karol Róbert; 128816 July 1342) was King of Hungary and Croatia from 1308 to his death.
Charles II, also known as Charles the Lame (Charles le Boiteux; Carlo lo Zoppo; 1254 – 5 May 1309), was King of Naples, Count of Provence and Forcalquier (1285–1309), Prince of Achaea (1285–1289), and Count of Anjou and Maine (1285–1290); he also styled himself King of Albania and claimed the Kingdom of Jerusalem from 1285.
Charles Martel (Martell Károly; 8 September 1271 – 12 August 1295) of the Angevin dynasty was the eldest son of king Charles II of Naples and Maria of Hungary,John V.A. Fine Jr., The Late Medieval Balkans, (The University of Michigan Press, 1994), 207.
Christendom has several meanings.
The Christianization of Lithuania (Lietuvos krikštas) occurred in 1387, initiated by King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania Władysław II Jagiełło and his cousin Vytautas the Great.
Church of the Visitation of the Blessed Virgin Mary (Kościół Nawiedzenia Najświętszej Maryi Panny) is a historic Roman Catholic church in Kraków, Poland; located at ul.
Clemence of Austria (1262 – February 1293, or 1295) was a daughter of King Rudolph I of Germany and Gertrude of Hohenberg.
Columbia University Press is a university press based in New York City, and affiliated with Columbia University.
The Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments (Congregatio de Cultu Divino et Disciplina Sacramentorum) is the congregation of the Roman Curia that handles most affairs relating to liturgical practices of the Latin Church as distinct from the Eastern Catholic Churches and also some technical matters relating to the Sacraments.
In many traditions and statutes of civil or religious law, the consummation of a marriage, often called simply consummation, is the first (or first officially credited) act of sexual intercourse between two people, either following their marriage to each other or after a prolonged romantic attraction.
A coronation is the act of placement or bestowal of a crown upon a monarch's head.
The Kingdom of Croatia (Regnum Croatiae; Hrvatsko kraljevstvo or Kraljevina Hrvatska) entered a personal union with the Kingdom of Hungary in 1102, after a period of rule of kings from the Trpimirović and Svetoslavić dynasties and a succession crisis following the death of king Demetrius Zvonimir.
The Crown of the Kingdom of Poland (Korona Królestwa Polskiego, Latin: Corona Regni Poloniae), commonly known as the Polish Crown or simply the Crown, is the common name for the historic (but unconsolidated) Late Middle Ages territorial possessions of the King of Poland, including Poland proper.
A crucifix (from Latin cruci fixus meaning "(one) fixed to a cross") is an image of Jesus on the cross, as distinct from a bare cross.
Dalmatia (Dalmacija; see names in other languages) is one of the four historical regions of Croatia, alongside Croatia proper, Slavonia and Istria.
Demetrius (Demeter; died 20 February 1387), was a Hungarian cardinal and politician, who served as archbishop of Esztergom and bishop of Zagreb and Transylvania, and chancellor.
A diarchy (from Greek δι-, di-, "double", and -αρχία, -arkhía, "ruled").
Dijon is a city in eastern:France, capital of the Côte-d'Or département and of the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region.
Divine inspiration is the concept of a supernatural force, typically a deity, causing a person or people to experience a creative desire.
Dobrogost z Nowego Dwóru (died 14 September 1401) was a medieval Bishop in Poland.
Dobrzyń Land (ziemia dobrzyńska) is a historic region, with the capital in the town of Dobrzyń nad Wisłą, in central-northern Poland, within the Greater Poland, between Mazovia and Prussia.
Dower is a provision accorded by law, but traditionally by a husband or his family, to a wife for her support in the event that she should become widowed.
Duchy of Belz or principality of Belz was a duchy, formed in the late 12th century in Kievan Rus.
Dymitr of Goraj (Dymitr z Goraja) (ca.1340–1400) of Clan Korczak was a Grand Crown Marshal from 1390 and Court Treasurer in the years 1364–1370 and 1377–1391.
