235 relations: Abdul Hamid II, Abraham Isaac Kook, Abu Kabir, Abu'l-Fida, Acts of the Apostles, Aeolus, Ajami (film), Ajami, Jaffa, Akçe, Al-Bahr Mosque, Al-Maqdisi, Al-Shaykh Muwannis, Alexander the Great, Amarna letters, American–German Colony, Amidar (company), Ancient Egypt, Andromeda (mythology), Arab citizens of Israel, Archaeology, Asma Agbarieh, Assizes of Jerusalem, Assyria, Babylonia, Baibars, Bat Yam, Battle of Arsuf, Battle of Jaffa (1192), Battle of Jaffa (1917), Battle of Jerusalem, Bauhaus Center Tel Aviv, Bethlehem, Bonaparte Visiting the Plague Victims of Jaffa, Book of Joshua, Bronze Age, Bubonic plague, Byzantine Empire, Caesarea Maritima, Canaan, Cassiopeia (mythology), Catholic Church, Catholic Encyclopedia, Cedrus libani, Cestius Gallus, Chief Rabbi, Christianity, Church of Scotland, Citadel, Clash of the Titans (1981 film), Clorinda S. Minor, ..., Collège des Frères de Jaffa, Cornelius the Centurion, County of Jaffa and Ascalon, Crusades, Damascus, Dan (son of Jacob), Dan Bus Company, David, David Ben-Gurion, Deborah, Defter, Djehuty (general), Dorcas, Dubrovnik, Eastern Catholic Churches, Egypt, Emporium (antiquity), Falastin (newspaper), Farkash Gallery collection, Félix Bonfils, First Crusade, First Jewish–Roman War, Fortification, Franciscans, Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, Gaza Sanjak, Genesis flood narrative, Gentile, Gottex, Greek mythology, Greek Orthodox Church, Greek Orthodox Church of Jerusalem, Gush Dan, Haganah, Haifa, Haim Ramon, Hasmonean dynasty, Hassan Bek Mosque, Hatikva Quarter, Hebrews, Hellenistic period, Hezekiah, Holy Spirit, Homogeneity and heterogeneity, Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt, Iliad, Immanuel Church (Tel Aviv), Iran, Irgun, Ismail al-Faruqi, Israel, Israel Rokach, Israeli Jews, Israelites, Issa El-Issa, J. E. Hanauer, Jaffa Light, Jaffa orange, Jaffa Port, Jaffa railway station, Jaffa–Jerusalem railway, Japheth, Jerusalem, Jerusalem Talmud, Johannes Cotovicus, John of Ibelin (jurist), Jonah, Jose ben Halafta, Joseph Constant, Josephus, Kingdom of Israel (united monarchy), Kingdom of Jerusalem, Konrad Eubel, Kosher foods, Latinisation of names, Lea Gottlieb, Lebrun, Lehi (militant group), Leviticus Rabbah, Lighthouse, Liwa (Arabic), Lod, Lutheranism, Maccabees, Mahmoudiya Mosque, Mamluk, Mandatory Palestine, May Day, Menashiya, Michel Le Quien, Michel Loève, Midrash halakha, Moses Montefiore, Mosque, Muhammad Abu Nabbut, Muhammad Ali of Egypt, Muslim, Muslim Brotherhood, Nablus, Nadia Hilou, Nahiyah, Napoleon, Netherlands, New Testament, Noah, Old City (Jaffa), Operation Hametz, Ottoman Empire, Palestine Exploration Fund, Palestinians, Peasants' revolt in Palestine, Perseus, Pesikta Rabbati, Pharaoh, Philistines, Phinehas ben Jair, Phoenicia, Piracy, Pliny the Elder, Rabbi Aha, Raja El-Issa, Ramla, Red Line (Tel Aviv Light Rail), Richard I of England, Rifaat Turk, Romanian Orthodox Church, Royal Irish Fusiliers, Sabil Abu Nabbut, Safed, Saint Nicholas Monastery, Jaffa, Saint Peter, Saladin, Salama, Jaffa, Samaria, Sasha Roiz, Sderot Yerushalayim, Second Coming, Second Temple, Seleucid Empire, Selim I, Sennacherib, Sephardi Jews, Shmuel Yosef Agnon, Siege of Jaffa, Solomon, Solomon's Temple, St. Peter's Church, Jaffa, Sultan, Tabitha, Talmud, Tanakh, Tarshish, Tel Aviv, Tel Aviv and Jaffa deportation, Tel Aviv Light Rail, Tell (archaeology), Templers (religious believers), The Bloody Day in Jaffa, The Crusade (Doctor Who), The Nation, The Taking of Joppa, Third Crusade, Thutmose III, Treaty of Jaffa, Tribe of Dan, Trojan Horse, Tyre, Lebanon, United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine, Vassals of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, Vespasian, Victor Norris Hamilton, Village Statistics, 1945, Yitzhak Ben-Zvi, Yizhar Harari, Yoav Gelber, Yosef Eliyahu Chelouche, Yosef Haim Brenner, Yosef Sapir, Ze'ev Herzog, 1 Maccabees, 1921 Jaffa riots, 1922 census of Palestine, 1931 census of Palestine, 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine, 8th millennium BC. Expand index (185 more) » « Shrink index
Abdul Hamid II (عبد الحميد ثانی, `Abdü’l-Ḥamīd-i sânî; İkinci Abdülhamit; 21 September 184210 February 1918) was the 34th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and the last Sultan to exert effective control over the fracturing state.
Abraham Isaac Kook (Abraham Yitshak ha-Kohen Kuk; 8 September 1865 – 11 September 1935) was an Orthodox rabbi, the first Ashkenazi chief rabbi of British Mandatory Palestine, the founder of Yeshiva Mercaz HaRav Kook (The Central Universal Yeshiva), a Jewish thinker, Halakhist, Kabbalist, and a renowned Torah scholar.
Abu Kabir (ابو كبير) was a satellite village of Jaffa founded by Egyptians following Ibrahim Pasha's 1832 defeat of Turkish forces in Ottoman era Palestine.
Abu al-Fida (أبو الفداء; November 1273October 27, 1331), fully Abu Al-fida' Isma'il Ibn 'ali ibn Mahmud Al-malik Al-mu'ayyad 'imad Ad-din and better known in English as Abulfeda, was a Kurdish historian, geographer and local governor of Hama.
Acts of the Apostles (Πράξεις τῶν Ἀποστόλων, Práxeis tôn Apostólōn; Actūs Apostolōrum), often referred to simply as Acts, is the fifth book of the New Testament; it tells of the founding of the Christian church and the spread of its message to the Roman Empire.
