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Index Janissaries

The Janissaries (يڭيچرى, meaning "new soldier") were elite infantry units that formed the Ottoman Sultan's household troops, bodyguards and the first modern standing army in Europe. [1]

183 relations: Abus gun, Afsharid dynasty, Age of Empires II, Age of Empires II: The Conquerors, Age of Empires III, Ahmed I, Akçe, Albania, Albanians, Algiers, Archery, Armenians, Artillery, Askeri, Assassin's Creed: Revelations, Atlantica Online, Auspicious Incident, Austria, Axe, Balkans, Battalion, Battle of Ankara, Battle of Chaldiran, Battle of Kosovo, Battle of Mohács, Battle of Nicopolis, Battle of Varna, Battle of Vienna, Bektashi Order, Bell, Beylerbey, Blue, Bodyguard, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosniaks, Bulgaria, Bulgarians, Celibacy, Chaplain, Circassians, Circumcision, Civilization IV: Beyond the Sword, Civilization V, Constantinople, Cretan War (1645–1669), Croats, Cymbal, Dagger, David Drake, David Nicolle, ..., Davul, Dervish, Devshirme, Dimitri Kitsikis, Djebedji, Dracula Untold, Edirne, Egypt, Elizabeth Kostova, Empire Earth II, Empire: Total War, Encyclopædia Britannica, Enderun School, Eunuch, Europa Universalis IV, Fatwa, Firearm, First Serbian Uprising, Genízaro, Georgians, Ghazi (warrior), Ghilman, Giuseppe Donizetti, Godfrey G. Goodwin, Grand vizier, Great Siege of Malta, Great Turkish War, Green, Grenade, Habsburg Monarchy, Haji Bektash Veli, Halberd, Hand cannon, Hungarians, Hungary, Infantry, Islam, Istanbul, Istanbul Military Museum, Ivo Andrić, Jason Goodwin, Jerry Pournelle, Kapıkulu, Kilij, Knights Hospitaller, List of battles involving the Ottoman Empire, List of sultans of the Ottoman Empire, Ludwig van Beethoven, Mahmud II, Mamluk, Medieval II: Total War, Medieval: Total War, Meral Okay, Meritocracy, Military band, Military of the Ottoman Empire, Military order (monastic society), Monasticism, Muhteşem Yüzyıl, Muhteşem Yüzyıl: Kösem, Murad I, Murad III, Musket, Mustafa IV, Napoleon: Total War, Neal Stephenson, Nizam-I Cedid, Nonviolent revolution, Osman II, Ottoman decline thesis, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Greece, Ottoman military band, Pasha, Peter the Great, Piano Sonata No. 11 (Mozart), Pistol, Praetorian Guard, Qajar dynasty, Qizilbash, Quicksilver (novel), Red, Rent-seeking, Rise of Nations, Romanians, Russians, S. M. Stirling, Safavid dynasty, Salman Rushdie, Sanjak of Smederevo, Sapper, Saqaliba, Selim II, Selim III, Serbia, Serbian Revolution, Serbs, Shawm, Siege of Esztergom (1543), Siege of Rhodes (1522), Siege of Vienna, Sipahi, Skanderbeg, Slaughter of the Knezes, Sokollu Mehmed Pasha, Streltsy, Sublime Porte, Sufism, Suleiman the Magnificent, Sultan, Symphony No. 9 (Beethoven), The Bridge on the Drina, The Domination, The Enchantress of Florence, The Historian, The Janissary Tree, The Reluctant Fundamentalist, The Ruins of Athens, Thessaloniki, Triangle (musical instrument), Tunnel warfare, Turkey, Turkish language, Turkish music (style), Ukrainians, Uniform, Valjevo, White Tower of Thessaloniki, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Yatagan, Yerevan, Yerliyya, Zurna. Expand index (133 more) »

Abus gun

The Abus gun (Obüs meaning howitzer) is an early form of artillery created by the Ottoman Empire.

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Afsharid dynasty

The Afsharid dynasty (افشاریان) were members of an Iranian dynasty that originated from the Turkic Afshar tribe in Iran's north-eastern province of Khorasan, ruling Persia in the mid-eighteenth century.

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Age of Empires II

Age of Empires II: The Age of Kings is a real-time strategy video game developed by Ensemble Studios and published by Microsoft.

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Age of Empires II: The Conquerors

Age of Empires II: The Conquerors is the expansion pack to the 1999 real-time strategy game Age of Empires II: The Age of Kings.

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Age of Empires III

Age of Empires III is a real-time strategy video game developed by Microsoft Corporation's Ensemble Studios and published by Microsoft Game Studios.

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Ahmed I

Ahmed I (احمد اول; I.; 18 April 1590 – 22 November 1617) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1603 until his death in 1617.