Elizabeth of Bosnia (– January 1387) was queen consort and later regent of Hungary and Croatia, as well as queen consort of Poland.
Saint Elizabeth of Hungary, T.O.S.F. (Heilige Elisabeth von Thüringen, Árpád-házi Szent Erzsébet; 7 July 1207 – 17 November 1231), also known as Saint Elizabeth of Thuringia or Saint Elisabeth of Thuringia, was a princess of the Kingdom of Hungary, Landgravine of Thuringia, Germany, and a greatly venerated Catholic saint who was an early member of the Third Order of St. Francis, by which she is honored as its patroness.
Elizabeth of Kuyavia (Elżbieta, Elizabeta/Елизабета; 1315/20 – after 22 August 1345) was a Polish noblewoman of the House of Piast.
Princess Elizabeth of Poland (Elżbieta Kazimierzówna) (1326–1361) was the eldest child of Casimir III of Poland and his first wife, Aldona of Lithuania.
Elizabeth of Poland (Polish: Elżbieta Łokietkówna) (1305 – 29 December 1380) was Queen consort of Hungary by marriage to Charles I of Hungary, and regent of Poland from 1370 to 1376 during the absence of her son Louis I of Hungary.
Elizabeth of Pomerania (– 15 April 1393) was the fourth and final wife of Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor and king of Bohemia.
Elizabeth of Serbia (Elizabeta/Елизабета, Jelisaveta/Јелисавета; 1270 — died 1331) was Baness of Bosnia by her marriage to Stephen I, Ban of Bosnia.
Euphrosyne of Opole (Eufrozyna opolska, Фрося, Yefrosinia) (1228/30 – 4 November 1292) was a daughter of Casimir I of Opole and his wife Viola, Duchess of Opole.
The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic Church, founded in 1209 by Saint Francis of Assisi.
Gertrude Anne of Hohenberg (– 16 February 1281) was German queen from 1273 until her death, by her marriage with King Rudolf I of Germany.
Gniewków (Girlachsdorf) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Dobromierz, within Świdnica County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.
Gniewosz of Dalewice (Gniewosz z Dalewic; died after 1410) of Clan Kościesza was a Polish knight and a courtier of King Władysław Jagiełło and Queen Jadwiga of Poland.
The Golden Horde (Алтан Орд, Altan Ord; Золотая Орда, Zolotaya Orda; Алтын Урда, Altın Urda) was originally a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate established in the 13th century and originating as the northwestern sector of the Mongol Empire.
The Grand Master (Hochmeister; Magister generalis) is the holder of the supreme office of the Teutonic Order. It is equivalent to the grand master of other military orders and the superior general in non-military Roman Catholic religious orders. Hochmeister, literally "high master", is only used in reference to the Teutonic Order, as Großmeister ("grand master") is used in German to refer to the leaders of other orders of knighthood. An early version of the full title in Latin was Magister Hospitalis Sanctae Mariae Alemannorum Hierosolymitani. Since 1216, the full title Magister Hospitalis Domus Sanctae Mariae Teutonicorum Hierosolymitani ("Master of the Hospital House of the Blessed Virgin Mary of the Germans of Jerusalem") was used. The offices of Hochmeister and Deutschmeister (Magister Germaniae) were united in 1525. The title of Magister Germaniae had been introduced in 1219 as the head of the bailiwicks in the Holy Roman Empire, from 1381 also those in Italy, raised to the rank of a prince of the Holy Roman Empire in 1494, but merged with the office of grand master under Walter von Cronberg in 1525, from which time the head of the order had the title of Hoch- und Deutschmeister.
Greater Poland, often known by its Polish name Wielkopolska (Großpolen; Latin: Polonia Maior), is a historical region of west-central Poland.
Hainburg an der Donau is a town in the Bruck an der Leitha district, Lower Austria, Austria.