In Greek mythology, Aeolus (Αἴολος, Aiolos, Modern Greek: "quick-moving, nimble") is a name shared by three mythical characters.
Ajami (عجمي; עג'מי) is a 2009 Israeli Arab drama film.
Ajami (حي العجمي, עג'מי) is a predominantly Arab neighborhood in Tel Aviv-Jaffa, Israel, situated south of Old Jaffa and north of the Jabaliyya neighborhood on the Mediterranean Sea.
The akçe (آقچه) was the chief monetary unit of the Ottoman Empire, a silver coin.
The al-Bahr Mosque or Masjid al-Bahr (مسجد البحر, Misgad HaYam (מסגד הים), meaning in all languages The Sea Mosque, is the oldest extant mosque in Jaffa, Israel. It is situated on the HaAliya HaShniya Street near the harbour. Due to its proximity to the Mediterranean Sea, fishermen and sailors used the mosque, as well as nearby inhabitants of the surrounding area.
Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Shams al-Dīn al-Maqdisī (محمد بن أحمد شمس الدين المقدسي), also transliterated as al-Maqdisī or el-Mukaddasi, (c. 945/946 - 991) was a medieval Arab geographer, author of Aḥsan al-taqāsīm fī maʿrifat al-aqālīm (The Best Divisions in the Knowledge of the Regions), as well as author of the book, Description of Syria (Including Palestine).
Al-Shaykh Muwannis (الشيخ مونّس), also Sheikh Munis, was a small Palestinian Arab village in the Jaffa Subdistrict of Mandatory Palestine, located approximately 8.5 kilometers from the center of Jaffa city in territory earmarked for Jewish statehood under the UN Partition Plan.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
The Amarna letters (sometimes referred to as the Amarna correspondence or Amarna tablets, and cited with the abbreviation EA) are an archive, written on clay tablets, primarily consisting of diplomatic correspondence between the Egyptian administration and its representatives in Canaan and Amurru during the New Kingdom.
The American–German Colony (המושבה האמריקאית–גרמנית, HaMoshava HaAmerika'it–Germanit) is a residential neighborhood in the southern part of Tel Aviv-Yafo, Israel.
Amidar (עמידר) is a state-owned housing company in Israel.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
In Greek mythology, Andromeda (Greek: Ἀνδρομέδα, Androméda or Ἀνδρομέδη, Andromédē) is the daughter of the Aethiopian king Cepheus and his wife Cassiopeia.
Arab citizens of Israel, or Arab Israelis, are Israeli citizens whose primary language or linguistic heritage is Arabic. Many identify as Palestinian and commonly self-designate themselves as Palestinian citizens of Israel or Israeli Palestinians.See the terminology and self-identification sections for an extended discussion of the various terms used to refer to this population. The traditional vernacular of most Arab citizens, irrespective of religion, is the Palestinian dialect of Arabic. Most Arab citizens of Israel are functionally bilingual, their second language being Modern Hebrew. By religious affiliation, most are Muslim, particularly of the Sunni branch of Islam. There is a significant Arab Christian minority from various denominations as well as the Druze, among other religious communities. According to Israel's Central Bureau of Statistics, the Arab population in 2013 was estimated at 1,658,000, representing 20.7% of the country's population. The majority of these identify themselves as Arab or Palestinian by nationality and Israeli by citizenship.. "The issue of terminology relating to this subject is sensitive and at least partially a reflection of political preferences. Most Israeli official documents refer to the Israeli Arab community as "minorities". The Israeli National Security Council (NSC) has used the term "Arab citizens of Israel". Virtually all political parties, movements and non-governmental organisations from within the Arab community use the word "Palestinian" somewhere in their description – at times failing to make any reference to Israel. For consistency of reference and without prejudice to the position of either side, ICG will use both Arab Israeli and terms the community commonly uses to describe itself, such as Palestinian citizens of Israel or Palestinian Arab citizens of Israel."An IDI Guttman Study of 2008 shows that most Arab citiens of Israel identify as Arabs (45%). While 24% consider themselves Palestinian, 12% consider themselves Israelis, and 19% identify themselves according to religion. Arab citizens of Israel mostly live in Arab-majority towns and cities; with eight of Israel's ten poorest cities being Arab. The vast majority attend separate schools to Jewish Israelis, and Arab political parties have never joined a government coalition. Many have family ties to Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza Strip as well as to Palestinian refugees in Jordan, Syria and Lebanon. Negev Bedouins and the Druze tend to identify more as Israelis than other Arab citizens of Israel. Most of the Arabs living in East Jerusalem and the Golan Heights, occupied by Israel in the Six-Day War of 1967 and later annexed, were offered Israeli citizenship, but most have refused, not wanting to recognize Israel's claim to sovereignty. They became permanent residents instead. They have the right to apply for citizenship, are entitled to municipal services and have municipal voting rights.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
Asma Agbarieh-Zahalka (أسماء إغبارية-زحالقة,, born 1973) is an Israeli Arab journalist and political activist who heads the Organization for Democratic Action (Da'am) party.
The Assizes of Jerusalem are a collection of numerous medieval legal treatises written in Old French containing the law of the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem and Kingdom of Cyprus.
Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant.
Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).
Baibars or Baybars (الملك الظاهر ركن الدين بيبرس البندقداري, al-Malik al-Ẓāhir Rukn al-Dīn Baybars al-Bunduqdārī) (1223/1228 – 1 July 1277), of Turkic Kipchak origin — nicknamed Abu al-Futuh and Abu l-Futuhat (Arabic: أبو الفتوح; English: Father of Conquest, referring to his victories) — was the fourth Sultan of Egypt in the Mamluk Bahri dynasty.
Bat Yam (בַּת יָם, بات يام) is a city located on Israel's Mediterranean Sea coast, on the central coastal strip, just south of Tel Aviv.
The Battle of Arsuf was a battle of the Third Crusade in which Richard I of England defeated the forces of Ayyubid leader Saladin.
The Battle of Jaffa took place during the Crusades, as one of a series of campaigns between the army of Sultan Saladin (Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb) and the Crusader forces led by King Richard I of England (known as Richard the Lionheart).
The Battle of Jaffa was an engagement fought during the Southern Palestine Offensive of the Sinai and Palestine Campaign in World War I, between the Egyptian Expeditionary Force of the British Empire on one side and the Yildirim Army Group of the Ottoman Empire and German Empires on the other.
The Battle of Jerusalem occurred during the British Empire's "Jerusalem Operations" against the Ottoman Empire, when fighting for the city developed from 17 November, continuing after the surrender until 30 December 1917, to secure the final objective of the Southern Palestine Offensive during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of World War I. Before Jerusalem could be secured, two battles were recognised by the British as being fought in the Judean Hills to the north and east of the Hebron–Junction Station line.
