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Japanese language

Index Japanese language

is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language. [1]

264 relations: Accusative case, Adverb, Agglutinative language, Ainu language, Aizuchi, Alexander Vovin, Allophone, Altaic languages, Amami Islands, Angaur, Anime, Apical consonant, Arabic numerals, Arai Hakuseki, Argentina, Arte da Lingoa de Iapam, Article (grammar), Australia, Austroasiatic languages, Austronesian languages, Automated Similarity Judgment Program, Baekje, Beate Sirota Gordon, Book of Song, Brazil, Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, British Association for Japanese Studies, Buddhism, Business magnate, California, Cambridge University Press, Canada, Central consonant, Chōonpu, China, Chinese characters, Chinese language, Chinese numerals, Classical Chinese, Classical compound, Classical Japanese language, Classification of the Japonic languages, Consonant, Consonant cluster, Copula (linguistics), Culture of Japan, Dative case, Davao Region, De facto, Diphthong, ..., DMOZ, Dutch language, Early Middle Japanese, Early Modern Japanese, Edo, Edo period, Education, Emperor Shun of Liu Song, English language, Five kings of Wa, Flap consonant, Focus (linguistics), Franciscans, French language, Furigana, Futon, Gairaigo, Gemination, Genetic relationship (linguistics), Genitive case, German language, Glossary of Japanese words of Portuguese origin, Grammatical aspect, Grammatical person, Grammatical tense, Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, Greek language, Hachijō language, Hachijō-jima, Haiku, Hawaii, Heian period, Hepburn romanization, Hiragana, Historical linguistics, Hokuriku region, Homorganic consonant, Honorific speech in Japanese, Indo-European languages, Indonesia, Inflection, Japan, Japan External Trade Organization, Japanese Americans, Japanese archipelago, Japanese Braille, Japanese Brazilians, Japanese counter word, Japanese dialects, Japanese dictionary, Japanese equivalents of adjectives, Japanese language and computers, Japanese literature, Japanese name, Japanese numerals, Japanese orthographic issues, Japanese particles, Japanese people, Japanese pitch accent, Japanese popular culture, Japanese pronouns, Japanese Sign Language family, Japanese sound symbolism, Japanese verb conjugation, Japanese writing system, Japanese-Language Proficiency Test, Japonic languages, Jōmon period, Jōyō kanji, Jinmeiyō kanji, Judo, Kagoshima Prefecture, Kagoshima University, Kamakura period, Kamikaze, Kana, Kanbun, Kanji, Kansai dialect, Kansai region, Kantō region, Karaoke, Karate, Katakana, Kojiki, Korea, Korean language, Kyōiku kanji, Kyoto, Laguna (province), Language convergence, Language island, Language isolate, Language school, Languages of East Asia, Languages of Europe, Late Middle Japanese, Lateral consonant, Latin script, Lative case, Leaving Certificate (Ireland), Lepcha language, Linguistic typology, List of English words of Japanese origin, List of Japanese exonyms, List of universities in Japan, Loanword, Macron (diacritic), Malayo-Polynesian languages, Man'yōgana, Mass media, Mediopassive voice, Meiji period, Meiji Restoration, Mills College, Monophthong, Mora (linguistics), Morpheme, Morphology (linguistics), Muromachi period, Nara period, National language, Nihon Shoki, Ninja, Nominative case, Nonprofit organization, Noun, Official language, Okinawa Prefecture, Okurigana, Old English, Old Japanese, Origami, Osaka, Palatalization (sound change), Palau, Peru, Philipp Franz von Siebold, Philippines, Phonology, Phonotactics, Portuguese language, Predicate (grammar), Preposition and postposition, Pronoun, Pulled rickshaw, Register (sociolinguistics), Reindeer, Rendaku, Republic of Ireland, Romanization of Japanese, Roundedness, Roy Andrew Miller, Royal we, Ryukyu Islands, Ryukyuan languages, Sakoku, Samuel Martin (linguist), Samurai, Sayonara (disambiguation), Sea otter, Sentence-final particle, Sergei Starostin, Shikoku, Shinkichi Hashimoto, Shirō Hattori, Shishamo, Shogakukan Progressive Japanese-English Dictionary, Shoku Nihongi, Signed Japanese, Sino-Japanese vocabulary, Smelt (fish), Society of Jesus, South Korea, Subject–object–verb, Sudoku, Sumo, Sushi, Syllabary, Taiwan, Tōhoku region, Tōyō kanji, The Japan Times, The New York Times, Tibeto-Burman languages, Tokyo, Topic and comment, Topic-prominent language, Tsunami, Tuttle Publishing, Uchi-soto, United States, University of Hawaii Press, Ural–Altaic languages, Uralic languages, Vancouver, Video game, Vocabulary, Voice (grammar), Vowel, Vowel length, Wa (Japan), Wasei-eigo, Wasei-kango, Wiktionary, William George Aston, World War II, Written Chinese, Yamanote and Shitamachi, Yamato people, Yamato-kotoba, Yayoi period, Yevgeny Polivanov, Yojijukugo. Expand index (214 more) »

Accusative case

The accusative case (abbreviated) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb.