Saint Hedwig of Silesia (Święta Jadwiga Śląska), also Saint Hedwig of Andechs (Heilige Hedwig von Andechs, Hedvigis; 1174 – 15 October 1243), a member of the Bavarian comital House of Andechs, was Duchess of Silesia from 1201 and of Greater Poland from 1231 as well as High Duchess consort of Poland from 1232 until 1238.
The rule of the Jagiellonian dynasty in Poland between 1386 and 1572 spans the late Middle Ages and early Modern Era in European history.
The period of rule by the Piast dynasty between the 10th and 14th centuries is the first major stage of the history of the Polish nation.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
The House of Luxembourg (Lucemburkové) was a late medieval European royal family, whose members between 1308 and 1437 ruled as King of the Romans and Holy Roman Emperors as well as Kings of Bohemia (Čeští králové, König von Böhmen) and Hungary.
Jadwiga of Kalisz (Polish: Jadwiga Bolesławówna; 1266 – 10 December 1339) was a Queen of Poland by marriage to Władysław I the Elbow-high.
The Jagiellonian University (Polish: Uniwersytet Jagielloński; Latin: Universitas Iagellonica Cracoviensis, also known as the University of Kraków) is a research university in Kraków, Poland.
Jan Długosz (1 December 1415 – 19 May 1480), also known as Ioannes, Joannes, or Johannes Longinus or Dlugossius, was a Polish priest, chronicler, diplomat, soldier, and secretary to Bishop Zbigniew Oleśnicki of Kraków.
Jan(ko) of Czarnków (Jan(ko) z Czarnkowa) (ca. 1320–1387), of Nałęcz coat of arms, was a Polish chronicler, Deputy Chancellor of the Crown and Archdeacon of Gniezno.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
Kalisz (Old Greek: Καλισία, Latin: Calisia, Yiddish: קאַליש, Kalisch) is a city in central Poland with 101,625 inhabitants (December 2017), the capital city of the Kalisz Region.
Kazimierz III of Gniewkowo (Kazimierz III gniewkowski; ca. 1280/84 – 22 August 1345/13 May 1350), was a Polish prince member of the House of Piast, Duke of Inowrocław during 1287-1314 (under the regency of his mother until 1294 and his brother during 1294-1296), since 1306 vassal of the Kingdom of Poland, Governor of the Duchy of Pomerelia (Gdańsk Pomerania) during 1306-1309 (on behalf of his uncle Władysław I the Elbow-high), since 1314 ruler over Gniewkowo (between 1332-1343 deposed by the Teutonic Order).
The King of Hungary (magyar király) was the ruling head of state of the Kingdom of Hungary from 1000 (or 1001) to 1918.
King of the Romans (Rex Romanorum; König der Römer) was a title used by Syagrius, then by the German king following his election by the princes from the time of Emperor Henry II (1014–1024) onward.
Saint Kinga of Poland (also known as Cunegunda; Święta Kinga, Szent Kinga) (5 March 1224 – 24 July 1292) is a saint in the Catholic Church and patroness of Poland and Lithuania.
The Kingdom of Bohemia, sometimes in English literature referred to as the Czech Kingdom (České království; Königreich Böhmen; Regnum Bohemiae, sometimes Regnum Czechorum), was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Central Europe, the predecessor of the modern Czech Republic.
The Kingdom or Principality of Galicia–Volhynia (Old East Slavic: Галицко-Волинскоє князство, Галицько-Волинське князівство, Regnum Galiciae et Lodomeriae), also known as the Kingdom of Ruthenia (Old East Slavic: Королѣвство Русь, Королівство Русі, Regnum Russiae) since 1253, was a state in the regions of Galicia and Volhynia, of present-day western Ukraine, which was formed after the conquest of Galicia by the Prince of Volhynia Roman the Great, with the help of Leszek the White of Poland.
The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the twentieth century (1000–1946 with the exception of 1918–1920).
"Kingdom of Poland" (Polish: Królestwo Polskie, Latin: Regnum Poloniae) was the name of Poland under a series of former monarchial governments, from c.1000/1025 CE to 1795.