Bauhaus Center Tel Aviv is an organization dedicated to creating a platform for Bauhaus architecture and design in the city of Tel Aviv, Israel.
Bethlehem (بيت لحم, "House of Meat"; בֵּית לֶחֶם,, "House of Bread";; Bethleem; initially named after Canaanite fertility god Lehem) is a Palestinian city located in the central West Bank, Palestine, about south of Jerusalem.
Bonaparte Visits the Plague Stricken in Jaffa (Bonaparte visitant les pestiférés de Jaffa) is an 1804 painting commissioned by Napoleon Bonaparte from Antoine-Jean Gros to portray an event during the Egyptian Campaign.
The Book of Joshua (ספר יהושע) is the sixth book in the Hebrew Bible (the Christian Old Testament) and the first book of the Deuteronomistic history, the story of Israel from the conquest of Canaan to the Babylonian exile.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
Bubonic plague is one of three types of plague caused by bacterium Yersinia pestis.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Caesarea Maritima (Greek: Παράλιος Καισάρεια Parálios Kaisáreia), also known as Caesarea Palestinae, is an Israeli National Park in the Sharon plain, including the ancient remains of the coastal city of Caesarea.
Canaan (Northwest Semitic:; Phoenician: 𐤊𐤍𐤏𐤍 Kenā‘an; Hebrew) was a Semitic-speaking region in the Ancient Near East during the late 2nd millennium BC.
Cassiopeia (Κασσιόπεια), also Cassiepeia (Κασσιέπεια), is the name of two different figures in Greek mythology.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Catholic Encyclopedia: An International Work of Reference on the Constitution, Doctrine, Discipline, and History of the Catholic Church, also referred to as the Old Catholic Encyclopedia and the Original Catholic Encyclopedia, is an English-language encyclopedia published in the United States and designed to serve the Roman Catholic Church.
Cedrus libani, commonly known as the Cedar of Lebanon or Lebanon cedar, is a species of cedar native to the mountains of the Eastern Mediterranean basin.
Gaius Cestius Gallus (d. 67 AD) was a Roman senator and general who was active during the Principate.
Chief Rabbi is a title given in several countries to the recognised religious leader of that country's Jewish community, or to a rabbinic leader appointed by the local secular authorities.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
The Church of Scotland (The Scots Kirk, Eaglais na h-Alba), known informally by its Scots language name, the Kirk, is the national church of Scotland.
A citadel is the core fortified area of a town or city.
Clash of the Titans is a 1981 British-American heroic fantasy adventure film directed by Desmond Davis and written by Beverley Cross which retells the Greek mythological story of Perseus.
Clorinda S. Minor (1806–1855) was an American woman from Philadelphia who became influenced by William Miller.
Collège des Frères de Jaffa is a French international school in the Jaffa area of Tel Aviv.
Cornelius (Κορνήλιος) was a Roman centurion who is considered by Christians to be one of the first Gentiles to convert to the faith, as related in Acts of the Apostles.
The double County of Jaffa and Ascalon was one of the four major seigneuries comprising the major crusader state, the Kingdom of Jerusalem, according to 13th-century commentator John of Ibelin.
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.
According to the Book of Genesis, Dan (Hebrew: דָּן, Dan Dān; "judgement" or "he judged") was the fifth son of Jacob and the first son of Bilhah.
Dan Bus Company (דן חברה לתחבורה ציבורית) is an Israeli bus company based in Tel Aviv.
David is described in the Hebrew Bible as the second king of the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah.
David Ben-Gurion (דָּוִד בֶּן-גּוּרִיּוֹן;, born David Grün; 16 October 1886 – 1 December 1973) was the primary national founder of the State of Israel and the first Prime Minister of Israel.
According to the Book of Judges chapters 4 and 5, Deborah was a prophet of Yahweh the God of the Israelites, the fourth Judge of pre-monarchic Israel and the only female judge mentioned in the Bible, and the wife of Lapidoth.
A defter (plural: defterler) was a type of tax register and land cadastre in the Ottoman Empire.
Djehuty (also known as Thuti and Thutii) was a general under the ancient Egyptian king Thutmose III (reigned 1479–1425 BC) in the 18th Dynasty.
Dorcas (Δορκάς, Dorkás; טביתא Ṭabītā) was a disciple who lived in Joppa, referenced in the Acts of the Apostles in the New Testament.
Dubrovnik (historically Ragusa) is a Croatian city on the Adriatic Sea.
The Eastern Catholic Churches or Oriental Catholic Churches, also called the Eastern-rite Catholic Churches, and in some historical cases Uniate Churches, are twenty-three Eastern Christian particular churches sui iuris in full communion with the Pope in Rome, as part of the worldwide Catholic Church.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
An emporium refers to a trading post, factory, or market of Classical antiquity, derived from the (empórion), which becomes emporium.
Falastin, sometimes transliterated Filastin, (جريدة فلسطين) was a Palestinian newspaper based in Jaffa.
The Farkash Gallery collection (גלריית פרקש) is the largest collection in the world of vintage historical Israeli posters.
Félix Adrien Bonfils (8 March 1831 – 1885) was a French photographer and writer who was active in the Middle East.
The First Crusade (1095–1099) was the first of a number of crusades that attempted to recapture the Holy Land, called for by Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont in 1095.
The First Jewish–Roman War (66–73 AD), sometimes called the Great Revolt (המרד הגדול), was the first of three major rebellions by the Jews against the Roman Empire, fought in the Eastern Mediterranean.
A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of territories in warfare; and is also used to solidify rule in a region during peacetime.
The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic Church, founded in 1209 by Saint Francis of Assisi.
Frederick II (26 December 1194 – 13 December 1250; Fidiricu, Federico, Friedrich) was King of Sicily from 1198, King of Germany from 1212, King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor from 1220 and King of Jerusalem from 1225.
Gaza Sanjak (Gazze Sancağı) was a sanjak of the Damascus Eyalet, Ottoman Empire.
The Genesis flood narrative is a flood myth found in the Hebrew Bible (chapters 6–9 in the Book of Genesis).
Gentile (from Latin gentilis, by the French gentil, feminine: gentille, meaning of or belonging to a clan or a tribe) is an ethnonym that commonly means non-Jew.
Gottex is an Israeli luxury designer swimwear manufacturer based in Tel Aviv.
Greek mythology is the body of myths and teachings that belong to the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world, and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices.
