384 relations: ABC-CLIO, Abhisheka, Absolute (philosophy), Acharanga Sutra, Acharya, Acharya (Jainism), Advaita Vedanta, Agra, Agrawal Jain, Aharji, Ahimsa, Ahimsa in Jainism, Ahmedabad, Ajatashatru, Ajmer district, Akbar, Akota Bronzes, Akshaya Tritiya, Alauddin Khalji, Allahabad, Ambika (Jainism), Anatta, Anekantavada, Anga, Antwerp, Aparigraha, Appar, Arihant (Jainism), Arthashastra, Aryika, Asceticism, Ashoka, Ashtadhatu, Ashtamangala, Asrava, Asteya, Avasarpiṇī, Avatar, Ayodhya, Ātman (Hinduism), Śramaṇa, Śrāvaka (Jainism), Śvētāmbara, Badami cave temples, Baghera, Bagherwal, Bahubali, Balabhadra, Bandha (Jainism), Basava, ..., Bawangaja, Belgium, Bengal, Bhabra, Bhadra (Hindu calendar), Bhadrabahu, Bhakti yoga, Bharata Chakravartin, Bharatiya Jnanpith, Bhattaraka, Bhavacakra, Bhinmal, Bhubaneswar, Bhutabali, Bihar, Bimbisara, Brahma Sutras, Brahmacharya, Brahman, Brahmin, Brass, Brill Publishers, British Raj, Cīvaka Cintāmaṇi, Chaitra, Chakravarti (Sanskrit term), Chalukya dynasty, Champapuri, Champat Rai Jain, Chandragupta Maurya, Chatra (umbrella), Chavundaraya, Chennai, Criticism of Jainism, Delhi, Dharma (Jainism), Dharmachakra, Dhvaja, Digambara, Digambara Terapanth, Dilwara Temples, Diwali, Diwali (Jainism), Diya (lamp), Dravyasamgraha, Dvaita Vedanta, Ellora Caves, Encyclopædia Britannica, Epistemology, Fiji, Fly-whisk, Four causes, Ganadhara, Garbhagriha, Girnar, Girnar Jain temples, Gold, Gommateshwara statue, Guṇa, Guru, Gwalior, Halebidu (town), Hand fan, Haribhadra, Harivamsa Purana, Haryanka dynasty, Hassan district, Hastinapur, Hathigumpha inscription, Hindi Granth Karyalay, Hindu calendar, Hinduism, Hisar (city), Historical Vedic religion, Hoysala Empire, Hutheesing Jain Temple, Iconography, India, Indian religions, Indra, Indus Valley Civilisation, Jain Agamas, Jain Bunt, Jain community, Jain cosmology, Jain flag, Jain house temple, Jain Law, Jain literature, Jain monasticism, Jain Temple, Lakkundi, Jain temples of Khajuraho, Jain vegetarianism, Jainism, Jainism and non-creationism, Jainism in Africa, Jainism in Belgium, Jainism in Bundelkhand, Jainism in Canada, Jainism in Delhi, Jainism in Europe, Jainism in Gujarat, Jainism in Hong Kong, Jainism in India, Jainism in Karnataka, Jainism in Maharashtra, Jainism in Rajasthan, Jainism in the United Kingdom, Jainism in the United States, Jainism in Uttar Pradesh, Jaisalmer, Jaiswal Jain, Jal Mandir, Jharkhand, Jinasena, Jnana yoga, John E. Cort, K. A. Nilakanta Sastri, Kalasha, Kalpa Sūtra, Kalugumalai Jain Beds, Kankali Tila, Kannada, Karma in Jainism, Karma yoga, Karnataka, Kashaya (Jainism), Kayotsarga, Kevala Jnana, Khajuraho Group of Monuments, Khandela, Kirti Stambha, Komati caste, Kulpakji, Kumbhoj, Kundakunda, Kundalpur, Kushan Empire, Lacto vegetarianism, Laity, Lakkundi, Lalitpur district, India, Lingayatism, List of Jains, List of root vegetables, Lodhruva, Logic, London, Lotus position, Madhya Pradesh, Madhyamaka, Madurai, Magadhi Prakrit, Mahatma Gandhi, Mahavir Jayanti, Mahavira, Mahendravarman I, Mahmud of Ghazni, Major religious groups, Manastambha, Mangi-Tungi, Mantra, Marwar, Mathura, Mattancherry, Mattavilasa Prahasana, Maurya Empire, Māllīnātha, Merriam-Webster, Micchami Dukkadam, Mirror, Moksha, Moksha (Jainism), Monolith, Motilal Banarsidass, Mount Abu, Mount Kailash, Muhammad of Ghor, Mumbai, Murtipujaka, Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent, Nagarparkar, Namaste, Nambiyandar Nambi, Namokar Mantra, Nandavarta, Nashik, Nashik district, Navnat, Nālaṭiyār, Nemichandra, Neminatha, New Delhi, New York City, Nirjara, Niyamasara, Nondualism, Nonviolence, Odisha, Ohio University Press, Ontology, Oral tradition, Orient Blackswan, Osian, Jodhpur, Oswal, Oxford University Press, Pañca-Parameṣṭhi, Padmanabh Jaini, Pakistan, Palitana, Palitana temples, Panch Kalyanaka, Panch Kalyanaka Pratishtha Mahotsava, Panchakuta Basadi, Kambadahalli, Pandyan dynasty, Parasparopagraho Jivanam, Parshvanath Jain temple, Varanasi, Parshvanatha, Parshvanatha temple, Khajuraho, Parwar (Jain community), Paryushana, Patan, Gujarat, Patna, Pattadakal, Pawapuri, Pearson Education, Penguin Books, Place of worship, Pluti, Popular Prakashan, Porwal gotras, Pramana, Punjab, Puranas, Purvas, Rajasthan, Rajgir, Raksha Bandhan, Rama, Ramanuja, Ranakpur, Ranakpur Jain temple, Rashtrakuta dynasty, Ratnakaranda śrāvakācāra, Religious denomination, Richard Gombrich, Rishabhanatha, Rishabhdeo, Rock-cut architecture, Routledge, Saavira Kambada Basadi, Saṃsāra, Saṃsāra (Jainism), Sahitya Akademi, Sallekhana, Samavasarana, Samayasāra, Sambandar, Samvara, Samvatsari, Sangam literature, Sarak, Sarawagi, Sari, Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, Satya, Sāmāyika, Seuna (Yadava) dynasty, Shaivism, Shalivahana, Shantisagar, Shatrunjaya, Shikhara, Shikharji, Shravanabelagola, Shri Mahaveer Ji temple, Shrimal Jain, Shrivatsa, Siddha, Siddhashila, Sikhism, Silver, Simandhara, Sindh, Sita, Sittanavasal Cave, Sonagiri, Statue of Ahimsa, Sthānakavāsī, Sthulabhadra, Stupa, SUNY Press, Suriname, Swastika, Tamil Jain, Tamil language, Tamil-Brahmi, Tattvartha Sutra, Thar Desert, Tharparkar District, The Hindu, The Telegraph (Calcutta), The Times of India, Tijara Jain temple, Tirtha (Jainism), Tirthankara, Tirumalai (Jain complex), Triratna, Trishala, Udayagiri and Khandagiri Caves, Udayin, Umaswati, Undavalli Caves, UNESCO, University of California Press, University of Chicago Press, Upadhyay, Uttarakhand, Vaishnavism, Vasupujya, Vedanta, Vedas, Veganism, Vibhu, Vidisha, Vishishtadvaita, Vishnu, Vishnuvardhana, Votive offering, World Heritage site, Yaksha, Yakshini, Yapaniya, Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. Expand index (334 more) » « Shrink index
ABC-CLIO, LLC is a publishing company for academic reference works and periodicals primarily on topics such as history and social sciences for educational and public library settings.
Abhisheka or Abhishekam (Devanagari: अभिषेक) is a Sanskrit term akin to puja, yagya and arati that denotes: a devotional activity; an enacted prayer, rite of passage and/or religious rite.
