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Japanese language

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is an East Asian language spoken by about 125 million speakers, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language. [1]

255 relations: Accusative case, Adverb, Agglutinative language, Ainu language, Aizuchi, Alexander Vovin, Allophone, Altaic languages, Amami Islands, Angaur, Anime, Apical consonant, Arabic numerals, Arai Hakuseki, Argentina, Arte da Lingoa de Iapam, Article (grammar), Australia, Austroasiatic languages, Austronesian languages, Baekje, Beate Sirota Gordon, Book of Song, Brazil, Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, British Association for Japanese studies, Buddhism, Business magnate, California, Cambridge University Press, Canada, Chōonpu, China, Chinese characters, Chinese language, Chinese numerals, Classical Chinese, Classical compound, Classical Japanese language, Classification of Japonic languages, Consonant, Consonant cluster, Copula (linguistics), Culture of Japan, Dative case, Davao Region, De facto, Diphthong, DMOZ, Dutch language, ..., Early Middle Japanese, Early Modern Japanese, East Asian languages, Edo, Edo period, Education, Emperor Shun of Liu Song, English language, Five kings of Wa, Focus (linguistics), Franciscan, French language, Furigana, Futon, Gairaigo, Gemination, Genetic relationship (linguistics), Genitive case, German language, Grammatical aspect, Grammatical person, Grammatical tense, Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, Greek language, Hachijō-jima, Haiku, Hawaii, Heian period, Henohenomoheji, Hepburn romanization, Hiragana, Historical linguistics, Hokuriku region, Homorganic consonants, Honorific speech in Japanese, Indo-European languages, Indonesia, Inflection, Japan, Japan External Trade Organization, Japanese Americans, Japanese Braille, Japanese Brazilian, Japanese counter word, Japanese dictionary, Japanese equivalents of adjectives, Japanese language and computers, Japanese literature, Japanese name, Japanese numerals, Japanese orthographic issues, Japanese particles, Japanese people, Japanese pitch accent, Japanese popular culture, Japanese pronouns, Japanese Sign Language family, Japanese sound symbolism, Japanese verb conjugation, Japanese writing system, Japanese-Language Proficiency Test, Japonic languages, Jōmon period, Jōyō kanji, Jinmeiyō kanji, Judo, Kagoshima Prefecture, Kagoshima University, Kamakura period, Kamikaze, Kana, Kanbun, Kanji, Kansai dialect, Kansai region, Kantō region, Karaoke, Karate, Katakana, Kojiki, Korea, Korean language, Kyōiku kanji, Laguna (province), Language convergence, Language island, Language isolate, Language school, Languages of Europe, Late Middle Japanese, Lateral consonant, Latin script, Lative case, Leaving Certificate (Ireland), Lepcha language, Linguistic typology, List of English words of Japanese origin, List of Japanese words of Portuguese origin, List of universities in Japan, Loanword, Macron, Malayo-Polynesian languages, Man'yōgana, Mass media, Mediopassive voice, Meiji Restoration, Mills College, Monophthong, Mora (linguistics), Morpheme, Morphology (linguistics), Muromachi period, Nara period, National language, Nihon Shoki, Ninja, Nominative case, Nonprofit organization, Noun, Official language, Okinawa Prefecture, Okurigana, Old Japanese, Origami, Osaka, Palatalization (sound change), Palau, Peru, Philipp Franz von Siebold, Philippines, Phonotactics, Portuguese language, Predicate (grammar), Preposition and postposition, Pronoun, Pulled rickshaw, Register (sociolinguistics), Reindeer, Rendaku, Republic of Ireland, Retroflex consonant, Romanization of Japanese, Roundedness, Roy Andrew Miller, Royal we, Ryukyu Islands, Ryukyuan languages, Sakoku, Samuel Martin (linguist), Samurai, Sayonara (disambiguation), Sea otter, Sentence-final particle, Sergei Starostin, Shikoku, Shinkichi Hashimoto, Shirō Hattori, Shishamo, Shogakukan Progressive Japanese-English Dictionary, Shoku Nihongi, Signed Japanese, Sino-Japanese vocabulary, Smelt (fish), Society of Jesus, South Korea, Subject–object–verb, Sudoku, Sumo, Sushi, Syllabary, Taiwan, Tōhoku region, Tōyō kanji, The Japan Times, The New York Times, Tibeto-Burman languages, Tokyo, Topic and comment, Topic-prominent language, Tsunami, Tuttle Publishing, Uchi-soto, United States, University of Hawaii Press, Ural–Altaic languages, Uralic languages, Vancouver, Video game, Vocabulary, Voice (grammar), Vowel, Vowel length, Wa (Japan), Wasei-eigo, Wasei-kango, Wiktionary, William George Aston, World War II, Written Chinese, Yamanote and Shitamachi, Yamato kotoba, Yamato people, Yayoi period, Yevgeny Polivanov, Yojijukugo. Expand index (205 more) »

Accusative case

The accusative case (abbreviated) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb.

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Adverb

An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, adjective, another adverb, determiner, noun phrase, clause, or sentence.