The name Greek Orthodox Church (Greek: Ἑλληνορθόδοξη Ἑκκλησία, Ellinorthódoxi Ekklisía), or Greek Orthodoxy, is a term referring to the body of several Churches within the larger communion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity, whose liturgy is or was traditionally conducted in Koine Greek, the original language of the Septuagint and New Testament, and whose history, traditions, and theology are rooted in the early Church Fathers and the culture of the Byzantine Empire.
The Eastern Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem (Πατριαρχεῖον Ἱεροσολύμων, Patriarcheîon Hierosolýmōn) or Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem (كنيسة الروم الأرثوذكس في القدس Kanisatt Ar-rum al-Urtudoks fi al-Quds, literally Rûm/Roman Orthodox Church of Jerusalem), and officially called simply the Patriarchate of Jerusalem, is an autocephalous Church within the wider communion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity.
Gush Dan (גּוּשׁ דָּן; غوش دان) is a conurbation, including areas from both the Tel Aviv and the Central Districts of Israel, or sometimes the whole of Tel Aviv Metropolitan Area (מֶטְרוֹפּוֹלִין תֵּל אָבִיב), which in current official designations includes a small part of the Southern District (Israel) as well.
Haganah (הַהֲגָנָה, lit. The Defence) was a Jewish paramilitary organization in the British Mandate of Palestine (1921–48), which became the core of the Israel Defense Forces (IDF).
Haifa (חֵיפָה; حيفا) is the third-largest city in Israel – after Jerusalem and Tel Aviv– with a population of in.
Haim Ramon (חיים רמון, born 10 April 1950) is an Israeli politician who served as a member of the Knesset between 1983 and 2009, and as both Vice Prime Minister and Minister in the Prime Minister's Office with responsibility for state policy.
The Hasmonean dynasty (חַשְׁמוֹנַּאִים, Ḥašmōna'īm) was a ruling dynasty of Judea and surrounding regions during classical antiquity.
The Hassan Bek Mosque (مسجد حسن بك), also known as the Hasan Bey Mosque, is one of the most well-known mosques of Jaffa, a city in Israel.
Hatikva Quarter (שכונת התקווה, Shkhunat Hatikva) is a working class neighbourhood in southeastern Tel Aviv, Israel.
Hebrews (Hebrew: עברים or עבריים, Tiberian ʿIḇrîm, ʿIḇriyyîm; Modern Hebrew ʿIvrim, ʿIvriyyim; ISO 259-3 ʕibrim, ʕibriyim) is a term appearing 34 times within 32 verses of the Hebrew Bible.
The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
Hezekiah was, according to the Hebrew Bible, the son of Ahaz and the 13th king of Judah.
Holy Spirit (also called Holy Ghost) is a term found in English translations of the Bible that is understood differently among the Abrahamic religions.
Homogeneity and heterogeneity are concepts often used in the sciences and statistics relating to the uniformity in a substance or organism.
Ibrahim Pasha (Kavalalı İbrahim Paşa, 1789 – November 10, 1848) was the eldest son of Muhammad Ali, the Wāli and unrecognised Khedive of Egypt and Sudan.
The Iliad (Ἰλιάς, in Classical Attic; sometimes referred to as the Song of Ilion or Song of Ilium) is an ancient Greek epic poem in dactylic hexameter, traditionally attributed to Homer.
Immanuel Church (כנסיית עמנואל, Knesiyat Immanu'el; Immanuelkirche; Immanuelkirken) is a Protestant church in the American–German Colony neighbourhood of Tel Aviv-Jaffa in Israel.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Irgun (ארגון; full title:, lit. "The National Military Organization in the Land of Israel") was a Zionist paramilitary organization that operated in Mandate Palestine between 1931 and 1948.
Isma'il Raji al-Faruqi (إسماعيل راجي الفاروقي January 1, 1921 – May 27, 1986), was a Palestinian-American philosopher, widely recognised by his peers as an authority on Islam and comparative religion.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Israel Rokach, Honorary CBE (ישראל רוקח; December 31, 1886 – September 13, 1959) was an Israeli politician, Knesset member, and second mayor of Tel Aviv from November 15, 1936 to April 13, 1953.
Israeli Jews (יהודים ישראלים, Yehudim Yisraelim), also known as Jewish Israelis, refers to Israeli citizens of the Jewish ethnicity or faith, and also the descendants of Israeli-Jewish emigrants outside of Israel.
The Israelites (בני ישראל Bnei Yisra'el) were a confederation of Iron Age Semitic-speaking tribes of the ancient Near East, who inhabited a part of Canaan during the tribal and monarchic periods.
Issa Daoud El-Issa (ﻋﻴﺴﻰ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﺴﻰ, his surname also spelt al Issa and Elissa) was a Palestinian Christian poet and journalist.
James (John) Edward Hanauer (1850–1938) was an author, photographer, and Canon of St. George's Cathedral in Jerusalem.
Jaffa Light (מגדלור יפו) is a lighthouse in Jaffa, Israel.
The Jaffa orange (also known as Shamouti orange) is a an orange variety with few seeds and a tough skin that makes it particularly suitable for export.
Jaffa Port (נמל יפו, Nemal Yafo) is an ancient port on the Mediterranean Sea, located in the Old City of Jaffa, Israel.
The Jaffa railway station was the first railway station in the Middle East, serving as the terminus for the Jaffa–Jerusalem railway.
The Jaffa–Jerusalem railway (also J & J) is a railway that connected Jaffa and Jerusalem.
Japheth (Ἰάφεθ; Iafeth, Iapheth, Iaphethus, Iapetus), is one of the three sons of Noah in the Book of Genesis, where he plays a role in the story of Noah's drunkenness and the curse of Ham, and subsequently in the Table of Nations as the ancestor of the peoples of Europe and Anatolia.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
The Jerusalem Talmud (תַּלְמוּד יְרוּשַׁלְמִי, Talmud Yerushalmi, often Yerushalmi for short), also known as the Palestinian Talmud or Talmuda de-Eretz Yisrael (Talmud of the Land of Israel), is a collection of Rabbinic notes on the second-century Jewish oral tradition known as the Mishnah.
Johannes Cotovicus or Jan van Cootwijk was a 17th-century travel writer who wrote an account of a journey to Jerusalem and Syria.
John of Ibelin (1215 – December 1266), count of Jaffa and Ascalon, was a noted jurist and the author of the longest legal treatise from the Kingdom of Jerusalem.
Jonah or Jonas is the name given in the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh/Old Testament) to a prophet of the northern kingdom of Israel in about the 8th century BCE.
Jose ben Halafta or Yose ben Halafta (alt. Halpetha) (Hebrew: רבי יוסי בן חלפתא) IPA: /ʁa'bi 'josi ben xa'lafta/, was a Tanna of the fourth generation (2nd century CE).