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The akçe (آقچه) was the chief monetary unit of the Ottoman Empire, a silver coin.

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Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia or Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the Republic of Albania (Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe.

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The Albanians (Shqiptarët) are a European ethnic group that is predominantly native to Albania, Kosovo, western Macedonia, southern Serbia, southeastern Montenegro and northwestern Greece, who share a common ancestry, culture and language.

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Algiers (الجزائر al-Jazā’er, ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻ, Alger) is the capital and largest city of Algeria.

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Archery is the art, sport, practice or skill of using a bow to shoot arrows.

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Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.

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Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.

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Under the Ottoman Empire, an askeri (Ottoman Turkish: عسكري) was a member of a class of imperial administrators.

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Assassin's Creed: Revelations

Assassin's Creed: Revelations is a 2011 action-adventure video game developed by Ubisoft Montreal and published by Ubisoft.

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Atlantica Online

Atlantica Online is a free-to-play (F2P) 3D tactical massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) developed by NDOORS Corporation.

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Auspicious Incident

The Auspicious Incident (or EventGoodwin, pp. 296–299.) (Turkish: (in Istanbul) Vaka-i Hayriye "Fortunate Event"; (in the Balkans) Vaka-i Şerriyye, "Unfortunate Incident") was the forced disbandment of the centuries-old Janissary corps by Sultan Mahmud II on 15 June 1826.

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Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.

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An axe (British English or ax (American English; see spelling differences) is an implement that has been used for millennia to shape, split and cut wood; to harvest timber; as a weapon; and as a ceremonial or heraldic symbol. The axe has many forms and specialised uses but generally consists of an axe head with a handle, or helve. Before the modern axe, the stone-age hand axe was used from 1.5 million years BP without a handle. It was later fastened to a wooden handle. The earliest examples of handled axes have heads of stone with some form of wooden handle attached (hafted) in a method to suit the available materials and use. Axes made of copper, bronze, iron and steel appeared as these technologies developed. Axes are usually composed of a head and a handle. The axe is an example of a simple machine, as it is a type of wedge, or dual inclined plane. This reduces the effort needed by the wood chopper. It splits the wood into two parts by the pressure concentration at the blade. The handle of the axe also acts as a lever allowing the user to increase the force at the cutting edge—not using the full length of the handle is known as choking the axe. For fine chopping using a side axe this sometimes is a positive effect, but for felling with a double bitted axe it reduces efficiency. Generally, cutting axes have a shallow wedge angle, whereas splitting axes have a deeper angle. Most axes are double bevelled, i.e. symmetrical about the axis of the blade, but some specialist broadaxes have a single bevel blade, and usually an offset handle that allows them to be used for finishing work without putting the user's knuckles at risk of injury. Less common today, they were once an integral part of a joiner and carpenter's tool kit, not just a tool for use in forestry. A tool of similar origin is the billhook. However, in France and Holland, the billhook often replaced the axe as a joiner's bench tool. Most modern axes have steel heads and wooden handles, typically hickory in the US and ash in Europe and Asia, although plastic or fibreglass handles are also common. Modern axes are specialised by use, size and form. Hafted axes with short handles designed for use with one hand are often called hand axes but the term hand axe refers to axes without handles as well. Hatchets tend to be small hafted axes often with a hammer on the back side (the poll). As easy-to-make weapons, axes have frequently been used in combat.

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The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.

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A battalion is a military unit.

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Battle of Ankara

The Battle of Ankara (or Angora) was fought on 20 July 1402 at the Çubuk plain near Ankara between the forces of the Ottoman Sultan Bayezid I and Timur (Tamerlane), ruler of the Timurid Empire.

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Battle of Chaldiran

The Battle of Chaldiran (جنگ چالدران; Çaldıran Muharebesi) took place on 23 August 1514 and ended with a decisive victory for the Ottoman Empire over the Safavid Empire.

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Battle of Kosovo

The Battle of Kosovo took place on 15 June 1389 between an army led by the Serbian Prince Lazar Hrebeljanović and an invading army of the Ottoman Empire under the command of Sultan Murad Hüdavendigâr.

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Battle of Mohács

The Battle of Mohács (Mohácsi csata, Mohaç Meydan Muharebesi) was one of the most consequential battles in Central European history.

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Battle of Nicopolis

The Battle of Nicopolis (Битка при Никопол, Bitka pri Nikopol; Niğbolu Savaşı, Nikápolyi csata, Bătălia de la Nicopole) took place on 25 September 1396 and resulted in the rout of an allied crusader army of Hungarian, Croatian, Bulgarian, Wallachian, French, English, Burgundian, German and assorted troops (assisted by the Venetian navy) at the hands of an Ottoman force, raising of the siege of the Danubian fortress of Nicopolis and leading to the end of the Second Bulgarian Empire. It is often referred to as the Crusade of Nicopolis as it was one of the last large-scale Crusades of the Middle Ages, together with the Crusade of Varna in 1443–1444.