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An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, adjective, another adverb, determiner, noun phrase, clause, or sentence.

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Agglutinative language

An agglutinative language is a type of synthetic language with morphology that primarily uses agglutination.

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Ainu language

Ainu (Ainu: アイヌ・イタㇰ Aynu.

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In the Japanese language, Aizuchi (相槌 or あいづち) are the frequent interjections during a conversation that indicate the listener is paying attention and/or understanding the speaker.

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Alexander Vovin

Alexander Vladimirovich Vovin (Александр Владимирович Вовин, born 1961 in Saint Petersburg, Russia) is a Russian-American linguist and philologist, currently directeur d'études at the School for Advanced Studies in the Social Sciences (École des hautes études en sciences sociales (EHESS)) in Paris, France.

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In phonology, an allophone (from the ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds, or phones, or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.

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Altaic languages

Altaic is a proposed language family of central Eurasia and Siberia, now widely seen as discredited.

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Amami Islands

The The name Amami-guntō was standardized on February 15, 2010.

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or Ngeaur is an island in the island nation of Palau.

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Anime is a style of hand-drawn and computer animation originating in, and commonly associated with, Japan.

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Apical consonant

An apical consonant is a phone (speech sound) produced by obstructing the air passage with the tip of the tongue.

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Arabic numerals

Arabic numerals, also called Hindu–Arabic numerals, are the ten digits: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, based on the Hindu–Arabic numeral system, the most common system for the symbolic representation of numbers in the world today.

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Arai Hakuseki

was a Confucianist, scholar-bureaucrat, academic, administrator, writer and politician in Japan during the middle of the Edo period, who advised the shōgun Tokugawa Ienobu.

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Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.

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Arte da Lingoa de Iapam

The Art of the Japanese Language (Arte da Lingoa de Iapam or modern Arte da Língua do Japão; 典, Nihon Daibunten) is an early 17th-century Portuguese grammar of the Japanese language.

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Article (grammar)

An article (with the linguistic glossing abbreviation) is a word that is used with a noun (as a standalone word or a prefix or suffix) to specify grammatical definiteness of the noun, and in some languages extending to volume or numerical scope.

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Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.

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Austroasiatic languages

The Austroasiatic languages, formerly known as Mon–Khmer, are a large language family of Mainland Southeast Asia, also scattered throughout India, Bangladesh, Nepal and the southern border of China, with around 117 million speakers.

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Austronesian languages

The Austronesian languages are a language family that is widely dispersed throughout Maritime Southeast Asia, Madagascar and the islands of the Pacific Ocean, with a few members in continental Asia.

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Automated Similarity Judgment Program

The Automated Similarity Judgment Program (ASJP) is a collaborative project applying computational approaches to comparative linguistics using a database of word lists.

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Baekje (18 BC – 660 AD) was a kingdom located in southwest Korea.

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Beate Sirota Gordon

Beate Sirota Gordon (October 25, 1923 – December 30, 2012) was an Austrian-born American performing arts presenter and women's rights advocate.

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Book of Song

The Book of Song (Sòng Shū) is a historical text of the Liu Song Dynasty of the Southern Dynasties of China.

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Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.

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Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics

The Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics or IBGE (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística) is the agency responsible for official collection of statistical, geographic, cartographic, geodetic and environmental information in Brazil.

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British Association for Japanese Studies

The British Association for Japanese Studies, BAJS, is an association at Essex University in the United Kingdom, whose aim is to promote studies in Japan.

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Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.

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Business magnate

A business magnate (formally industrialist) refers to an entrepreneur of great influence, importance, or standing in a particular enterprise or field of business.

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California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.

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Central consonant

A central consonant, also known as a median consonant, is a consonant sound that is produced when air flows across the center of the mouth over the tongue.

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The, also known as,,, or Katakana-Hiragana Prolonged Sound Mark by the Unicode Consortium, is a Japanese symbol that indicates a chōon, or a long vowel of two morae in length.

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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Chinese characters

Chinese characters are logograms primarily used in the writing of Chinese and Japanese.

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Chinese language

Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.

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Chinese numerals

Chinese numerals are words and characters used to denote numbers in Chinese.