Joseph Constant (born Joseph Constantinovsky, 14 July 1892 – 3 October 1969) was a Franco-Russian sculptor, painter and writer of Jewish origin.
Titus Flavius Josephus (Φλάβιος Ἰώσηπος; 37 – 100), born Yosef ben Matityahu (יוסף בן מתתיהו, Yosef ben Matityahu; Ἰώσηπος Ματθίου παῖς), was a first-century Romano-Jewish scholar, historian and hagiographer, who was born in Jerusalem—then part of Roman Judea—to a father of priestly descent and a mother who claimed royal ancestry.
The United Monarchy is the name given to the Israelite kingdom of Israel and Judah, during the reigns of Saul, David and Solomon, as depicted in the Hebrew Bible.
The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem was a crusader state established in the Southern Levant by Godfrey of Bouillon in 1099 after the First Crusade.
Konrad Eubel or Conradus Eubel (19 January 1842 – 5 February 1923) was a German Franciscan historian.
Kosher foods are those that conform to the Jewish dietary regulations of kashrut (dietary law), primarily derived from Leviticus and Deuteronomy.
Latinisation or Latinization is the practice of rendering a non-Latin name (or word) in a Latin style.
Lea Gottlieb (September 17, 1918 - November 17, 2012) was an Israeli fashion designer and businesswoman.
Lebrun or Le Brun may refer to.
Lehi (לח"י – לוחמי חרות ישראל Lohamei Herut Israel – Lehi, "Fighters for the Freedom of Israel – Lehi"), often known pejoratively as the Stern Gang,"This group was known to its friends as LEHI and to its enemies as the Stern Gang." Blumberg, Arnold.
Leviticus Rabbah, Vayikrah Rabbah, or Wayiqra Rabbah is a homiletic midrash to the Biblical book of Leviticus (Vayikrah in Hebrew).
A lighthouse is a tower, building, or other type of structure designed to emit light from a system of lamps and lenses and to serve as a navigational aid for maritime pilots at sea or on inland waterways.
Liwa, or Liwā’, is an Arabic term meaning ensign, or banner.
Lod (לוֹד; اللُّدّ; Latin: Lydda, Diospolis, Ancient Greek: Λύδδα / Διόσπολις - city of Zeus) is a city southeast of Tel Aviv in the Central District of Israel.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
The Maccabees, also spelled Machabees (מכבים or, Maqabim; or Maccabaei; Μακκαβαῖοι, Makkabaioi), were a group of Jewish rebel warriors who took control of Judea, which at the time was part of the Seleucid Empire.
The Mahmoudiya Mosque (جامع المحمودية, מסגד מחמודיה) is the largest and most significant mosque in Jaffa, now part of the larger city of Tel Aviv.
Mamluk (Arabic: مملوك mamlūk (singular), مماليك mamālīk (plural), meaning "property", also transliterated as mamlouk, mamluq, mamluke, mameluk, mameluke, mamaluke or marmeluke) is an Arabic designation for slaves.
Mandatory Palestine (فلسطين; פָּלֶשְׂתִּינָה (א"י), where "EY" indicates "Eretz Yisrael", Land of Israel) was a geopolitical entity under British administration, carved out of Ottoman Syria after World War I. British civil administration in Palestine operated from 1920 until 1948.
May Day is a public holiday usually celebrated on 1 May.
Menashiya or Manshiyya (מנשייה, المنشية, al-Manshiyya), was a residential neighborhood of Jaffa, Israel.
Michel Le Quien (8 October 1661, Boulogne-sur-Mer – 12 March 1733, Paris) was a French historian and theologian.
Michel Loève (January 22, 1907 – February 17, 1979) was a French-American probabilist and mathematical statistician, of Jewish origin.
Midrash halakha (הֲלָכָה) was the ancient Judaic rabbinic method of Torah study that expounded upon the traditionally received 613 Mitzvot (commandments) by identifying their sources in the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), and by interpreting these passages as proofs of the laws' authenticity.
Sir Moses Haim Montefiore, 1st Baronet, FRS (24 October 1784 – 28 July 1885) was a British financier and banker, activist, philanthropist and Sheriff of London.
A mosque (from masjid) is a place of worship for Muslims.
Muhammad Abu Nabbut (محمد أبو نبوت) was the governor of Jaffa and Gaza in the early 19th century on behalf of the Ottoman Empire.
Muhammad Ali Pasha al-Mas'ud ibn Agha (محمد علی پاشا المسعود بن آغا; محمد علي باشا / ALA-LC: Muḥammad ‘Alī Bāshā; Albanian: Mehmet Ali Pasha; Turkish: Kavalalı Mehmet Ali Paşa; 4 March 1769 – 2 August 1849) was an Ottoman Albanian commander in the Ottoman army, who rose to the rank of Pasha, and became Wāli, and self-declared Khedive of Egypt and Sudan with the Ottomans' temporary approval.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
The Society of the Muslim Brothers (جماعة الإخوان المسلمين), better known as the Muslim Brotherhood (الإخوان المسلمون), is a transnational Sunni Islamist organization founded in Egypt by Islamic scholar and schoolteacher Hassan al-Banna in 1928.
Nablus (نابلس, שכם, Biblical Shechem ISO 259-3 Škem, Νεάπολις Νeapolis) is a city in the northern West Bank, approximately north of Jerusalem, (approximately by road), with a population of 126,132.
Nadia Hilou (ناديا حلو, נאדיה חילו‎; 5 July 1953 – 27 February 2015) was an Israeli Arab social worker and politician, who served as a member of the Knesset for the Labor Party between 2006 and 2009.
A nāḥiyah (ناحية, plural nawāḥī نواحي), or nahia, is a regional or local type of administrative division that usually consists of a number of villages and/or sometimes smaller towns.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
In Abrahamic religions, Noah was the tenth and last of the pre-Flood Patriarchs.
The Old City of Jaffa is the historical part of the Israeli city of Jaffa.
Operation Hametz (מבצע חמץ, Mivtza Hametz) was a Jewish operation towards the end of the British Mandate of Palestine, as part of the 1948 Palestine war.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Palestine Exploration Fund is a British society based in London.
The Palestinian people (الشعب الفلسطيني, ash-sha‘b al-Filasṭīnī), also referred to as Palestinians (الفلسطينيون, al-Filasṭīniyyūn, פָלַסְטִינִים) or Palestinian Arabs (العربي الفلسطيني, al-'arabi il-filastini), are an ethnonational group comprising the modern descendants of the peoples who have lived in Palestine over the centuries, including Jews and Samaritans, and who today are largely culturally and linguistically Arab.
The Peasants' Revolt was a rebellion against Egyptian conscription and taxation policies in Palestine.