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Agglutinative language

An agglutinative language is a type of synthetic language with morphology that primarily uses agglutination: words may contain different morphemes to determine their meaning, but each of these morphemes (including stems and affixes) remains in every aspect unchanged after their union, thus resulting in generally easier deducible word meanings if compared to fusional languages, which allow modifications in the phonetics and/or spelling of one or more morphemes within a word, generally for shortening the word on behalf of an easier pronunciation.

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Ainu language

Ainu (Ainu: アィヌ・イタㇰ Aynu.

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Aizuchi

Aizuchi (相槌 or あいづち) is the Japanese term for frequent interjections during a conversation that indicate the listener is paying attention and/or understanding the speaker.

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Alexander Vovin

Alexander Vladimirovich Vovin (born 1961 in Saint Petersburg, Russia) is a Russian-American linguist and philologist, currently directeur d'études in School for Advanced Studies in the Social Sciences (École des hautes études en sciences sociales (EHESS)) in Paris, France.

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Allophone

In phonology, an allophone (from the ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds (or phones) or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.

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Altaic languages

Altaic is a proposed, but widely discredited, language family of central Eurasia.

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Amami Islands

The The name Amami-guntō was standardized on February 15, 2010.

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Angaur

or Ngeaur is an island in the island nation of Palau.

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Anime

, also informally romanized as animé, are Japanese animated productions featuring hand-drawn or computer animation.

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Apical consonant

An apical consonant is a phone (speech sound) produced by obstructing the air passage with the tip of the tongue.

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Arabic numerals

Arabic numerals or Hindu-Arabic or Indo-Arabic numerals, are the ten digits: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, based on the Hindu–Arabic numeral system.

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Arai Hakuseki

was a Confucianist, scholar-bureaucrat, academic, administrator, writer and politician in Japan during the middle of the Edo Period, who advised the Shogun Tokugawa Ienobu.

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Argentina

Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located in southeastern South America.

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Arte da Lingoa de Iapam

(Arte da Língua do Japão in modern Portuguese) is an early 17th-century Portuguese grammar of the Japanese language.

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Article (grammar)

An article (abbreviated) is a word (or prefix or suffix) that is used with a noun to indicate the type of reference being made by the noun.

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Australia

Australia (colloquially), officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is an Oceanian country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands.

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Austroasiatic languages

The Austroasiatic languages, in recent classifications synonymous with Mon–Khmer, are a large language family of continental Southeast Asia, also scattered throughout India, Bangladesh, Nepal and the southern border of China.

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Austronesian languages

The Austronesian languages is a language family that is widely dispersed throughout Maritime Southeast Asia, Madagascar and the islands of the Pacific Ocean, with a few members on continental Asia.

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Baekje

Baekje or Paekche (18 BC – 660 AD) was a kingdom located in southwest Korea.

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Beate Sirota Gordon

Beate Sirota Gordon October 25, 1923 – December 30, 2012) was an Austrian-born American performing arts presenter and women's rights advocate. She was the former Performing Arts Director of the Japan Society and the Asia Society, and was one of the last surviving members of the team that worked under Douglas MacArthur to write the Constitution of Japan after World War II.

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Book of Song

The Book of Song is a historical text of the Liu Song Dynasty of the Southern Dynasties of China.

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Brazil

Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and the Latin American region.

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Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics

The Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics or IBGE (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística), is the agency responsible for statistical, geographic, cartographic, geodetic and environmental information in Brazil.

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British Association for Japanese studies

The British Association for Japanese Studies, BAJS, is an association at Essex University in the United Kingdom, whose aim is to promote studies in Japan.

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Buddhism

Buddhism is a nontheistic religion or philosophy (Sanskrit: dharma; Pali: धम्म dhamma) that encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on teachings attributed to Gautama Buddha, commonly known as the Buddha ("the awakened one").

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Business magnate

A business magnate (formally industrialist) refers to an entrepreneur of great influence, importance, or standing in a particular enterprise or field of business.

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California

California is a state located on the West Coast of the United States.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Canada

Canada is a country, consisting of ten provinces and three territories, in the northern part of the continent of North America.

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Chōonpu

The, also known as,, or Katakana-Hiragana Prolonged Sound Mark by the Unicode Consortium, is a Japanese symbol which indicates a chōon, or a long vowel of two morae in length.

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China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a sovereign state in East Asia.

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Chinese characters

Chinese characters are logograms used in the writing of Chinese and some other Asian languages.

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Chinese language

Chinese (汉语 / 漢語; Hànyǔ or 中文; Zhōngwén) is a group of related but in many cases mutually unintelligible language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.

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Chinese numerals

Chinese numerals are words and characters used to denote numbers in Chinese.

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Classical Chinese

Classical Chinese (古文, gǔwén, "ancient text") is the language of the classic literature from the end of the Spring and Autumn period through to the end of the Han Dynasty, a written form of Old Chinese.

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Classical compound

Classical compounds and neoclassical compounds are compound words composed from combining forms (which act as affixes or stems) derived from classical Latin or ancient Greek roots.