In philosophy, the concept of The Absolute, also known as The (Unconditioned) Ultimate, The Wholly Other, The Supreme Being, The Absolute/Ultimate Reality, and other names, is the thing, being, entity, power, force, reality, presence, law, principle, etc.
The Acharanga Sutra (First book c. 5th-4th century BCE; Second book c. 2nd-1st century BCE) is the first of the twelve Angas, part of the agamas (religious texts) which were compiled based on the teachings of Mahavira.
In Indian religions and society, an acharya (IAST) is a preceptor or instructor in religious matters; founder, or leader of a sect; or a highly learned person or a title affixed to the names of learned people.
Āchārya means the Head of an order of ascetics.
Advaita Vedanta (अद्वैत वेदान्त, IAST:, literally, "not-two"), originally known as Puruṣavāda, is a school of Hindu philosophy and religious practice, and one of the classic Indian paths to spiritual realization.
Agra is a city on the banks of the river Yamuna in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh, India.
Agrawal Jains are an Indian Jain community who originated from Hisar, Haryana.
Aharji is a historical pilgrimage site for Jainism in India.
Ahimsa (IAST:, Pāli) means 'not to injure' and 'compassion' and refers to a key virtue in Indian religions.
Ahimsā in Jainism is a fundamental principle forming the cornerstone of its ethics and doctrine.
Ahmedabad, also known as Amdavad is the largest city and former capital of the Indian state of Gujarat.
Ajatashatru (Pali: Ajātasattu; Kunika; or early 4th century BCE) was a king of the Haryanka dynasty of Magadha in North India.
Ajmer District is a district of the state of Rajasthan in western India.
Abu'l-Fath Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar (15 October 1542– 27 October 1605), popularly known as Akbar I, was the third Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1556 to 1605.
The Akota Bronzes represent a rare and important set of 68 Jain images, dating to between the 6th and 12th centuries CE, which were found in the vicinity of Akota near Baroda in the Indian state of Gujarat.
Akshaya Tritiya, also known as Akti or Akha Teej, is annual spring time festival of the Hindus and Jains.
ʿAlāʾ ud-Dīn Khaljī was the second and the most powerful ruler of the Khalji dynasty that ruled the Delhi Sultanate in the Indian subcontinent.
Prayag, or Allahabad is a large metropolitan city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh and the administrative headquarters of Allahabad District, the most populous district in the state and 13th most populous district in India, and the Allahabad Division.
In Jainism, Ambika (अम्बिका, "Mother") or Ambika Devi (अम्बिका देवी "the Goddess-Mother") is the Yakṣi "dedicated attendant deity" or "protector goddess" of the 22nd Tirthankara, Neminatha.
In Buddhism, the term anattā (Pali) or anātman (Sanskrit) refers to the doctrine of "non-self", that there is no unchanging, permanent self, soul or essence in living beings.
(अनेकान्तवाद, "many-sidedness") refers to the Jain doctrine about metaphysical truths that emerged in ancient India.
Anga was an ancient Indian kingdom that flourished on the eastern Indian subcontinent and one of the sixteen mahajanapadas ("large state").
Antwerp (Antwerpen, Anvers) is a city in Belgium, and is the capital of Antwerp province in Flanders.
In Hinduism and Jainism, aparigraha (अपरिग्रह) is the virtue of non-possessiveness, non-grasping or non-greediness.
Appar Tirunavukkarasar Nayanar (திருநாவுக்கரசர் "King of the Tongue, Lord of Language"), also known as Navakkarasar and Appar "Father", was a seventh-century Śaiva Tamil poet-saint, one of the most prominent of the sixty-three Nayanars.
Arihant (italic, italic "conqueror"), is a soul who has conquered inner passions such as attachment, anger, pride and greed.
The Arthashastra is an ancient Indian treatise on statecraft, economic policy and military strategy, written in Sanskrit.
Aryika, also known as Sadhvi, is a female mendicant (nun) in Jainism.
Asceticism (from the ἄσκησις áskesis, "exercise, training") is a lifestyle characterized by abstinence from sensual pleasures, often for the purpose of pursuing spiritual goals.
Ashoka (died 232 BCE), or Ashoka the Great, was an Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty, who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from to 232 BCE.
Ashtadhatu (literally eight metals) is an alloy often used for casting metallic idols in Jain and Hindu temples in India.
The Ashtamangala are a sacred suite of Eight Auspicious Signs endemic to a number of Indian religions such as Hinduism, Jainism, and Buddhism.
Asrava (āsrava "influx") is one of the tattva or the fundamental reality of the world as per the Jain philosophy.
Asteya is the Sanskrit term for "non-stealing".
Avasarpiṇī is the descending half of the worldly time cycle which is actually current now as per the Jain philosophy.
An avatar (Sanskrit: अवतार, IAST), a concept in Hinduism that means "descent", refers to the material appearance or incarnation of a deity on earth.
Ayodhya (IAST Ayodhyā), also known as Saketa, is an ancient city of India, believed to be the birthplace of Rama and setting of the epic Ramayana.
Ātma is a Sanskrit word that means inner self or soul.
Śramaṇa (Sanskrit: श्रमण; Pali: samaṇa) means "seeker, one who performs acts of austerity, ascetic".
In Jainism, the word Śrāvaka is used to refer the Jain laity (householder).
The Śvētāmbara (श्वेतांबर or श्वेतपट śvētapaṭa; also spelled Svetambar, Shvetambara, Shvetambar, Swetambar or Shwetambar) is one of the two main branches of Jainism, the other being the Digambara.
The Badami cave temples are a complex of four Hindu, a Jain and possibly Buddhist cave temples located in Badami, a town in the Bagalkot district in northern part of Karnataka, India.
Baghera is a village in Mirzapur, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Bagherwal is a Jain community originated from Baghera a princely state in Rajasthan (in India).
Bahubali, a much revered figure among Jains, was the son of Rishabhanatha, the first tirthankara of Jainism, and the younger brother of Bharata Chakravartin.
In Jainism, Balabhadra or Baladeva are among the sixty-three illustrious beings called śalākāpuruṣas that are said to grace every half cycle of time.
Bandha (also karma-bandha) in Jainism, is the mutual intermingling of the soul and karmas (fine matter).
Basavanna (ಬಸವಣ್ಣ) was a 12th-century Hindu philosopher, statesman, Kannada poet in the Niraakaara Shiva-focussed Bhakti movement and a social reformer during the reign of the Kalachuri-dynasty king Bijjala I in Karnataka, India.
Bawangaja (meaning 52 yards) is a famous Jain pilgrim center in the Barwani district of southwestern Madhya Pradesh in India.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
Bengal (Bānglā/Bôngô /) is a geopolitical, cultural and historical region in Asia, which is located in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal.
Bhabra or Bhabhra is an ancient merchant community from Punjab region which mainly follows Jainism.
Bhadra or Bhadrapada or Bhaado or Bhadraba (Hindi: भादों bhaado, Sanskrit: भाद्रपद bhaadrapada, भाद्र Bhadra, Bhadraba) is a month of the Hindu calendar that corresponds to August/September in the Gregorian calendar.
Bhadrabahu was, according to the Digambara sect of Jainism, the last Shruta Kevalin (all knowing by hearsay, that is indirectly) in Jainism (the other sect, Śvētāmbara, believes the last Shruta Kevalin was Acharya Sthulabhadra, but was forbade by Bhadrabahu from disclosing it).
Bhakti yoga, also called Bhakti marga (literally the path of Bhakti), is a spiritual path or spiritual practice within Hinduism focused on loving devotion towards a personal god.
Bharata was the first chakravartin (universal emperor or possessor of chakra) of avasarpini (present half time cycle as per Jain cosmology).
Bharatiya Jnanpith a literary and research organization, based in New Delhi, India, was founded on February 18, 1944 by Sahu Shanti Prasad Jain of the Sahu Jain family and his wife Rama Jain to undertake systematic research and publication of Sanskrit, Prakrit, Pali and Apabhramsha texts and covering subjects like religion, philosophy, logic, ethics, grammar, astrology, poetics.