The Kingdom of Poland (Polish: Królestwo Polskie; Latin: Regnum Poloniae) was the Polish state from the coronation of the first King Bolesław I the Brave in 1025 to the union with Lithuania and the rule of the Jagiellon dynasty in 1385.
Košice is the largest city in eastern Slovakia and in 2013 was the European Capital of Culture (together with Marseille, France).
Konrad I of Masovia (Konrad I Mazowiecki) (ca. 1187/88 – 31 August 1247), from the Polish Piast dynasty, was the sixth Duke of Masovia and Kujawy from 1194 until his death as well as High Duke of Poland from 1229 to 1232 and again from 1241 to 1243.
Konrad V von Jungingen (born around 1355 in Jungingen, died on March 30, 1407 in Marienburg) was a grand master of the Teutonic Order in 1393-1407.
Konrad von Wallenrode (c. 1330s – 23 July 1393) was the 24th Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, serving from 1391 to 1393.
Kraków, also spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.
Kuyavia (Kujawy, Kujawien, Cuiavia), also referred to as Cuyavia, is a historical region in north-central Poland, situated on the left bank of Vistula, as well as east from Noteć River and Lake Gopło.
Ladislaus the Magnanimous (Ladislao il Magnanimo di Napoli; Nápolyi László; 15 February 1377 – 6 August 1414) was King of Naples and titular King of Jerusalem and Sicily, titular Count of Provence and Forcalquier (1386–1414), and titular King of Hungary and Croatia (1390–1414).
Leopold III (1 November 1351 – 9 July 1386), known as the Just, a member of the House of Habsburg, was Duke of Austria from 1365.
Lesser Poland (Polish: Małopolska, Latin: Polonia Minor) is a historical region (dzielnica) of Poland; its capital is the city of Kraków.
Lida (Лі́да; Ли́да; Lyda; Lida; לידא) is a city in western Belarus in Hrodna Voblast, situated west of Minsk.
This is a list of Archbishops of the Archdiocese of Gniezno, who are simultaneously Primates of Poland since 1418.
Poland was ruled at various times either by dukes (the 10th–14th century) or by kings (the 11th-18th century).
The following is a list of rulers over Lithuania—grand dukes, kings, and presidents—the heads of authority over historical Lithuanian territory.
This is a List of rulers of Moldavia, from the first mention of the medieval polity east of the Carpathians and until its disestablishment in 1862, when it united with Wallachia, the other Danubian Principality, to form the modern-day state of Romania.
Lithuanian mythology is a type of Baltic mythology, developed by Lithuanians throughout the centuries.
Louis I, also Louis the Great (Nagy Lajos; Ludovik Veliki; Ľudovít Veľký) or Louis the Hungarian (Ludwik Węgierski; 5 March 132610 September 1382), was King of Hungary and Croatia from 1342 and King of Poland from 1370.
Lublin (Lublinum) is the ninth largest city in Poland and the second largest city of Lesser Poland.
Lviv (Львів; Львов; Lwów; Lemberg; Leopolis; see also other names) is the largest city in western Ukraine and the seventh-largest city in the country overall, with a population of around 728,350 as of 2016.
Marcello Bacciarelli (16 February 1731 – 5 January 1818) was a Polish-Italian painter of the late-baroque and Neoclassic periods.
The Margraviate of Brandenburg (Markgrafschaft Brandenburg) was a major principality of the Holy Roman Empire from 1157 to 1806 that played a pivotal role in the history of Germany and Central Europe.
Mary of Hungary (c. 1257 – 25 March 1323), of the Árpád dynasty, was Queen consort of the Kingdom of Naples.
Mary was a 1st-century BC Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth, and the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran.
Mary, also known as Maria (137117 May 1395), reigned as Queen of Hungary and Croatia between 1382 and 1385, and from 1386 until her death.