In Greek mythology, Perseus (Περσεύς) is the legendary founder of Mycenae and of the Perseid dynasty, who, alongside Cadmus and Bellerophon, was the greatest Greek hero and slayer of monsters before the days of Heracles.
Pesikta Rabbati or P'siqta Rabbita (Hebrew: פסיקתא רבתי) is a collection of Aggadic Midrash (homilies) on the Pentateuchal and prophetic lessons, the special Sabbaths, etc.
Pharaoh (ⲡⲣ̅ⲣⲟ Prro) is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty (c. 3150 BCE) until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until circa 1200 BCE.
The Philistines were an ancient people known for their conflict with the Israelites described in the Bible.
Phinehas ben Jair (פנחס בן יאיר) was a Tanna of the 4th generation who lived, probably at Lydda, in the second half of the 2nd century.
Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη, meaning "purple country") was a thalassocratic ancient Semitic civilization that originated in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the west of the Fertile Crescent.
Piracy is an act of robbery or criminal violence by ship or boat-borne attackers upon another ship or a coastal area, typically with the goal of stealing cargo and other valuable items or properties.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
Rabbi Aha (רבי אחא, read as Rabbi Achah) was a Jewish Amora sage of the Land of Israel, of the fourth generation of the Amora era.
Raja Issa El-Issa (رجا عيسى ﺍﻟﻌﻴﺴﻰ; born 1922 in Jaffa, mandatory Palestine), was a Palestinian journalist.
Ramla (רַמְלָה, Ramla; الرملة, ar-Ramlah) (also Ramlah, Ramle, Remle and sometimes Rama) is a city in central Israel.
The red line will be the first section of a Light rail system the Tel Aviv metropolitan area, known as Tel Aviv Light Rail.
Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England from 1189 until his death.
Rifaat "Jimmy" Turk (رفعت ترك; רפעת טורק, born 16 September 1954), Israeli Arab former football player, and manager and a former deputy mayor of Tel Aviv.
The Romanian Orthodox Church (Biserica Ortodoxă Română) is an autocephalous Orthodox Church in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox Christian Churches and ranked seventh in order of precedence.
The Royal Irish Fusiliers (Princess Victoria's) was an Irish line infantry regiment of the British Army, formed by the amalgamation of the 87th (Prince of Wales's Irish) Regiment of Foot and the 89th (Princess Victoria's) Regiment of Foot in 1881.
Sabil Abu Nabbut (سبيل أبو نبوت) also known as Tabitha's Well is a public fountain ("sabil") in Tel Aviv-Yafo, Israel, built in 1820/21 CE during the Ottoman period in Palestine.
Safed (צְפַת Tsfat, Ashkenazi: Tzfas, Biblical: Ṣ'fath; صفد, Ṣafad) is a city in the Northern District of Israel.
Saint Nicholas Monastery (Սուրբ Նիկողայոս Վանք Հայոց, מנזר ניקולאס הקדוש) is an Armenian monastery built in the first millennium AD.
Saint Peter (Syriac/Aramaic: ܫܸܡܥܘܿܢ ܟܹ݁ܐܦ݂ܵܐ, Shemayon Keppa; שמעון בר יונה; Petros; Petros; Petrus; r. AD 30; died between AD 64 and 68), also known as Simon Peter, Simeon, or Simon, according to the New Testament, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, leaders of the early Christian Great Church.
An-Nasir Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub (صلاح الدين يوسف بن أيوب / ALA-LC: Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb; سەلاحەدینی ئەییووبی / ALA-LC: Selahedînê Eyûbî), known as Salah ad-Din or Saladin (11374 March 1193), was the first sultan of Egypt and Syria and the founder of the Ayyubid dynasty.
Salamah (سلمة) was a Palestinian Arab village, located five kilometers east of Jaffa, that was depopulated in the lead up the 1948 Arab-Israeli War.
Samaria (שֹׁמְרוֹן, Standard, Tiberian Šōmərôn; السامرة, – also known as, "Nablus Mountains") is a historical and biblical name used for the central region of ancient Land of Israel, also known as Palestine, bordered by Galilee to the north and Judaea to the south.
Sasha Roiz (born October 21, 1973) is a Canadian-Israeli actor.
Sderot Yerushalayim (שדרות ירושלים), or Jerusalem Boulevard, is a long historical avenue that crosses the city of Jaffa parallel to the shoreline a few hundred meters to the west, from the border of Tel Aviv to Bat Yam in the south (Sderot HaAtsma'ut) to the Yehezkel Kaufmann Street in the north, where it continues as a boulevard to the beach.
The Second Coming (sometimes called the Second Advent or the Parousia) is a Christian and Islamic belief regarding the future (or past) return of Jesus Christ after his incarnation and ascension to heaven about two thousand years ago.
The Second Temple (בֵּית־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי, Beit HaMikdash HaSheni) was the Jewish Holy Temple which stood on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem during the Second Temple period, between 516 BCE and 70 CE.
The Seleucid Empire (Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; Seleucus I Nicator founded it following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.
Selim I (Ottoman Turkish: سليم اول, Modern Turkish: Birinci Selim; 1470/1 – September 1520), known as Selim the Grim or Selim the Resolute (Yavuz Sultan Selim), was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520.
Sennacherib was the king of Assyria from 705 BCE to 681 BCE.
Sephardi Jews, also known as Sephardic Jews or Sephardim (סְפָרַדִּים, Modern Hebrew: Sefaraddim, Tiberian: Səp̄āraddîm; also Ye'hude Sepharad, lit. "The Jews of Spain"), originally from Sepharad, Spain or the Iberian peninsula, are a Jewish ethnic division.
Shmuel Yosef Agnon (שמואל יוסף עגנון) (July 17, 1888 – February 17, 1970) was a Nobel Prize laureate writer and was one of the central figures of modern Hebrew fiction.
The Siege of Jaffa was fought from 3 to 7 March 1799 between France and the Ottoman Empire.