A Bhaṭṭāraka (भट्टारक "holy one") heads traditional Digambara Jain institutions.
The bhavachakra (Sanskrit; Pāli: bhavachakra; Tibetan: srid pa'i 'khor lo) is a symbolic representation of saṃsāra (or cyclic existence).
Bhinmal (old names: Jadia and Srimala) is a town in the Jalore District of Rajasthan, India.
Bhubaneswar, also spelt as Bhubaneshwar or Bhuvanēśvar, is the capital of the Indian state of Odisha.
Acharya Bhutabali was a Digambara monk.
Bihar is an Indian state considered to be a part of Eastern as well as Northern India.
Bimbisara (c. 558 – c. 491 BC or during the late 5th century BC) also known as Seniya or Shrenika in the Jain histories was a King of Magadha (V. K. Agnihotri (ed.), Indian History. Allied Publishers, New Delhi 262010, f. or c. 400 BC) and belonged to the Haryanka dynasty.
The Brahma sūtras (ब्रह्म सूत्र) is a Sanskrit text, attributed to Badarayana, estimated to have been completed in its surviving form some time between 450 BCE and 200 CE.
Brahmacharya (Devanagari: ब्रह्मचर्य) is a concept within Indian religions that literally means "going after Brahman".
In Hinduism, Brahman connotes the highest Universal Principle, the Ultimate Reality in the universe.P. T. Raju (2006), Idealistic Thought of India, Routledge,, page 426 and Conclusion chapter part XII In major schools of Hindu philosophy, it is the material, efficient, formal and final cause of all that exists.For dualism school of Hinduism, see: Francis X. Clooney (2010), Hindu God, Christian God: How Reason Helps Break Down the Boundaries between Religions, Oxford University Press,, pages 51–58, 111–115;For monist school of Hinduism, see: B. Martinez-Bedard (2006), Types of Causes in Aristotle and Sankara, Thesis – Department of Religious Studies (Advisors: Kathryn McClymond and Sandra Dwyer), Georgia State University, pages 18–35 It is the pervasive, genderless, infinite, eternal truth and bliss which does not change, yet is the cause of all changes. Brahman as a metaphysical concept is the single binding unity behind diversity in all that exists in the universe. Brahman is a Vedic Sanskrit word, and it is conceptualized in Hinduism, states Paul Deussen, as the "creative principle which lies realized in the whole world". Brahman is a key concept found in the Vedas, and it is extensively discussed in the early Upanishads.Stephen Philips (1998), Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Brahman to Derrida (Editor; Edward Craig), Routledge,, pages 1–4 The Vedas conceptualize Brahman as the Cosmic Principle. In the Upanishads, it has been variously described as Sat-cit-ānanda (truth-consciousness-bliss) and as the unchanging, permanent, highest reality. Brahman is discussed in Hindu texts with the concept of Atman (Soul, Self), personal, impersonal or Para Brahman, or in various combinations of these qualities depending on the philosophical school. In dualistic schools of Hinduism such as the theistic Dvaita Vedanta, Brahman is different from Atman (soul) in each being.Michael Myers (2000), Brahman: A Comparative Theology, Routledge,, pages 124–127 In non-dual schools such as the Advaita Vedanta, Brahman is identical to the Atman, is everywhere and inside each living being, and there is connected spiritual oneness in all existence.Arvind Sharma (2007), Advaita Vedānta: An Introduction, Motilal Banarsidass,, pages 19–40, 53–58, 79–86.
Brahmin (Sanskrit: ब्राह्मण) is a varna (class) in Hinduism specialising as priests, teachers (acharya) and protectors of sacred learning across generations.
Brass is a metallic alloy that is made of copper and zinc.
Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is a Dutch international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands.
The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.
Civaka Cintamani (சீவக சிந்தாமணி) is a classical epic poem.
Chaitra is a month of the Hindu calendar.
Chakravarti (Sanskrit cakravartin, Pali cakkavattin), is a Sanskrit term used to refer to an ideal universal ruler who rules ethically and benevolently over the entire world.
The Chalukya dynasty was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th centuries.
Champapuri is a village in Narkatiaganj Subdivision region West Champaran district in the Indian state of Bihar.
Champat Rai Jain (1867-1942) was an influential Jain writer and comparative religion scholar of the 20th century who contrasted Jainism and Christianity.
Chandragupta Maurya (reign: 321–297 BCE) was the founder of the Maurya Empire in ancient India.
The chatra (from छत्र, meaning "umbrella") is an auspicious symbol in Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism.
Chavundraya or Chamundaraya (Kannada Cāmuṇḍarāya, Cāvuṇḍarāya, 940–989) was an Indian military commander, architect, poet and minister.
Chennai (formerly known as Madras or) is the capital of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Jainism has been engaged in debates with the other philosophical and religious traditions, in which its theories and practices have been questioned and challenged.
Delhi (Dilli), officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT), is a city and a union territory of India.
Jain texts assign a wide range of meaning to the Sanskrit dharma or Prakrit dhamma.
The dharmachakra (which is also known as the wheel of dharma), is one of the Ashtamangala of Indian religions such as Jainism, Buddhism, and Hinduism.
Dhvaja (Skt. also Dhwaja), meaning banner or flag, is composed of the Ashtamangala, the "eight auspicious symbols.".
Digambara ("sky-clad") is one of the two major schools of Jainism, the other being Śvētāmbara (white-clad).
Digambara Terapanth is one of the sects of Digambara Jainism, the other being the Bispanthi sect.
The Dilwara Temples (અાબુના દેલવાડા) of India are located about 2½ kilometres from Mount Abu, Rajasthan's only hill station.
Diwali or Deepavali is the Hindu festival of lights celebrated every year in autumn in the northern hemisphere (spring in southern hemisphere).
Diwali has a very special significance in Jainism.
A Diya, diyo, deya, divaa, deepa, deepam, or deepak is an oil lamp used in the Indian subcontinent, notably India and Nepal, usually made from clay, with a cotton wick dipped in ghee or vegetable oils.
(Devnagari: द्रव्यसंग्रह) (Compendium of substances) is a 10th-century Jain text in Jain Sauraseni Prakrit by Acharya Nemicandra belonging to the Digambara Jain tradition.
Dvaita Vedanta (द्वैत वेदान्त) is a sub-school in the Vedanta tradition of Hindu philosophy.
Ellora (\e-ˈlȯr-ə\, IAST), located in the Aurangabad district of Maharashtra, India, is one of the largest rock-cut monastery-temple cave complexes in the world, and a UNESCO World Heritage Site, featuring Buddhist, Hindu and Jain monuments, and artwork, dating from the 600-1000 CE period.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.
Fiji (Viti; Fiji Hindi: फ़िजी), officially the Republic of Fiji (Matanitu Tugalala o Viti; Fiji Hindi: फ़िजी गणराज्य), is an island country in Oceania in the South Pacific Ocean about northeast of New Zealand's North Island.
A fly-whisk is a tool to swat or disturb flies.
The "four causes" are elements of an influential principle in Aristotelian thought whereby explanations of change or movement are classified into four fundamental types of answer to the question "why?".
In Jainism, the term Ganadhara is used to refer the chief disciple of a Tirthankara.
Garbhagriha or Garbha gruha (garbha gṛha) (Sanskrit: गर्भगृह) is the sanctum sanctorum, the innermost sanctum of a Hindu temple where resides the murti (idol or icon) of the primary deity of the temple.
Girnar, also known as Girinagar ('city-on-the-hill') or Revatak Parvata, is a group of mountains in the Junagadh District of Gujarat, India, situated near Junagadh.
The group temples of Jainism are situated on the Girnar mountains in the Junagadh District of Gujarat, India, situated near Junagadh.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
Gommateshwara Statue ಗೊಮ್ಮಟೇಶ್ವರ is a high monolithic statue located on Vindyagiri at Shravanbelagola in the Indian state of Karnataka.
depending on the context means "string, thread, or strand", or "virtue, merit, excellence", or "quality, peculiarity, attribute, property".
