297 relations: Abdication, Absolute monarchy, Act of Settlement 1701, Admiralty, Adolphus William Ward, Albany, New York, Alison Weir, Anglicanism, Anne Hyde, Anne of Denmark, Anne, Queen of Great Britain, Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury, Anthony Farmer, Antoine of Navarre, Apoplexy, Arabella Churchill (royal mistress), Archbishop of Canterbury, Archibald Campbell, 9th Earl of Argyll, Argent, Arthur Capell, 1st Earl of Essex, Attitude (heraldry), Azure (heraldry), Éamonn Ó Ciardha, Baptists, Battle of Edgehill, Battle of Sedgemoor, Battle of the Boyne, Battle of the Dunes (1658), Bill of Rights 1689, Bishop of Oxford, Bloody Assizes, Breandán Ó Buachalla, Bruges, Brussels, Catherine of Braganza, Catherine Sedley, Countess of Dorchester, Catholic Church, Charles Edward Stuart, Charles I of England, Charles II of England, Charles Stewart, 3rd Duke of Richmond, Charles Stuart, Duke of Cambridge (1660–1661), Charles Stuart, Duke of Cambridge (1677), Charles Stuart, Duke of Kendal, Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Christ Church, Oxford, Church of England, Clan Campbell, Coat of arms of Ireland, Commoner, ..., Commonwealth of England, Congregational church, Connecticut River, Convention Parliament (1689), Covenanter, David Ogg (historian), Dean of the College of Cardinals, Declaration of Indulgence, Defrocking, Delaware River, Dictionary of National Biography, Duke of Albany, Duke of Argyll, Duke of Normandy, Duke of York, Dutch Republic, Edgar, Duke of Cambridge, Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon, Edward III of England, Elizabeth Stuart, Queen of Bohemia, English Civil War, English claims to the French throne, English Dissenters, Ermine (heraldry), Eucharist, Exclusion Crisis, Ferdinando d'Adda, Fidei defensor, Fleur-de-lis, Fort Orange (New Netherland), Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, Francis Cottington, 1st Baron Cottington, Frederick II of Denmark, Freedom of religion, French Revolution, Fronde, G. 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Abdication is the act of formally relinquishing monarchical authority.
Absolute monarchy, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs.
The Act of Settlement is an Act of the Parliament of England that was passed in 1701 to settle the succession to the English and Irish crowns on Protestants only.
The Admiralty, originally known as the Office of the Admiralty and Marine Affairs, was the government department responsible for the command of the Royal Navy firstly in the Kingdom of England, secondly in the Kingdom of Great Britain, and from 1801 to 1964, the United Kingdom and former British Empire.
Sir Adolphus William Ward, FBA (2 December 1837 in Hampstead, London19 June 1924) was an English historian and man of letters.
Albany is the capital of the U.S. state of New York and the seat of Albany County.
Alison Weir (born 8 July 1951) is a British writer of history books, and latterly historical novels, mostly in the form of biographies about British royalty.
Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition that evolved out of the practices, liturgy and identity of the Church of England following the Protestant Reformation.
Anne Hyde (12 March 163731 March 1671) was Duchess of York and of Albany as the first wife of the future King James II of England.
Anne of Denmark (12 December 1574 – 2 March 1619) was Queen consort of Scotland, England, and Ireland by marriage to King James VI and I. The second daughter of King Frederick II of Denmark, Anne married James in 1589 at age 15 and bore him three children who survived infancy, including the future Charles I. She demonstrated an independent streak and a willingness to use factional Scottish politics in her conflicts with James over the custody of Prince Henry and his treatment of her friend Beatrix Ruthven.
Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) was the Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland between 8 March 1702 and 1 May 1707.
Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury, PC (22 July 1621 – 21 January 1683), known as Anthony Ashley Cooper from 1621 to 1630, as Sir Anthony Ashley Cooper, 2nd Baronet from 1630 to 1661, and as The Lord Ashley from 1661 to 1672, was a prominent English politician during the Interregnum and during the reign of King Charles II.
Anthony Farmer (born 1657Jerome Bertram,, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004, accessed 7 September 2008) was an Englishman nominated by King James II to the office of President of Magdalen College, Oxford, in 1687.
Antoine (in English, Anthony; 22 April 1518 – 17 November 1562) was the King of Navarre through his marriage (jure uxoris) to Queen Jeanne III, from 1555 until his death.
Apoplexy is bleeding within internal organs and the accompanying symptoms.
Arabella Churchill (23 February 1648 – 30 May 1730) was the mistress of King James II, and the mother of four of his children (surnamed FitzJames, that is, "son of James").
The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Canterbury.
Archibald Campbell, 9th Earl of Argyll (26 February 1629 – 30 June 1685) was a Scottish peer and soldier.
In heraldry, argent is the tincture of silver, and belongs to the class of light tinctures called "metals." It is very frequently depicted as white and usually considered interchangeable with it.
Arthur Capell, 1st Earl of Essex, PC (163113 July 1683), also spelled Capel, of Cassiobury House, Watford, Hertfordshire, was an English statesman.
In heraldry, an attitude is the position in which an animal, bird, fish, human or human-like being is emblazoned as a charge, supporter or crest.
In heraldry, azure is the tincture with the colour blue, and belongs to the class of tinctures called "colours".
Éamonn Ó Ciardha, Irish historian and writer.
Baptists are Christians distinguished by baptizing professing believers only (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism), and doing so by complete immersion (as opposed to affusion or sprinkling).
The Battle of Edgehill (or Edge Hill) was a pitched battle of the First English Civil War.
The Battle of Sedgemoor was fought on 6 July 1685 and took place at Westonzoyland near Bridgwater in Somerset, England.