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Classical Japanese language

The is the literary form of the Japanese language that was the standard until the early Shōwa period (1926–89).

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Classification of Japonic languages

The classification of the Japonic languages (Japanese and Ryukyuan) is unclear.

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Consonant

In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.

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Consonant cluster

In linguistics, a consonant cluster or consonant sequence is a group of consonants which have no intervening vowel.

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Copula (linguistics)

In linguistics, a copula (plural: copulas or copulae) is a word used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate (a subject complement), such as the word is in the sentence "The sky is blue." The word copula derives from the Latin noun for a "link" or "tie" that connects two different things.

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Culture of Japan

The culture of Japan has evolved greatly over the millennia, from the country's prehistoric Jōmon period, to its contemporary hybrid culture, which combines influences from Asia, Europe, and North America.

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Dative case

The dative case (abbreviated, or sometimes when it is a core argument) is a grammatical case generally used to indicate the noun to which something is given, as in "Maria gave Jakob a drink".

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Davao Region

Davao Region or formerly called Southern Mindanao (Filipino: Kadabawan) is one of the regions of the Philippines, designated as Region XI.

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De facto

De facto is a Latin expression that means "in fact, in reality, in actual existence, force, or possession, as a matter of fact" (literally "from fact").

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Diphthong

A diphthong (Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, refers to two adjacent vowel sounds occurring within the same syllable.

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DMOZ

DMOZ (from directory.mozilla.org, an earlier domain name) is a multilingual open-content directory of World Wide Web links.

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Dutch language

Dutch is a West Germanic language that is spoken in the European Union by about 23 million people as a first language—including most of the population of the Netherlands and about sixty percent of that of Belgium—and by another 5 million as a second language.

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Early Middle Japanese

is a stage of the Japanese language used between 794 and 1185, a time known as the Heian Period.

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Early Modern Japanese

is a stage of the Japanese language following Middle Japanese and preceding Modern Japanese.

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East Asian languages

East Asian languages belong to several language families that are generally believed to be genetically unrelated, but share many features due to interaction.

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Edo

, also romanized as Yedo or Yeddo, is the former name of Tokyo.

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Edo period

The or, is the period between 1603 and 1868 in the history of Japan, when Japanese society was under the rule of the Tokugawa shogunate and the country's 300 regional Daimyo.

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Education

Education is the process of facilitating learning.

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Emperor Shun of Liu Song

Emperor Shun of Liu Song ((劉)宋順帝) (467–479), personal name Liu Zhun (劉準), courtesy name Zhongmou (仲謀), nickname Zhiguan (智觀), was an emperor of the Chinese dynasty Liu Song.

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English language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

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Five kings of Wa

The five kings of Wa (倭の五王, Wa no go ō) are kings of ancient Japan who sent envoys to China during the 5th century to strengthen the legitimacy of their claims to power by gaining the recognition of the Chinese emperor.

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Focus (linguistics)

Focus is a grammatical category that determines which part of the sentence contributes new, non-derivable, or contrastive information.

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Franciscan

Franciscans are people and groups (religious orders) who adhere to the teachings and spiritual disciplines of St Francis of Assisi and of his main associates and followers, such as St Clare of Assisi, St Anthony of Padua, and St Elizabeth of Hungary, among many others.

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language, belonging to the Indo-European family.

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Furigana

is a Japanese reading aid, consisting of smaller kana, or syllabic characters, printed next to a kanji (ideographic character) or other character to indicate its pronunciation.

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Futon

A futon is traditional Japanese bedding consisting of padded mattresses and quilts pliable enough to be folded and stored away during the day, allowing the room to serve for purposes other than as a bedroom.

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Gairaigo

is Japanese for "loan word" or "borrowed word", and indicates a transliteration (or "transvocalization") into Japanese.

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Gemination

In phonetics, gemination or consonant elongation happens when a spoken consonant is pronounced for an audibly longer period of time than a short consonant.

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Genetic relationship (linguistics)

In linguistics, genetic relationship is the usual term for the relationship which exists between languages that are members of the same language family.

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Genitive case

In grammar, genitive (abbreviated; also called the possessive case or second case) is the grammatical case that marks a noun as modifying another noun.

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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that derives most of its vocabulary from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family.

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Grammatical aspect

Aspect is a grammatical category that expresses how an action, event or state, denoted by a verb, relates to the flow of time.

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Grammatical person

Grammatical person, in linguistics, is the grammatical distinction between deictic references to participant(s) in an event; typically the distinction is between the speaker, the addressee, and others.

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Grammatical tense

In grammar, tense is a category that expresses time reference.

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Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere

The Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere (大東亞共榮圏 Dai-tō-a Kyōeiken) was an imperial propaganda concept created and promulgated for occupied Asian populations during the first third of the Shōwa era by the government and military of the Empire of Japan.

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Greek language

Greek or Hellenic (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to the southern Balkans, the Aegean Islands, western Asia Minor, parts of northern and Eastern Anatolia and the South Caucasus, southern Italy, Albania and Cyprus.

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Hachijō-jima

is a volcanic Japanese island in the Philippine Sea.