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Battle of Varna

The Battle of Varna took place on 10 November 1444 near Varna in eastern Bulgaria.

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Battle of Vienna

The Battle of Vienna (Schlacht am Kahlen Berge or Kahlenberg; bitwa pod Wiedniem or odsiecz wiedeńska (The Relief of Vienna); Modern Turkish: İkinci Viyana Kuşatması, Ottoman Turkish: Beç Ḳalʿası Muḥāṣarası) took place at Kahlenberg Mountain near Vienna on 1683 after the imperial city had been besieged by the Ottoman Empire for two months.

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Bektashi Order

Bektashi Order or Shī‘ah Imāmī Alevī-Bektāshī Ṭarīqah (Tarikati Bektashi; Bektaşi Tarîkatı) is a dervish order (tariqat) named after the 13th century Alevi Wali (saint) Haji Bektash Veli from Khorasan, but founded by Balım Sultan.

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A bell is a directly struck idiophone percussion instrument.

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Beylerbey or Beylerbeyi (بكلربكی; "Bey of Beys", meaning "the Commander of Commanders" or "the Lord of Lords"; originally Beglerbeg in older Turkic) was a high rank in the western Islamic world in the late Middle Ages and early modern period, from the Seljuks of Rum and the Ilkhanids to Safavid Persia and the Ottoman Empire.

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Blue is one of the three primary colours of pigments in painting and traditional colour theory, as well as in the RGB colour model.

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A bodyguard (or close protection officer) is a type of security guard or government law enforcement officer or soldier who protects a person or people — usually high-ranking public officials or officers, wealthy people, and celebrities — from danger: generally theft, assault, kidnapping, assassination, harassment, loss of confidential information, threats, or other criminal offences.

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Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.

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The Bosniaks (Bošnjaci,; singular masculine: Bošnjak, feminine: Bošnjakinja) are a South Slavic nation and ethnic group inhabiting mainly the area of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

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Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.

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Bulgarians (българи, Bǎlgari) are a South Slavic ethnic group who are native to Bulgaria and its neighboring regions.

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Celibacy (from Latin, cælibatus") is the state of voluntarily being unmarried, sexually abstinent, or both, usually for religious reasons.

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A chaplain is a cleric (such as a minister, priest, pastor, rabbi, or imam), or a lay representative of a religious tradition, attached to a secular institution such as a hospital, prison, military unit, school, business, police department, fire department, university, or private chapel.

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The Circassians (Черкесы Čerkesy), also known by their endonym Adyghe (Circassian: Адыгэхэр Adygekher, Ады́ги Adýgi), are a Northwest Caucasian nation native to Circassia, many of whom were displaced in the course of the Russian conquest of the Caucasus in the 19th century, especially after the Russian–Circassian War in 1864.

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Male circumcision is the removal of the foreskin from the human penis.

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Civilization IV: Beyond the Sword

Sid Meier's Civilization IV: Beyond the Sword is the second expansion pack of the turn-based strategy video game Civilization IV.

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Civilization V

Sid Meier's Civilization V is a 4X video game in the ''Civilization'' series developed by Firaxis Games.

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Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.

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Cretan War (1645–1669)

The Cretan War (Κρητικός Πόλεμος, Girit'in Fethi) or War of Candia (Guerra di Candia, Kandijski rat), is the name given to the Fifth Ottoman–Venetian War, a conflict between the Republic of Venice and her allies (chief among them the Knights of Malta, the Papal States and France) against the Ottoman Empire and the Barbary States, because it was largely fought over the island of Crete, Venice's largest and richest overseas possession.

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Croats (Hrvati) or Croatians are a nation and South Slavic ethnic group native to Croatia.

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A cymbal is a common percussion instrument.

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A dagger is a knife with a very sharp point and one or two sharp edges, typically designed or capable of being used as a thrusting or stabbing weapon.

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David Drake

David Drake (born September 24, 1945) is an American author of science fiction and fantasy literature.

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David Nicolle

David C. Nicolle (born 4 April 1944) is a British historian specialising in the military history of the Middle Ages, with a particular interest in the Middle East.

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The davul or atabal or tabl is a large double-headed drum that is played with mallets.

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A dervish or darvesh (from درویش, Darvīsh) is someone guiding a Sufi Muslim ascetic down a path or "tariqah", known for their extreme poverty and austerity.

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Devshirme (دوشيرمه, devşirme, literally "lifting" or "collecting"), also known as the blood tax or tribute in blood, was chiefly the practice where by the Ottoman Empire sent military officers to take Christian boys, ages 8 to 18, from their families in Eastern and Southeastern Europe in order that they be raised to serve the state.