The Battle of the Boyne (Cath na Bóinne) was a battle in 1690 between the forces of the deposed King James II of England, and those of Dutch Prince William of Orange who, with his wife Mary II (his cousin and James's daughter), had acceded to the Crowns of England and Scotland in 1688.
The Battle of the Dunes, also known as the Battle of Dunkirk, was fought on 14 June 1658 (Gregorian calendar).
The Bill of Rights, also known as the English Bill of Rights, is an Act of the Parliament of England that deals with constitutional matters and sets out certain basic civil rights.
The Bishop of Oxford is the diocesan bishop of the Church of England Diocese of Oxford in the Province of Canterbury; his seat is at Christ Church Cathedral, Oxford.
The Bloody Assizes were a series of trials started at Winchester on 25 August 1685 in the aftermath of the Battle of Sedgemoor, which ended the Monmouth Rebellion in England.
Breandán Ó Buachalla (1936 – 20 May 2010) was an Irish scholar of the Irish language.
Bruges (Brugge; Bruges; Brügge) is the capital and largest city of the province of West Flanders in the Flemish Region of Belgium, in the northwest of the country.
Brussels (Bruxelles,; Brussel), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (Région de Bruxelles-Capitale, Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest), is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the de jure capital of Belgium.
Catherine of Braganza (Catarina; 25 November 1638 – 31 December 1705) was queen consort of England, of Scotland and of Ireland from 1662 to 1685, as the wife of King Charles II.
Catherine Sedley, Countess of Dorchester, Countess of Portmore (21 December 1657 – 26 October 1717), daughter of Sir Charles Sedley, 5th Baronet, was the mistress of King James II and VII both before and after he came to the throne.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Charles Edward Louis John Casimir Sylvester Severino Maria Stuart (31 December 1720 – 31 January 1788) was the elder son of James Francis Edward Stuart, grandson of James II and VII and after 1766 the Stuart claimant to the throne of Great Britain.
Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649.
Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was king of England, Scotland and Ireland.
Charles Stewart, 3rd Duke of Richmond, 6th Duke of Lennox KG (7 March 1639 – December 1672) was the only son of George Stewart, 9th Seigneur d'Aubigny and Katherine Howard, daughter of Theophilus Howard, 2nd Earl of Suffolk.
Charles Stuart (22 October 16605 May 1661) was the first of four sons and eight children born from the marriage between the Duke of York (later James II of England & VII of Scotland) and his first wife, Anne Hyde.
Charles Stuart (7 November 167712 December 1677) was the first of two sons and third of seven children born from the marriage between James, Duke of York (later James II of England & VII of Scotland) and Mary of Modena.
Charles Stuart, Duke of Kendal (4 July 1666 – 22 May 1667) was the third son of James, Duke of York (later James II of England) and his first wife Anne Hyde.
The Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye is a royal palace in the commune of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, in the département of Yvelines, about 19 km west of Paris, France.
Christ Church (Ædes Christi, the temple or house, ædēs, of Christ, and thus sometimes known as "The House") is a constituent college of the University of Oxford in England.
The Church of England (C of E) is the state church of England.
Clan Campbell (Na Caimbeulaich) is a Highland Scottish clan.
The coat of arms of Ireland is blazoned as Azure a Celtic Harp Or, stringed Argent (a gold harp with silver strings on a blue background).
The common people, also known as the common man, commoners, or the masses, are the ordinary people in a community or nation who lack any significant social status, especially those who are members of neither royalty, nobility, the clergy, nor any member of the aristocracy.
The Commonwealth was the period from 1649 to 1660 when England and Wales, later along with Ireland and Scotland, was ruled as a republic following the end of the Second English Civil War and the trial and execution of Charles I. The republic's existence was declared through "An Act declaring England to be a Commonwealth", adopted by the Rump Parliament on 19 May 1649.
Congregational churches (also Congregationalist churches; Congregationalism) are Protestant churches in the Reformed tradition practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs.
The Connecticut River is the longest river in the New England region of the United States, flowing roughly southward for through four states.
The English Convention (1689) was an assembly of the Parliament of England which transferred the crowns of England, Scotland and Ireland from James II to William III and Mary II as co-regents.
The Covenanters were a Scottish Presbyterian movement that played an important part in the history of Scotland, and to a lesser extent that of England and Ireland, during the 17th century.
David Ogg (1887 - 1965) was an historian specialising in the history of England during the reign of Charles II and the Europe dominated by Louis XIV of France.
The Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals (Decanus Sacri Collegii) is the dean (president) of the College of Cardinals in the Roman Catholic Church.
The Declaration of Indulgence or Declaration for Liberty of Conscience was a pair of proclamations made by James II of England and VII of Scotland in 1687.
Defrocking, unfrocking, or laicization of clergy is the removal of their rights to exercise the functions of the ordained ministry.
The Delaware River is a major river on the Atlantic coast of the United States.
The Dictionary of National Biography (DNB) is a standard work of reference on notable figures from British history, published from 1885.
Duke of Albany was a peerage title that has occasionally been bestowed on the younger sons in the Scottish and later the British royal family, particularly in the Houses of Stuart and Windsor.
Duke of Argyll (Diùc Earra-Ghàidheil) is a title, created in the Peerage of Scotland in 1701 and in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in 1892.
In the Middle Ages, the Duke of Normandy was the ruler of the Duchy of Normandy in north-western France.
The Duke of York is a title of nobility in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
The Dutch Republic was a republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces (which earlier seceded from the Spanish rule) until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.
Edgar Stuart, Duke of Cambridge (14 September 1667 – 8 June 1671) was the fourth son of James, Duke of York (later James II of England) and his first wife Anne Hyde.
Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon (18 February 16099 December 1674) was an English statesman who served as Lord Chancellor to King Charles II from 1658, two years before the Restoration of the Monarchy, until 1667.
