A "Hello, World!" program is a computer program that outputs or displays "Hello, World!" to a user.
ActionScript is an object-oriented programming language originally developed by Macromedia Inc. (later acquired by Adobe Systems).
Active Scripting (formerly known as ActiveX Scripting) is the technology used in Windows to implement component-based scripting support.
ActiveX is a software framework created by Microsoft that adapts its earlier Component Object Model (COM) and Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) technologies for content downloaded from a network, particularly from the World Wide Web.
Ad tracking, also known as post-testing or ad effectiveness tracking, is in-market research that monitors a brand’s performance including brand and advertising awareness, product trial and usage, and attitudes about the brand versus their competition.
Mozilla add-ons are installable enhancements to the Mozilla Foundation's projects, including Firefox, Thunderbird, SeaMonkey, and Sunbird.
Address space layout randomization (ASLR) is a computer security technique involved in preventing exploitation of memory corruption vulnerabilities.
Adobe After Effects is a digital visual effects, motion graphics, and compositing application developed by Adobe Systems and used in the post-production process of film making and television production.
Adobe AIR (formerly Adobe Integrated Runtime) is a cross-platform runtime system developed by Adobe Systems for building desktop applications and mobile applications, programmed using Adobe Animate, ActionScript and optionally Apache Flex.
Adobe Creative Suite (CS) was a software suite of graphic design, video editing, and web development applications developed by Adobe Systems.
Adobe Dreamweaver is a proprietary web development tool from Adobe Systems.
Adobe Flash is a deprecated multimedia software platform used for production of animations, rich Internet applications, desktop applications, mobile applications, mobile games and embedded web browser video players.
Adobe Illustrator is a vector graphics editor developed and marketed by Adobe Systems.
Adobe InDesign is a desktop publishing software application produced by Adobe Systems.
Adobe Photoshop is a raster graphics editor developed and published by Adobe Systems for macOS and Windows.
Adobe Systems Incorporated, commonly known as Adobe, is an American multinational computer software company.
In computer science, ahead-of-time (AOT) compilation is the act of compiling a higher-level programming language such as C or C++, or an intermediate representation such as Java bytecode or.NET Framework Common Intermediate Language (CIL) code, into a native (system-dependent) machine code so that the resulting binary file can execute natively.
Alibaba Group Holding Limited is a Chinese multinational e-commerce, retail, Internet, AI and technology conglomerate founded in 1999 that provides consumer-to-consumer, business-to-consumer and business-to-business sales services via web portals, as well as electronic payment services, shopping search engines and cloud computing services.
Angular (commonly referred to as "Angular 2+" or "Angular v2 and above") is a TypeScript-based open-source front-end web application platform led by the Angular Team at Google and by a community of individuals and corporations.
In computer programming, an anonymous function (function literal, lambda abstraction, or lambda expression) is a function definition that is not bound to an identifier.
Apache Cordova (formerly PhoneGap) is a mobile application development framework originally created by Nitobi.
AppleScript is a scripting language created by Apple Inc. that facilitates automated control over scriptable Mac applications.
In computer programming, an application programming interface (API) is a set of subroutine definitions, protocols, and tools for building software.
Language support for array types may include certain built-in array data types, some syntactic constructions (array type constructors) that the programmer may use to define such types and declare array variables, and special notation for indexing array elements.
In computer science, an associative array, map, symbol table, or dictionary is an abstract data type composed of a collection of (key, value) pairs, such that each possible key appears at most once in the collection.
In computer science, asynchronous I/O (also non-sequential I/O) is a form of input/output processing that permits other processing to continue before the transmission has finished.
AWK is a programming language designed for text processing and typically used as a data extraction and reporting tool.
BEA Systems, Inc. was a company specialized in enterprise infrastructure software products which was wholly acquired by Oracle Corporation on April 29, 2008.
A browser engine is a core software component of every major web browser.
A browser war is competition for dominance in the usage share of web browsers.
In information security and programming, a buffer overflow, or buffer overrun, is an anomaly where a program, while writing data to a buffer, overruns the buffer's boundary and overwrites adjacent memory locations.
C (as in the letter ''c'') is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations.
C-- (pronounced cee minus minus) is a C-like programming language.
CA Technologies, formerly known as Computer Associates International, Inc. and CA, Inc., is an American multinational publicly held corporation headquartered in New York City.
In computer science, a call stack is a stack data structure that stores information about the active subroutines of a computer program.
In computer programming, a callback, also known as a "call-after" function, is any executable code that is passed as an argument to other code, which is expected to call back (execute) the argument at a given time.
Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a style sheet language used for describing the presentation of a document written in a markup language like HTML.
