206 relations: A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field, A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, Aberdeen, Adams Prize, Albert Einstein, American Philosophical Society, American Physical Society, Ansys, Antipositivism, Baronet, Birefringence, Cambridge, Cambridge Apostles, Cambridge Philosophical Society, Cambridge University Press, Cartesian oval, Castle Douglas, Cavendish Laboratory, Cavendish Professor of Physics, Centimetre–gram–second system of units, Centrifugal governor, Charles Benjamin Tayler, Church of Scotland, Clerk baronets, Collodion process, Color blindness, Color photography, Color triangle, Color vision, Colorimetry, Comin' Thro' the Rye, Control theory, Cornell University Press, Corsock, Coulomb's law, Curve, Daniel Bernoulli, Dementia, Density, Differential equation, Dimensional analysis, Displacement current, Edinburgh, Edinburgh Academy, Edward Routh, Electromagnetic induction, Electromagnetic radiation, Electromagnetic wave equation, Electrostatics, Ellipse, ..., Estate (land), Evangelicalism, Faraday effect, Fellow, Focus (geometry), Frame of reference, Galloway, GeForce 900 series, Gelatin, Generalized Maxwell model, Geometry, George Biddell Airy, George Chrystal, George Street, Edinburgh, Glenlair House, Governor (device), Henry Cavendish, Horace Lamb, Hydrostatics, IEEE/RSE James Clerk Maxwell Medal, Isaac Newton, James Clerk Maxwell Foundation, James Clerk Maxwell Prize in Plasma Physics, James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, James David Forbes, James Prescott Joule, Jemima Blackburn, John Cay, John Clerk Maxwell of Middlebie, John Henry Poynting, John Herapath, John James Waterston, John Milton, Josiah Willard Gibbs, Katherine Clerk Maxwell, Keith Medal, Kinetic theory of gases, King's College London, King's College, Aberdeen, Lewis Campbell (classicist), Linda Hall Library, Linear algebra, Logic, Ludwig Boltzmann, Luminiferous aether, Magnetic field, Magnetic flux, Magnetism, Marischal College, Mathematical physics, Mathematics, Maxwell (unit), Maxwell coil, Maxwell material, Maxwell Montes, Maxwell relations, Maxwell's demon, Maxwell's equations, Maxwell's theorem, Maxwell's thermodynamic surface, Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution, Metamerism (color), Metaphysics, Meteorology, Michael Faraday, Michelson–Morley experiment, Ministers and elders of the Church of Scotland, N-ellipse, Natural philosophy, Nicol prism, Nvidia, Oliver Heaviside, On Physical Lines of Force, Optical filter, Optics, Otley, Suffolk, Partial differential equation, Parton, Dumfries and Galloway, Peerage, Penicuik, Peter Tait (physicist), Peterhouse, Cambridge, Philip Kelland, Photoelasticity, Photographic plate, Physics, Poetry of Scotland, Polarization (waves), Presbyterianism, Pro bono, Professor, Psalm 119, Quantum mechanics, Quaternion, Radio wave, Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, Regular polyhedron, Religious text, René Descartes, RGB color model, Rings of Saturn, Robert Burns, Robert Hodshon Cay, Royal Institution, Royal Society, Royal Society of Edinburgh, Rudolf Clausius, Rumford Medal, Scientific literature, Scientist, Scottish Episcopal Church, Second law of thermodynamics, Senior Wrangler (University of Cambridge), Shear stress, Single-lens reflex camera, Sir George Clerk, 6th Baronet, Sir William Hamilton, 9th Baronet, Smallpox, Smith's Prize, Special relativity, Spectral color, Speed of light, St John's College, Cambridge, Star of Caledonia, Steam engine, Stomach cancer, Stress (mechanics), Structural rigidity, Submillimetre astronomy, Sunlight, Tartan, Telescope, The Maxwellians, Theory of relativity, Thermodynamic potential, Thermodynamics, Thomas Sutton (photographer), Thomas Young (scientist), Thought experiment, Top, Trinity College, Cambridge, Truss, Ultraviolet, University of Aberdeen, University of Cambridge, University of Edinburgh, Vector calculus, Venus, Victorian era, Viscosity, Voyager program, Wave, William Dyce Cay, William Hopkins, William Nicol (geologist), Young–Helmholtz theory. Expand index (156 more) » « Shrink index
"A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field" is a paper by James Clerk Maxwell on electromagnetism, published in 1865.