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Dimitri Kitsikis

Dimitri Kitsikis (Δημήτρης Κιτσίκης; born 2 June 1935) is a Greek Turkologist and Sinologist, Professor of International Relations and Geopolitics.

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Jebeji (from Turkish Cebeci) was a military subunit of Ottoman Army's artillery corps.

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Dracula Untold

Dracula Untold is a 2014 American dark fantasy action horror film directed by Gary Shore in his feature film debut and written by Matt Sazama and Burk Sharpless.

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Edirne, historically known as Adrianople (Hadrianopolis in Latin or Adrianoupolis in Greek, founded by the Roman emperor Hadrian on the site of a previous Thracian settlement named Uskudama), is a city in the northwestern Turkish province of Edirne in the region of East Thrace, close to Turkey's borders with Greece and Bulgaria.

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Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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Elizabeth Kostova

Elizabeth Johnson Kostova (born December 26, 1964) is an American author best known for her debut novel The Historian.

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Empire Earth II

Empire Earth II is a real-time strategy video game developed by Mad Doc Software and published by Vivendi Universal Games on April 26, 2005.

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Empire: Total War

Empire: Total War is a turn-based strategy and real-time tactics computer game developed by Creative Assembly and published by Sega.

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Encyclopædia Britannica

The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.

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Enderun School

The Enderun School (Ottoman Turkish: اندرون مکتب, Enderûn Mektebi) was a palace school and boarding school mostly for the Janissaries of the Ottoman Empire, which primarily recruited students via devşirme, a system of the Islamization of Christian children for serving the Ottoman government in bureaucratic, managerial, and Janissary military positions.

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The term eunuch (εὐνοῦχος) generally refers to a man who has been castrated, typically early enough in his life for this change to have major hormonal consequences.

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Europa Universalis IV

Europa Universalis IV is a grand strategy video game in the Europa Universalis series, developed by Paradox Development Studio and published by Paradox Interactive.

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A fatwā (فتوى; plural fatāwā فتاوى.) in the Islamic faith is a nonbinding but authoritative legal opinion or learned interpretation that the Sheikhul Islam, a qualified jurist or mufti, can give on issues pertaining to the Islamic law.

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A firearm is a portable gun (a barreled ranged weapon) that inflicts damage on targets by launching one or more projectiles driven by rapidly expanding high-pressure gas produced by exothermic combustion (deflagration) of propellant within an ammunition cartridge.

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First Serbian Uprising

The First Serbian Uprising (Први српски устанак, Prvi srpski ustanak, Birinci Sırp Ayaklanması) was an uprising of Serbs in the Sanjak of Smederevo against the Ottoman Empire from 14 February 1804 to 7 October 1813.

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Genízaros were Native American slaves who served as house servants, sheep herders, and in other capacities in New Mexico including what is known today as Southern Colorado well into the 1800s.

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The Georgians or Kartvelians (tr) are a nation and Caucasian ethnic group native to Georgia.

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Ghazi (warrior)

Ghazi (غازي) is an Arabic term originally referring to an individual who participates in ghazw (غزو), meaning military expeditions or raiding; after the emergence of Islam, it took on new connotations of religious warfare.

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Ghilman (singular غُلاَم,Other standardized transliterations: /.. plural غِلْمَان)Other standardized transliterations: /..

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Giuseppe Donizetti

Giuseppe Donizetti (6 November 1788 – 12 February 1856) was an Italian musician.

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Godfrey G. Goodwin

Godfrey Gummer Goodwin (January 11, 1873 – February 16, 1933) was a Representative from Minnesota.

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Grand vizier

In the Ottoman Empire, the Grand Vizier (Sadrazam) was the prime minister of the Ottoman sultan, with absolute power of attorney and, in principle, dismissible only by the sultan himself.

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Great Siege of Malta

The Great Siege of Malta (L-Assedju l-Kbir) took place in 1565 when the Ottoman Empire tried to invade the island of Malta, then held by the Knights Hospitaller.

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Great Turkish War

The Great Turkish War (Der Große Türkenkrieg) or the War of the Holy League (Kutsal İttifak Savaşları) was a series of conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and the Holy League consisting of the Habsburg Empire, Poland-Lithuania, Venice and Russia.

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Green is the color between blue and yellow on the visible spectrum.

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A grenade is a small weapon typically thrown by hand.

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Habsburg Monarchy

The Habsburg Monarchy (Habsburgermonarchie) or Empire is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1521 and 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918.

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Haji Bektash Veli

Haji Bektash Veli or Ḥājī Baktāsh Walī (حاجی بکتاش ولی Ḥājī Baktāš Walī; Hacı Bektaş-ı Veli) was an Alevi Muslim mystic, saint, Sayyid, humanist, and philosopher, who lived from 1209 to 1271.