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Haiku

(plural haiku) is a very short form of Japanese poetry.

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Hawaii

Hawaii (locally,; Hawaii) is the 50th and most recent U.S. state to join the United States, having joined on August 21, 1959.

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Heian period

The is the last division of classical Japanese history, running from 794 to 1185.

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Henohenomoheji

Henohenomoheji (へのへのもへじ) or hehenonomoheji (へへののもへじ) is a face drawn by Japanese schoolchildren using hiragana characters.

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Hepburn romanization

The is named after James Curtis Hepburn, who used it to transcribe the sounds of the Japanese language into the Latin alphabet in the third edition of his Japanese–English dictionary, published in 1887.

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Hiragana

is a Japanese syllabary, one basic component of the Japanese writing system, along with katakana, kanji, and in some cases rōmaji (the Latin-script alphabet).

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Historical linguistics

Historical linguistics, also called diachronic linguistics, is the scientific study of language change over time.

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Hokuriku region

The is located in the northwestern part of Honshu, the main island of Japan.

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Homorganic consonants

Homorganic consonants (from homo- "same" and organ "(speech) organ") is a phonetics term for consonant sounds that are articulated in the same position or place of articulation in the mouth, such as (pronounced with both lips), or (pronounced by touching the tip of the tongue to the upper gums).

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Honorific speech in Japanese

The Japanese language has many honorifics, parts of speech which show respect, and their use is mandatory in many social situations.

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Indo-European languages

The Indo-European languages are a family of several hundred related languages and dialects.

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Indonesia

Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.

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Inflection

In grammar, inflection or inflexion is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, mood, voice, aspect, person, number, gender and case.

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Japan

Japan (日本 Nippon or Nihon; formally or Nihon-koku, "State of Japan") is an island country in East Asia.

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Japan External Trade Organization

(ジェトロ JETRO) is an independent government agency established by Japan Export Trade Research Organization as a nonprofit corporation in Osaka in February 1951, and reorganized as the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) in 1958 (later Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry or METI) to consolidate Japan's efforts in export promotion.

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Japanese Americans

The ethnic group comprises Americans who are fully or partially of Japanese descent, especially those who identify with that ancestry, along with their cultural characteristics.

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Japanese Braille

Japanese Braille is the braille script of the Japanese language.

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Japanese Brazilian

A is a Brazilian citizen, national or natural of Japanese ancestry, or a Japanese immigrant living in Brazil.

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Japanese counter word

In Japanese, counter words or counters (josūshi 助数詞) are used along with numbers to count things, actions, and events.

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Japanese dictionary

Japanese dictionaries have a history that began over 1300 years ago when Japanese Buddhist priests, who wanted to understand Chinese sutras, adapted Chinese character dictionaries.

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Japanese equivalents of adjectives

The Japanese language does not have words that function as adjectives in a syntactic sense – that is to say that tree diagrams of Japanese sentences can be constructed without employing adjective phrases.

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Japanese language and computers

In relation to the Japanese language and computers many adaptation issues arise, some unique to Japanese and others common to languages which have a very large number of characters.

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Japanese literature

Early works of Japanese literature were heavily influenced by cultural contact with China and Chinese literature, often written in Classical Chinese.

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Japanese name

in modern times usually consist of a family name (surname), followed by a given name.

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Japanese numerals

The system of Japanese numerals is the system of number names used in the Japanese language.

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Japanese orthographic issues

Japanese orthography issues are language policy issues dating back to the Meiji Era when there were changes made aimed at writing the (standard dialect of the) Japanese language as the national language of Japan using a phonemic orthography.

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Japanese particles

Japanese particles, or, are suffixes or short words in Japanese grammar that immediately follow the modified noun, verb, adjective, or sentence.

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Japanese people

The are an ethnic group native to Japan.

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Japanese pitch accent

is a feature of the Japanese language which distinguishes words in most Japanese dialects, though the nature and location of the accent for a given word may vary between dialects.

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Japanese popular culture

Japanese popular culture not only reflects the attitudes and concerns of the present but also provides a link to the past.

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Japanese pronouns

Japanese pronouns (or Japanese deictic classifiers) are words in the Japanese language which are used to address or refer to present people or things, where present means people or things that can be pointed at.

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Japanese Sign Language family

The Japanese Sign Language (JSL) family is a language family of three sign languages: Japanese Sign Language (JSL), Korean Sign Language (KSL), and Taiwanese Sign Language (TSL).

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Japanese sound symbolism

Japanese has a large inventory of sound symbolic or mimetic words, known in linguistics as ideophones.

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Japanese verb conjugation

This is a list of Japanese verb conjugations.

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Japanese writing system

The modern Japanese writing system is a combination of two character types: logographic kanji, which are adopted Chinese characters, and syllabic kana.

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Japanese-Language Proficiency Test

The, or JLPT, is a standardized criterion-referenced test to evaluate and certify Japanese language proficiency for non-native speakers, covering language knowledge, reading ability, and listening ability.