Chakra is a JScript engine developed by Microsoft for its 32-bit version of the Internet Explorer 9 (IE9) web browser.
ChatZilla is an IRC client for Mozilla-based browsers such as Firefox, introduced in 2000.
Chromium is an open-source Web browser project started by Google, to provide the source code for the proprietary Google Chrome browser.
The Chromium Embedded Framework (CEF) is an open source framework for embedding a web browser engine based on the Chromium core.
In object-oriented programming, a class is an extensible program-code-template for creating objects, providing initial values for state (member variables) and implementations of behavior (member functions or methods).
Class-based programming, or more commonly class-orientation, is a style of object-oriented programming (OOP) in which inheritance is achieved by defining classes of objects, as opposed to the objects themselves (compare prototype-based programming).
Client-side refers to operations that are performed by the client in a client–server relationship in a computer network.
Clojure (like "closure") is a dialect of the Lisp programming language.
In programming languages, a closure (also lexical closure or function closure) is a technique for implementing lexically scoped name binding in a language with first-class functions.
CNET (stylized as c|net) is an American media website that publishes reviews, news, articles, blogs, podcasts and videos on technology and consumer electronics globally.
Cocoa is Apple's native object-oriented application programming interface (API) for their operating system macOS.
Cocos2d is an open source software framework.
In computer programming, a comment is a programmer-readable explanation or annotation in the source code of a computer program.
A computer program is a collection of instructions for performing a specific task that is designed to solve a specific class of problems.
In computer science, concurrency refers to the ability of different parts or units of a program, algorithm, or problem to be executed out-of-order or in partial order, without affecting the final outcome.
Content Security Policy (CSP) is a computer security standard introduced to prevent cross-site scripting (XSS), clickjacking and other code injection attacks resulting from execution of malicious content in the trusted web page context.
Coroutines are computer-program components that generalize subroutines for non-preemptive multitasking, by allowing multiple entry points for suspending and resuming execution at certain locations.
Cross-site request forgery, also known as one-click attack or session riding and abbreviated as CSRF (sometimes pronounced sea-surf) or XSRF, is a type of malicious exploit of a website where unauthorized commands are transmitted from a user that the web application trusts.
Cross-site scripting (XSS) is a type of computer security vulnerability typically found in web applications.
Dart is a general-purpose programming language originally developed by Google and later approved as a standard by Ecma (ECMA-408).
Dashboard is an application for Apple Inc.'s macOS operating systems, used as a secondary desktop for hosting mini-applications known as widgets.
In computer science, data validation is the process of ensuring data have undergone data cleansing to ensure they have data quality, that is, that they are both correct and useful.
A debugger or debugging tool is a computer program that is used to test and debug other programs (the "target" program).
In object-oriented programming, delegation refers to evaluating a member (property or method) of one object (the receiver) in the context of another, original object (the sender).
A distributed database is a database in which storage devices are not all attached to a common processor.
The Document Object Model (DOM) is a cross-platform and language-independent application programming interface that treats an HTML, XHTML, or XML document as a tree structure wherein each node is an object representing a part of the document.
In computer programming, duck typing is an application of the duck test in type safety.
DX Studio is a complete integrated development tool for the creation of 3D video games, simulations or real-time interactive applications for either standalone, web based, Microsoft Office or Visual Studio use.
Dynamic programming language, in computer science, is a class of high-level programming languages which, at runtime, execute many common programming behaviors that static programming languages perform during compilation.
Ecma is a standards organization for information and communication systems.
ECMAScript (or ES) is a trademarked scripting-language specification standardized by Ecma International in ECMA-262 and ISO/IEC 16262.
Electron (formerly known as Atom Shell) is an open-source framework created and maintained by GitHub.
Elm is a domain-specific programming language for declaratively creating web browser-based graphical user interfaces.
Electronic mail (email or e-mail) is a method of exchanging messages ("mail") between people using electronic devices.
An esoteric programming language (sometimes shortened to esolang) is a programming language designed to test the boundaries of computer programming language design, as a proof of concept, as software art, as a hacking interface to another language (particularly functional programming or procedural programming languages), or as a joke.
In some programming languages, eval is a function which evaluates a string as though it were an expression and returns a result; in others, it executes multiple lines of code as though they had been included instead of the line including the eval.
In computing, an event is an action or occurrence recognized by software, often originating asynchronously from the external environment, that may be handled by the software.
In computer science, the event loop, message dispatcher, message loop, message pump, or run loop is a programming construct that waits for and dispatches events or messages in a program.