A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism is a two-volume treatise on electromagnetism written by James Clerk Maxwell in 1873.
Aberdeen (Aiberdeen,; Obar Dheathain; Aberdonia) is Scotland's third most populous city, one of Scotland's 32 local government council areas and the United Kingdom's 37th most populous built-up area, with an official population estimate of 196,670 for the city of Aberdeen and for the local authority area.
The Adams Prize is one of the most prestigious prizes awarded by the University of Cambridge.
Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).
The American Philosophical Society (APS), founded in 1743 and located in Philadelphia, is an eminent scholarly organization of international reputation that promotes useful knowledge in the sciences and humanities through excellence in scholarly research, professional meetings, publications, library resources, and community outreach.
The American Physical Society (APS) is the world's second largest organization of physicists.
Ansys, Inc. is an American public company based in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania.
In social science, antipositivism (also interpretivism and negativism) proposes that the social realm cannot be studied with the scientific method of investigation applied to the natural world; investigation of the social realm requires a different epistemology.
A baronet (or; abbreviated Bart or Bt) or the rare female equivalent, a baronetess (or; abbreviation Btss), is the holder of a baronetcy, an hereditary title awarded by the British Crown.
Birefringence is the optical property of a material having a refractive index that depends on the polarization and propagation direction of light.
Cambridge is a university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately north of London.
The Cambridge Apostles is an intellectual society at the University of Cambridge founded in 1820 by George Tomlinson, a Cambridge student who went on to become the first Bishop of Gibraltar.
The Cambridge Philosophical Society (CPS) is a scientific society at the University of Cambridge.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
In geometry, a Cartesian oval, named after René Descartes, is a plane curve, the set of points that have the same linear combination of distances from two fixed points.
Castle Douglas (Caisteal Dhùghlais) is a town in Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland.
The Cavendish Laboratory is the Department of Physics at the University of Cambridge, and is part of the School of Physical Sciences.
The Cavendish Professorship is one of the senior faculty positions in physics at the University of Cambridge.
The centimetre–gram–second system of units (abbreviated CGS or cgs) is a variant of the metric system based on the centimetre as the unit of length, the gram as the unit of mass, and the second as the unit of time.
A centrifugal governor is a specific type of governor with a feedback system that controls the speed of an engine by regulating the amount of fuel (or working fluid) admitted, so as to maintain a near-constant speed, irrespective of the load or fuel-supply conditions.
Charles Benjamin Tayler (1797–1875) was a Church of England clergyman and writer for the young.
The Church of Scotland (The Scots Kirk, Eaglais na h-Alba), known informally by its Scots language name, the Kirk, is the national church of Scotland.
There has been one creation of a baronetcy with the surname Clerk (as distinct from Clark, Clarke and Clerke).
The collodion process is an early photographic process.
Color blindness, also known as color vision deficiency, is the decreased ability to see color or differences in color.
Color (or colour) photography is photography that uses media capable of reproducing colors.
A colour triangle is an arrangement of colours within a triangle, based on the additive combination of three primary colors at its corners.
Color vision is the ability of an organism or machine to distinguish objects based on the wavelengths (or frequencies) of the light they reflect, emit, or transmit.
Colorimetry is "the science and technology used to quantify and describe physically the human color perception." It is similar to spectrophotometry, but is distinguished by its interest in reducing spectra to the physical correlates of color perception, most often the CIE 1931 XYZ color space tristimulus values and related quantities.
"Comin' Thro' the Rye" is a poem written in 1782 by Robert Burns (1759–96).
Control theory in control systems engineering deals with the control of continuously operating dynamical systems in engineered processes and machines.
The Cornell University Press is a division of Cornell University housed in Sage House, the former residence of Henry William Sage.
Corsock is a village in Dumfries and Galloway, south-west Scotland.
Coulomb's law, or Coulomb's inverse-square law, is a law of physics for quantifying the amount of force with which stationary electrically charged particles repel or attract each other.