The Mass or Eucharistic Celebration is the central liturgical ritual in the Catholic Church where the Eucharist (Communion) is consecrated.
Nicholas I Garai (Garai I Miklós, Nikola I Gorjanski) (c. 132525 July 1386) was a most influential officeholder under king Louis I and queen Mary of Hungary.
Oskar Halecki (26 May 1891, Vienna – 17 September 1973, White Plains, New York) was a Polish historian, social and Catholic activist.
Osprey Publishing is an Oxford-based publishing company specializing in military history.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Palatine of Hungary (Landespalatin, nádor, palatinus regni Hungarie, and nádvorný špán) was the highest-ranking office in the Kingdom of Hungary from the beginning of the 11th century to 1848.
Petru (Peter) II Mușat (d. 1391) was Voivode (prince) of Moldavia from 1375 to 1391, the son of an unknown son of Bogdan I, the first ruler from the dynastic House of Bogdan, succeeding Lațcu, Bogdan's son and successor who converted to Catholicism.
The Piast dynasty was the first historical ruling dynasty of Poland.
Piotr Wysz Radoliński of Leszczyc coat of arms was born circa 1354 in Radolin and died on 30 September 1414 in Poznań.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
Pope Boniface IX (Bonifatius IX; c. 1350 – 1 October 1404, born Pietro Tomacelli Cybo) was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 2 November 1389 to his death in 1404.
Pope John Paul II (Ioannes Paulus II; Giovanni Paolo II; Jan Paweł II; born Karol Józef Wojtyła;; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) served as Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 to 2005.
Urban VI (Urbanus VI; c. 1318 – 15 October 1389), born Bartolomeo Prignano, was Pope from 8 April 1378 to his death in 1389.
Prijezda I ((1211–1287) was a Bosnian Ban as a vassal of the Hungarian Kingdom, reigning 1250–1287. He was probably the founder of the House of Kotromanić.
The prince-electors (or simply electors) of the Holy Roman Empire (Kurfürst, pl. Kurfürsten, Kurfiřt, Princeps Elector) were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire.
The Privilege of Koszyce or Privilege of Kassa was a set of concessions made by Louis I of Hungary to the Polish szlachta (nobility) in 1374.
A queen consort is the wife of a reigning king (or an empress consort in the case of an emperor).
A queen regnant (plural: queens regnant) is a female monarch, equivalent in rank to a king, who reigns in her own right, in contrast to a queen consort, who is the wife of a reigning king, or a queen regent, who is the guardian of a child monarch and reigns temporarily in the child's stead.
Radomsko is a town in central Poland with 46,583 inhabitants (2016).
Religious vows are the public vows made by the members of religious communities pertaining to their conduct, practices, and views.
The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia, later: Repubblica Veneta; Repùblica de Venèsia, later: Repùblica Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima (Most Serene Republic of Venice) (Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia; Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for a millennium between the 8th century and the 18th century.
Robert I. Frost (born 1958) is a British historian and academic.
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Esztergom-Budapest (Archidioecesis Strigoniensis–Budapestinensis) is the primatial seat of the Roman Catholic Church in Hungary and the Metropolitan of one of its four Latin rite ecclesiastical provinces.
Rudolf I, also known as Rudolf of Habsburg (Rudolf von Habsburg, Rudolf Habsburský; 1 May 1218 – 15 July 1291), was Count of Habsburg from about 1240 and the elected King of the Romans from 1273 until his death.
Salomea of Poland (1211/1212 - 1268), also known as Salomea of Cracow or Blessed Salomea (Błogosławiona Salomea), (1211–1268) was a Polish princess and from 1215 to 1219 the Queen of Halych by virtue of being the wife of Kálmán or Coloman of Lodomeria.
Sandomierz (pronounced:; Tsoizmer צויזמער) is a town in south-eastern Poland with 25,714 inhabitants (2006), situated in the Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship (since 1999).