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A halberd (also called halbard, halbert or Swiss voulge) is a two-handed pole weapon that came to prominent use during the 14th and 15th centuries.

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Hand cannon

The hand cannon (Chinese: 手銃), also known as the gonne or handgonne, is the first true firearm and the successor of the fire lance.

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Hungarians, also known as Magyars (magyarok), are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary (Magyarország) and historical Hungarian lands who share a common culture, history and speak the Hungarian language.

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Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.

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Infantry is the branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry, artillery, and tank forces.

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IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).

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Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.

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Istanbul Military Museum

Istanbul Military Museum (Askerî Müze) is dedicated to one thousand years of Turkish military history.

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Ivo Andrić

Ivo Andrić (Иво Андрић,; born Ivan Andrić; 9 October 1892 – 13 March 1975) was a Yugoslav novelist, poet and short story writer who won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1961.

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Jason Goodwin

Jason Goodwin (born 1964) is an English writer and historian.

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Jerry Pournelle

Jerry Eugene Pournelle (August 7, 1933 – September 8, 2017) was an American science fiction writer, essayist, and journalist who contributed for many years to the computer magazine Byte in the 1970s, 1980s, and early 1990s.

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Kapıkulu (قپوقولو اوجاغی, Kapıkulu Ocağı, "Slaves of the Porte") was the collective name for the household troops of the Ottoman Sultans.

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A kilij (from Turkish kılıç, literally "sword") is a type of one-handed, single edged and moderately curved saber used by the Turarian Empire, Uyghur Khaganate, Seljuk Empire, Timurid Empire, Mamluk Empire, Ottoman Empire, and the later Turkic Khanates of Central Asia and Eurasian steppes.

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Knights Hospitaller

The Order of Knights of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem (Ordo Fratrum Hospitalis Sancti Ioannis Hierosolymitani), also known as the Order of Saint John, Order of Hospitallers, Knights Hospitaller, Knights Hospitalier or Hospitallers, was a medieval Catholic military order.

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List of battles involving the Ottoman Empire

The main battles in the history of the Ottoman Empire are shown below.

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List of sultans of the Ottoman Empire

The sultans of the Ottoman Empire (Osmanlı padişahları), who were all members of the Ottoman dynasty (House of Osman), ruled over the transcontinental empire from its perceived inception in 1299 to its dissolution in 1922.

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Ludwig van Beethoven

Ludwig van Beethoven (baptised 17 December 1770Beethoven was baptised on 17 December. His date of birth was often given as 16 December and his family and associates celebrated his birthday on that date, and most scholars accept that he was born on 16 December; however there is no documentary record of his birth.26 March 1827) was a German composer and pianist.

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Mahmud II

Mahmud II (Ottoman Turkish: محمود ثانى Mahmud-u sānī, محمود عدلى Mahmud-u Âdlî) (İkinci Mahmut) (20 July 1785 – 1 July 1839) was the 30th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1808 until his death in 1839.

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Mamluk (Arabic: مملوك mamlūk (singular), مماليك mamālīk (plural), meaning "property", also transliterated as mamlouk, mamluq, mamluke, mameluk, mameluke, mamaluke or marmeluke) is an Arabic designation for slaves.

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Medieval II: Total War

Medieval II: Total War, the indirect sequel to 2002's Medieval: Total War and the fourth game in the Total War series from Creative Assembly, is a game of turn-based strategic rounds and real-time tactically-oriented battles, released on 10 November 2006 for Windows.

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Medieval: Total War

Medieval: Total War is a turn-based strategy and real-time tactics computer game developed by Creative Assembly and published by Activision.

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Meral Okay

Meral Okay (September 20, 1959 – April 9, 2012), née Meral Katı, was a Turkish actress, film producer and screenwriter.

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Meritocracy (merit, from Latin mereō, and -cracy, from Ancient Greek κράτος "strength, power") is a political philosophy which holds that certain things, such as economic goods or power, should be vested in individuals on the basis of talent, effort and achievement, rather than factors such as sexuality, race, gender or wealth.

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Military band

A military band is a group of personnel that performs musical duties for military functions, usually for the armed forces.

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Military of the Ottoman Empire

The history of the military of the Ottoman Empire can be divided in five main periods.

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Military order (monastic society)

A military order (Militaris ordinis) is a chivalric order with military elements.

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Monasticism (from Greek μοναχός, monachos, derived from μόνος, monos, "alone") or monkhood is a religious way of life in which one renounces worldly pursuits to devote oneself fully to spiritual work.

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Muhteşem Yüzyıl

Muhteşem Yüzyıl (The Magnificent Century) is a Turkish historical fiction television series.

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Muhteşem Yüzyıl: Kösem

Muhtesem Yüzyıl: Kösem is a Turkish television sequel to the 2011 Turkish television period drama Muhteşem Yüzyıl.