In computer programming, event-driven programming is a programming paradigm in which the flow of the program is determined by events such as user actions (mouse clicks, key presses), sensor outputs, or messages from other programs/threads.
An expression in a programming language is a combination of one or more constants, variables, operators, and functions that the programming language interprets (according to its particular rules of precedence and of association) and computes to produce ("to return", in a stateful environment) another value.
Fault tolerance is the property that enables a system to continue operating properly in the event of the failure (or one or more faults within) some of its components.
Mozilla Firefox (or simply Firefox) is a free and open-source web browser developed by Mozilla Foundation and its subsidiary, Mozilla Corporation.
In computer science, a programming language is said to have first-class functions if it treats functions as first-class citizens.
A webform, web form or HTML form on a web page allows a user to enter data that is sent to a server for processing.
Free Pascal Compiler (FPC) is a compiler for the closely related programming language dialects, Pascal and Object Pascal.
In computer programming, a function object is a construct allowing an object to be invoked or called as if it were an ordinary function, usually with the same syntax (a function parameter that can also be a function).
In computer science, functional programming is a programming paradigm—a style of building the structure and elements of computer programs—that treats computation as the evaluation of mathematical functions and avoids changing-state and mutable data.
In computer science, a generator is a special routine that can be used to control the iteration behaviour of a loop.
GitHub Inc. is a web-based hosting service for version control using Git.
Gmail is a free, advertising-supported email service developed by Google.
GNOME is a desktop environment composed of free and open-source software that runs on Linux and most BSD derivatives.
GNOME Shell is the graphical shell of the GNOME desktop environment starting with version 3, which was released on April 6, 2011.
Google LLC is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, search engine, cloud computing, software, and hardware.
Apps Script is a scripting language for light-weight application development in the G Suite platform.
Google Chrome is a freeware web browser developed by Google LLC.
Google Docs, Google Sheets, and Google Slides are a word processor, a spreadsheet and a presentation program respectively, all part of a free, web-based software office suite offered by Google within its Google Drive service.
Google Sites is a structured wiki- and Web page-creation tool offered by Google.
The graphical user interface (GUI), is a type of user interface that allows users to interact with electronic devices through graphical icons and visual indicators such as secondary notation, instead of text-based user interfaces, typed command labels or text navigation.
Haxe is a high-level cross-platform multi-paradigm programming language and compiler that can produce applications and source code, for many different computing platforms, from one code-base.
In computer science, a high-level programming language is a programming language with strong abstraction from the details of the computer.
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the standard markup language for creating web pages and web applications.
HTML5 is a markup language used for structuring and presenting content on the World Wide Web.
HyperTalk was a high-level, procedural programming language created in 1987 by Dan Winkler and used in conjunction with Apple Computer's HyperCard hypermedia program by Bill Atkinson.
The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application protocol for distributed, collaborative, and hypermedia information systems.
In computer science, imperative programming is a programming paradigm that uses statements that change a program's state.
In object-oriented programming, inheritance is the mechanism of basing an object or class upon another object (prototypal inheritance) or class (class-based inheritance), retaining the same implementation.
In computing, input/output or I/O (or, informally, io or IO) is the communication between an information processing system, such as a computer, and the outside world, possibly a human or another information processing system.
An Intermediate representation (IR) is the data structure or code used internally by a compiler or virtual machine to represent source code.
Internet Explorer (formerly Microsoft Internet Explorer and Windows Internet Explorer, commonly abbreviated IE or MSIE) is a series of graphical web browsers developed by Microsoft and included in the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems, starting in 1995.
Microsoft Internet Explorer 3 (IE3) is a graphical web browser released on August 13, 1996 by Microsoft for Microsoft Windows and on January 8, 1997 for Apple Mac OS (see IE for Mac).
Microsoft Internet Explorer 4 (IE4) is a graphical web browser that Microsoft released in October 1997, primarily for Microsoft Windows, but also with versions available for the classic Mac OS, Solaris, and HP-UX - Robert McMillan writing for SunWorld (November 5, 1997) - Help and Support page on Microsoft's website (August 17, 2005) and marketed as "The Web the Way You Want It".
Internet Explorer Developer Tools, also known as the F12 Developer Tools in Windows 10, and formerly known as Internet Explorer Developer Toolbar, is a web development tool built into Microsoft Internet Explorer that aids in design and debugging of web pages.
Internet Information Services (IIS, formerly Internet Information Server) is an extensible web server created by Microsoft for use with the Windows NT family.
Internet Relay Chat (IRC) is an application layer protocol that facilitates communication in the form of text.
An interpreted language is a type of programming language for which most of its implementations execute instructions directly and freely, without previously compiling a program into machine-language instructions.