Guru (गुरु, IAST: guru) is a Sanskrit term that connotes someone who is a "teacher, guide, expert, or master" of certain knowledge or field.
Gwalior is a major and the northern-most city in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh and one of the Counter-magnet cities.
Halebidu (IAST: Haḷēbīḍ, also Halebeedu or Halebid, literally "old capital, encampment") is a town located in Hassan District, Karnataka, India.
A handheld fan is an implement used to induce an airflow for the purpose of cooling or refreshing oneself.
Haribhadra Suri was a Svetambara mendicant Jain leader and author.
was composed by Acharya Jinasena in 783 AD.
The Haryanka dynasty was the second ruling dynasty of Magadha, an ancient kingdom in India, which succeeded the mythological Barhadratha dynasty.
Hassan is a district in Karnataka state, India.
Hastinapur is a city in Meerut district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.
The Hathigumpha Inscription ("Elephant Cave" inscription), from Udayagiri, near Bhubaneswar in Odisha, was inscribed by Kharavela, the then Emperor of Kalinga in India, during 2nd century BCE.
Hindi Granth Karyalay is an Indian publishing house and specialized book store dealing in books pertaining to Jainology and Indology in English, Hindi, Sanskrit, Prakrit and Apabhramsha.
Hindu calendar is a collective term for the various lunisolar calendars traditionally used in India.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
Hisar is the administrative headquarters of Hisar district of Hisar division in the state of Haryana in northwestern India.
The historical Vedic religion (also known as Vedism, Brahmanism, Vedic Brahmanism, and ancient Hinduism) was the religion of the Indo-Aryans of northern India during the Vedic period.
The Hoysala Empire was a Kannadiga power originating from the Indian subcontinent, that ruled most of the what is now Karnataka, India between the 10th and the 14th centuries.
Hutheesing Temple (હઠીસિંહનાં દેરા) is the best known Jain temple in Ahmedabad in Gujarat, India.
Iconography, as a branch of art history, studies the identification, description, and the interpretation of the content of images: the subjects depicted, the particular compositions and details used to do so, and other elements that are distinct from artistic style.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indian religions, sometimes also termed as Dharmic faiths or religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent; namely Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism.
(Sanskrit: इन्द्र), also known as Devendra, is a Vedic deity in Hinduism, a guardian deity in Buddhism, and the king of the highest heaven called Saudharmakalpa in Jainism.
The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC), or Harappan Civilisation, was a Bronze Age civilisation (5500–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) mainly in the northwestern regions of South Asia, extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India.
Agamas are texts of Jainism based on the discourses of the tirthankara.
The Jain Bunt are a Jain community from Karnataka, India.
The Jains in India are the last direct representatives of the ancient Śramaṇa tradition.
Jain cosmology is the description of the shape and functioning of the Universe (loka) and its constituents (such as living beings, matter, space, time etc.) according to Jainism.
The flag of Jainism has five colours: orange or red, yellow, white, green and black or dark blue.
A house temple (Ghar Derasar or Griha Chaityalaya) is a private Jain shrine that is placed within a personal residence.
Jain Law or Jaina Law refers to the modern interpretation of ancient Jain Law that consists of rules for adoption, marriage, succession and death prescribed for the followers of Jainism.
Jain literature comprises Jain Agamas and subsequent commentaries on them by various Jain asectics.
Jain monasticism refers to the order of monks and nuns in the Jain community.
The Jain Temple, Lakkundi or Brahma Jinalaya is located in the historically important temple town Lakkundi in the Gadag District of Karnataka state, India.
During the Chandela rule, many towns in Bundelkhand, including Khajuraho, were home to large and flourishing Jain communities.
Jain vegetarianism is practiced by the followers of Jain culture and philosophy.
Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient Indian religion.
Jainism does not support belief in a creator deity.
The history of Jainism in Africa is relatively short when compared with the histories of Judaism, Christianity and Islam on the same continent.
The Jains in Belgium are estimated to be around about 1,500 people.
Bundelkhand, in the heart of India, has been an ancient centre of Jainism.
Adherents of Jainism first settled in Canada in small numbers in the late 19th century.
Delhi is an ancient centre of Jainism, home to over 165 Jain temples.
The credit of introducing Jainism to the West goes to a German scholar Hermann Jacobi who translated some Jain literature and published it in the series 'Sacred Books of East' in 1884.
Jainism has had a significant influence in Gujarat.
There are about 500 Jains in Hong Kong, who immigrated to Hong Kong later than most other Indian groups.
Jainism is India's sixth-largest religion and is practiced throughout India.
Karnataka, a state in South India has a long association with Jainism, a religion which enjoyed patronage of major historic kingdoms in the state such as the Western Ganga, Kadamba and Chalukya dynasties and the Hoysala Empire.
Jainism has been present in Maharashtra since ancient times.
Rajasthan, a state in western India, has had a close historical connection with Jainism.
Adherents of Jainism first arrived in the United Kingdom (UK) in the 19th century.
Adherents of Jainism first arrived in the United States in the 20th century.
Uttar Pradesh, a state in north India has a long association with Jainism.
Jaisalmer, nicknamed "The Golden city", is a city in the Indian state of Rajasthan, located west of the state capital Jaipur.
Jaiswal Jains are one of the Jain communities of northern India.
The Jal Mandir meaning Water Temple, also known as Apapuri, in Pawapuri, meaning a town without sins, in the Indian state of Bihar, is a highly revered temple dedicated to Lord Mahavira, the 24th Thirthankara (religious preacher of Jainism) and founder of Jain religion, which marks the place of his cremation.
Jharkhand (lit. "Bushland" or The land of forest) is a state in eastern India, carved out of the southern part of Bihar on 15 November 2000.
Jinasena (8th century CE) was one of the several famous Digambara Acharya (head of a monastic order).
Jñāna yoga, also known as Jnanamarga, is one of the several spiritual paths in Hinduism that emphasizes the "path of knowledge", also known as the "path of self-realization".
John E. Cort (born 1953) is an American indologist.
Kallidaikurichi Aiyah Nilakanta Sastri (12 August 1892 – 15 June 1975) was an Indian historian who wrote on South Indian history.
A kalasha, also spelled kalash or kalasa (कलश,; பூரணகும்பம்,, literally "pitcher, pot"), is a metal (brass, copper, silver or gold) pot with a large base and small mouth, large enough to hold a coconut.
The Kalpa Sūtra (कल्पसूत्र) is a Jain text containing the biographies of the Jain Tirthankaras, notably Parshvanatha and Mahavira.
Kalugumalai Jain beds in Kalugumalai, a panchayat town in Thoothukudi district in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu, are dedicated to the Jain and Hindu religious figures.
Kankali Tila (also Kankali mound or Jaini mound) is a mound located at Mathura in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.
Kannada (ಕನ್ನಡ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Kannada people in India, mainly in the state of Karnataka, and by significant linguistic minorities in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Kerala, Goa and abroad.
Karma is the basic principle within an overarching psycho-cosmology in Jainism.
Karma yoga, also called Karma marga, is one of the several spiritual paths in Hinduism, one based on the "yoga of action".
Karnataka also known Kannada Nadu is a state in the south western region of India.
In Jainism, Kashaya (loose translation: Passion) are aspects of a person that can be gained during his or her worldly life.
Kayotsarga (काउस्सग्ग) is a yogic posture which is an important part of the Jain meditation.
Kevala jñāna means omniscience in Jainism and is roughly translated as absolute knowledge or supreme knowledge.
The Khajuraho Group of Monuments is a group of Hindu, Buddhist and Jain temples in Madhya Pradesh, India, about southeast of Jhansi.
Khandela is a city and municipality in the Sikar district of the Indian state of Rajasthan.
Kirti Stambha is a 12th-century tower situated at Chittorgarh fort in Rajasthan, India.
The Komati is an Indian trading community found primarily in South and Central India, that is currently organised as a caste.
Kulpakji also Kolanupaka Temple is a 2,000 year old Jain temple at the village of Kolanupaka in Nalgonda district, Telangana, India.