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Japonic languages

The Japonic language family includes the Japanese language spoken on the main islands of Japan as well as the Ryukyuan languages spoken in the Ryukyu Islands.

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Jōmon period

The is the time in Prehistoric Japan from about 12,000 BC and in some cases cited as early as 14,500 BC to about 300 BC, when Japan was inhabited by a hunter-gatherer culture which reached a considerable degree of sedentism and cultural complexity.

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Jōyō kanji

The is the guide to kanji characters and their readings, announced officially by the Japanese Ministry of Education.

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Jinmeiyō kanji

The are a set of 861 Chinese characters known as the "name kanji" in English.

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Judo

is a modern martial art, combat and Olympic sport created in Japan in 1882 by Jigoro Kano (嘉納治五郎).

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Kagoshima Prefecture

is a prefecture of Japan located on the island of Kyushu.

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Kagoshima University

, or is a Japanese national university located in Kagoshima, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan.

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Kamakura period

The is a period of Japanese history that marks the governance by the Kamakura shogunate, officially established in 1192 in Kamakura by the first shogun, Minamoto no Yoritomo.

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Kamikaze

The, officially, abbreviated as, and used as a verb as, were suicide attacks by military aviators from the Empire of Japan against Allied naval vessels in the closing stages of the Pacific campaign of World War II, designed to destroy warships more effectively than was possible with conventional attacks.

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Kana

are syllabic Japanese scripts, a part of the Japanese writing system contrasted with the logographic Chinese characters known in Japan as kanji (漢字).

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Kanbun

is a method of annotating Classical Chinese so that it can be read in Japanese that was used from the Heian period to the mid-20th century.

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Kanji

Kanji (漢字), or kan'ji, are the adopted logographic Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese writing system along with hiragana and katakana.

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Kansai dialect

The is a group of Japanese dialects in the Kansai region (Kinki region) of Japan.

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Kansai region

The or the lies in the southern-central region of Japan's main island Honshū.

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Kantō region

The is a geographical area of Honshu, the largest island of Japan.

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Karaoke

(or) is a form of interactive entertainment or video game in which an amateur singer sings along with recorded music (a music video) using a microphone and public address system.

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Karate

(Okinawan pronunciation) is a martial art developed on the Ryukyu Islands in what is now Okinawa, Japan.

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Katakana

is a Japanese syllabary, one component of the Japanese writing system along with hiragana, kanji, and in some cases the Latin script (known as romaji).

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Kojiki

is the oldest extant chronicle in Japan, dating from the early 8th century (711–712) and composed by Ō no Yasumaro at the request of Empress Gemmei.

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Korea

Korea, called Hanguk (한국; Hanja: 韓國) or Daehan (대한; Hanja: 大韓) in South Korea and Chosŏn (조선; Hanja: 朝鮮) in North Korea and elsewhere, is an East Asian territory that is divided into two distinct sovereign states, North Korea (also known as the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, or DPRK) and South Korea (also known as the Republic of Korea, or ROK).

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Korean language

Korean (조선말, see below) is the official language of both South Korea and North Korea, as well as one of the two official languages in China's Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture.

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Kyōiku kanji

, also known as is a list of 1,006 kanji and associated readings developed and maintained by the Japanese Ministry of Education that prescribes which kanji, and which readings of kanji, Japanese schoolchildren should learn for each year of primary school.

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Laguna (province)

Laguna (PSGC), officially known as the Province of Laguna (Lalawigan ng Laguna; Provincia de La Laguna), is a province of the Philippines found in the CALABARZON region in Luzon.

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Language convergence

Language convergence is a type of language contact-induced change whereby languages with many bilingual speakers mutually borrow morphological and syntactic features, making their typology more similar.

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Language island

A language island is an exclave of a language that is surrounded by one or more different languages.

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Language isolate

A language isolate, in the absolute sense, is a natural language with no demonstrable genealogical (or "genetic") relationship with other languages, one that has not been demonstrated to descend from an ancestor common with any other language.

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Language school

A language school is a school where one studies a foreign language.

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Languages of Europe

Not to be confused with Indo-European languages. Most of the languages of Europe belong to the Indo-European language family.

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Late Middle Japanese

is a stage of the Japanese language following Early Middle Japanese and preceding Early Modern Japanese.

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Lateral consonant

A lateral is an L-like consonant, in which the airstream proceeds along the sides of the tongue, but is blocked by the tongue from going through the middle of the mouth.

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Latin script

Latin script, or Roman script, is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet.

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Lative case

Lative (abbreviated) is a case which indicates motion to a location.

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Leaving Certificate (Ireland)

The Leaving Certificate Examinations (Scrúduithe na hArdteistiméireachta), commonly referred to as the Leaving Cert (Irish: Ardteist), is the final examination in the Irish secondary school system.

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Lepcha language

Lepcha language, or Róng language (Lepcha: ᰛᰩᰵ་ᰛᰧᰶᰵ; Róng ríng), is a Himalayish language spoken by the Lepcha people in Sikkim and parts of West Bengal, Nepal and Bhutan.

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Linguistic typology

Linguistic typology is a subfield of linguistics that studies and classifies languages according to their structural and functional features.