In computer science, an interpreter is a computer program that directly executes, i.e. performs, instructions written in a programming or scripting language, without requiring them previously to have been compiled into a machine language program.
James Arthur Gosling, OC (born May 19, 1955) is a Canadian computer scientist, best known as the founder and lead designer behind the Java programming language.
Java is a general-purpose computer-programming language that is concurrent, class-based, object-oriented, and specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible.
Jesse James Garrett is a User Experience Designer based in San Francisco, California and co-founder of Adaptive Path strategy and design consulting firm.
JScript is Microsoft's dialect of the ECMAScript standard that is used in Microsoft's Internet Explorer.
JScript.NET is a.NET programming language developed by Microsoft.
Khan Academy is a non-profit educational organization created in 2006 by educator Salman Khan with a goal of creating a set of online tools that help educate students.
Klipfolio Inc., is a Canadian software company founded in 2001 and headquartered in Ottawa, Ontario.
LibreOffice is a free and open source office suite, a project of The Document Foundation.
A list comprehension is a syntactic construct available in some programming languages for creating a list based on existing lists.
In computer science, a literal is a notation for representing a fixed value in source code.
The LLVM compiler infrastructure project is a "collection of modular and reusable compiler and toolchain technologies" used to develop compiler front ends and back ends.
In computer science, a local variable is a variable that is given local scope.
Lua (from meaning moon) is a lightweight, multi-paradigm programming language designed primarily for embedded use in applications.
Macromedia was an American graphics, multimedia, and web development software company (1992–2005) headquartered in San Francisco, California that produced such products as Flash and Dreamweaver.
Marc Lowell Andreessen (born July 9, 1971) is an American entrepreneur, investor, and software engineer.
Max is a visual programming language for music and multimedia developed and maintained by San Francisco-based software company Cycling '74.
Maxwell Render is an unbiased 3D render engine, developed by Next Limit Technologies in Madrid, Spain.
MDN Web Docs, previously Mozilla Developer Network and formerly Mozilla Developer Center, is the official Mozilla website for development documentation of web standards and Mozilla projects.
In computer science, message passing is a technique for invoking behavior (i.e., running a program) on a computer.
A method in object-oriented programming (OOP) is a procedure associated with a message and an object.
Metro (officially known as Microsoft design language or MDL) is a design language created by Microsoft.
Microsoft Corporation (abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.
Microsoft Gadgets are lightweight single-purpose applications, or software widgets, that can sit on a Microsoft Windows user's computer desktop, or are hosted on a web page.
Microsoft Office is a family of client software, server software, and services developed by Microsoft.
Microsoft Script Debugger is relatively minimal debugger for Windows Script Host-supported scripting languages, such as VBScript and JScript.
The Microsoft Script Editor (MSE or "MSE.EXE" or "mse7.exe" in Office 2003) is an optional tool included in Microsoft Office 2000 through Office 2007 and is found in "%ProgramFiles%\Microsoft Office\OFFICE11" directory for Office 2003 (under 32-bit process) and in "%CommonProgramFiles%" directory for other Offices (under 32-bit process ?).
Microsoft Visual Studio is an integrated development environment (IDE) from Microsoft.
Microsoft Visual Studio Express is a set of integrated development environments (IDEs) developed by Microsoft as a freeware and registerware function-limited version of the non-free Microsoft Visual Studio.
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.
In object-oriented programming languages, a Mixin is a class that contains methods for use by other classes without having to be the parent class of those other classes.
A mobile phone, known as a cell phone in North America, is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area.
MongoDB is a free and open-source cross-platform document-oriented database program.
NCSA Mosaic, or simply Mosaic, is the web browser that popularized the World Wide Web and the Internet.
Mountain View is a city located in Santa Clara County, California, United States, named for its views of the Santa Cruz Mountains.
Mozilla (stylized as moz://a) is a free software community founded in 1998 by members of Netscape.
The Mozilla application framework is a collection of cross-platform software components that make up the Mozilla applications.
The Mozilla Foundation (stylized as moz://a) is a non-profit organization that exists to support and collectively lead the open source Mozilla project.
Mozilla Thunderbird is a free and open-source cross-platform email client, news client, RSS and chat client developed by the Mozilla Foundation.
The National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) is a state-federal partnership to develop and deploy national-scale cyberinfrastructure that advances research, science and engineering based in the United States of America.
NativeScript is an open-source framework to develop apps on the Apple iOS and Android platforms.
Netscape is a brand name associated with the development of the Netscape web browser.