Kumbhoj (pronounced as kam'bho'j) is the name of an ancient town located in Kolhapur district in Maharashtra.
Acharya Kundakunda is a revered Digambara Jain monk and philosopher.
Kundalpur is a town located in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh, 35 km from the city of Damoh.
The Kushan Empire (Βασιλεία Κοσσανῶν; Κυϸανο, Kushano; कुषाण साम्राज्य Kuṣāṇa Samrajya; BHS:; Chinese: 貴霜帝國; Kušan-xšaθr) was a syncretic empire, formed by the Yuezhi, in the Bactrian territories in the early 1st century.
A lacto vegetarian (sometimes referred to as a lactarian; from the Latin root lact-, milk) diet is a diet that includes vegetables as well as dairy products such as milk, cheese, yogurt, butter, ghee, cream, and kefir, but excludes eggs.
A layperson (also layman or laywoman) is a person who is not qualified in a given profession and/or does not have specific knowledge of a certain subject.
Lakkundi in Gadag District of Karnataka is a tiny village on the way to Hampi (Hosapete) from Hubballi.
Lalitpur District is one of the districts of Uttar Pradesh state of India.
Lingayatism is a Shaivite religious tradition in India.
Jain is the title and name given to an adherent of Jainism.
Root vegetables are plant roots and tubers eaten by humans as food.
Lodrawa (Lodurva or Lodarva) is a village in Jaisalmer district, Rajasthan, India.
Logic (from the logikḗ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken", but coming to mean "thought" or "reason", is a subject concerned with the most general laws of truth, and is now generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Padmasana or Lotus Position (पद्मासन) is a cross-legged sitting asana originating in meditative practices of ancient India, in which the feet are placed on the opposing thighs.
Madhya Pradesh (MP;; meaning Central Province) is a state in central India.
Madhyamaka (Madhyamaka,; also known as Śūnyavāda) refers primarily to the later schools of Buddhist philosophy founded by Nagarjuna (150 CE to 250 CE).
Madurai is one of the major cities in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Magadhi Prakrit (Māgadhī) was a vernacular Middle Indo-Aryan language, replacing earlier Vedic Sanskrit in parts of the Indian subcontinents.
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was an Indian activist who was the leader of the Indian independence movement against British rule.
Mahaveer Janma Kalyanak, is one of the most important religious festivals for Jains.
Mahavira (IAST), also known as Vardhamāna, was the twenty-fourth Tirthankara (ford-maker) of Jainism which was revived and re-established by him.
Mahendravarma I (600–630 CE) was a Pallava king who ruled the Northern regions of what forms present-day Tamil Nadu in India in the early 7th century.
Yamīn-ud-Dawla Abul-Qāṣim Maḥmūd ibn Sebüktegīn (یمینالدوله ابوالقاسم محمود بن سبکتگین), more commonly known as Mahmud of Ghazni (محمود غزنوی; November 971 – 30 April 1030), also known as Mahmūd-i Zābulī (محمود زابلی), was the most prominent ruler of the Ghaznavid Empire.
The world's principal religions and spiritual traditions may be classified into a small number of major groups, although this is by no means a uniform practice.
Manastambha "column of honor" is a pillar that is often constructed in front of Jain temples or large Jain statues.
Mangi-Tungi is a prominent twin-pinnacled peak with plateau in between, located near Tahrabad about 125 km from Nasik, Maharashtra, India.
A "mantra" ((Sanskrit: मन्त्र)) is a sacred utterance, a numinous sound, a syllable, word or phonemes, or group of words in Sanskrit believed by practitioners to have psychological and spiritual powers.
Marwar (also called Jodhpur region) is a region of southwestern Rajasthan state in North Western India.
Mathura is a city in the North Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.
Mattancherry is a locality in the city of Kochi, India.
Mattavilasa Prahasana (Devanagari:मत्तविलासप्रहसन), (A Farce of Drunken Sport) is a short one-act Sanskrit play.
The Maurya Empire was a geographically-extensive Iron Age historical power founded by Chandragupta Maurya which dominated ancient India between 322 BCE and 180 BCE.
Māllīnātha (Prakrit Mālliṇātha, "Lord of jasmine or seat") was the 19th tīrthaṅkara "ford-maker" of the present ''avasarpiṇī'' age in Jainism.
Merriam–Webster, Incorporated is an American company that publishes reference books which is especially known for its dictionaries.
is an ancient Indian phrase, which is translated from Prakrit to literally mean "may all the evil that has been done be fruitless." Chapple.
A mirror is an object that reflects light in such a way that, for incident light in some range of wavelengths, the reflected light preserves many or most of the detailed physical characteristics of the original light, called specular reflection.
Moksha (मोक्ष), also called vimoksha, vimukti and mukti, is a term in Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism which refers to various forms of emancipation, liberation, and release. In its soteriological and eschatological senses, it refers to freedom from saṃsāra, the cycle of death and rebirth. In its epistemological and psychological senses, moksha refers to freedom from ignorance: self-realization and self-knowledge. In Hindu traditions, moksha is a central concept and the utmost aim to be attained through three paths during human life; these three paths are dharma (virtuous, proper, moral life), artha (material prosperity, income security, means of life), and kama (pleasure, sensuality, emotional fulfillment). Together, these four concepts are called Puruṣārtha in Hinduism. In some schools of Indian religions, moksha is considered equivalent to and used interchangeably with other terms such as vimoksha, vimukti, kaivalya, apavarga, mukti, nihsreyasa and nirvana. However, terms such as moksha and nirvana differ and mean different states between various schools of Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism.See.
Sanskrit or Prakrit mokkha refers to the liberation or salvation of a soul from saṃsāra, the cycle of birth and death.
A monolith is a geological feature consisting of a single massive stone or rock, such as some mountains, or a single large piece of rock placed as, or within, a monument or building.
Motilal Banarsidass (MLBD) is a leading Indian publishing house on Sanskrit and Indology since 1903, located in Delhi, India.
Mount Abu is a popular hill station in the Aravalli Range in Sirohi district of Rajasthan state in western India, near the border with Gujarat.
Mount Kailash (also Mount Kailasa; Kangrinboqê or Gang Rinpoche (Tibetan: གངས་རིན་པོ་ཆེ; s (simplified); t (traditional)), is a 6,638 m (21,778 ft) high peak in the Kailash Range (Gangdisê Mountains), which forms part of Transhimalaya in the Tibet Autonomous Region of China. The mountain is located near Lake Manasarovar and Lake Rakshastal, close to the source of some of the longest Asian rivers: the Indus, Sutlej, Brahmaputra, and Karnali also known as Ghaghara (a tributary of the Ganges) in India. Mount Kailash is considered to be sacred in four religions: Hinduism, Buddhism, Bön and Jainism.
Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad Ghori (معز الدین محمد غوری), born Shihab ad-Din (1149 – March 15, 1206), also known as Muhammad of Ghor, was Sultan of the Ghurid Empire along with his brother Ghiyath ad-Din Muhammad from 1173 to 1202 and as the sole ruler from 1202 to 1206.
Mumbai (also known as Bombay, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra.
Mūrtipūjaka (lit. "image-worshipper"), also known as Derāvāsī ("temple-dweller") or Mandir Mārgī ("follower of the temple path"), is a term for the largest sect of Śvetāmbara Jainism.
Muslim conquests on the Indian subcontinent mainly took place from the 12th to the 16th centuries, though earlier Muslim conquests made limited inroads into modern Afghanistan and Pakistan as early as the time of the Rajput kingdoms in the 8th century.
Nagarparkar (نگرپاركر, ننگرپارڪر), is a town in at the base of the Karoonjhar Mountains in Tharparkar District in Sindh province of Pakistan that is famous as home of the Nagarparkar Temples - a pilgrimage site for Hindus and Jains.
Namaste (Devanagari: नमस्ते), sometimes spoken as Namaskar, Namaskaram is a respectful form of greeting in Hindu custom, found on the Indian subcontinent mainly in India and Nepal and among the Indian diaspora.