In mathematics, a curve (also called a curved line in older texts) is, generally speaking, an object similar to a line but that need not be straight.
Daniel Bernoulli FRS (8 February 1700 – 17 March 1782) was a Swiss mathematician and physicist and was one of the many prominent mathematicians in the Bernoulli family.
Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
A differential equation is a mathematical equation that relates some function with its derivatives.
In engineering and science, dimensional analysis is the analysis of the relationships between different physical quantities by identifying their base quantities (such as length, mass, time, and electric charge) and units of measure (such as miles vs. kilometers, or pounds vs. kilograms) and tracking these dimensions as calculations or comparisons are performed.
In electromagnetism, displacement current density is the quantity appearing in Maxwell's equations that is defined in terms of the rate of change of, the electric displacement field.
Edinburgh (Dùn Èideann; Edinburgh) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas.
The Edinburgh Academy is an independent school which was opened in 1824.
Edward John Routh FRS (20 January 1831 – 7 June 1907), was an English mathematician, noted as the outstanding coach of students preparing for the Mathematical Tripos examination of the University of Cambridge in its heyday in the middle of the nineteenth century.
Electromagnetic or magnetic induction is the production of an electromotive force (i.e., voltage) across an electrical conductor in a changing magnetic field.
In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.
The electromagnetic wave equation is a second-order partial differential equation that describes the propagation of electromagnetic waves through a medium or in a vacuum.
Electrostatics is a branch of physics that studies electric charges at rest.
In mathematics, an ellipse is a curve in a plane surrounding two focal points such that the sum of the distances to the two focal points is constant for every point on the curve.
Historically, an estate comprises the houses, outbuildings, supporting farmland, and woods that surround the gardens and grounds of a very large property, such as a country house or mansion.
Evangelicalism, evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide, crossdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity which maintains the belief that the essence of the Gospel consists of the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ's atonement.
In physics, the Faraday effect or Faraday rotation is a magneto-optical phenomenon—that is, an interaction between light and a magnetic field in a medium.
A fellow is a member of a group (or fellowship) that work together in pursuing mutual knowledge or practice.
In geometry, focuses or foci, singular focus, are special points with reference to which any of a variety of curves is constructed.
In physics, a frame of reference (or reference frame) consists of an abstract coordinate system and the set of physical reference points that uniquely fix (locate and orient) the coordinate system and standardize measurements.
Galloway (Gallovidia) is a region in southwestern Scotland comprising the historic counties of Wigtownshire and Kirkcudbrightshire.
Serving as the high-end introduction to Maxwell, named after James Clerk Maxwell, the GeForce 900 Series is a family of graphics processing units developed by Nvidia, succeeding the GeForce 700 series.
Gelatin or gelatine (from gelatus meaning "stiff", "frozen") is a translucent, colorless, brittle (when dry), flavorless food derived from collagen obtained from various animal body parts.
The Generalized Maxwell model also known as the Maxwell–Wiechert model (after James Clerk Maxwell and E WiechertWiechert, E (1889); "Ueber elastische Nachwirkung", Dissertation, Königsberg University, GermanyWiechert, E (1893); "Gesetze der elastischen Nachwirkung für constante Temperatur", Annalen der Physik, 286, 335–348, 546–570) is the most general form of the linear model for viscoelasticity.
Geometry (from the γεωμετρία; geo- "earth", -metron "measurement") is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space.
Sir George Biddell Airy (27 July 18012 January 1892) was an English mathematician and astronomer, Astronomer Royal from 1835 to 1881.
George Chrystal FRSE FRS(8 March 1851 – 3 November 1911) was a Scottish mathematician.
George Street in Edinburgh is the central street in James Craig's plan of the New Town.
Glenlair House, near the village of Corsock in the Scottish Council area of Dumfries and Galloway, was the home of the physicist James Clerk Maxwell (1831–1879).
A governor, or speed limiter or controller, is a device used to measure and regulate the speed of a machine, such as an engine.
Henry Cavendish FRS (10 October 1731 – 24 February 1810) was a British natural philosopher, scientist, and an important experimental and theoretical chemist and physicist.
Sir Horace Lamb (27 November 1849 – 4 December 1934)R.