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Murad I

Murad I (مراد اول; I. (nicknamed Hüdavendigâr, from Persian: خداوندگار, Khodāvandgār, "the devotee of God" – but meaning "sovereign" in this context); 29 June 1326 – 15 June 1389) was the Ottoman Sultan from 1362 to 1389.

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Murad III

Murad III (Ottoman Turkish: مراد ثالث Murād-i sālis, Turkish: III.Murat) (4 July 1546 – 15/16 January 1595) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1574 until his death in 1595.

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A musket is a muzzle-loaded, smoothbore long gun that appeared in early 16th century Europe, at first as a heavier variant of the arquebus, capable of penetrating heavy armor.

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Mustafa IV

Mustafa IV (Ottoman Turkish: مصطفى رابع Muṣṭafā-yi rābi‘; 8 September 1779 – 17 November 1808) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1807 to 1808.

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Napoleon: Total War

Napoleon: Total War is a turn-based strategy and real-time tactics video game developed by The Creative Assembly and published by Sega for the Microsoft Windows and Mac OS X. Napoleon was released in North America on 23 February 2010, and in Europe on 26 February.

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Neal Stephenson

Neal Town Stephenson (born October 31, 1959) is an American writer and game designer known for his works of speculative fiction.

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Nizam-I Cedid

The Nizam-i Djedid (Ottoman Turkish: نظام جديد, Niẓām-ı Cedīd; "New Order") was a series of reforms carried out by the Ottoman Sultan Selim III during the late 18th and early 19th centuries in a drive to catch up militarily and politically with the Western Powers.

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Nonviolent revolution

A nonviolent revolution is a revolution using mostly campaigns with civil resistance, including various forms of nonviolent protest, to bring about the departure of governments seen as entrenched and authoritarian.

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Osman II

Osman II (عثمان ثانى ‘Osmān-i sānī; 3 November 1604 – 20 May 1622), commonly known in Turkey as Genç Osman ("Osman the Young" in English), was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1618 until his death by regicide on 20 May 1622.

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Ottoman decline thesis

The Ottoman decline thesis or Ottoman decline paradigm (Osmanlı Gerileme Tezi) refers to a now-obsolete.

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Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

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Ottoman Greece

Most of the areas which today are within modern Greece's borders were at some point in the past a part of the Ottoman Empire.

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Ottoman military band

Ottoman military bands are thought to be the oldest variety of military marching bands in the world.

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Pasha or Paşa (پاشا, paşa), in older works sometimes anglicized as bashaw, was a higher rank in the Ottoman political and military system, typically granted to governors, generals, dignitaries and others.

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Peter the Great

Peter the Great (ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I (ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Peter Alexeyevich (p; –)Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are in the Julian calendar with the start of year adjusted to 1 January.

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Piano Sonata No. 11 (Mozart)

The Piano Sonata No.

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A pistol is a type of handgun.

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Praetorian Guard

The Praetorian Guard (Latin: cohortes praetorianae) was an elite unit of the Imperial Roman army whose members served as personal bodyguards to the Roman emperors.

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Qajar dynasty

The Qajar dynasty (سلسله قاجار; also Romanised as Ghajar, Kadjar, Qachar etc.; script Qacarlar) was an IranianAbbas Amanat, The Pivot of the Universe: Nasir Al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831–1896, I. B. Tauris, pp 2–3 royal dynasty of Turkic origin,Cyrus Ghani.

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Qizilbash or Kizilbash, (Kızılbaş - Red Head, sometimes also Qezelbash or Qazilbash, قزلباش) is the label given to a wide variety of Shi'i militant groups that flourished in Azerbaijan (historic Azerbaijan, also known as Iranian Azerbaijan), Anatolia and Kurdistan from the late 15th century onwards, some of which contributed to the foundation of the Safavid dynasty of Iran.

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Quicksilver (novel)

Quicksilver is a historical novel by Neal Stephenson, published in 2003.

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Red is the color at the end of the visible spectrum of light, next to orange and opposite violet.

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In public choice theory and in economics, rent-seeking involves seeking to increase one's share of existing wealth without creating new wealth.

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Rise of Nations

Rise of Nations is a real-time strategy computer game, developed by Big Huge Games and published by Microsoft Game Studios in May 2003.