Thirunaraiyur Nambiyandar Nambi was an eleventh-century Shaiva scholar of Tamil Nadu in South India who compiled the hymns of Sampantar, Appar and Sundarar and was himself one of the authors of the eleventh volume of the canon of the Tamil liturgical poetry of Shiva, the Tirumurai.
Ṇamōkāra mantra is the most significant mantra in Jainism.
The Nandavarta or Nandyavarta is one of the eight auspicious symbols of Jainism for the Svetambara sect.
Nashik is an ancient city in the northwest region of Maharashtra in India. Situated on the banks of Godavari river Nashik is best known for being one of Hindu pilgrimage sites, that of Kumbh Mela which is held every 12 years. The city located about 190 km north of state capital Mumbai, is called the "Wine Capital of India" as half of India’s vineyards and wineries are located in Nashik.
Nashik district, also known as Nasik district, is a district in Maharashtra, India.
The Nālaṭiyār (நாலடியார்) is a Tamil poetic work of didactic nature belonging to the Patiṉeṇkīḻkaṇakku anthology of Tamil literature.
Nemichandra Siddhanta Chakravarty (fl. 10th century) was the author of Dravyasamgraha, Gommatsāra (Jivakanda and Karmakanda), Trilokasara, Labdhisara and Kshapanasara.
Neminatha is the twenty-second Tirthankara (ford-maker) in Jainism.
New Delhi is an urban district of Delhi which serves as the capital of India and seat of all three branches of Government of India.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
Nirjara is one of the seven fundamental principles, or Tattva in Jain philosophy, and refers to the shedding or removal of accumulated karmas from the atma (soul), essential for breaking free from samsara, the cycle of birth-death and rebirth, by achieving moksha, liberation.
Niyamasara is a Jain text authored by Acharya Kundakunda, a Digambara Jain acharya.
In spirituality, nondualism, also called non-duality, means "not two" or "one undivided without a second".
Nonviolence is the personal practice of being harmless to self and others under every condition.
Odisha (formerly Orissa) is one of the 29 states of India, located in eastern India.
Ohio University Press (OUP), founded in 1947, is the largest scholarly press in the state of Ohio.
Ontology (introduced in 1606) is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations.
Oral tradition, or oral lore, is a form of human communication where in knowledge, art, ideas and cultural material is received, preserved and transmitted orally from one generation to another.
Orient Blackswan Pvt.
Osian (Osiyan) is an ancient town located in the Jodhpur District of Rajasthan state in western India.
The Oswal (sometimes spelled Oshwal or Osval) are a Jain community with origins in the Marwar region of Rajasthan and Tharparkar district in Sindh.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
The (Sanskrit for "five supreme beings") in Jainism are a fivefold hierarchy of religious authorities worthy of veneration.
Padmanabh Shrivarma Jaini is an Indian born scholar of Jainism and Buddhism, currently living in Berkeley, California, United States.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
Palitana is a town in Bhavnagar district, Gujarat, India.
The Palitana temples of Jainism are located on Shatrunjaya hill by the city of Palitana in Bhavnagar district, Gujarat, India.
Panch Kalyanaka (pan̄ca kalyāṇaka, "Five Auspicious Events") are the five chief auspicious events that are believed to occur in the life of tirthankara in Jainism.
Panch Kalyanaka Pratishtha Mahotsava is a traditional Jain ceremony that consecrates one or more Jain Tirthankara icons with celebration of Panch Kalyanaka (five auspicious events).
Panchakuta Basadi (or Panchakoota Basadi) is a temple complex located in the Kambadahalli village of the Mandya district, Karnataka state, in southwestern India.
The Pandyan dynasty was an ancient Tamil dynasty, one of the three Tamil dynasties, the other two being the Chola and the Chera.
Parasparopagraho Jīvānām (Sanskrit) is a Jain aphorism from the Tattvārtha Sūtra.
Parshvanath Jain temple, Varanasi is situated in Bhelupur, Uttar Pradesh.
Parshvanatha, also known as Parshva, was the 23rd of 24 Tirthankaras (ford-maker, teacher) of Jainism.
Parshvanatha temple (IAST: Pārśvanātha Mandir) is a 10th-century Jain temple at Khajuraho in Madhya Pradesh, India.
Parwar, also spelt as Paravāra (परवार in Hindi, पौरपट्ट in Sanskrit inscriptions), is a major Jain community from the Bundelkhand region, which is largely in Madhya Pradesh, but also includes region of Uttar Pradesh.
Paryushana is the most important annual holy events for Jains and is usually celebrated in August or September in Hindi calender Bhadrapad Month's Shukla Paksha.
Patan, an ancient fortified city, was founded in 745 AD by Vanraj Chavda, the most prominent king of the Chavda Kingdom.
Patna is the capital and largest city of the state of Bihar in India.
Pattadakal, also called Paṭṭadakallu or Raktapura, is a complex of 7th and 8th century CE Hindu and Jain temples in northern Karnataka (India).
Pawapuri or Pawa is a holy site for Jains located in the Nalanda district in the Bihar state of Eastern India.
Pearson Education (see also Pearson PLC) is a British-owned education publishing and assessment service to schools and corporations, as well as directly to students.
Penguin Books is a British publishing house.
A place of worship is a specially designed structure or consecrated space where individuals or a group of people such as a congregation come to perform acts of devotion, veneration, or religious study.
Pluti is the term for the phenomenon of overlong vowels in Sanskrit; the overlong vowels are themselves called pluta.
Popular Prakashan is an Indian independent publisher and bookseller founded in Bombay in 1924.
This category contains the 29 gotras of the Porwal community, a Hindu and Jain community (nyat) in Rajasthan and Gujarat, originating from southern Rajasthan.
Pramana (Sanskrit: प्रमाण) literally means "proof" and "means of knowledge".
The Punjab, also spelled Panjab (land of "five rivers"; Punjabi: پنجاب (Shahmukhi); ਪੰਜਾਬ (Gurumukhi); Πενταποταμία, Pentapotamia) is a geographical and cultural region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India.
The Puranas (singular: पुराण), are ancient Hindu texts eulogizing various deities, primarily the divine Trimurti God in Hinduism through divine stories.
The Fourteen Purvas, translated as ancient or prior knowledge, are a large body of Jain scriptures that was preached by all Tirthankaras (omniscient teachers) of Jainism encompassing the entire gamut of knowledge available in this universe.
Rajasthan (literally, "Land of Kings") is India's largest state by area (or 10.4% of India's total area).
Rajgir (originally known as Girivraj) is a city and a notified area in Nalanda district in the Indian state of Bihar.
Raksha Bandhan, also Rakshabandhan, Quote: m Hindi rakśābandhan held on the full moon of the month of Savan, when sisters tie a talisman (rakhi q.v.) on the arm of their brothers and receive small gifts of money from them.
Rama or Ram (Sanskrit: राम, IAST: Rāma), also known as Ramachandra, is a major deity of Hinduism.
Ramanuja (traditionally, 1017–1137 CE) was a Hindu theologian, philosopher, and one of the most important exponents of the Sri Vaishnavism tradition within Hinduism.
Ranakpur is a village located in Desuri tehsil near Sadri town in the Pali district of Rajasthan in western India.
Ranakpur Jain temple is a renowned Jain temple at Ranakpur is dedicated to Tirthankara Rishabhanatha.
Rashtrakuta (IAST) was a royal dynasty ruling large parts of the Indian subcontinent between the sixth and 10th centuries.
Ratnakaranda śrāvakācāra is a Jain text composed by Samantbhadra (second century CE), an acharya of the Digambara sect of Jainism.
A religious denomination is a subgroup within a religion that operates under a common name, tradition, and identity.
Richard Francis Gombrich (born 17 July 1937) is an Indologist and scholar of Sanskrit, Pāli, and Buddhist Studies.
Rushabhanatha or Rishabhanatha (also, Rushabhadeva, Rishabhadeva, or which literally means "bull") is the first Tirthankara (ford maker) in Jainism.