Edward III (13 November 1312 – 21 June 1377) was King of England and Lord of Ireland from January 1327 until his death; he is noted for his military success and for restoring royal authority after the disastrous and unorthodox reign of his father, Edward II.
Elizabeth Stuart (19 August 1596 – 13 February 1662) was Electress of the Palatinate and briefly Queen of Bohemia as the wife of Frederick V of the Palatinate.
The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") over, principally, the manner of England's governance.
From the 1340s to the 19th century, excluding two brief intervals in the 1360s and the 1420s, the kings and queens of England (and, later, of Great Britain) also claimed the throne of France.
English Dissenters or English Separatists were Protestant Christians who separated from the Church of England in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries.
Ermine in heraldry is a "fur", a type of tincture, consisting of a white background with a pattern of black shapes representing the winter coat of the stoat (a species of weasel with white fur and a black-tipped tail).
The Eucharist (also called Holy Communion or the Lord's Supper, among other names) is a Christian rite that is considered a sacrament in most churches and an ordinance in others.
The Exclusion Crisis ran from 1679 through 1681 in the reign of King Charles II of England, Scotland and Ireland.
Ferdinando d'Adda (27 August 1649 – 27 January 1719) was a Roman Catholic Cardinal, bishop and diplomat.
Fidei defensor (feminine: Fidei defensatrix) is a Latin title which translates to Defender of the Faith in English and Défenseur de la Foi in French.
The fleur-de-lis/fleur-de-lys (plural: fleurs-de-lis/fleurs-de-lys) or flower-de-luce is a stylized lily (in French, fleur means "flower", and lis means "lily") that is used as a decorative design or motif, and many of the Catholic saints of France, particularly St. Joseph, are depicted with a lily.
Fort Orange (Fort Oranje) was the first permanent Dutch settlement in New Netherland; the present-day city of Albany, New York developed at this site.
Francesco I (25 March 1541 – 19 October 1587) was the second Grand Duke of Tuscany, ruling from 1574 until his death in 1587, a member of the House of Medici.
Francis Cottington, 1st Baron Cottington (c. 15791652) was the English lord treasurer and ambassador and leader of the pro-Spanish, pro-Roman Catholic faction in the court of Charles I.
Frederick II (1 July 1534 – 4 April 1588) was King of Denmark and Norway and Duke of Schleswig from 1559 until his death.
Freedom of religion is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, to manifest religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance without government influence or intervention.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
The Fronde was a series of civil wars in France between 1648 and 1653, occurring in the midst of the Franco-Spanish War, which had begun in 1635.
George Macaulay Trevelyan, (16 February 1876 – 21 July 1962), was a British historian and academic.
Vice Admiral Sir George Carteret, 1st Baronet (161018 January 1680 N.S.), son of Elias de Carteret, was a royalist statesman in Jersey and England, who served in the Clarendon Ministry as Treasurer of the Navy.
George Edward Cokayne, (29 April 1825 – 6 August 1911), was an English genealogist and long-serving herald at the College of Arms in London, who eventually rose to the rank of Clarenceux King of Arms.
George I (George Louis; Georg Ludwig; 28 May 1660 – 11 June 1727) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 1 August 1714 and ruler of the Duchy and Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) in the Holy Roman Empire from 1698 until his death.
George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death in 1820.
George IV (George Augustus Frederick; 12 August 1762 – 26 June 1830) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and King of Hanover following the death of his father, King George III, on 29 January 1820, until his own death ten years later.
George Jeffreys, 1st Baron Jeffreys of Wem, PC (15 May 1645 – 18 April 1689), also known as "The Hanging Judge", was a Welsh judge.
Admiral George Legge, 1st Baron Dartmouth PC (c. 1647 – 1691) was an English naval commander who gave distinguished service to both Charles II and James II.
George Savile, 1st Marquess of Halifax, (11 November 1633 – 5 April 1695) was an English statesman, writer, and politician who sat in the House of Commons in 1660, and in the House of Lords after he was raised to the peerage in 1668.
George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham, (28 August 1592 – 23 August 1628), was an English courtier, statesman, and patron of the arts.
George Villiers, 2nd Duke of Buckingham, 20th Baron de Ros, (30 January 1628 – 16 April 1687) was an English statesman and poet.
Gilbert Burnet (18 September 1643 – 17 March 1715) was a Scottish philosopher and historian, and Bishop of Salisbury.
The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (James VII of Scotland) by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III, Prince of Orange, who was James's nephew and son-in-law.
The Great Fire of London was a major conflagration that swept through the central parts of the English city of London from Sunday, 2 September to Thursday, 6 of September 1666.
The Great Seal of the Realm or Great Seal of the United Kingdom (known prior to the Treaty of Union of 1707 as the Great Seal of England; and from then until the Union of 1801 as the Great Seal of Great Britain and Ireland) is a seal that is used to symbolise the Sovereign's approval of important state documents.
In heraldry, gules is the tincture with the colour red, and belongs to the class of dark tinctures called "colours." In engraving, it is sometimes depicted as a region of vertical lines or else marked with gu. as an abbreviation.
An heir presumptive or heiress presumptive is the person entitled to inherit a throne, peerage, or other hereditary honour, but whose position can be displaced by the birth of an heir apparent, male or female, or of a new heir presumptive with a better claim to the position in question.
Heneage Finch, 1st Earl of Aylesford, PC, KC (22 July 1719) was an English lawyer and statesman.
Sir Heneage Finch, 3rd Earl of Winchilsea (1628–1689) of Eastwell, Kent, was the 3rd Earl of Winchilsea.
Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne, vicomte de Turenne, often called simply Turenne (11 September 161127 July 1675) was a French Marshal General and the most illustrious member of the La Tour d'Auvergne family.
Henri-Emmanuel de Roquette (c. 1655 – 4 March 1725) was a French churchman.