Fluid statics or hydrostatics is the branch of fluid mechanics that studies fluids at rest.
The IEEE/RSE James Clerk Maxwell Medal is an award given by the IEEE and Royal Society of Edinburgh, UK in recognition of "groundbreaking contributions that have had an exceptional impact on the development of electronics and electrical engineering, or related fields".
Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.
The James Clerk Maxwell Foundation is a registered Scottish charity set up in 1977.
The James Clerk Maxwell Prize in Plasma Physics is an annual American Physical Society (APS) award that is given in recognition of outstanding contributions to the field of the Plasma Physics.
The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) is a submillimetre-wavelength telescope at Mauna Kea Observatory in Hawaii.
James David Forbes (20 April 1809 – 31 December 1868) was a Scottish physicist and glaciologist who worked extensively on the conduction of heat and seismology.
James Prescott Joule (24 December 1818 11 October 1889) was an English physicist, mathematician and brewer, born in Salford, Lancashire.
Jemima Wedderburn Blackburn (1 May 1823 – 9 August 1909) was a Scottish painter whose work gives us an evocative picture of rural life in 19th-century Scotland.
John Cay FRSE PRSSA (31 August 1790 – 13 December 1865) was a Scottish advocate, pioneer photographer and antiquarian.
John Clerk (later Clerk Maxwell) of Middlebie (1790–1856) was a Scottish advocate and father of the mathematical physicist James Clerk Maxwell.
John Henry Poynting (9 September 185230 March 1914) was an English physicist.
John Herapath (30 May 1790 – 24 February 1868) was an English physicist who gave a partial account of the kinetic theory of gases in 1820 though it was neglected by the scientific community at the time.
John James Waterston (1811 – 18 June 1883) was a Scottish physicist, a neglected pioneer of the kinetic theory of gases.
John Milton (9 December 16088 November 1674) was an English poet, polemicist, man of letters, and civil servant for the Commonwealth of England under its Council of State and later under Oliver Cromwell.
Josiah Willard Gibbs (February 11, 1839 – April 28, 1903) was an American scientist who made important theoretical contributions to physics, chemistry, and mathematics.
Katherine Mary Clerk Maxwell (née Dewar) (1824 – 12 December 1886), was a Scottish physical scientist best known for her observations which supported and contributed to the discoveries of her husband, James Clerk Maxwell.
The Keith Medal was a prize awarded by the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Scotland's national academy, for a scientific paper published in the society's scientific journals, preference being given to a paper containing a discovery, either in mathematics or earth sciences.
The kinetic theory describes a gas as a large number of submicroscopic particles (atoms or molecules), all of which are in constant rapid motion that has randomness arising from their many collisions with each other and with the walls of the container.
King's College London (informally King's or KCL) is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom, and a founding constituent college of the federal University of London.
King's College in Old Aberdeen, Scotland, the full title of which is The University and King's College of Aberdeen (Collegium Regium Abredonense), is a formerly independent university founded in 1495 and now an integral part of the University of Aberdeen.
Lewis Campbell (3 September 1830 – 25 October 1908) was a Scottish classical scholar.
The Linda Hall Library is a privately endowed American library of science, engineering and technology located in Kansas City, Missouri, sitting "majestically on a urban arboretum." It is the "largest independently funded public library of science, engineering and technology in North America" and "among the largest science libraries in the world.".
Linear algebra is the branch of mathematics concerning linear equations such as linear functions such as and their representations through matrices and vector spaces.
Logic (from the logikḗ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken", but coming to mean "thought" or "reason", is a subject concerned with the most general laws of truth, and is now generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference.
Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann (February 20, 1844 – September 5, 1906) was an Austrian physicist and philosopher whose greatest achievement was in the development of statistical mechanics, which explains and predicts how the properties of atoms (such as mass, charge, and structure) determine the physical properties of matter (such as viscosity, thermal conductivity, and diffusion).
In the late 19th century, luminiferous aether or ether ("luminiferous", meaning "light-bearing"), was the postulated medium for the propagation of light.
A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electrical currents and magnetized materials.
In physics, specifically electromagnetism, the magnetic flux (often denoted or) through a surface is the surface integral of the normal component of the magnetic field B passing through that surface.