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Classical Chinese

Classical Chinese, also known as Literary Chinese, is the language of the classic literature from the end of the Spring and Autumn period through to the end of the Han Dynasty, a written form of Old Chinese.

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Classical compound

Classical compounds and neoclassical compounds are compound words composed from combining forms (which act as affixes or stems) derived from classical Latin or ancient Greek roots.

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Classical Japanese language

The classical Japanese language (bungo, "literary language"), also called "old writing" (kobun), is the literary form of the Japanese language that was the standard until the early Shōwa period (1926–89).

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Classification of the Japonic languages

The classification of the Japonic languages (Japanese and the Ryukyuan languages) is unclear.

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In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.

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Consonant cluster

In linguistics, a consonant cluster, consonant sequence or consonant compound is a group of consonants which have no intervening vowel.

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Copula (linguistics)

In linguistics, a copula (plural: copulas or copulae; abbreviated) is a word used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate (a subject complement), such as the word is in the sentence "The sky is blue." The word copula derives from the Latin noun for a "link" or "tie" that connects two different things.

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Culture of Japan

The culture of Japan has evolved greatly over the millennia, from the country's prehistoric time Jōmon period, to its contemporary modern culture, which absorbs influences from Asia, Europe, and North America.

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Dative case

The dative case (abbreviated, or sometimes when it is a core argument) is a grammatical case used in some languages to indicate, among other uses, the noun to which something is given, as in "Maria Jacobī potum dedit", Latin for "Maria gave Jacob a drink".

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Davao Region

Davao Region, formerly called Southern Mindanao (Habagatang Mindanao; Timog Mindanao), is an administrative region in the Philippines, designated as Region XI.

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De facto

In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.

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A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.

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DMOZ (from directory.mozilla.org, an earlier domain name) was a multilingual open-content directory of World Wide Web links.

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Dutch language

The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.

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Early Middle Japanese

is a stage of the Japanese language used between 794 and 1185, a time known as the Heian Period.

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Early Modern Japanese

is a stage of the Japanese language following Middle Japanese and preceding Modern Japanese.

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, also romanized as Jedo, Yedo or Yeddo, is the former name of Tokyo.

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Edo period

The or is the period between 1603 and 1868 in the history of Japan, when Japanese society was under the rule of the Tokugawa shogunate and the country's 300 regional daimyō.

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Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.

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Emperor Shun of Liu Song

Emperor Shun of Liu Song ((劉)宋順帝) (8 August 467 – 23 June 479), personal name Liu Zhun (劉準), courtesy name Zhongmou (仲謀), nickname Zhiguan (智觀), was an emperor of the Chinese dynasty Liu Song.

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English language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

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Five kings of Wa

The five kings of Wa (倭の五王, Wa no go ō) are kings of ancient Japan who sent envoys to China during the 5th century to strengthen the legitimacy of their claims to power by gaining the recognition of the Chinese emperor.

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Flap consonant

In phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (such as the tongue) is thrown against another.

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Focus (linguistics)

Focus (abbreviated) is a grammatical category that determines which part of the sentence contributes new, non-derivable, or contrastive information.

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The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic Church, founded in 1209 by Saint Francis of Assisi.

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.

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is a Japanese reading aid, consisting of smaller kana, or syllabic characters, printed next to a kanji (ideographic character) or other character to indicate its pronunciation.

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A is the Japanese traditional style of bedding.

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is Japanese for "loan word" or "borrowed word", and indicates a transliteration (or "transvocalization") into Japanese.

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Gemination, or consonant elongation, is the pronouncing in phonetics of a spoken consonant for an audibly longer period of time than that of a short consonant.

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Genetic relationship (linguistics)

In linguistics, genetic relationship is the usual term for the relationship which exists between languages that are members of the same language family.

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Genitive case

In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.

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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.

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Glossary of Japanese words of Portuguese origin

Many Japanese words of Portuguese origin entered the Japanese language when Portuguese Jesuit priests introduced Christian ideas, Western science, technology and new products to the Japanese during the Muromachi period (15th and 16th centuries).

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Grammatical aspect

Aspect is a grammatical category that expresses how an action, event, or state, denoted by a verb, extends over time.

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Grammatical person

Grammatical person, in linguistics, is the grammatical distinction between deictic references to participant(s) in an event; typically the distinction is between the speaker (first person), the addressee (second person), and others (third person).

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Grammatical tense

In grammar, tense is a category that expresses time reference with reference to the moment of speaking.

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Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere

The was an imperial concept created and promulgated for occupied Asian populations during 1930–1945 by the Empire of Japan.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Hachijō language

The small group of Hachijō or Hachijōjima dialects are the most divergent form of Japanese.