Henrietta Butler, Viscountess Galmoye, previously Henrietta Waldegrave, Baroness Waldegrave (née Lady Henrietta FitzJames; 1667 – 3 April 1730), was an illegitimate daughter of James Stuart, Duke of York, subsequently King of England, Scotland and Ireland, by his mistress, Arabella Churchill (a sister of the first Duke of Marlborough).
Henrietta Maria of France (Henriette Marie; 25 November 1609 – 10 September 1669) was queen consort of England, Scotland, and Ireland as the wife of King Charles I. She was mother of his two immediate successors, Charles II and James II/VII.
Henry Benedict Thomas Edward Maria Clement Francis Xavier Stuart, Cardinal Duke of York (6 March 1725 – 13 July 1807) was a Roman Catholic Cardinal, as well as the fourth and final Jacobite heir to claim the thrones of England, Scotland, France, and Ireland publicly.
Henry FitzJames (6 August 1673 – 16 December 1702), titular 1st Duke of Albemarle in the Jacobite peerage, was the illegitimate son of King James II of England and VII of Scotland by Arabella Churchill, sister of the first Duke of Marlborough.
Henry Hyde, 2nd Earl of Clarendon, PC (2 June 163831 October 1709) was an English aristocrat and politician.
Henry IV (Henri IV, read as Henri-Quatre; 13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), also known by the epithet Good King Henry, was King of Navarre (as Henry III) from 1572 to 1610 and King of France from 1589 to 1610.
Henry Stuart, Duke of Gloucester (8 July 1640 – 13 September 1660) was the youngest son of Charles I and his wife, Henrietta Maria of France, the third son to survive to adulthood (his eldest brother, Charles, Duke of Cornwall and of Rothesay, was born and died the same day).
Henry Stuart (or Stewart), Duke of Albany (7 December 1545 – 10 February 1567), styled as Lord Darnley until 1565, was king consort of Scotland from 1565 until his murder at Kirk o' Field in 1567.
Henry Waldegrave, 1st Baron Waldegrave (1661 – 24 January 1689) was an English peer and Jacobite supporter.
Joseph Hilaire Pierre René Belloc (27 July 187016 July 1953) was an Anglo-French writer and historian.
The Palace of Holyroodhouse, commonly referred to as Holyrood Palace, is the official residence of the British monarch in Scotland, Queen Elizabeth II.
The House of Stuart, originally Stewart, was a European royal house that originated in Scotland.
The Hudson River is a river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York in the United States.
The Hudson's Bay Company (HBC; Compagnie de la Baie d'Hudson) is a Canadian retail business group.
Huguenots (Les huguenots) are an ethnoreligious group of French Protestants who follow the Reformed tradition.
Inchinnan (Scottish Gaelic: Innis Fhionghain) is a small village in Renfrewshire, Scotland.
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), also known as cerebral bleed, is a type of intracranial bleed that occurs within the brain tissue or ventricles.
The Invitation to William was a letter sent by seven notable Englishmen, later named the Immortal Seven, to William III, Prince of Orange, received by him on 30 June 1688 (Julian calendar, 10 July Gregorian calendar).
Isabel Stuart (28 August 1676 – 2 March 1681), also called Isabella,Burials in Westminster Abbey, p. 201 was a daughter of the future King James II of England and his second wife, Mary of Modena.
The Jacobite assassination plot 1696 was an unsuccessful attempt led by George Barclay to ambush and kill William III of England in early 1696.
The Jacobite rising of 1715 (Bliadhna Sheumais) (also referred to as the Fifteen or Lord Mar's Revolt), was the attempt by James Francis Edward Stuart (also called the Old Pretender) to regain the thrones of England, Ireland and Scotland for the exiled House of Stuart.
The Jacobite rising of 1745 or 'The '45' (Bliadhna Theàrlaich, "The Year of Charles") is the name commonly used for the attempt by Charles Edward Stuart to regain the British throne for the House of Stuart.
The Jacobite succession is the line through which the crown in pretence of England and Scotland and Ireland (France also claimed) has descended since the flight of James II & VII from London at the time of the "Glorious Revolution".
Jacobitism (Seumasachas, Seacaibíteachas, Séamusachas) was a political movement in Great Britain and Ireland that aimed to restore the Roman Catholic Stuart King James II of England and Ireland (as James VII in Scotland) and his heirs to the thrones of England, Scotland, France and Ireland.
James Annesley, 3rd Earl of Anglesey (1670–18/21 January 1702), succeeded to his Earldom on the death of his father, James Annesley, 2nd Earl of Anglesey in 1690.
James FitzJames, 1st Duke of Berwick, 1st Duke of Fitz-James, 1st Duke of Liria and Jérica (21 August 1670 – 12 June 1734) was an Anglo-French military leader, illegitimate son of King James II of England by Arabella Churchill, sister of the 1st Duke of Marlborough.
James Francis Edward, Prince of Wales (10 June 1688 – 1 January 1766), nicknamed the Old Pretender, was the son of King James II and VII of England, Scotland and Ireland, and his second wife, Mary of Modena.
James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth, 1st Duke of Buccleuch, KG, PC (9 April 1649 – 15 July 1685) was an English nobleman.
James Stuart, Duke of Cambridge KG (12 July 1663 – 20 June 1667) was the second son of the Duke of York (later James II of England) and his first wife, Anne Hyde.
James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death in 1625.
Jeanne d'Albret (Basque: Joana Albretekoa; Occitan: Joana de Labrit; 16 November 1528 – 9 June 1572), also known as Jeanne III, was the queen regnant of Navarre from 1555 to 1572.
Jersey (Jèrriais: Jèrri), officially the Bailiwick of Jersey (Bailliage de Jersey; Jèrriais: Bailliage dé Jèrri), is a Crown dependency located near the coast of Normandy, France.