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List of English words of Japanese origin

Words of Japanese origin have entered many languages.

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List of Japanese words of Portuguese origin

Many Japanese words of Portuguese origin entered the Japanese language when Portuguese Jesuit priests introduced Christian ideas, Western science, technology and new products to the Japanese during the Muromachi period (15th and 16th centuries).

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List of universities in Japan

The following is a comprehensive list of universities in Japan, categorized by prefecture: The list contains only universities or colleges, either four-year or two-year, that still exist today and are classified as "schools" according to Article 1 of the School Education Law.

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Loanword

A loanword (or loan word or loan-word) is a word borrowed from a donor language and incorporated into a recipient language without translation.

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Macron

A macron is a diacritical mark, a straight bar placed above a letter, usually a vowel.

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Malayo-Polynesian languages

The Malayo-Polynesian languages are a subgroup of the Austronesian languages, with approximately 385.5 million speakers.

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Man'yōgana

is an ancient writing system that employs Chinese characters to represent the Japanese language.

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Mass media

The mass media are diversified media technologies that are intended to reach a large audience via mass communication.

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Mediopassive voice

The mediopassive voice is a grammatical voice that subsumes the meanings of both the middle voice and the passive voice.

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Meiji Restoration

The, also known as the Meiji Ishin, Renovation, Revolution, Reform, or Renewal, was a chain of events that restored practical imperial rule to Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji.

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Mills College

Mills College is a liberal arts and sciences college in the San Francisco Bay Area.

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Monophthong

A monophthong (Greek monóphthongos from mónos "single" and phthóngos "sound") is a pure vowel sound, one whose articulation at both beginning and end is relatively fixed, and which does not glide up or down towards a new position of articulation.

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Mora (linguistics)

A mora (plural morae or moras; often symbolized μ) is a unit in phonology that determines syllable weight, which in some languages determines stress or timing.

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Morpheme

In linguistics, a morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit in a language.

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Morphology (linguistics)

In linguistics, morphology is the identification, analysis and description of the structure of a given language's morphemes and other linguistic units, such as root words, affixes, parts of speech, intonations and stresses, or implied context.

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Muromachi period

The is a division of Japanese history running from approximately 1337 to 1573.

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Nara period

The of the history of Japan covers the years from AD 710 to 794.

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National language

A national language is a language (or language variant, e.g. dialect) which has some connection—de facto or de jure—with a people and perhaps by extension the territory they occupy.

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Nihon Shoki

The, sometimes translated as The Chronicles of Japan, is the second oldest book of classical Japanese history.

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Ninja

A or was a covert agent or mercenary in feudal Japan.

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Nominative case

The nominative case (abbreviated) is one of the grammatical cases of a noun or other part of speech, which generally marks the subject of a verb or the predicate noun or predicate adjective, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments.

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Nonprofit organization

A nonprofit organization (NPO, also known as a non-business entity) is an organization that uses its surplus revenues to further achieve its purpose or mission, rather than distributing its surplus income to the organization's directors (or equivalents) as profit or dividends.

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Noun

A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.

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Official language

An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.

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Okinawa Prefecture

is the southernmost prefecture of Japan.

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Okurigana

are kana suffixes following kanji stems in Japanese written words.

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Old Japanese

is the oldest attested stage of the Japanese language.

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Origami

) is the art of paper folding, which is often associated with Japanese culture.

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Osaka

is a designated city in the Kansai region of Japan.

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Palatalization (sound change)

In historical linguistics, palatalization is a sound change that either results in a palatal or palatalized consonant or a front vowel, or is triggered by one of these.

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Palau

Palau (historically Belau or Pelew), officially the Republic of Palau (Beluu er a Belau), is an island country located in the western Pacific Ocean.

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Peru

Peru (Perú; Piruw; Piruw), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.

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Philipp Franz von Siebold

Philipp Franz Balthasar von Siebold (17 February 1796 – 18 October 1866) was a German physician, botanist, and traveler.

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Philippines

The Philippines (Pilipinas), officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a sovereign island country in Southeast Asia situated in the western Pacific Ocean.

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Phonotactics

Phonotactics (from Ancient Greek phōnḗ "voice, sound" and taktikós "having to do with arranging") is a branch of phonology that deals with restrictions in a language on the permissible combinations of phonemes.

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Portuguese language

Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Romance language and the sole official language of Portugal, Brazil, Mozambique, Angola, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau and São Tomé and Príncipe.

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Predicate (grammar)

There are two competing notions of the predicate in theories of grammar.

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Preposition and postposition

Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions, are a class of words that express spatial or temporal relations (in, under, towards, before) or marking various semantic roles (of, for).

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Pronoun

In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun is a word that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase.

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Pulled rickshaw

A pulled rickshaw (or ricksha) is a mode of human-powered transport by which a runner draws a two-wheeled cart which seats one or two people.

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Register (sociolinguistics)

In linguistics, a register is a variety of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting.