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The Romanians (români or—historically, but now a seldom-used regionalism—rumâni; dated exonym: Vlachs) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation native to Romania, that share a common Romanian culture, ancestry, and speak the Romanian language, the most widespread spoken Eastern Romance language which is descended from the Latin language. According to the 2011 Romanian census, just under 89% of Romania's citizens identified themselves as ethnic Romanians. In one interpretation of the census results in Moldova, the Moldovans are counted as Romanians, which would mean that the latter form part of the majority in that country as well.Ethnic Groups Worldwide: A Ready Reference Handbook By David Levinson, Published 1998 – Greenwood Publishing Group.At the time of the 1989 census, Moldova's total population was 4,335,400. The largest nationality in the republic, ethnic Romanians, numbered 2,795,000 persons, accounting for 64.5 percent of the population. Source:: "however it is one interpretation of census data results. The subject of Moldovan vs Romanian ethnicity touches upon the sensitive topic of", page 108 sqq. Romanians are also an ethnic minority in several nearby countries situated in Central, respectively Eastern Europe, particularly in Hungary, Czech Republic, Ukraine (including Moldovans), Serbia, and Bulgaria. Today, estimates of the number of Romanian people worldwide vary from 26 to 30 million according to various sources, evidently depending on the definition of the term 'Romanian', Romanians native to Romania and Republic of Moldova and their afferent diasporas, native speakers of Romanian, as well as other Eastern Romance-speaking groups considered by most scholars as a constituent part of the broader Romanian people, specifically Aromanians, Megleno-Romanians, Istro-Romanians, and Vlachs in Serbia (including medieval Vlachs), in Croatia, in Bulgaria, or in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

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Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The Russians share many cultural traits with their fellow East Slavic counterparts, specifically Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion. The Russian language is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and also spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states.

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S. M. Stirling

Stephen Michael Stirling (born September 30, 1953) is a French-born Canadian-American science-fiction and fantasy author.

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Safavid dynasty

The Safavid dynasty (دودمان صفوی Dudmān e Safavi) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran, often considered the beginning of modern Iranian history.

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Salman Rushdie

Sir Ahmed Salman Rushdie (born 19 June 1947) is a British Indian novelist and essayist.

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Sanjak of Smederevo

The Sanjak of Smederevo (Semendire Sancağı; Смедеревски санџак/Smederevski sandžak), also known in historiography as the Pashalik of Belgrade (Belgrad Paşalığı; Београдски пашалук/Beogradski pašaluk), was an Ottoman administrative unit (sanjak), that existed between the 15th and the outset of the 19th centuries.

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A sapper, also called pioneer or combat engineer, is a combatant or soldier who performs a variety of military engineering duties such as breaching fortifications, demolitions, bridge-building, laying or clearing minefields, preparing field defenses as well as building, and working on road and airfield construction and repair.

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Ṣaqāliba (Arabic: صقالبة, sg. ṣaqlabī) refers to Slavs, captured on the coasts of Europe in raids or wars, as well as mercenaries in the medieval Muslim world, in the Middle East, North Africa, Sicily and Al-Andalus.

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Selim II

Selim II (Ottoman Turkish: سليم ثانى Selīm-i sānī, Turkish: II.Selim; 28 May 1524 – 12/15 December 1574), also known as "Selim the Sot (Mest)" or ("Selim the Drunkard") and Sarı Selim ("Selim the Blond"), was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1566 until his death in 1574.

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Selim III

Selim III (Ottoman Turkish: سليم ثالث Selīm-i sālis) (24 December 1761 – 28 July 1808) was the reform-minded Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1789 to 1807.

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Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.

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Serbian Revolution

The Serbian Revolution was a national uprising and constitutional change in Serbia that took place between 1804 and 1835, during which this territory evolved from an Ottoman province into a rebel territory, a constitutional monarchy and modern Serbia.

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The Serbs (Срби / Srbi) are a South Slavic ethnic group that formed in the Balkans.

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The shawm (/ʃɔːm/) is a conical bore, double-reed woodwind instrument made in Europe from the 12th century to the present day.

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Siege of Esztergom (1543)

The Siege of Esztergom occurred between 25 July and 10 August 1543, when the Ottoman army, led by emperor Suleyman the Magnificent, besieged the city of Esztergom in modern Hungary.

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Siege of Rhodes (1522)

The Siege of Rhodes of 1522 was the second and ultimately successful attempt by the Ottoman Empire to expel the Knights of Rhodes from their island stronghold and thereby secure Ottoman control of the Eastern Mediterranean.

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Siege of Vienna

The Siege of Vienna in 1529 was the first attempt by the Ottoman Empire, led by Suleiman the Magnificent, to capture the city of Vienna, Austria.

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Sipahi (translit) were two types of Ottoman cavalry corps, including the fief-holding provincial timarli sipahi, which constituted most of the army, and the regular kapikulu sipahi, palace troops.

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George Castriot (Gjergj Kastrioti, 6 May 1405 – 17 January 1468), known as Skanderbeg (Skënderbej or Skënderbeu from اسکندر بگ İskender Bey), was an Albanian nobleman and military commander, who served the Ottoman Empire in 1423–43, the Republic of Venice in 1443–47, and lastly the Kingdom of Naples until his death.