The general sejm (sejm walny, also translated as the full or ordinary sejm) was the bicameral parliament of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Siemowit I of Masovia (Siemowit (Ziemowit) I mazowiecki) (c. 1224/28 – 23 June 1262.), was a Polish prince member of the House of Piast, Duke of Czersk during 1247-1248, Duke of Masovia (except Dobrzyń) during 1248-1262, ruler over Sieradz during 1259-1260.
Siemowit III of Masovia (his name also rendered Ziemowit; – 1381) was a prince of Masovia and a co-regent (with his brother Casimir I of Warsaw) of the lands of Warsaw, Czersk, Rawa, Gostynin and other parts of Masovia.
Siemowit IV (Ziemowit IV), also known as Siemowit IV the Younger (pl: Siemowit IV Młodszy; ca. 1353/1356 – 21 January 1426), was a Polish prince member of the House of Piast from the Masovian branch, from 1373/74 Duke of Rawa, and after the division of the paternal inheritance between him and his brother in 1381, ruler over Rawa, Płock, Sochaczew, Gostynin, Płońsk and Wizna, since 1386 hereditary Polish vassal, since 1388 ruler over Belz, during 1382–1401 he lost Wizna and during 1384–1399 and 1407–1411 he lost Zawkrze, during 1384–1399 he lost Płońsk, taken by the Teutonic Order.
Sieradz (Syradia, 1941-45 Schieratz) is a town on the Warta river in central Poland with 42,762 inhabitants (2016).
Sigismund of Luxembourg (15 February 1368 in Nuremberg – 9 December 1437 in Znaim, Moravia) was Prince-elector of Brandenburg from 1378 until 1388 and from 1411 until 1415, King of Hungary and Croatia from 1387, King of Germany from 1411, King of Bohemia from 1419, King of Italy from 1431, and Holy Roman Emperor for four years from 1433 until 1437, the last male member of the House of Luxembourg.
Skirgaila (Schirgalo; Скіргайла; Skirgiełło, also known as Ivan/Iwan; ca. 1353 or 1354 – 11 January 1397 in Kiev; baptized 1383/1384 as Casimir) was a regent of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania for his brother Jogaila from 1386 to 1392.
Slavonia (Slavonija) is, with Dalmatia, Croatia proper and Istria, one of the four historical regions of Croatia.
Sponsalia de futuro (or sponsalia pro futuro, also stipulatio sponsalitia) was a Canon form of engagement used by medieval rulers in cases when one or both future spouses were minors.
Stanisław of Skarbimierz (1360–1431; Latinised as Stanislaus de Scarbimiria) was, from 1400, rector of the University of Krakow.
Stará Ľubovňa (Altlublau; Ólubló; Lublovia; Lubowla) is a town with approximately 16,000 inhabitants in northeastern Slovakia.
The title of starost or starosta (Cyrillic: старост/а, Latin: capitaneus, Starost, Hauptmann) is a Slavic term that originally referred to the administrator of the assets of a "clan, kindred, extended family".
Stefan Dragutin (Стефан Драгутин; 1244 – died 12 March 1316) was King of Serbia from 1276 to 1282.
Stephen I of Moldavia (Moldavian: Ştefan I) was Prince of Moldavia from 1394 to 1399.
Stephen I Kotromanić (Stjepan Kotromanić, Стефан Котроманић) (1242–1314) was a Bosnian Ban from 1287 to 1290 jointly with Ban Prijezda II and 1290–1314 alone as a vassal of the Kingdom of Hungary.
Stephen II (Stjepan/Stefan, Стефан/Стјепан) was the Bosnian Ban from 1314, but in reality from 1322 to 1353 together with his brother, Vladislav Kotromanić in 1326–1353.
Stibor of Stiboricz of Ostoja (also written in English as Scibor or Czibor; Ścibor ze Ściborzyc, Stiborici Stibor, Știbor de Știborici, Stibor zo Stiboríc; c. 1348 – February 1414) was an aristocrat of Polish origin in the Kingdom of Hungary.