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is a volcanic Japanese island in the Philippine Sea.

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(plural haiku) is a very short Japan poem with seventeen syllables and three verses.

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Hawaii (Hawaii) is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, having received statehood on August 21, 1959.

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Heian period

The is the last division of classical Japanese history, running from 794 to 1185.

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Hepburn romanization

is a system for the romanization of Japanese, that uses the Latin alphabet to write the Japanese language.

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is a Japanese syllabary, one component of the Japanese writing system, along with katakana, kanji, and in some cases rōmaji (Latin script).

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Historical linguistics

Historical linguistics, also called diachronic linguistics, is the scientific study of language change over time.

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Hokuriku region

The was located in the northwestern part of Honshu, the main island of Japan.

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Homorganic consonant

In phonetics, a homorganic consonant (from homo- "same" and organ "(speech) organ") is a consonant sound articulated in the same place of articulation as another.

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Honorific speech in Japanese

The Japanese language has many honorifics, referred to as keigo (敬語, literally "respectful language"), parts of speech that show respect.

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Indo-European languages

The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.

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Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.

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In grammar, inflection or inflexion – sometimes called accidence – is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood.

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Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.

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Japan External Trade Organization

is an Independent Administrative Institution established by Japan Export Trade Research Organization as a nonprofit corporation in Osaka in February 1952, reorganized under the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) in 1958 (later the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry or METI), and became an Independent Administrative Institution in 2003 to consolidate Japan's efforts in export promotion.

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Japanese Americans

are Americans who are fully or partially of Japanese descent, especially those who identify with that ancestry, along with their cultural characteristics.

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Japanese archipelago

The is the group of islands that forms the country of Japan, and extends roughly from northeast to southwest along the northeastern coast of the Eurasia mainland, washing upon the northwestern shores of the Pacific Ocean.

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Japanese Braille

Japanese Braille is the braille script of the Japanese language.

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Japanese Brazilians

are Brazilian citizens who are nationals or naturals of Japanese ancestry, or Japanese immigrants living in Brazil.

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Japanese counter word

In Japanese, counter words or counters (josūshi 助数詞) are classifiers used along with numbers to count things, actions, and events.

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Japanese dialects

The dialects of the Japanese language fall into two primary clades, Eastern (including Tokyo) and Western (including Kyoto), with the dialects of Kyushu and Hachijō Island often distinguished as additional branches, the latter perhaps the most divergent of all.

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Japanese dictionary

Japanese dictionaries have a history that began over 1300 years ago when Japanese Buddhist priests, who wanted to understand Chinese sutras, adapted Chinese character dictionaries.

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Japanese equivalents of adjectives

The Japanese language does not have words that function as adjectives in a syntactic sense – that is to say that tree diagrams of Japanese sentences can be constructed without employing adjective phrases.

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Japanese language and computers

In relation to the Japanese language and computers many adaptation issues arise, some unique to Japanese and others common to languages which have a very large number of characters.

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Japanese literature

Early works of Japanese literature were heavily influenced by cultural contact with China and Chinese literature, often written in Classical Chinese.

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Japanese name

in modern times usually consist of a family name (surname), followed by a given name.

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Japanese numerals

The system of Japanese numerals is the system of number names used in the Japanese language.

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Japanese orthographic issues

Japanese orthography issues are language policy issues dating back to the Meiji Era when there were changes made aimed at writing the Japanese language (standard dialect) as the national language of Japan using a phonemic orthography.

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Japanese particles

Japanese particles, or, are suffixes or short words in Japanese grammar that immediately follow the modified noun, verb, adjective, or sentence.

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Japanese people

are a nation and an ethnic group that is native to Japan and makes up 98.5% of the total population of that country.

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Japanese pitch accent

is the pitch accent in the Japanese language, which distinguishes words in most Japanese dialects.

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Japanese popular culture

Japanese popular culture encompasses the modern popular culture of Japan.

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Japanese pronouns

Japanese pronouns (or Japanese deictic classifiers) are words in the Japanese language used to address or refer to present people or things, where present means people or things that can be pointed at.

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Japanese Sign Language family

The Japanese Sign Language (JSL) family is a language family of three sign languages: Japanese Sign Language (JSL), Korean Sign Language (KSL), and Taiwanese Sign Language (TSL).

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Japanese sound symbolism

Japanese has a large inventory of sound symbolic or mimetic words, known in linguistics as ideophones.

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Japanese verb conjugation

This is a list of Japanese verb conjugations.

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Japanese writing system

The modern Japanese writing system uses a combination of logographic kanji, which are adopted Chinese characters, and syllabic kana.