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Slaughter of the Knezes

The Slaughter of the Knezes (Seča knezova) refers to the organized assassinations and assaults of noble Serbs in the Sanjak of Smederevo in January 1804 by the Dahije, the renegade Janissary officers who ruled the Sanjak independently and in defiance to the sultan after taking it over in 1801.

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Sokollu Mehmed Pasha

Sokollu Mehmed Pasha (سوکلو محمد پاشا, Sokollu Mehmet Paşa in modern Turkish; Мехмед-паша Соколовић, Arebica: مەحمەد-پاشا سۉقۉلۉوٖىݘ,; 1506 – 11 October 1579) was an Ottoman statesman.

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Streltsy (t; стреле́ц) were the units of Russian firearm infantry from the 16th to the early 18th centuries and also a social stratum, from which personnel for Streltsy troops were traditionally recruited.

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Sublime Porte

The Sublime Porte, also known as the Ottoman Porte or High Porte (باب عالی Bāb-ı Ālī or Babıali, from باب, bāb "gate" and عالي, alī "high"), is a synecdochic metonym for the central government of the Ottoman Empire.

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Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.

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Suleiman the Magnificent


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Sultan (سلطان) is a position with several historical meanings.

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Symphony No. 9 (Beethoven)

The Symphony No.

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The Bridge on the Drina

The Bridge on the Drina (Na Drini ćuprija, На Дрини ћуприја) is a historical novel by the Yugoslav writer Ivo Andrić.

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The Domination

The Domination of the Draka is an alternate history series, generally regarded as dystopian, by S. M. Stirling.

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The Enchantress of Florence

The Enchantress of Florence is the ninth novel by Salman Rushdie, published in 2008.

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The Historian

The Historian is the 2005 debut novel of American author Elizabeth Kostova.

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The Janissary Tree

The Janissary Tree is a historical mystery novel set in Istanbul in 1836, written by Jason Goodwin.

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The Reluctant Fundamentalist

The Reluctant Fundamentalist is a novel by Pakistani author Mohsin Hamid, published in 2007.

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The Ruins of Athens

The Ruins of Athens (Die Ruinen von Athen), Opus 113, is a set of incidental music pieces written in 1811 by Ludwig van Beethoven.

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Thessaloniki (Θεσσαλονίκη, Thessaloníki), also familiarly known as Thessalonica, Salonica, or Salonika is the second-largest city in Greece, with over 1 million inhabitants in its metropolitan area, and the capital of Greek Macedonia, the administrative region of Central Macedonia and the Decentralized Administration of Macedonia and Thrace.

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Triangle (musical instrument)

The triangle is an idiophone type of musical instrument in the percussion family.

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Tunnel warfare

Tunnel warfare is a general name for war being conducted in tunnels and other underground cavities.

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Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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Turkish language

Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).

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Turkish music (style)

Turkish music, in the sense described here, is not really music of Turkey, but rather a musical style that was occasionally used by the European composers of the Classical music era.

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Ukrainians (українці, ukrayintsi) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, which is by total population the sixth-largest nation in Europe.

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A uniform is a type of clothing worn by members of an organization while participating in that organization's activity.

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Valjevo (Serbian Cyrillic: Ваљево) is a city and the administrative center of the Kolubara District in western Serbia.

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White Tower of Thessaloniki

The White Tower of Thessaloniki (Λευκός Πύργος Lefkós Pýrgos; Beyaz Kule; Kuli Blanka) is a monument and museum on the waterfront of the city of Thessaloniki, capital of the region of Macedonia in northern Greece.

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Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (27 January 1756 – 5 December 1791), baptised as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart, was a prolific and influential composer of the classical era.

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The yatagan or yataghan (from Turkish yatağan) is a type of Ottoman knife or short sabre used from the mid-16th to late 19th centuries.

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Yerevan (Երևան, sometimes spelled Erevan) is the capital and largest city of Armenia as well as one of the world's oldest continuously inhabited cities.

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In the Ottoman Empire of the 17th century the yerliyya were local Janissaries that had been sent to an urban centre many years earlier and had become fully integrated into their surroundings, often playing important roles in the commercial and political life of the area.

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The zurna (also called surnay, birbynė, lettish horn, zurla, surla, sornai, dili tuiduk, zournas, or zurma), is a wind instrument played in central Eurasia, ranging from the Balkans to Central Asia.

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Acemi oglan, Acemi oğlan, Agha of the Janissaries, Beuluk, Jainisary, Janczar, Janczarzy, Janisary, Janissaries' Revolt, Janissary, Janissary Corps, Janissary corps, Janissary revolts, Janizaries, Janizary, Jannisaries, Jannisary, Jannissary, Jeni Ceri, Jeni Cheri, Jeni ceri, Jeni cheri, Orta (Janissary), Yanissary, Yeni Ceri, Yenicari, Yeniceri, Yeniçeri.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Janissaries

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