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Reindeer

The reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), also known as caribou in North America, is a species of deer with circumpolar distribution, native to Arctic, Subarctic, tundra, boreal and mountainous regions of northern Europe, Siberia, and North America.

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Rendaku

is a phenomenon in Japanese morphophonology that governs the voicing of the initial consonant of the non-initial portion of a compound or prefixed word.

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Republic of Ireland

Ireland (Éire), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying about five-sixths of the island of Ireland.

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Retroflex consonant

A retroflex consonant is a coronal consonant where the tongue has a flat, concave, or even curled shape, and is articulated between the alveolar ridge and the hard palate.

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Romanization of Japanese

The romanization of Japanese is the application of the Latin script to write the Japanese language.

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Roundedness

In phonetics, vowel roundedness refers to the amount of rounding in the lips during the articulation of a vowel.

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Roy Andrew Miller

Roy Andrew Miller (September 5, 1924 – August 22, 2014) was an American linguist notable for his advocacy of Korean and Japanese as members of the Altaic group of languages.

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Royal we

The royal "we", or majestic plural (pluralis majestatis in Latin, literally, "the plural of majesty"), is the use of a plural pronoun to refer to a single person holding a high office, such as a sovereign (e.g., a monarch or sultan) or religious leader (e.g., the Pope or a bishop).

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Ryukyu Islands

The, known in Japanese as the and also known as the, are a chain of Japanese islands that stretch southwest from Kyushu to Taiwan: the Ōsumi, Tokara, Amami, Okinawa, and Sakishima Islands (further divided into the Miyako and Yaeyama Islands), with Yonaguni the southernmost.

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Ryukyuan languages

The are the indigenous languages of the Ryukyu Islands, the southernmost part of the Japanese archipelago.

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Sakoku

was the foreign relations policy of Japan under which no foreigner could enter nor could any Japanese leave the country on penalty of death.

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Samuel Martin (linguist)

Samuel Elmo Martin (29 January 1924 – 28 November 2009) was a professor of Far Eastern Languages at Yale University and the author of many works on the Korean and Japanese languages.

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Samurai

were the military nobility of medieval and early-modern Japan.

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Sayonara (disambiguation)

Sayonara is a 1957 American film starring Marlon Brando.

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Sea otter

The sea otter (Enhydra lutris) is a marine mammal native to the coasts of the northern and eastern North Pacific Ocean.

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Sentence-final particle

Sentence-final particles, including modal particles, interactional particles, etc., are minimal lexemes (words) that occur at the end of a sentence and that do not carry referential meaning, but may relate to linguistic modality, register or other pragmatic effects.

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Sergei Starostin

Sergei Anatolyevich Starostin (Cyrillic: Серге́й Анато́льевич Ста́ростин, March 24, 1953 – September 30, 2005) was a Russian historical linguist, perhaps best known for his reconstructions of hypothetical proto-languages, including his work on the controversial Altaic theory, the formulation of the Dené–Caucasian hypothesis, and the proposal of a Borean language of still earlier date.

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Shikoku

is the smallest (long and between wide) and least populous (4,141,955 as of 2005) of the four main islands of Japan, located south of Honshu and east of the island of Kyushu.

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Shinkichi Hashimoto

× was a Japanese linguist, born in Tsuruga, Fukui Prefecture, Japan.

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Shirō Hattori

was a Japanese academic and author.

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Shishamo

, or Spirinchus lanceolatus, is a saltwater fish (smelt) about 15 centimeters in length.

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Shogakukan Progressive Japanese-English Dictionary

is a medium-sized Japanese–English Dictionary published by Shogakukan.

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Shoku Nihongi

The is an imperially commissioned Japanese history text.

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Signed Japanese

Signed Japanese (日本語対応手話, Manually Coded Japanese), is a manually coded form of Japanese that uses the signs of Japanese Sign Language.

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Sino-Japanese vocabulary

Sino-Japanese vocabulary, or, refers to that portion of the Japanese vocabulary that originated in Chinese or has been created from elements borrowed from Chinese.

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Smelt (fish)

Smelts are a family of small fish, Osmeridae, found in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.

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Society of Jesus

The Society of Jesus (Societas Iesu, S.J., SJ or SI) is a male religious congregation of the Catholic Church.

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South Korea

South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (lit. The Republic of Great Han; ROK), and commonly referred to as Korea, is a sovereign state in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula.

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Subject–object–verb

In linguistic typology, a subject–object–verb (SOV) language is one in which the subject, object, and verb of a sentence appear or usually appear in that order.

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Sudoku

,,; originally called Number Place, is a logic-based, combinatorial number-placement puzzle.

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Sumo

is a competitive full-contact wrestling sport where a rikishi (wrestler) attempts to force another wrestler out of a circular ring (dohyō) or into touching the ground with anything other than the soles of the feet.

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Sushi

is a Japanese food consisting of cooked combined with other, seafood, vegetables and sometimes tropical fruits.

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Syllabary

A syllabary is a set of written symbols that represent the syllables or (more frequently) moras which make up words.

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Taiwan

Taiwan (see below), officially the Republic of China (ROC) is a sovereign state in East Asia.