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Japanese-Language Proficiency Test

The, or JLPT, is a standardized criterion-referenced test to evaluate and certify Japanese language proficiency for non-native speakers, covering language knowledge, reading ability, and listening ability.

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Japonic languages

The Japonic or Japanese-Ryukyuan language family includes the Japanese language spoken on the main islands of Japan as well as the Ryukyuan languages spoken in the Ryukyu Islands.

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Jōmon period

The is the time in Japanese prehistory, traditionally dated between 14,000–300 BCE, recently refined to about 1000 BCE, during which Japan was inhabited by a hunter-gatherer culture, which reached a considerable degree of sedentism and cultural complexity.

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Jōyō kanji

The is the guide to kanji characters and their readings, announced officially by the Japanese Ministry of Education.

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Jinmeiyō kanji

The are a set of 863 Chinese characters known as "name kanji" in English.

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was created as a physical, mental and moral pedagogy in Japan, in 1882, by Jigoro Kano (嘉納治五郎).

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Kagoshima Prefecture

is a prefecture of Japan located on the island of Kyushu.

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Kagoshima University

, or is a Japanese national university located in Kagoshima, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan.

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Kamakura period

The is a period of Japanese history that marks the governance by the Kamakura shogunate, officially established in 1192 in Kamakura by the first shōgun, Minamoto no Yoritomo.

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, officially, were a part of the Japanese Special Attack Units of military aviators who initiated suicide attacks for the Empire of Japan against Allied naval vessels in the closing stages of the Pacific campaign of World War II, designed to destroy warships more effectively than possible with conventional air attacks.

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are syllabic Japanese scripts, a part of the Japanese writing system contrasted with the logographic Chinese characters known in Japan as kanji (漢字).

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, a method of annotating Classical Chinese so that it can be read in Japanese, was used from the Heian period to the mid-20th century.

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Kanji (漢字) are the adopted logographic Chinese characters that are used in the Japanese writing system.

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Kansai dialect

The is a group of Japanese dialects in the Kansai region (Kinki region) of Japan.

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Kansai region

The or the lies in the southern-central region of Japan's main island Honshū.

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Kantō region

The is a geographical area of Honshu, the largest island of Japan.

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Karaoke, is a form of interactive entertainment or video game developed in Japan in which an amateur singer sings along with recorded music (a music video) using a microphone.

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(Okinawan pronunciation) is a martial art developed in the Ryukyu Kingdom.

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is a Japanese syllabary, one component of the Japanese writing system along with hiragana, kanji, and in some cases the Latin script (known as rōmaji).

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, also sometimes read as Furukotofumi, is the oldest extant chronicle in Japan, dating from the early 8th century (711–712) and composed by Ō no Yasumaro at the request of Empress Genmei with the purpose of sanctifying the imperial court's claims to supremacy over rival clans.

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Korea is a region in East Asia; since 1945 it has been divided into two distinctive sovereign states: North Korea and South Korea.

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Korean language

The Korean language (Chosŏn'gŭl/Hangul: 조선말/한국어; Hanja: 朝鮮말/韓國語) is an East Asian language spoken by about 80 million people.

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Kyōiku kanji

, also known as is a list of 1,006 kanji and associated readings developed and maintained by the Japanese Ministry of Education that prescribes which kanji, and which readings of kanji, Japanese schoolchildren should learn for each year of primary school.

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, officially, is the capital city of Kyoto Prefecture, located in the Kansai region of Japan.

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Laguna (province)

Laguna, officially known as the Province of Laguna (Lalawigan ng Laguna; Provincia de Laguna), is a province in the Philippines, located in the Calabarzon region in Luzon.

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Language convergence

Language convergence is a type of linguistic change in which languages come to structurally resemble one another as a result of prolonged language contact and mutual interference.

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Language island

A language island is an exclave of a language that is surrounded by one or more different languages.

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Language isolate

A language isolate, in the absolute sense, is a natural language with no demonstrable genealogical (or "genetic") relationship with other languages, one that has not been demonstrated to descend from an ancestor common with any other language.

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Language school

A language school is a school where one studies a foreign language.

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Languages of East Asia

The languages of East Asia belong to several distinct language families, with many common features attributed to interaction.

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Languages of Europe

Most languages of Europe belong to the Indo-European language family.

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Late Middle Japanese

is a stage of the Japanese language following Early Middle Japanese and preceding Early Modern Japanese.

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Lateral consonant

A lateral is an l-like consonant in which the airstream proceeds along the sides of the tongue, but it is blocked by the tongue from going through the middle of the mouth.

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Latin script

Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.

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Lative case

Lative (abbreviated) is a case which indicates motion to a location.