Rikhabdeo (aka Dhulev), named after the first Tirthankara Rishabhdev of Jainism, is a census town in Udaipur district in the state of Rajasthan, in north-west India.
Rock-cut architecture is the creation of structures, buildings, and sculptures, by excavating solid rock where it naturally occurs.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
Saavira Kambada Temple (ಸಾವಿರ ಕಂಬದ ಬಸದಿ) or Tribhuvana Tilaka Cūḍāmaṇi (त्रिभुवन तिलक चूडामणि), is a basadi (ಬಸದಿ) or Jain temple noted for its 1000 pillars in Moodabidri, Karnataka, India.
Saṃsāra is a Sanskrit word that means "wandering" or "world", with the connotation of cyclic, circuitous change.
Saṃsāra (transmigration) in Jain philosophy, refers to the worldly life characterized by continuous rebirths and reincarnations in various realms of existence.
The Sahitya Akademi, India's National Academy of Letters, is an organisation dedicated to the promotion of literature in the languages of India.
Sallekhana (IAST), also known as Samlehna, Santhara, Samadhi-marana or Sanyasana-marana; is a supplementary vow to the ethical code of conduct of Jainism.
In Jainism, Samavasarana or Samosharana "Refuge to All" is a term for the divine preaching hall of the Tirthankara.
Samayasāra (The Nature of the Self) is a famous Jain text composed by Acharya Kundakunda in 439 verses.
Sambandar (also called Thirugyana Sambandar, Tirugnana Sambanthar, Campantar, Champantar, Jnanasambandar, Gnanasambandar) was a young Saiva poet-saint of Tamil Nadu who lived around the 7th century CE.
Samvara (saṃvara) is one of the tattva or the fundamental reality of the world as per the Jain philosophy.
Saṃvatsarī (संवत्सरी) (lit. Annual Day or fig. Forgiveness Day) is the last day of Paryushana festival observed annually by the followers of Shwetambar sect of Jainism.
The Sangam literature (Tamil: சங்க இலக்கியம், Sanga ilakkiyam) is the ancient Tamil literature of the period in the history of ancient southern India (known as the Thamizhagam or the Tamilagam) spanning from c. 300 BCE to 300 CE.
The Saraks (সরাক) (from Sanskrit Śrāvaka) is a community in Jharkhand, Bihar, Bengal, and Orissa.
The Sarawagi or Saraogi or Sarawgi Jain community, meaning a Jain Śrāvaka, is also known as the Khandelwali.
A sari, saree, or shariThe name of the garment in various regional languages include:শাড়ি, साड़ी, ଶାଢୀ, ಸೀರೆ,, साडी, कापड, चीरे,, സാരി, साडी, सारी, ਸਾਰੀ, புடவை, చీర, ساڑى is a female garment from the Indian subcontinent that consists of a drape varying from five to nine yards (4.5 metres to 8 metres) in length and two to four feet (60 cm to 1.20 m) in breadth that is typically wrapped around the waist, with one end draped over the shoulder, baring the midriff.
Satya is the Sanskrit word for truth.
Sāmāyika is the vow of periodic concentration observed by the Jains.
The Seuna, Sevuna or Yadavas of Devagiri (c. 850–1334) was an Indian dynasty, which at its peak ruled a kingdom stretching from the Tungabhadra to the Narmada rivers, including present-day Maharashtra, north Karnataka and parts of Madhya Pradesh, from its capital at Devagiri (present-day Daulatabad in modern Maharashtra).
Shaivism (Śaivam) (Devanagari: शैव संप्रदाय) (Bengali: শৈব) (Tamil: சைவம்) (Telugu: శైవ సాంప్రదాయం) (Kannada:ಶೈವ ಸಂಪ್ರದಾಯ) is one of the major traditions within Hinduism that reveres Shiva as the Supreme Being.
Shalivahana (IAST: Śālivāhana) was a legendary emperor of ancient India, who is said to have ruled from Pratishthana (present-day Paithan, Maharashtra).
Acharya Shri Shantisagar (1872 - 1955) was an Indian monk of the Digambara school of the Jain faith.
Shatrunjaya ("place of victory against inner enemies") originally Pundarikgiri), also spelt Shetrunjaya are hills located by the city of Palitana, in Bhavnagar district, Gujarat, India. They are situated on the banks of the Shetrunji River at an elevation above sea level. These hills have similarities to other hills where Jain temples have been built in Bihar, Gwalior, Mount Abu and Girnar. The Jain's sacred site of Shatrunjaya contains hundreds of Palitana temples. The hills were sanctified when Rishabha, the first tirthankara of Jainism, gave his first sermon in the temple on the hill top. The ancient history of the hills is also traced to Pundarika Swami, a chief Ganadhara and grandson of Rishabha, who attained salvation here. His shrine located opposite to the main Adinath temple, built by his son Bharata, is also worshiped by pilgrims. There are several alternate spellings, including Śatruñjaya, Satrunjaya, Shetrunja, and Shetrunjo. Shatrunjaya was also known as Pundarikgiri as Pundarik was said to have attained nirvana on this mountain. Alternate names include Siddhakshetra or Siddhanchal as many thirtankaras are stated to have received enlightenment here.
Shikhara (IAST), a Sanskrit word translating literally to "mountain peak", refers to the rising tower in the Hindu temple architecture of North India, and also often used in Jain temples.
Shikharji, Giridih district, Jharkhand, India, is located on Parasnath hill, the highest mountain in the state of Jharkhand.
Shravanabelagola is a town located near Channarayapatna of Hassan district in the Indian state of Karnataka and is 144 km from Bangalore, the capital of the state.
Shri Mahavir Ji is a famous Jain pilgrimage site.
Shrimal (Srimal) Jain or Vania is an ancient Jain and Hindu community originally from Rajasthan, Shrimal or Bhinmal town in southern Rajasthan.
The Shrivatsa (Sanskrit श्रीवत्स śrīvatsa) is an ancient symbol considered auspicious in Indian religious traditions.
Siddha (Tamil "great thinker/wise man"; Sanskrit, "perfected one") is a term that is used widely in Indian religions and culture.
Siddhashila is an area in Jain cosmology at the apex of the universe, which is where the Jains believe people who have become arihants, or people with infinite knowledge, go after they die and attain moksha.
Sikhism (ਸਿੱਖੀ), or Sikhi,, from Sikh, meaning a "disciple", or a "learner"), is a monotheistic religion that originated in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent about the end of the 15th century. It is one of the youngest of the major world religions, and the fifth-largest. The fundamental beliefs of Sikhism, articulated in the sacred scripture Guru Granth Sahib, include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator, divine unity and equality of all humankind, engaging in selfless service, striving for social justice for the benefit and prosperity of all, and honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life. In the early 21st century there were nearly 25 million Sikhs worldwide, the great majority of them (20 million) living in Punjab, the Sikh homeland in northwest India, and about 2 million living in neighboring Indian states, formerly part of the Punjab. Sikhism is based on the spiritual teachings of Guru Nanak, the first Guru (1469–1539), and the nine Sikh gurus that succeeded him. The Tenth Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, named the Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib as his successor, terminating the line of human Gurus and making the scripture the eternal, religious spiritual guide for Sikhs.Louis Fenech and WH McLeod (2014),, 3rd Edition, Rowman & Littlefield,, pages 17, 84-85William James (2011), God's Plenty: Religious Diversity in Kingston, McGill Queens University Press,, pages 241–242 Sikhism rejects claims that any particular religious tradition has a monopoly on Absolute Truth. The Sikh scripture opens with Ik Onkar (ੴ), its Mul Mantar and fundamental prayer about One Supreme Being (God). Sikhism emphasizes simran (meditation on the words of the Guru Granth Sahib), that can be expressed musically through kirtan or internally through Nam Japo (repeat God's name) as a means to feel God's presence. It teaches followers to transform the "Five Thieves" (lust, rage, greed, attachment, and ego). Hand in hand, secular life is considered to be intertwined with the spiritual life., page.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
Simandhar Swami is a living Tīrthaṅkara, an arihant, who is said to be currently present on another world in the Jain mythological universe.