Joanna of Austria (German Johanna von Österreich, Italian Giovanna d'Austria) (24 January 1547 – 11 April 1578) was born an Archduchess of Austria as the youngest daughter of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, and Anna of Bohemia and Hungary.
John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton (1602 – 26 August 1678) was an English royalist soldier, politician and diplomat, of the Bruton branch of the Berkeley family.
General John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, 1st Prince of Mindelheim, 1st Count of Nellenburg, Prince of the Holy Roman Empire, (26 May 1650 – 16 June 1722 O.S.) was an English soldier and statesman whose career spanned the reigns of five monarchs.
John Drummond, 1st Earl (and titular 1st Duke) of Melfort KG KT PC (1649–1714) was a Scottish politician.
John Maitland, 1st Duke and 2nd Earl of Lauderdale, 3rd Lord Thirlestane KG PC (24 May 1616, Lethington, East Lothian – 24 August 1682), was a Scottish politician, and leader within the Cabal Ministry.
John Philipps Kenyon (18 June 1927 – 6 January 1996) was an English historian and Fellow of the British Academy.
John Sheffield, 1st Duke of Buckingham and Normanby, (7 April 1648 – 24 February 1721) was an English poet and Tory politician of the late Stuart period who served as Lord Privy Seal and Lord President of the Council.
John Somers, 1st Baron Somers, (4 March 1651 – 26 April 1716) was an English Whig jurist and statesman.
Joseph Bampfield (fl. 1639-1685), was a royalist colonel greatly involved in the turbulence of the English Civil War period.
A justice of the peace (JP) is a judicial officer, of a lower or puisne court, elected or appointed by means of a commission (letters patent) to keep the peace.
Kent is a county in South East England and one of the home counties.
The Kingdom of England (French: Royaume d'Angleterre; Danish: Kongeriget England; German: Königreich England) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century—when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms—until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Kingdom of France (Royaume de France) was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe.
The Kingdom of Ireland (Classical Irish: Ríoghacht Éireann; Modern Irish: Ríocht Éireann) was a nominal state ruled by the King or Queen of England and later the King or Queen of Great Britain that existed in Ireland from 1542 until 1800.
The Kingdom of Scotland (Rìoghachd na h-Alba; Kinrick o Scotland) was a sovereign state in northwest Europe traditionally said to have been founded in 843.
Kinsale (meaning "Tide Head") is a historic port and fishing town in County Cork, Ireland, which also has significant military history.
In heraldry, a label (occasionally lambel, the French form of the word) is a charge resembling the strap crossing the horse's chest from which pendants are hung.
Laurence Hyde, 1st Earl of Rochester, (March 1642 – 2 May 1711) was an English statesman and writer.
A legislative session is the period of time in which a legislature, in both parliamentary and presidential systems, is convened for purpose of lawmaking, usually being one of two or more smaller divisions of the entire time between two elections.
This is a list of the members of the British nobility and gentry, who in 1688 deserted King James II and pledged their allegiances to Prince William of Orange, as the events of the Glorious Revolution unfolded.
This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England begins with Alfred the Great, King of Wessex, one of the petty kingdoms to rule a portion of modern England.
The Lord High Admiral (of England, Great Britain and then the United Kingdom, beginning in the 14th century) is the titular head of the Royal Navy.
The Lord High Admiral of Scotland was one of the Great Officers of State of the Kingdom of Scotland before the Union with England in 1707.
This is a list of Parliaments of England from the reign of King Henry III (when the Curia Regis developed into a body known as Parliament) until the creation of the Parliament of Great Britain in 1707.
The monarch of Scotland was the head of state of the Kingdom of Scotland.
The livery companies of the City of London, currently 110 in number, comprise London's ancient and modern trade associations and guilds, almost all of which are styled the "Worshipful Company of..." their respective craft, trade or profession.
The Lord High Commissioners to the Parliament of Scotland, sometimes referred to as the fifth estate of the Estates of Scotland, were the Scottish Sovereign's personal representative to the Parliament of Scotland following James VI of Scotland's accession to the throne of England and his becoming, in personal union, James I, the first Stuart king of England (see Union of the Crowns).
Lord Protector (pl. Lords Protectors) is a title that has been used in British constitutional law for the head of state.
The Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports is a ceremonial official in the United Kingdom.
The Lord-Lieutenant is the British monarch's personal representative in each county of the United Kingdom.
Louis de Duras, 2nd Earl of Feversham, KG (164119 April 1709) was a French nobleman who became Earl of Feversham in Stuart England.
Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715.
Louis de Bourbon or Louis II, Prince of Condé (8 September 1621 – 11 December 1686) was a French general and the most famous representative of the Condé branch of the House of Bourbon.
Louisa Maria Teresa Stuart (28 June 1692 – 18 April 1712), known to Jacobites as Princess Royal, was the last child of James II and VII (1633–1701), the deposed king of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and of his queen, Mary of Modena.
The Loyal Parliament was the only Parliament of England of King James II, in theory continuing from May 1685 to July 1687, but in practice sitting during 1685 only.
Lyme Regis is a town in West Dorset, England, west of Dorchester and east of Exeter.
Magdalen College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford.
Maria Clementina Sobieska (Maria Klementyna Sobieska; 18 July 1702 – 18 January 1735) was a Titular Queen consort of England by marriage to James Francis Edward Stuart, a Jacobite claimant to the British throne.
Marie de' Medici (Marie de Médicis, Maria de' Medici; 26 April 1575 – 3 July 1642) was Queen of France as the second wife of King Henry IV of France, of the House of Bourbon.
Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558) was the Queen of England and Ireland from July 1553 until her death.
Mary II (30 April 1662 – 28 December 1694) was Queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland, co-reigning with her husband and first cousin, King William III and II, from 1689 until her death; popular histories usually refer to their joint reign as that of William and Mary.