Magnetism is a class of physical phenomena that are mediated by magnetic fields.
Marischal College is a large granite building on Broad Street in the centre of Aberdeen in north-east Scotland, and since 2011 has acted as the headquarters of Aberdeen City Council.
Mathematical physics refers to the development of mathematical methods for application to problems in physics.
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.
The maxwell (symbol: Mx) is the CGS (centimetre-gram-second) unit of magnetic flux.
A Maxwell coil is a device for producing a large volume of almost constant (or constant-gradient) magnetic field.
A Maxwell material is a viscoelastic material having the properties both of elasticity and viscosity.
Maxwell Montes is a mountain massif on the planet Venus, of which a peak (Skadi Mons) is the highest point on the planet's surface.
Flow chart showing the paths between the Maxwell relations. ''P'': pressure, ''T'': temperature, ''V'': volume, ''S'': entropy, ''α'': coefficient of thermal expansion, ''κ'': compressibility, ''CV'': heat capacity at constant volume, ''CP'': heat capacity at constant pressure. Maxwell's relations are a set of equations in thermodynamics which are derivable from the symmetry of second derivatives and from the definitions of the thermodynamic potentials.
In the philosophy of thermal and statistical physics, Maxwell's demon is a thought experiment created by the physicist James Clerk Maxwell in which he suggested how the second law of thermodynamics might hypothetically be violated.
Maxwell's equations are a set of partial differential equations that, together with the Lorentz force law, form the foundation of classical electromagnetism, classical optics, and electric circuits.
In probability theory, Maxwell's theorem, named in honor of James Clerk Maxwell, states that if the probability distribution of a vector-valued random variable X.
Maxwell’s thermodynamic surface is an 1874 sculpture made by Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell (1831–1879).
In physics (in particular in statistical mechanics), the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution is a particular probability distribution named after James Clerk Maxwell and Ludwig Boltzmann.
In colorimetry, metamerism is a perceived matching of the colors with different (nonmatching) spectral power distributions.
Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.
Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with a major focus on weather forecasting.
Michael Faraday FRS (22 September 1791 – 25 August 1867) was an English scientist who contributed to the study of electromagnetism and electrochemistry.
The Michelson–Morley experiment was performed between April and July, 1887 by Albert A. Michelson and Edward W. Morley at what is now Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio, and published in November of the same year.
A Church of Scotland congregation is led by its minister and elders.
In geometry, the n-ellipse is a generalization of the ellipse allowing more than two foci.
Natural philosophy or philosophy of nature (from Latin philosophia naturalis) was the philosophical study of nature and the physical universe that was dominant before the development of modern science.
A Nicol prism is a type of polarizer, an optical device used to produce a polarized beam of light.
Nvidia Corporation (most commonly referred to as Nvidia, stylized as NVIDIA, or (due to their logo) nVIDIA) is an American technology company incorporated in Delaware and based in Santa Clara, California.
Oliver Heaviside FRS (18 May 1850 – 3 February 1925) was an English self-taught electrical engineer, mathematician, and physicist who adapted complex numbers to the study of electrical circuits, invented mathematical techniques for the solution of differential equations (equivalent to Laplace transforms), reformulated Maxwell's field equations in terms of electric and magnetic forces and energy flux, and independently co-formulated vector analysis.
"On Physical Lines of Force" is a famous four-part paper written by James Clerk Maxwell published between 1861 and 1862.
An optical filter is a device that selectively transmits light of different wavelengths, usually implemented as a glass plane or plastic device in the optical path, which are either dyed in the bulk or have interference coatings.
Optics is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.
Otley is a village located in the county of Suffolk, England, about eight miles north of Ipswich.
In mathematics, a partial differential equation (PDE) is a differential equation that contains unknown multivariable functions and their partial derivatives.
Parton is a village situated on the banks of the River Dee in Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland.
A peerage is a legal system historically comprising hereditary titles in various countries, comprising various noble ranks.
Penicuik is a town and former burgh in Midlothian, Scotland, lying on the west bank of the River North Esk.
Peter Guthrie Tait FRSE (28 April 1831 – 4 July 1901) was a Scottish mathematical physicist and early pioneer in thermodynamics.