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Leaving Certificate (Ireland)

The Leaving Certificate Examination (Scrúdú na hArdteistiméireachta), which is commonly referred to as the Leaving Cert (Irish: Ardteist) is the university matriculation examination in the Republic of Ireland and the final exam of the Irish secondary school system.

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Lepcha language

Lepcha language, or Róng language (Lepcha: ᰛᰩᰵ་ᰛᰵᰧᰶ; Róng ríng), is a Himalayish language spoken by the Lepcha people in Sikkim and parts of West Bengal, Nepal and Bhutan.

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Linguistic typology

Linguistic typology is a field of linguistics that studies and classifies languages according to their structural and functional features.

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List of English words of Japanese origin

Words of Japanese origin have entered many languages.

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List of Japanese exonyms

Japanese exonyms are the names of places in the Japanese language that differ from the name given in the dominant language of the aforementioned region.

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List of universities in Japan

The following is a comprehensive list of universities in Japan, categorized by prefecture.

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A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.

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Macron (diacritic)

A macron is a diacritical mark: it is a straight bar placed above a letter, usually a vowel.

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Malayo-Polynesian languages

The Malayo-Polynesian languages are a subgroup of the Austronesian languages, with approximately 385.5 million speakers.

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is an ancient writing system that employs Chinese characters to represent the Japanese language, and was the first known kana system to be developed as a means to represent the Japanese language phonetically.

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Mass media

The mass media is a diversified collection of media technologies that reach a large audience via mass communication.

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Mediopassive voice

The mediopassive voice is a grammatical voice that subsumes the meanings of both the middle voice and the passive voice.

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Meiji period

The, also known as the Meiji era, is a Japanese era which extended from October 23, 1868, to July 30, 1912.

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Meiji Restoration

The, also known as the Meiji Ishin, Renovation, Revolution, Reform, or Renewal, was an event that restored practical imperial rule to the Empire of Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji.

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Mills College

Mills College is a liberal arts and sciences college located in the San Francisco Bay Area.

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A monophthong (Greek monóphthongos from mónos "single" and phthóngos "sound") is a pure vowel sound, one whose articulation at both beginning and end is relatively fixed, and which does not glide up or down towards a new position of articulation.

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Mora (linguistics)

A mora (plural morae or moras; often symbolized μ) is a unit in phonology that determines syllable weight, which in some languages determines stress or timing.

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A morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit in a language.

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Morphology (linguistics)

In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.

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Muromachi period

The is a division of Japanese history running from approximately 1336 to 1573.

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Nara period

The of the history of Japan covers the years from AD 710 to 794.

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National language

A national language is a language (or language variant, e.g. dialect) that has some connection—de facto or de jure—with people and the territory they occupy.

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Nihon Shoki

The, sometimes translated as The Chronicles of Japan, is the second-oldest book of classical Japanese history.

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A or was a covert agent or mercenary in feudal Japan.

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Nominative case

The nominative case (abbreviated), subjective case, straight case or upright case is one of the grammatical cases of a noun or other part of speech, which generally marks the subject of a verb or the predicate noun or predicate adjective, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments.

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Nonprofit organization

A non-profit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity or non-profit institution, is dedicated to furthering a particular social cause or advocating for a shared point of view.

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A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.

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Official language

An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.

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Okinawa Prefecture

is the southernmost prefecture of Japan.

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are kana suffixes following kanji stems in Japanese written words.

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Old English

Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.

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Old Japanese

is the oldest attested stage of the Japanese language.

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) is the art of paper folding, which is often associated with Japanese culture.

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() is a designated city in the Kansai region of Japan.

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Palatalization (sound change)

In linguistics, palatalization is a sound change that either results in a palatal or palatalized consonant or a front vowel, or is triggered by one of them.

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Palau (historically Belau, Palaos, or Pelew), officially the Republic of Palau (Beluu er a Belau), is an island country located in the western Pacific Ocean.

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Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.

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Philipp Franz von Siebold

Philipp Franz Balthasar von Siebold (17 February 1796 – 18 October 1866) was a German physician, botanist, and traveler.

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The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.

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Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.

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Phonotactics (from Ancient Greek phōnḗ "voice, sound" and tacticós "having to do with arranging") is a branch of phonology that deals with restrictions in a language on the permissible combinations of phonemes.

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Portuguese language

Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.

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Predicate (grammar)

There are two competing notions of the predicate in theories of grammar.

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Preposition and postposition

Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions (or broadly, in English, simply prepositions), are a class of words used to express spatial or temporal relations (in, under, towards, before) or mark various semantic roles (of, for).

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In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun (abbreviated) is a word that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase.