Mary of Modena (Maria di Modena) (Maria Beatrice Anna Margherita Isabella d'Este; –) was Queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland as the second wife of James II and VII (1633–1701).
Mary, Princess Royal (Mary Henrietta; 4 November 1631 – 24 December 1660) was Princess of Orange and Countess of Nassau by marriage to Prince William II, and co-regent for her son during his minority as Sovereign Prince of Orange from 1651 to 1660.
Mary, Queen of Scots (8 December 1542 – 8 February 1587), also known as Mary Stuart or Mary I, reigned over Scotland from 14 December 1542 to 24 July 1567.
A Master of Arts (Magister Artium; abbreviated MA; also Artium Magister, abbreviated AM) is a person who was admitted to a type of master's degree awarded by universities in many countries, and the degree is also named Master of Arts in colloquial speech.
Maurice Percy Ashley CBE (4 September 1907 – 26 September 1994) was a noted historian of the 17th Century and a former editor of The Listener.
A monarchical system of government existed in Ireland from ancient times until, for what became the Republic of Ireland, the mid-twentieth century.
The Monmouth Rebellion, also known as The Revolt of the West or The West Country rebellion, was an attempt to overthrow James II, the Duke of York.
Nathaniel Crew, 3rd Baron Crew (31 January 16331 November 1721) was Bishop of Oxford from 1671 to 1674, then Bishop of Durham from 1674 to 1721.
The National Portrait Gallery (NPG) is an art gallery in London housing a collection of portraits of historically important and famous British people.
New Amsterdam (Nieuw Amsterdam, or) was a 17th-century Dutch settlement established at the southern tip of Manhattan Island that served as the seat of the colonial government in New Netherland.
New Netherland (Dutch: Nieuw Nederland; Latin: Nova Belgica or Novum Belgium) was a 17th-century colony of the Dutch Republic that was located on the east coast of North America.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) are terms sometimes used with dates to indicate that the calendar convention used at the time described is different from that in use at the time the document was being written.
Oliver Cromwell (25 April 15993 September 1658) was an English military and political leader.
In heraldry, or (French for "gold") is the tincture of gold and, together with argent (silver), belongs to the class of light tinctures called "metals", or light colours.
The Order of Saint Benedict (OSB; Latin: Ordo Sancti Benedicti), also known as the Black Monksin reference to the colour of its members' habitsis a Catholic religious order of independent monastic communities that observe the Rule of Saint Benedict.
The Order of the Garter (formally the Most Noble Order of the Garter) is an order of chivalry founded by Edward III in 1348 and regarded as the most prestigious British order of chivalry (though in precedence inferior to the military Victoria Cross and George Cross) in England and the United Kingdom.
In heraldry, an orle is a subordinary consisting of a narrow band occupying the inward half of where a bordure would be, following the exact outline of the shield but within it, showing the field between the outer edge of the orle and the edge of the shield.
Oxford is a city in the South East region of England and the county town of Oxfordshire.
A pale is a term used in heraldic blazon and vexillology to describe a charge on a coat of arms (or flag), that takes the form of a band running vertically down the centre of the shield.
Nuncio (officially known as an Apostolic nuncio and also known as a papal nuncio) is the title for an ecclesiastical diplomat, being an envoy or permanent diplomatic representative of the Holy See to a state or international organization.
A parish register in an ecclesiastical parish is a handwritten volume, normally kept in the parish church in which certain details of religious ceremonies marking major events such as baptisms (together with the dates and names of the parents), marriages (with the names of the partners), children, and burials (that had taken place within the parish) are recorded.
The Parliament of England was the legislature of the Kingdom of England, existing from the early 13th century until 1707, when it became the Parliament of Great Britain after the political union of England and Scotland created the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Parliament of Ireland was the legislature of the Lordship of Ireland, and later the Kingdom of Ireland, from 1297 until 1800.
The Parliament of Scotland was the legislature of the Kingdom of Scotland.
The Patriot Parliament is the name given to the session of the Irish Parliament called by King James II of Ireland during the War of the Two Kings in 1689.
In English history, penal law refers to a specific series of laws that sought to uphold the establishment of the Church of England against Protestant nonconformists and Catholicism, by imposing various forfeitures, civil penalties, and civil disabilities upon these dissenters.
Penal transportation or transportation refers to the relocation of convicted criminals, or other persons regarded as undesirable, to a distant place, often a colony for a specified term; later, specifically established penal colonies became their destination.
Penance is repentance of sins as well as an alternate name for the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and Oriental Orthodox sacrament of Reconciliation or Confession.
Sir Peter Lely (14 September 1618 – 30 November 1680) was a painter of Dutch origin whose career was nearly all spent in England, where he became the dominant portrait painter to the court.
Peter Talbot (1620 – November 1680) was the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Dublin from 1669 to his death in prison.
Piers Butler, 3rd Viscount Galmoye, otherwise Viscount Galmoy, (21 March 1652 – 18 June 1740) was an Anglo-Irish nobleman.
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.
Pope Clement X (Clemens X; 13 July 1590 – 22 July 1676), born Emilio Bonaventura Altieri, was Pope from 29 April 1670 to his death in 1676.
The Popish Plot was a fictitious conspiracy concocted by Titus Oates that between 1678 and 1681 gripped the Kingdoms of England and Scotland in anti-Catholic hysteria.
Portsmouth is a port city in Hampshire, England, mainly on Portsea Island, south-west of London and south-east of Southampton.
Presbyterianism is a part of the reformed tradition within Protestantism which traces its origins to Britain, particularly Scotland, and Ireland.
A pretender is one who is able to maintain a claim that they are entitled to a position of honour or rank, which may be occupied by an incumbent (usually more recognised), or whose powers may currently be exercised by another person or authority.