Peterhouse is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge, England.
Rev Prof Philip Kelland PRSE FRS (17 October 1808 – 8 May 1879) was an English mathematician.
Photoelasticity describes changes in the optical properties of a material under mechanical deformation.
Photographic plates preceded photographic film as a capture medium in photography.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
Poetry of Scotland includes all forms of verse written in Brythonic, Latin, Scottish Gaelic, Scots, French, English and Esperanto and any language in which poetry has been written within the boundaries of modern Scotland, or by Scottish people.
Polarization (also polarisation) is a property applying to transverse waves that specifies the geometrical orientation of the oscillations.
Presbyterianism is a part of the reformed tradition within Protestantism which traces its origins to Britain, particularly Scotland, and Ireland.
Pro bono publico (for the public good; usually shortened to pro bono) is a Latin phrase for professional work undertaken voluntarily and without payment.
Professor (commonly abbreviated as Prof.) is an academic rank at universities and other post-secondary education and research institutions in most countries.
Psalm 119 (Greek numbering: Psalm 118) is the longest psalm as well as the longest chapter in the Bible.
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
In mathematics, the quaternions are a number system that extends the complex numbers.
Radio waves are a type of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum longer than infrared light.
Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary is a large American dictionary, first published in 1966 as The Random House Dictionary of the English Language: The Unabridged Edition.
A regular polyhedron is a polyhedron whose symmetry group acts transitively on its flags.
Religious texts (also known as scripture, or scriptures, from the Latin scriptura, meaning "writing") are texts which religious traditions consider to be central to their practice or beliefs.
René Descartes (Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.
The RGB color model is an additive color model in which red, green and blue light are added together in various ways to reproduce a broad array of colors.
The rings of Saturn are the most extensive ring system of any planet in the Solar System.
Robert Burns (25 January 175921 July 1796), also known as Rabbie Burns, the Bard of Ayrshire, Ploughman Poet and various other names and epithets, was a Scottish poet and lyricist.
Robert Hodshon Cay FSSA LLD (1758-1810) was Judge Admiral of Scotland overseeing naval trials.
The Royal Institution of Great Britain (often abbreviated as the Royal Institution or Ri) is an organisation devoted to scientific education and research, based in London.
The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.
The Royal Society of Edinburgh is Scotland's national academy of science and letters.
Rudolf Julius Emanuel Clausius (2 January 1822 – 24 August 1888) was a German physicist and mathematician and is considered one of the central founders of the science of thermodynamics.
The Rumford Medal is an award bestowed by Britain's Royal Society every alternating year for "an outstandingly important recent discovery in the field of thermal or optical properties of matter made by a scientist working in Europe".
Scientific literature comprises scholarly publications that report original empirical and theoretical work in the natural and social sciences, and within an academic field, often abbreviated as the literature.
A scientist is a person engaging in a systematic activity to acquire knowledge that describes and predicts the natural world.
The seven dioceses of the Scottish Episcopal Church (Eaglais Easbaigeach na h-Alba) make up the ecclesiastical province of the Anglican Communion in Scotland.
The second law of thermodynamics states that the total entropy of an isolated system can never decrease over time.
The Senior Wrangler is the top mathematics undergraduate at Cambridge University in England, a position which has been described as "the greatest intellectual achievement attainable in Britain." Specifically, it is the person who achieves the highest overall mark among the Wranglers – the students at Cambridge who gain first-class degrees in mathematics.
A shear stress, often denoted by (Greek: tau), is the component of stress coplanar with a material cross section.
A single-lens reflex camera (SLR) is a camera that typically uses a mirror and prism system (hence "reflex" from the mirror's reflection) that permits the photographer to view through the lens and see exactly what will be captured.
Sir George Clerk of Pennycuik, 6th Baronet (19 November 1787 – 23 December 1867) was a Scottish politician who served as the Tory MP for Edinburghshire, Stamford and Dover.
Sir William Hamilton, 9th Baronet FRSE DD FSAS (8 March 1788 – 6 May 1856) was a Scottish metaphysician.
Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.
The Smith's Prize was the name of each of two prizes awarded annually to two research students in mathematics and theoretical physics at the University of Cambridge from 1769.