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Pulled rickshaw

A pulled rickshaw (or ricksha) is a mode of human-powered transport by which a runner draws a two-wheeled cart which seats one or two people.

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Register (sociolinguistics)

In linguistics, a register is a variety of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting.

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The reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), also known as the caribou in North America, is a species of deer with circumpolar distribution, native to Arctic, sub-Arctic, tundra, boreal and mountainous regions of northern Europe, Siberia and North America.

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is a phenomenon in Japanese morphophonology that governs the voicing of the initial consonant of the non-initial portion of a compound or prefixed word.

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Republic of Ireland

Ireland (Éire), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland.

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Romanization of Japanese

The romanization of Japanese is the use of Latin script to write the Japanese language.

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In phonetics, vowel roundedness refers to the amount of rounding in the lips during the articulation of a vowel.

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Roy Andrew Miller

Roy Andrew Miller (September 5, 1924 – August 22, 2014) was an American linguist notable for his advocacy of Korean and Japanese as members of the Altaic group of languages.

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Royal we

The royal we, or majestic plural (pluralis maiestatis), is the use of a plural pronoun (or corresponding plural-inflected verb forms) to refer to a single person who is a monarch.

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Ryukyu Islands

The, also known as the or the, are a chain of islands annexed by Japan that stretch southwest from Kyushu to Taiwan: the Ōsumi, Tokara, Amami, Okinawa, and Sakishima Islands (further divided into the Miyako and Yaeyama Islands), with Yonaguni the southernmost.

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Ryukyuan languages

The are the indigenous languages of the Ryukyu Islands, the southernmost part of the Japanese archipelago.

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was the isolationist foreign policy of the Japanese Tokugawa shogunate under which relations and trade between Japan and other countries were severely limited, nearly all foreigners were barred from entering Japan, and common Japanese people were kept from leaving the country for a period of over 220 years.

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Samuel Martin (linguist)

Samuel Elmo Martin (29 January 1924 – 28 November 2009) was a professor of Far Eastern Languages at Yale University and the author of many works on the Korean and Japanese languages.

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were the military nobility and officer caste of medieval and early-modern Japan.

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Sayonara (disambiguation)

Sayonara is a 1957 American film starring Marlon Brando.

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Sea otter

The sea otter (Enhydra lutris) is a marine mammal native to the coasts of the northern and eastern North Pacific Ocean.

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Sentence-final particle

Sentence-final particles, including modal particles, interactional particles, etc., are minimal lexemes (words) that occur at the end of a sentence and that do not carry referential meaning, but may relate to linguistic modality, register or other pragmatic effects.

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Sergei Starostin

Sergei Anatolyevich Starostin (Cyrillic: Серге́й Анато́льевич Ста́ростин, March 24, 1953 – September 30, 2005) was a Russian historical linguist and philologist, perhaps best known for his reconstructions of hypothetical proto-languages, including his work on the controversial Altaic theory, the formulation of the Dené–Caucasian hypothesis, and the proposal of a Borean language of still earlier date.

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is the smallest (long and between wide) and least populous (3.8 million) of the four main islands of Japan, located south of Honshu and east of the island of Kyushu.

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Shinkichi Hashimoto

was a Japanese linguist, born in Tsuruga, Fukui Prefecture, Japan.

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Shirō Hattori

was a Japanese academic and author.

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, or Spirinchus lanceolatus, is a saltwater fish (smelt) about 15 centimeters in length.

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Shogakukan Progressive Japanese-English Dictionary

is a medium-sized Japanese–English Dictionary published by Shogakukan.

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Shoku Nihongi

The is an imperially commissioned Japanese history text.

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Signed Japanese

Signed Japanese (日本語対応手話, Manually Coded Japanese), is a manually coded form of Japanese that uses the signs of Japanese Sign Language.

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Sino-Japanese vocabulary

Sino-Japanese vocabulary or refers to that portion of the Japanese vocabulary that originated in Chinese or has been created from elements borrowed from Chinese.

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Smelt (fish)

Smelts are a family of small fish, the Osmeridae, found in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.

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Society of Jesus

The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.

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South Korea

South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.

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In linguistic typology, a subject–object–verb (SOV) language is one in which the subject, object, and verb of a sentence always or usually appear in that order.

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(originally called Number Place) is a logic-based, combinatorial number-placement puzzle.

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or sumo wrestling is a competitive full-contact wrestling sport where a rikishi (wrestler) attempts to force another wrestler out of a circular ring (dohyō) or into touching the ground with anything other than the soles of his feet.

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is a Japanese dish of specially prepared, usually with some sugar and salt, combined with a variety of, such as seafood, vegetables, and occasionally tropical fruits.