Suzerainty (and) is a back-formation from the late 18th-century word suzerain, meaning upper-sovereign, derived from the French sus (meaning above) + -erain (from souverain, meaning sovereign).
The szlachta (exonym: Nobility) was a legally privileged noble class in the Kingdom of Poland, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Ruthenia, Samogitia (both after Union of Lublin became a single state, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth) and the Zaporozhian Host.
Tęczyński was a powerful family of nobility (szlachta) in the Kingdom of Poland, during the times of the late Piast dynasty, the Jagiellon dynasty and in the early decades of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (from 14th century to early 17th century).
The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem (official names: Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum Hierosolymitanorum, Orden der Brüder vom Deutschen Haus der Heiligen Maria in Jerusalem), commonly the Teutonic Order (Deutscher Orden, Deutschherrenorden or Deutschritterorden), is a Catholic religious order founded as a military order c. 1190 in Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem.
Timur (تیمور Temūr, Chagatai: Temür; 9 April 1336 – 18 February 1405), historically known as Amir Timur and Tamerlane (تيمور لنگ Temūr(-i) Lang, "Timur the Lame"), was a Turco-Mongol conqueror.
Treviso (Venetian: Trevixo) is a city and comune in the Veneto region of northern Italy.
Trojden I (1284/86 – 13 March 1341), was a Polish prince member of the House of Piast, Duke of Czersk since 1310, ruler over Warsaw and Liw since 1313, regent of Płock during 1336–1340.
In a strict sense, the Union of Krewo or "Act of Krėva" (also spelled "Union of Krevo", "Act of Kreva"; Krėvos sutartis) was a set of prenuptial promises made in the Kreva Castle on 14 August 1385 by Jogaila, Grand Duke of Lithuania, in exchange for marriage to the underage reigning Queen Jadwiga of Poland.
The Union of Lublin (unia lubelska; Liublino unija) was signed on 1 July 1569, in Lublin, Poland, and created a single state, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
Vlad I (? - 1397 ?) known as Uzurpatorul (The Usurper), was a ruler of Wallachia in what later became Romania.
Vladislaus II of Opole (Władysław Opolczyk, Wladislaus von Oppeln, Oppelni László, Владислав Опольчик) (ca. 1332 – 18 May 1401) was a Duke of Opole from 1356 (as a Bohemian vassal), Count palatine of Hungary during 1367–1372, ruler over Lubliniec since 1368, Duke of Wieluń during 1370–1392, ruler over Bolesławiec from 1370 (only for his life), Governor of Galicia–Volhynia during 1372–1378, ruler over Pszczyna during 1375–1396, Count palatine of Poland in 1378, Duke of Dobrzyń and Kujawy during 1378–1392 (as a Polish vassal), ruler over Głogówek from 1383 and ruler over Krnov during 1385–1392.
Vytautas (c. 1350 – October 27, 1430), also known as Vytautas the Great (Lithuanian:, Вітаўт Кейстутавіч (Vitaŭt Kiejstutavič), Witold Kiejstutowicz, Rusyn: Vitovt, Latin: Alexander Vitoldus) from the 15th century onwards, was a ruler of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, which chiefly encompassed the Lithuanians and Ruthenians.
Wallachia or Walachia (Țara Românească; archaic: Țeara Rumânească, Romanian Cyrillic alphabet: Цѣра Рȣмѫнѣскъ) is a historical and geographical region of Romania.
The Wawel Castle is a castle residency located in central Kraków, Poland.
The Royal Archcathedral Basilica of Saints Stanislaus and Wenceslaus on the Wawel Hill (królewska bazylika archikatedralna śś.), also known as the Wawel Cathedral (katedra wawelska), is a Roman Catholic church located on Wawel Hill in Kraków, Poland.
Władysław I the Elbow-high or the Short (Władysław I Łokietek; c. 1260 – 2 March 1333) was the King of Poland from 1306 to 1333, and duke of several of the provinces and principalities in the preceding years.