Prince George of Denmark and Norway, Duke of Cumberland (Jørgen; 2 April 165328 October 1708), was the husband of Queen Anne, who reigned over Great Britain from 1702 to 1714.
Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, usually known simply as the Privy Council, is a formal body of advisers to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom.
The Province of New York (1664–1776) was a British proprietary colony and later royal colony on the northeast coast of North America.
A proxy wedding or proxy marriage is a wedding in which one or both of the individuals being united are not physically present, usually being represented instead by other persons.
Quakers (or Friends) are members of a historically Christian group of religious movements formally known as the Religious Society of Friends or Friends Church.
Quartering in is a method of joining several different coats of arms together in one shield by dividing the shield into equal parts and placing different coats of arms in each division.
The Raid on the Medway, during the Second Anglo-Dutch War in June 1667, was a successful attack conducted by the Dutch navy on English battleships at a time when most were virtually unmanned and unarmed, laid up in the fleet anchorages off Chatham Dockyard and Gillingham in the county of Kent.
A repeal is the removal or reversal of a law.
Republicanism is an ideology centered on citizenship in a state organized as a republic under which the people hold popular sovereignty.
The Restoration of the English monarchy took place in the Stuart period.
Richard Cromwell (4 October 162612 July 1712) became the second Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland, and was one of only two commoners to become the English head of state, the other being his father, Oliver Cromwell, from whom he inherited the post.
Richard Talbot, 1st Earl of Tyrconnell PC (1630 – 14 August 1691) was an Irish royalist and Jacobite soldier.
The River Thames is a river that flows through southern England, most notably through London.
Robert Spencer, 2nd Earl of Sunderland, (5 September 164128 September 1702) was an English nobleman and politician of the Spencer family.
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Paris (Latin: Archidioecesis Parisiensis; French: Archidiocèse de Paris) is one of twenty-three archdioceses of the Roman Catholic Church in France.
The Royal African Company (RAC) was an English mercantile (trading) company set up by the Stuart family and City of London merchants to trade along the west coast of Africa.
The Royal Arms of England are the arms first adopted in a fixed form at the start of the age of heraldry (circa 1200) as personal arms by the Plantagenet kings who ruled England from 1154.
The royal arms of Scotland is the official coat of arms of the King of Scots first adopted in the 12th century.
The royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom, or the Royal Arms for short, is the official coat of arms of the British monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II.
Royal elections in Poland (wolna elekcja, lit. free election) was the election of individual kings, rather than of dynasties, to the Polish throne.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
The royal prerogative is a body of customary authority, privilege, and immunity, recognized in common law and, sometimes, in civil law jurisdictions possessing a monarchy, as belonging to the sovereign and which have become widely vested in the government.
The royal sign-manual is the signature of the sovereign, by the affixing of which the monarch expresses his or her pleasure either by order, commission, or warrant.
A royalist supports a particular monarch as head of state for a particular kingdom, or of a particular dynastic claim.
The Rye House Plot of 1683 was a plan to assassinate King Charles II of England and his brother (and heir to the throne) James, Duke of York.
Saint-Germain-en-Laye is a commune in the Yvelines department in the Île-de-France in north-central France.
Saint-Omer (Sint-Omaars) is a commune in France.
Samuel Pepys (23 February 1633 – 26 May 1703) was an administrator of the navy of England and Member of Parliament who is most famous for the diary he kept for a decade while still a relatively young man.
A sarcophagus (plural, sarcophagi) is a box-like funeral receptacle for a corpse, most commonly carved in stone, and usually displayed above ground, though it may also be buried.
Scone (Sgàin; Scuin) is a village in Perth and Kinross, Scotland.
The Scots College (Collegium Scoticum; Collège des Écossais) was a college of the University of Paris, France, founded by an Act of the Parlement of Paris on 8 July 1333.
Scott Sowerby is a Canadian historian and Associate Professor in the Department of History, Northwestern University.
The Second Anglo-Dutch War (4 March 1665 – 31 July 1667), or the Second Dutch War (Tweede Engelse Oorlog "Second English War") was a conflict fought between England and the Dutch Republic for control over the seas and trade routes, where England tried to end the Dutch domination of world trade during a period of intense European commercial rivalry.
In the Kingdom of England, the title of Secretary of State came into being near the end of the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558–1603), the usual title before that having been King's Clerk, King's Secretary, or Principal Secretary.
Sedition and seditious libel were criminal offences under English common law, and are still criminal offences in Canada.
The Seven Bishops of the Church of England were those imprisoned and tried for seditious libel related to their opposition to the second Declaration of Indulgence, issued by James II in 1688.
The Siege of Oxford refers to the English Civil War military campaigns waged to besiege the Royalist controlled city of Oxford, involving three short engagements over twenty-five months, which ended with a Parliamentarian victory in June 1646.
Sir Edward Petre, 3rd Baronet, (1631 – 15 May 1699) was an English Jesuit who became a close adviser to King James II and was appointed a privy councillor.
The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.
Sophia of Hanover (born Sophia of the Palatinate; 14 October 1630 – 8 June 1714) was the Electress of Hanover from 1692 to 1698.
Sophie of Mecklenburg-Güstrow (4 September 1557 – 14 October 1631) was Queen of Denmark and Norway by marriage to Frederick II of Denmark.
St James's Palace is the most senior royal palace in the United Kingdom.
A standing army, unlike a reserve army, is a permanent, often professional, army.
Steven Pincus is a Bradford Durfee Professor of History at Yale University, where he specializes in 17th- and 18th-century British and European history.
The Supreme Governor of the Church of England is a title held by the British monarch that signifies titular leadership over the Church of England.
The Test Acts were a series of English penal laws that served as a religious test for public office and imposed various civil disabilities on Roman Catholics and nonconformists.