Solomon (שְׁלֹמֹה, Shlomoh), also called Jedidiah (Hebrew Yədidya), was, according to the Hebrew Bible, Quran, Hadith and Hidden Words, a fabulously wealthy and wise king of Israel who succeeded his father, King David. The conventional dates of Solomon's reign are circa 970 to 931 BCE, normally given in alignment with the dates of David's reign. He is described as the third king of the United Monarchy, which would break apart into the northern Kingdom of Israel and the southern Kingdom of Judah shortly after his death. Following the split, his patrilineal descendants ruled over Judah alone. According to the Talmud, Solomon is one of the 48 prophets. In the Quran, he is considered a major prophet, and Muslims generally refer to him by the Arabic variant Sulayman, son of David. The Hebrew Bible credits him as the builder of the First Temple in Jerusalem, beginning in the fourth year of his reign, using the vast wealth he had accumulated. He dedicated the temple to Yahweh, the God of Israel. He is portrayed as great in wisdom, wealth and power beyond either of the previous kings of the country, but also as a king who sinned. His sins included idolatry, marrying foreign women and, ultimately, turning away from Yahweh, and they led to the kingdom's being torn in two during the reign of his son Rehoboam. Solomon is the subject of many other later references and legends, most notably in the 1st-century apocryphal work known as the Testament of Solomon. In the New Testament, he is portrayed as a teacher of wisdom excelled by Jesus, and as arrayed in glory, but excelled by "the lilies of the field". In later years, in mostly non-biblical circles, Solomon also came to be known as a magician and an exorcist, with numerous amulets and medallion seals dating from the Hellenistic period invoking his name.
According to the Hebrew Bible, Solomon's Temple, also known as the First Temple, was the Holy Temple (בֵּית־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ: Beit HaMikdash) in ancient Jerusalem before its destruction by Nebuchadnezzar II after the Siege of Jerusalem of 587 BCE and its subsequent replacement with the Second Temple in the 6th century BCE.
Sultan (سلطان) is a position with several historical meanings.
Tabitha is an English language feminine given name, derived from an Aramaic word טביתא ṭabītā that means gazelle.
The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד talmūd "instruction, learning", from a root LMD "teach, study") is the central text of Rabbinic Judaism and the primary source of Jewish religious law and theology.
The Tanakh (or; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach), also called the Mikra or Hebrew Bible, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament.
Tarshish (תַּרְשִׁישׁ) occurs in the Hebrew Bible with several uncertain meanings, most frequently as a place (probably a large city or region) far across the sea from the Land of Israel and Phoenicia (Tarshish is currently the name of a village in Mount Lebanon District in Lebanon).
Tel Aviv (תֵּל אָבִיב,, تل أَبيب) is the second most populous city in Israel – after Jerusalem – and the most populous city in the conurbation of Gush Dan, Israel's largest metropolitan area.
The Tel Aviv and Jaffa deportation refers to the forcible deportation of the entire civilian populations of Jaffa and Tel Aviv on April 6, 1917, by the Ottoman Empire's authorities in Palestine.
The Tel Aviv Metropolitan Area Mass-Transit System is a planned mass transit system for the Tel Aviv Metropolitan Area.
In archaeology, a tell, or tel (derived from تَل,, 'hill' or 'mound'), is an artificial mound formed from the accumulated refuse of people living on the same site for hundreds or thousands of years.
The Temple Society (Tempelgesellschaft) is a German Protestant sect with roots in the Pietist movement of the Lutheran Church.
The Bloody Day in Jaffa (Hebrew: יום הדמים ביפו) refers to a spate of violent attacks on Jews that began on 19 April 1936 in Jaffa.
The Crusade is the half-missing sixth serial of the second season in the British science fiction television series Doctor Who, which was first broadcast in four weekly parts from 27 March to 17 April 1965.
The Nation is the oldest continuously published weekly magazine in the United States, and the most widely read weekly journal of progressive political and cultural news, opinion, and analysis.
The Taking of Joppa is an ancient Egyptian tale describing the conquest of the Canaanite town of Yapu (Joppa) by Thutmose III's general Djehuty.
The Third Crusade (1189–1192), was an attempt by European Christian leaders to reconquer the Holy Land following the capture of Jerusalem by the Ayyubid sultan, Saladin, in 1187.
Thutmose III (sometimes read as Thutmosis or Tuthmosis III, Thothmes in older history works, and meaning "Thoth is born") was the sixth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty.
The Treaty of Jaffa was an agreement during the Crusades.
The Tribe of Dan, meaning, "Judge," was one of the tribes of Israel, according to the Torah.
The Trojan Horse is a tale from the Trojan War about the subterfuge that the Greeks used to enter the independent city of Troy and win the war.
Tyre (صور, Ṣūr; Phoenician:, Ṣūr; צוֹר, Ṣōr; Tiberian Hebrew, Ṣōr; Akkadian:, Ṣurru; Greek: Τύρος, Týros; Sur; Tyrus, Տիր, Tir), sometimes romanized as Sour, is a district capital in the South Governorate of Lebanon.
The United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine was a proposal by the United Nations, which recommended a partition of Mandatory Palestine at the end of the British Mandate. On 29 November 1947, the UN General Assembly adopted the Plan as Resolution 181 (II). The resolution recommended the creation of independent Arab and Jewish States and a Special International Regime for the city of Jerusalem. The Partition Plan, a four-part document attached to the resolution, provided for the termination of the Mandate, the progressive withdrawal of British armed forces and the delineation of boundaries between the two States and Jerusalem. Part I of the Plan stipulated that the Mandate would be terminated as soon as possible and the United Kingdom would withdraw no later than 1 August 1948. The new states would come into existence two months after the withdrawal, but no later than 1 October 1948. The Plan sought to address the conflicting objectives and claims of two competing movements, Palestinian nationalism and Jewish nationalism, or Zionism. Molinaro, Enrico The Holy Places of Jerusalem in Middle East Peace Agreements Page 78 The Plan also called for Economic Union between the proposed states, and for the protection of religious and minority rights. The Plan was accepted by the Jewish Agency for Palestine, despite its perceived limitations. Arab leaders and governments rejected it and indicated an unwillingness to accept any form of territorial division, arguing that it violated the principles of national self-determination in the UN Charter which granted people the right to decide their own destiny.Sami Hadawi, Olive Branch Press, (1989)1991 p.76. Immediately after adoption of the Resolution by the General Assembly, a civil war broke out and the plan was not implemented.
The Crusader state of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, created in 1099, was divided into a number of smaller seigneuries.