Jogaila (later Władysław II JagiełłoHe is known under a number of names: Jogaila Algirdaitis; Władysław II Jagiełło; Jahajła (Ягайла). See also: Names and titles of Władysław II Jagiełło. (c. 1352/1362 – 1 June 1434) was the Grand Duke of Lithuania (1377–1434) and then the King of Poland (1386–1434), first alongside his wife Jadwiga until 1399, and then sole King of Poland. He ruled in Lithuania from 1377. Born a pagan, in 1386 he converted to Catholicism and was baptized as Władysław in Kraków, married the young Queen Jadwiga, and was crowned King of Poland as Władysław II Jagiełło. In 1387 he converted Lithuania to Christianity. His own reign in Poland started in 1399, upon the death of Queen Jadwiga, and lasted a further thirty-five years and laid the foundation for the centuries-long Polish–Lithuanian union. He was a member of the Jagiellonian dynasty in Poland that bears his name and was previously also known as the Gediminid dynasty in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The dynasty ruled both states until 1572,Anna Jagiellon, the last member of royal Jagiellon family, died in 1596. and became one of the most influential dynasties in late medieval and early modern Central and Eastern Europe. During his reign, the Polish-Lithuanian state was the largest state in the Christian world. Jogaila was the last pagan ruler of medieval Lithuania. After he became King of Poland, as a result of the Union of Krewo, the newly formed Polish-Lithuanian union confronted the growing power of the Teutonic Knights. The allied victory at the Battle of Grunwald in 1410, followed by the Peace of Thorn, secured the Polish and Lithuanian borders and marked the emergence of the Polish–Lithuanian alliance as a significant force in Europe. The reign of Władysław II Jagiełło extended Polish frontiers and is often considered the beginning of Poland's Golden Age.
Władysław (Włodko) the White or Władysław of Gniewkowo (Władysław (Włodko) Biały (Gniewkowski); ca. 1327/1333 – 29 February 1388), was a Polish prince member of the House of Piast, Duke of Gniewkowo during 1347/1350–1363/1364 (his final and official resignation was in 1377) and last male representative of the Kujavian line.
Włocławek (Leslau) is a city located in central Poland along the Vistula (Wisła) River and is bordered by the Gostynińsko-Włocławski Park Krajobrazowy.
Wenceslaus (also Wenceslas; Václav IV.; Wenzel, nicknamed der Faule ("the Idle"); 26 February 1361 – 16 August 1419) was, by inheritance, King of Bohemia (as Wenceslaus IV) from 1363 and by election, German King (formally King of the Romans) from 1376.
Wiślica is a town in Busko County, Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship, in south-central Poland.
William (– 15 July 1406), known as William the Courteous (der Freundliche), a member of the House of Habsburg, was Duke of Austria from 1386.
Blessed Yolanda of Poland (also known as Helen; 1235 – 11 June 1298) was the daughter of King Béla IV of Hungary and Maria Laskarina.
Zadar (see other names) is the oldest continuously inhabited Croatian city.
Ziemomysł of Inowrocław (Ziemomysł inowrocławski; c. 1245 – October/24 December 1287), was a Polish prince member of the House of Piast, Duke of Inowrocław during 1267-1271 and 1278-1287, and ruler over Bydgoszcz during 1267-1269 and 1278-1287.
Zvolen (Zólyom; Altsohl) is a town in central Slovakia, situated on the confluence of Hron and Slatina rivers, close to Banská Bystrica.
Elżbieta Bonifacja, Hedwig of Poland, Jadwiga Andegaweńska, Jadwiga Angevin, Jadwiga I of Poland, Jadwiga of Anjou, Jadwiga of Hungary, Jadwiga, queen of Poland, King Jadwiga of Poland, Queen Jadwiga, Queen Jadwiga of Poland, Saint Hedwig Queen of Poland, Santa Jadwiga, Sarcophagus of St. Hedwig, Queen of Poland.