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A syllabary is a set of written symbols that represent the syllables or (more frequently) moras which make up words.

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Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.

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Tōhoku region

The, Northeast region, or Northeast Japan consists of the northeastern portion of Honshu, the largest island of Japan.

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Tōyō kanji

The tōyō kanji, also known as the Tōyō kanjihyō (当用漢字表, "list of kanji for general use") are the result of a reform of the Kanji characters of Chinese origin in the Japanese written language.

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The Japan Times

The Japan Times is Japan's largest and oldest English-language daily newspaper.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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Tibeto-Burman languages

The Tibeto-Burman languages are the non-Sinitic members of the Sino-Tibetan language family, over 400 of which are spoken throughout the highlands of Southeast Asia as well as certain parts of East Asia and South Asia.

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, officially, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan and has been the capital since 1869.

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Topic and comment

In linguistics, the topic, or theme, of a sentence is what is being talked about, and the comment (rheme or focus) is what is being said about the topic.

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Topic-prominent language

A topic-prominent language is a language that organizes its syntax to emphasize the topic–comment structure of the sentence.

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A tsunami (from 津波, "harbour wave"; English pronunciation) or tidal wave, also known as a seismic sea wave, is a series of waves in a water body caused by the displacement of a large volume of water, generally in an ocean or a large lake.

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Tuttle Publishing

Tuttle Publishing, originally the Charles E. Tuttle Company, is a book publishing company that includes Tuttle, Periplus Editions, and Journey Editions.

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Uchi-soto in the Japanese language is the distinction between in-groups (uchi, 内, "inside") and out-groups (soto, 外, "outside").

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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University of Hawaii Press

The University of Hawaii Press is a university press that is part of the University of Hawaiokinai.

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Ural–Altaic languages

Ural–Altaic, Uralo-Altaic or Uraltaic, also known as Turanian, is an obsolete language-family proposal uniting the Uralic and the widely discredited Altaic languages.

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Uralic languages

The Uralic languages (sometimes called Uralian languages) form a language family of 38 languages spoken by approximately 25million people, predominantly in Northern Eurasia.

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Vancouver is a coastal seaport city in western Canada, located in the Lower Mainland region of British Columbia.

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Video game

A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a video device such as a TV screen or computer monitor.

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A vocabulary is a set of familiar words within a person's language.

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Voice (grammar)

In grammar, the voice of a verb describes the relationship between the action (or state) that the verb expresses and the participants identified by its arguments (subject, object, etc.). When the subject is the agent or doer of the action, the verb is in the active voice.

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A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.

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Vowel length

In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound.

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Wa (Japan)

Japanese is the oldest recorded name of Japan.

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are Japanese-language expressions based on English words or parts of word combinations, that do not exist in standard English or whose meanings differ from the words from which they were derived.

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refers to words in the Japanese language composed of Chinese morphemes but invented in Japan rather than borrowed from China.

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Wiktionary is a multilingual, web-based project to create a free content dictionary of all words in all languages.

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William George Aston

William George Aston CMG (9 April 1841 – 22 November 1911) was a British diplomat, author and scholar-expert in the language and history of Japan and Korea.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Written Chinese

Written Chinese comprises Chinese characters (汉字/漢字; pinyin: Hànzì, literally "Han characters") used to represent the Chinese language.

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Yamanote and Shitamachi

and are traditional names for two areas of Tokyo, Japan.

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Yamato people

The and are an East Asian ethnic group and nation native to the Japanese archipelago.

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Yamato-kotoba is a word describing native Japanese words (also known as wago), as opposed to kango (words of Chinese origin), or words incorporating the kun as opposed to on readings of Chinese characters.

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Yayoi period

The is an Iron Age era in the history of Japan traditionally dated 300 BC–300 AD.

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Yevgeny Polivanov

Yevgeny Dmitrievich Polivanov (28 February – 25 January 1938) was a Soviet linguist, orientalist and polyglot.

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is a Japanese lexeme consisting of four kanji (Chinese characters).

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History of the Japanese language, Hyōjungo, ISO 639:ja, ISO 639:jpn, Japaneese language, Japanese (language), Japanese Language, Japanese langauge, Japanese language education, Japanese vocabulary, Japanese words, Japanese-language, JapaneseLanguage, Japanse language, Japanses language, Kokugo, Kokugogaku, Modern Japanese, Modern Standard Japanese, Moon-speak, Nihon go, Nihon-go, Nihonggo, Nihongo, Nippongo, Nuclear Japanese language, Riwen, Standard Japanese, The Language Of Japan, にほんご, 日本語.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_language

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