Sindh (سنڌ; سِندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, in the southeast of the country.
Sita (pronounced, Sanskrit: सीता, IAST: Sītā) or Seeta, is the consort of Lord Rama (incarnation of Vishnu) and an avatar of Sri Lakshmi, the Hindu goddess that denotes good sign, good fortune, prosperity, success, and happiness.
Sittanavasal Cave (also, Arivar Koil) is a 2nd-century Jain complex of caves in Sittanavasal village in Pudukottai district of Tamil Nadu, India.
Sonagiri (सोनागिरी) about 60 km from Gwalior, has scores of Jain temples of 9th & 10th century on little hills.
The Statue of Ahimsa is located at Mangi-Tungi, near Nashik in the Indian state of Maharashtra.
Sthānakavāsī is a sect of Śvētāmbara Jainism founded by a merchant named Lavaji in 1653 AD.
Sthulabhadra (297–198 BCE) was a disciple of Bhadrabahu.
A stupa (Sanskrit: "heap") is a mound-like or hemispherical structure containing relics (śarīra - typically the remains of Buddhist monks or nuns) that is used as a place of meditation.
The State University of New York Press (or SUNY Press), is a university press and a Center for Scholarly Communication.
Suriname (also spelled Surinam), officially known as the Republic of Suriname (Republiek Suriname), is a sovereign state on the northeastern Atlantic coast of South America.
The swastika (as a character 卐 or 卍) is a geometrical figure and an ancient religious icon from the cultures of Eurasia, where it has been and remains a symbol of divinity and spirituality in Indian religions, Chinese religions, Mongolian and Siberian shamanisms.
Tamil Jains (Tamil Samaṇar, Nayiṉār, from Prakrit samaṇa "wandering renunciate") are Tamils from Tamil Nadu, India, who practice Digambara Jainism (Tamil). They are a microcommunity of around 85,000 (around 0.13% of the population of Tamil Nadu).
Tamil (தமிழ்) is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Burghers, Douglas, and Chindians.
Tamil-Brahmi, or Tamili, is a variant of the Brahmi script used to write the Tamil language.
Tattvartha Sutra (also known as Tattvarth-adhigama-sutra) is an ancient Jain text written by Acharya Umaswami, sometime between the 2nd- and 5th-century AD.
The Thar Desert, also known as the Great Indian Desert, is a large arid region in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent that covers an area of and forms a natural boundary between India and Pakistan.
Tharparkar District (ضلعو ٿرپارڪر, (ضِلع تھرپارکر), is one of the twenty nine districts of Sindh province in Pakistan. It is largest district of Sindh province by land area. It is headquartered at Mithi. It has the lowest Human Development Index of all the districts in Sindh. Thar has a fertile desert and the livelihood of Thari people depends on rainfall agriculture. Tharparkar has the only fertile desert in the world.
The Hindu is an Indian daily newspaper, headquartered at Chennai.
The Telegraph is an Indian English daily newspaper founded and continuously published in Kolkata since 7 July 1982.
The Times of India (TOI) is an Indian English-language daily newspaper owned by The Times Group.
Tijara Jain Temple (तिजारा जैन मन्दिर) is a Jain temple dedicated to Chandraprabha.
In Jainism, a tīrtha (तीर्थ "ford, a shallow part of a body of water that may be easily crossed") is used to refer both to pilgrimage sites as well as to the four sections of the sangha.
In Jainism, a tirthankara (Sanskrit:; English: literally a 'ford-maker') is a saviour and spiritual teacher of the dharma (righteous path).
Tirumalai (lit. "the holy mountain"; also later Arhasugiri, lit. "the excellent mountain of the Arha"; Tamil Engunavirai-Tirumalai, lit. "the holy mountain of the Arhar") is a Jain temple and cave complex dating from at least the 9th century that is located northwest of Polur in Tamil Nadu, southeast India.
The Triratna (Pāḷi: tiratana) is a Buddhist symbol, thought to visually represent the Three Jewels of Buddhism (the Buddha, the Dharma, the Sangha).
Trishala, Trishala Devi, Priyakarini, or Trishala Mata (Mother Trishala) was the mother of Mahavira, the 24th Tirthankara of Jainism, and wife of the Jain monarch, Siddartha of Kundgraam, of present-day Bihar.
Udayagiri and Khandagiri Caves, formerly called Katak Caves or Cuttack caves, are partly natural and partly artificial caves of archaeological, historical and religious importance near the city of Bhubaneswar in Odisha, India.
Udayin (r. c. 460-444 BC) was a king of Magadha in present-day India.
Umaswami, also known as Umaswati, was an early 1st-millennium Indian scholar, possibly between 2nd-century and 5th-century CE, known for his foundational writings on Jainism.
The Undavalli Caves, a monolithic example of Indian rock-cut architecture and one of the finest testimonials to ancient viswakarma sthapathis, are located in Undavalli of Guntur district in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.
Upadhyaya, also spelled Upadhyay (sanskrit: उपाध्याय), is a surname used by some Brahmin people in India.
Uttarakhand, officially the State of Uttarakhand (Uttarākhaṇḍ Rājya), formerly known as Uttaranchal, is a state in the northern part of India.
Vaishnavism (Vaishnava dharma) is one of the major traditions within Hinduism along with Shaivism, Shaktism, and Smartism.
Vasupujya Swami was the twelfth tirthankara in Jainism of the avasarpini (present age).
Vedanta (Sanskrit: वेदान्त, IAST) or Uttara Mīmāṃsā is one of the six orthodox (''āstika'') schools of Hindu philosophy.
The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from the ''Atharvaveda''. The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद, "knowledge") are a large body of knowledge texts originating in the ancient Indian subcontinent.
Veganism is the practice of abstaining from the use of animal products, particularly in diet, and an associated philosophy that rejects the commodity status of animals.
Vibhu (Sanskrit:विभु) means – 'mighty', 'powerful', 'eminent', 'supreme', 'able to', 'capable of', 'self-subdued', 'firm' or 'self-controlled'; in Nyaya philosophy, it means – 'eternal', 'existing everywhere', 'all-pervading', 'pervading all material things'.
Vidisha is a city in the state of Madhya Pradesh, India.
Vishishtadvaita (IAST; विशिष्टाद्वैत) is one of the most popular schools of the Vedanta school of Hindu philosophy.
Vishnu (Sanskrit: विष्णु, IAST) is one of the principal deities of Hinduism, and the Supreme Being in its Vaishnavism tradition.
Vishnuvardhana (ವಿಷ್ಣುವರ್ಧನ) (r.1108–1152 CE) was a king of the Hoysala Empire in what is today the modern state of Karnataka, India.
A votive deposit or votive offering is one or more objects displayed or deposited, without the intention of recovery or use, in a sacred place for broadly religious purposes.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
Yaksha (Sanskrit: यक्ष yakṣa, Tamil: யகன் yakan, இயக்கன் iyakan, Odia: ଯକ୍ଷ jôkhyô, Pali: yakkha) are a broad class of nature-spirits, usually benevolent, but sometimes mischievous and sexually aggressive or capricious caretakers of the natural treasures hidden in the earth and tree roots.
Yakshini (also known as Yakshi; Yakkhini in Pali) are mythical beings of Hindu, Buddhist, and Jain mythology.
Yapaniya was a Jain order in western Karnataka which is now extinct.
The Yoga Sūtras of Patañjali are a collection of 196 Indian sutras (aphorisms) on the theory and practice of yoga.
Gujarati Jain, Gujarati Jains, Jain, Jain Temples in the West, Jain dharma, Jain faith, Jain family, Jain religion, Jaina Dharma, Jainas, Jaini, Jainism and Terapanth, Jainist, Jainists, Jains, Jane religion, Janism, Jin Sashana, Jina Sashana, Jina sāsana, Jiv daya, Nigantha, Niganthas, Niggantha, Nirgranthas, Puja (Jainism), Religion of nonvoilence, Shraman Dharma, Shramana Dharma, जैन धर्म.