In physics, special relativity (SR, also known as the special theory of relativity or STR) is the generally accepted and experimentally well-confirmed physical theory regarding the relationship between space and time.
A spectral color is a color that is evoked in a normal human by a single wavelength of light in the visible spectrum, or by a relatively narrow band of wavelengths, also known as monochromatic light.
The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics.
St John's College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge (the full, formal name of the college is The Master, Fellows and Scholars of the College of St John the Evangelist in the University of Cambridge).
The Star of Caledonia, also called the Gretna Landmark, is a planned sculpture designed by Cecil Balmond, Charles Jencks and Andy Goldsworthy.
A steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid.
Stomach cancer, also known as gastric cancer, is cancer developing from the lining of the stomach.
In continuum mechanics, stress is a physical quantity that expresses the internal forces that neighboring particles of a continuous material exert on each other, while strain is the measure of the deformation of the material.
In discrete geometry and mechanics, structural rigidity is a combinatorial theory for predicting the flexibility of ensembles formed by rigid bodies connected by flexible linkages or hinges.
Submillimetre astronomy or submillimeter astronomy (see spelling differences) is the branch of observational astronomy that is conducted at submillimetre wavelengths (i.e., terahertz radiation) of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Sunlight is a portion of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun, in particular infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light.
Tartan (breacan) is a pattern consisting of criss-crossed horizontal and vertical bands in multiple colours.
A telescope is an optical instrument that aids in the observation of remote objects by collecting electromagnetic radiation (such as visible light).
The Maxwellians is a book by Bruce J. Hunt, published in 1991 by Cornell University Press.
The theory of relativity usually encompasses two interrelated theories by Albert Einstein: special relativity and general relativity.
A thermodynamic potential (in fact, rather energyISO/IEC 80000-5, Quantities an units, Part 5 - Thermodynamics, item 5-20.4 Helmholtz energy, Helmholtz function, ISO/IEC 80000-5, Quantities an units, Part 5 - Thermodynamics, item 5-20.5, Gibbs energy, Gibbs function than potential) is a scalar quantity used to represent the thermodynamic state of a system.
Thermodynamics is the branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work.
Thomas Sutton (1819 – 19 March 1875, in Pwllheli or more likely Kensington) was an English photographer, author, and inventor.
Thomas Young FRS (13 June 1773 – 10 May 1829) was a British polymath and physician.
A thought experiment (Gedankenexperiment, Gedanken-Experiment or Gedankenerfahrung) considers some hypothesis, theory, or principle for the purpose of thinking through its consequences.
A spinning top is a toy designed to spin rapidly on the ground, the motion of which causes it to remain precisely balanced on its tip because of its rotational inertia.
Trinity College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in England.
In engineering, a truss is a structure that "consists of two-force members only, where the members are organized so that the assemblage as a whole behaves as a single object".
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
The University of Aberdeen is a public research university in Aberdeen, Scotland.
The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.
The University of Edinburgh (abbreviated as Edin. in post-nominals), founded in 1582, is the sixth oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's ancient universities.
Vector calculus, or vector analysis, is a branch of mathematics concerned with differentiation and integration of vector fields, primarily in 3-dimensional Euclidean space \mathbb^3.
Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.
In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era was the period of Queen Victoria's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901.
The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.
The Voyager program is an American scientific program that employs two robotic probes, Voyager 1 and Voyager 2, to study the outer Solar System.
In physics, a wave is a disturbance that transfers energy through matter or space, with little or no associated mass transport.
William Dyce Cay, MICE FRSE (1837 or 1838 – 13 December 1925) was a Scottish civil engineer.
William Hopkins FRS (2 February 1793 – 13 October 1866) was an English mathematician and geologist.
Dr William Nicol FRSE FCS (18 April 1770 – 2 September 1851) was a Scottish geologist and physicist who invented the Nicol prism, the first device for obtaining plane-polarized light, in 1828.
The Young–Helmholtz theory (based on the work of Thomas Young and Hermann von Helmholtz in the 19th century) is a theory of trichromatic color vision – the manner in which the photoreceptor cells in the eyes of humans and other primates work to enable color vision.