The Complete Peerage (full title: The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain, and the United Kingdom Extant, Extinct, or Dormant; first edition by George Edward Cokayne, Clarenceux King of Arms; 2nd edition revised by the Hon. Vicary Gibbs et al.) is a comprehensive and magisterial work on the titled aristocracy of the British Isles.
The English Illustrated Magazine was a monthly publication that ran for 359 issues between October 1883 and August 1913.
The Hague (Den Haag,, short for 's-Gravenhage) is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands and the capital of the province of South Holland.
The History of England from the Accession of James the Second (1848) is the full title of the five-volume work by Lord Macaulay (1800–1859) more generally known as The History of England.
The Killing Time was a period of conflict in Scottish history between the Presbyterian Covenanter movement, based largely in the south west of the country, and the government forces of Kings Charles II and James VII.
The Third Anglo-Dutch War or the Third Dutch War (Derde Engelse Oorlog "Third English War", or Derde Engelse Zeeoorlog "Third English Sea War") was a military conflict between the Kingdom of England and the Dutch Republic, that lasted between April 1672 and early 1674.
Thomas Babington Macaulay, 1st Baron Macaulay, FRS FRSE PC (25 October 1800 – 28 December 1859) was a British historian and Whig politician.
Sir Thomas Bloodworth (sometimes spelled Bludworth) (baptised 13 February 1620 – 12 May 1682) was an English merchant and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1660 to 1679.
Thomas Osborne, 1st Duke of Leeds, KG (20 February 1632 – 26 July 1712), English politician who was part of the Immortal Seven group that invited William III, Prince of Orange to depose James II of England as monarch during the Glorious Revolution.
Timothy J. G. Harris (born 1958) is an historian of Later Stuart Britain.
Titus Oates (15 September 1649 – 12/13 July 1705), also called Titus the Liar, was an English perjurer who fabricated the "Popish Plot", a supposed Catholic conspiracy to kill King Charles II.
Professor Sir Thomas Martin Devine is a Scottish historian and academic.
Tonnage and Poundage were certain duties and taxes first levied in Edward II's reign on every tun (cask) of imported wine, which came mostly from Spain and Portugal, and on every pound weight of merchandise exported or imported.
A Tory is a person who holds a political philosophy, known as Toryism, based on a British version of traditionalism and conservatism, which upholds the supremacy of social order as it has evolved throughout history.
The Tower of London, officially Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress of the Tower of London, is a historic castle located on the north bank of the River Thames in central London.
Transubstantiation (Latin: transsubstantiatio; Greek: μετουσίωσις metousiosis) is, according to the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church, the change of substance or essence by which the bread and wine offered in the sacrifice of the sacrament of the Eucharist during the Mass, become, in reality, the body and blood of Jesus Christ.
The Treaty of the Pyrenees (Traité des Pyrénées, Tratado de los Pirineos, Tractat dels Pirineus, Tratado dos Pirenéus) was signed on 7 November 1659 to end the 1635–1659 war between France and Spain, a war that was initially a part of the wider Thirty Years' War.
University College (in full The Master and Fellows of the College of the Great Hall of the University of Oxford,Darwall-Smith, Robin, A History of University College, Oxford. Oxford University Press, 2008.. colloquially referred to as "Univ"), is a constituent college of the University of Oxford in England.
The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.
William Arthur Speck (born Bradford,11 January 1938; died Carlisle, 15 February 2017) was a British historian who specialized in late 17th and 18th-century British and American history.
The West Indies or the Caribbean Basin is a region of the North Atlantic Ocean in the Caribbean that includes the island countries and surrounding waters of three major archipelagoes: the Greater Antilles, the Lesser Antilles and the Lucayan Archipelago.
Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic abbey church in the City of Westminster, London, England, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster.
Whig history (or Whig historiography) is an approach to historiography that presents the past as an inevitable progression towards ever greater liberty and enlightenment, culminating in modern forms of liberal democracy and constitutional monarchy.
The Whigs were a political faction and then a political party in the parliaments of England, Scotland, Great Britain, Ireland and the United Kingdom.
William Douglas, 1st Duke of Queensberry PC (1637–1695), also 3rd Earl of Queensberry and 1st Marquess of Queensberry, was a Scottish politician.
William Douglas-Hamilton, Duke of Hamilton, KG, PC (24 December 1634 – 18 April 1694), also known as Lord William Douglas and the Earl of Selkirk, was a Scottish nobleman and politician.
William III (Willem; 4 November 1650 – 8 March 1702), also widely known as William of Orange, was sovereign Prince of Orange from birth, Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland and Overijssel in the Dutch Republic from 1672 and King of England, Ireland and Scotland from 1689 until his death in 1702.
William Laud (7 October 1573 – 10 January 1645) was an English archbishop and academic.
William Sancroft (30 January 1617 – 24 November 1693) was the 79th Archbishop of Canterbury, and was one of the Seven Bishops imprisoned in 1688 for seditious libel against King James II, over his opposition to the king's Declaration of Indulgence.
A Williamite is a follower of King William III of England who deposed King James II in the Glorious Revolution.
A writ of election is a writ issued ordering the holding of an election.
The 16th arrondissement of Paris (XVIe arrondissement) is one of the 20 arrondissements of the capital city of France.
Ja. 2, James Duke Of York, James II, James II & VII, James II (England), James II (of England), James II Stuart, James II and VII, James II of England and VII of Scotland, James II of England, VII of Scotland, James II of Great Britain, James II of Ireland, James II of england, James II, King of England, James Ii, James Stuart, Duke of York, James VII, James VII & II, James VII and II, James VII of Scotland, James VII of Scotland and II of England, James VII of Scots, James VII of the UK, James VII of the United Kingdom, James VII/II, James ii, James of York, James the Second, James the Seventh and Second, James the Shit, James, Duke of York, KJII, King James II, King James II & VII, King James II and VII, King James II of England, King James VII, King James VII of Scotland.