Vespasian (Titus Flavius Vespasianus;Classical Latin spelling and reconstructed Classical Latin pronunciation: Vespasian was from an equestrian family that rose into the senatorial rank under the Julio–Claudian emperors. Although he fulfilled the standard succession of public offices and held the consulship in AD 51, Vespasian's renown came from his military success; he was legate of Legio II ''Augusta'' during the Roman invasion of Britain in 43 and subjugated Judaea during the Jewish rebellion of 66. While Vespasian besieged Jerusalem during the Jewish rebellion, emperor Nero committed suicide and plunged Rome into a year of civil war known as the Year of the Four Emperors. After Galba and Otho perished in quick succession, Vitellius became emperor in April 69. The Roman legions of Roman Egypt and Judaea reacted by declaring Vespasian, their commander, emperor on 1 July 69. In his bid for imperial power, Vespasian joined forces with Mucianus, the governor of Syria, and Primus, a general in Pannonia, leaving his son Titus to command the besieging forces at Jerusalem. Primus and Mucianus led the Flavian forces against Vitellius, while Vespasian took control of Egypt. On 20 December 69, Vitellius was defeated, and the following day Vespasian was declared emperor by the Senate. Vespasian dated his tribunician years from 1 July, substituting the acts of Rome's Senate and people as the legal basis for his appointment with the declaration of his legions, and transforming his legions into an electoral college. Little information survives about the government during Vespasian's ten-year rule. He reformed the financial system of Rome after the campaign against Judaea ended successfully, and initiated several ambitious construction projects, including the building of the Flavian Amphitheatre, better known today as the Roman Colosseum. In reaction to the events of 68–69, Vespasian forced through an improvement in army discipline. Through his general Agricola, Vespasian increased imperial expansion in Britain. After his death in 79, he was succeeded by his eldest son Titus, thus becoming the first Roman emperor to be directly succeeded by his own natural son and establishing the Flavian dynasty.
Victor Norris Hamilton (born c. 1919), is an American cryptologist who defected to the Soviet Union in 1963.
Village Statistics, 1945 was a joint survey work prepared by the Government Office of Statistics and the Department of Lands of the British Mandate Government for the Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry on Palestine which acted in early 1946.
Yitzhak Ben-Zvi (יצחק בן־צבי Yitshak Ben-Tsvi; 24 November 188423 April 1963) was a historian, Labor Zionist leader and the second and longest-serving President of Israel.
Yizhar Harari (יזהר הררי, 16 July 1908 – 1 February 1978) was a Zionist activist and Israeli politician.
Yoav Gelber (יואב גלבר; born September 25, 1943) is a professor of history at the University of Haifa, and was formerly a visiting professor at The University of Texas at Austin.
Yosef Eliyahu Chelouche (יוסף אליהו שלוש, 1870 – 23 July 1934) was one of the founders of Tel Aviv, an entrepreneur, businessman and industrialist.
Yosef Haim Brenner (יוסף חיים ברנר, also Yosef Chaim Brenner, 1881–1921) was a Russian-born Hebrew-language author and one of the pioneers of modern Hebrew literature.
Yosef Sapir (יוסף ספיר; January 27, 1902 – February 26, 1972) was an Israeli politician and Knesset member of the 1st to 7th Knessets.
Ze’ev Herzog (זאב הרצוג; born 1941) is an Israeli archeologist, professor of archaeology at The Department of Archaeology and Ancient Near Eastern Cultures at Tel Aviv University specializing in social archaeology, ancient architecture and field archaeology.
1 Maccabees is a book of the Bible written in Hebrew by a Jewish author after the restoration of an independent Jewish kingdom by the Hasmonean dynasty, about the latter part of the 2nd century BC.
The Jaffa riots (commonly known in Me'oraot Tarpa) was a series of violent riots in Mandatory Palestine on May 1–7, 1921, which began as a fight between two Jewish groups but developed into an attack by Arabs on Jews during which many were killed.
The 1922 census of Palestine was the first census carried out by the authorities of the British Mandate of Palestine, on 23 October 1922.
1931 census of Palestine was the second census carried out by the authorities of the British Mandate for Palestine.
The 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine, later came to be known as "The Great Revolt", was a nationalist uprising by Palestinian Arabs in Mandatory Palestine against the British administration of the Palestine Mandate, demanding Arab independence and the end of the policy of open-ended Jewish immigration and land purchases with the stated goal of establishing a "Jewish National Home". The dissent was directly influenced by the Qassamite rebellion, following the killing of Sheikh Izz ad-Din al-Qassam in 1935, as well as the declaration by Hajj Amin al-Husseini of 16 May 1936 as 'Palestine Day' and calling for a General Strike. The revolt was branded by many in the Jewish Yishuv as "immoral and terroristic", often comparing it to fascism and nazism. Ben Gurion however described Arab causes as fear of growing Jewish economic power, opposition to mass Jewish immigration and fear of the English identification with Zionism.Morris, 1999, p. 136. The general strike lasted from April to October 1936, initiating the violent revolt. The revolt consisted of two distinct phases.Norris, 2008, pp. 25, 45. The first phase was directed primarily by the urban and elitist Higher Arab Committee (HAC) and was focused mainly on strikes and other forms of political protest. By October 1936, this phase had been defeated by the British civil administration using a combination of political concessions, international diplomacy (involving the rulers of Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Transjordan and Yemen) and the threat of martial law. The second phase, which began late in 1937, was a violent and peasant-led resistance movement provoked by British repression in 1936 that increasingly targeted British forces. During this phase, the rebellion was brutally suppressed by the British Army and the Palestine Police Force using repressive measures that were intended to intimidate the Arab population and undermine popular support for the revolt. During this phase, a more dominant role on the Arab side was taken by the Nashashibi clan, whose NDP party quickly withdrew from the rebel Arab Higher Committee, led by the radical faction of Amin al-Husseini, and instead sided with the British – dispatching "Fasail al-Salam" (the "Peace Bands") in coordination with the British Army against nationalist and Jihadist Arab "Fasail" units (literally "bands"). According to official British figures covering the whole revolt, the army and police killed more than 2,000 Arabs in combat, 108 were hanged, and 961 died because of what they described as "gang and terrorist activities". In an analysis of the British statistics, Walid Khalidi estimates 19,792 casualties for the Arabs, with 5,032 dead: 3,832 killed by the British and 1,200 dead because of "terrorism", and 14,760 wounded. Over ten percent of the adult male Palestinian Arab population between 20 and 60 was killed, wounded, imprisoned or exiled. Estimates of the number of Palestinian Jews killed range from 91 to several hundred.Morris, 1999, p. 160. The Arab revolt in Mandatory Palestine was unsuccessful, and its consequences affected the outcome of the 1948 Palestine war.Morris, 1999, p. 159. It caused the British Mandate to give crucial support to pre-state Zionist militias like the Haganah, whereas on the Palestinian Arab side, the revolt forced the flight into exile of the main Palestinian Arab leader of the period, the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem – Haj Amin al-Husseini.
The 8th millennium BC spanned the years 8000 through 7001 BC.
Ioppe, Ioppe (titular see), Jaffa, Israel, Jaffa, Palestine, Joppe (Roman), Joppe (Syrian), Khurbet Hadrah, Sack of Jaffa (66), Titular Bishop of Joppe, Yafeh, Yaffa, Israel, Yaffa, Palestine, Yafo, Yafo, Israel, יָפוֹ, يَافَا.