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Tōhoku region

The consists of the northeastern portion of Honshu, the largest island of Japan.

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Tōyō kanji

The tōyō kanji, also known as the Tōyō kanjihyō (当用漢字表, "list of kanji for general use") are the result of a reform of the Kanji characters of Chinese origin in the Japanese written language.

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The Japan Times

The Japan Times is an English-language newspaper published in Japan by, a subsidiary of Nifco, a leading manufacturer of plastic fasteners for the automotive and home design industries.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (NYT) is an American daily newspaper, founded and continuously published in New York City since September 18, 1851, by the New York Times Company.

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Tibeto-Burman languages

The Tibeto-Burman languages are the non-Sinitic members of the Sino-Tibetan language family, over 400 of which are spoken throughout the highlands of Southeast Asia, as well as lowland areas in Myanmar (Burma).

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Tokyo

(), officially, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan, and is both the capital and largest city of Japan.

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Topic and comment

In linguistics, the topic, or theme, of a sentence is what is being talked about, and the comment (rheme or focus) is what is being said about the topic.

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Topic-prominent language

A topic-prominent language is a language that organizes its syntax to emphasize the topic–comment structure of the sentence.

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Tsunami

A tsunami (plural: tsunamis or tsunami; from 津波, lit. "harbor wave"; English pronunciation), also known as a seismic sea wave, is a series of waves in a water body caused by the displacement of a large volume of water, generally in an ocean or a large lake.

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Tuttle Publishing

Tuttle Publishing, originally the Charles E. Tuttle Company, is a book publishing company that includes Tuttle, Periplus Editions, and Journey Editions.

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Uchi-soto

Uchi-soto in the Japanese language is the distinction between in-groups (uchi, 内, "inside") and out-groups (soto, 外, "outside").

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly referred to as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major territories and various possessions.

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University of Hawaii Press

The University of Hawaii Press is a university press that is part of the University of Hawaiokinai.

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Ural–Altaic languages

Ural–Altaic, also Uralo-Altaic or Uraltaic, is an obsolete language-family proposal uniting the Uralic and Altaic languages.

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Uralic languages

The Uralic languages (sometimes called Uralian languages) constitute a language family of some 38 languages spoken by approximately 25 million people.

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Vancouver

Vancouver officially the City of Vancouver, is a coastal seaport city on the mainland of British Columbia, Canada.

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Video game

A video game is an electronic game that involves human interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a video device such as a TV screen or computer monitor.

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Vocabulary

A person's vocabulary is the set of words within a language that are familiar to that person.

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Voice (grammar)

In grammar, the voice (also called diathesis and (rarely) gender (of verbs)) of a verb describes the relationship between the action (or state) that the verb expresses and the participants identified by its arguments (subject, object, etc.). When the subject is the agent or doer of the action, the verb is in the active voice.

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Vowel

In phonetics, a vowel is a sound in spoken language, such as an English "ah!" or "oh!", pronounced with an open vocal tract so that there is no build-up of air pressure at any point above the glottis.

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Vowel length

In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound.

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Wa (Japan)

Japanese is the oldest recorded name of Japan.

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Wasei-eigo

The term refers to Japanese language expressions which superficially appear to come from English, but in fact do not.

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Wasei-kango

refers to words in the Japanese language composed of Chinese morphemes, but were invented in Japan rather than borrowed from China.

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Wiktionary

Wiktionary (whose name is a blend of the words wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, web-based project to create a free content dictionary of all words in all languages.

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William George Aston

William George Aston (9 April 1841 – 22 November 1911) was a British diplomat, author and scholar-expert in the language and history of Japan and Korea.

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World War II

World War II (WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, though related conflicts began earlier.

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Written Chinese

Written Chinese comprises Chinese characters (汉字/漢字; pinyin: Hànzì, literally "Han characters") used to represent the Chinese language.

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Yamanote and Shitamachi

and are traditional names for two areas of Tokyo, Japan.

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Yamato kotoba

are native Japanese words, meaning those words in Japanese that have been inherited from Old Japanese, rather than being borrowed at some stage.

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Yamato people

and are names for the dominant native ethnic group of Japan.

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Yayoi period

The is an Iron Age era in the history of Japan traditionally dated 300 BC to AD 300.

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Yevgeny Polivanov

Yevgeny Dmitrievich Polivanov (28 February – 25 January 1938) was a Soviet linguist, orientalist and polyglot.

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Yojijukugo

is a Japanese lexeme consisting of four kanji (Chinese characters).

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Redirects here:

ISO 639:ja, ISO 639:jpn, Japaneese language, Japanese (language), Japanese Language, Japanese langauge, Japanese language education, Japanese vocabulary, Japanese words, Japanese-language, JapaneseLanguage, Japanesie, Japanse language, Japanses language, Kokugo, Kokugogaku, Modern Japanese, Modern Standard Japanese, Moon-speak, Nihon go, Nihonggo, Nihongo, Nippongo, Nuclear Japanese language, Riwen, Standard Japanese, The Language Of Japan, にほんご, 日本語.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_language

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