Netscape Navigator was a proprietary web browser, and the original browser of the Netscape line, from versions 1 to 4.08, and 9.x. It was the flagship product of the Netscape Communications Corp and was the dominant web browser in terms of usage share in the 1990s, but by 2002 its use had almost disappeared.
Netscape Plugin Application Programming Interface (NPAPI) is an application programming interface (API) that allows browser extensions to be developed.
O'Reilly Media (formerly O'Reilly & Associates) is an American media company established by Tim O'Reilly that publishes books and Web sites and produces conferences on computer technology topics.
Oberon is a general-purpose programming language created in 1986 by Niklaus Wirth and the latest member of the Wirthian family of ALGOL-like languages (Euler, Algol-W, Pascal, Modula, and Modula-2).
In software development, obfuscation is the deliberate act of creating source or machine code that is difficult for humans to understand.
In computer science, an object can be a variable, a data structure, a function, or a method, and as such, is a value in memory referenced by an identifier.
In computer science, object composition (not to be confused with function composition) is a way to combine simple objects or data types into more complex ones.
In computing, object model has two related but distinct meanings.
The term "object-based language" may be used in a technical sense to describe any programming language that uses the idea of encapsulating state and operations inside "objects".
Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm based on the concept of "objects", which may contain data, in the form of fields, often known as attributes; and code, in the form of procedures, often known as methods. A feature of objects is that an object's procedures can access and often modify the data fields of the object with which they are associated (objects have a notion of "this" or "self").
Objective-C is a general-purpose, object-oriented programming language that adds Smalltalk-style messaging to the C programming language.
Objective-J is a programming language developed as part of the Cappuccino web development framework.
Opa is an open-source programming language for developing scalable web applications.
The open-source model is a decentralized software-development model that encourages open collaboration.
Open-source software (OSS) is a type of computer software whose source code is released under a license in which the copyright holder grants users the rights to study, change, and distribute the software to anyone and for any purpose.
OpenOffice.org (OOo), commonly known as OpenOffice, is a discontinued open-source office suite.
Openwave (formerly software.com, phone.com, and Libris, Inc) has changed its name to Unwired Planet, and two of its former products have launched as private companies; Openwave Mobility and Openwave Messaging.
Opera is a web browser for Windows, macOS, and Linux operating systems developed by Opera Software AS.
Opera Dragonfly is a web development tool that was integrated into the Opera web browser from Opera versions 9.5 through 12.18, similar to Firebug and development tools built into Mozilla Firefox and Google Chrome.
Oracle Corporation is an American multinational computer technology corporation, headquartered in Redwood Shores, California.
Oracle iPlanet Web Server (OiWS) is a web server designed for medium and large business applications.
OS X Yosemite (version 10.10) is the eleventh major release of OS X (now named macOS), Apple Inc.'s desktop and server operating system for Macintosh computers.
In computer programming, a parameter (often called formal parameter or formal argument) is a special kind of variable, used in a subroutine to refer to one of the pieces of data provided as input to the subroutine.
Pascal is an imperative and procedural programming language, which Niklaus Wirth designed in 1968–69 and published in 1970, as a small, efficient language intended to encourage good programming practices using structured programming and data structuring. It is named in honor of the French mathematician, philosopher and physicist Blaise Pascal. Pascal was developed on the pattern of the ALGOL 60 language. Wirth had already developed several improvements to this language as part of the ALGOL X proposals, but these were not accepted and Pascal was developed separately and released in 1970. A derivative known as Object Pascal designed for object-oriented programming was developed in 1985; this was used by Apple Computer and Borland in the late 1980s and later developed into Delphi on the Microsoft Windows platform. Extensions to the Pascal concepts led to the Pascal-like languages Modula-2 and Oberon.
In computer science, pattern matching is the act of checking a given sequence of tokens for the presence of the constituents of some pattern.
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
Perl is a family of two high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming languages, Perl 5 and Perl 6.
Perl 6 is a member of the Perl family of programming languages.
A personal digital assistant (PDA), also known as a handheld PC, is a variety mobile device which functions as a personal information manager.
Personalization, broadly known as customization, consists of tailoring a service or a product to accommodate specific individuals, sometimes tied to groups or segments of individuals.
In computing, POST is a request method supported by HTTP used by the World Wide Web.
In computer science, a preprocessor is a program that processes its input data to produce output that is used as input to another program.
Processing is an open-source computer programming language and integrated development environment (IDE) built for the electronic arts, new media art, and visual design communities with the purpose of teaching non-programmers the fundamentals of computer programming in a visual context.
A programming language is a formal language that specifies a set of instructions that can be used to produce various kinds of output.
Programming paradigms are a way to classify programming languages based on their features.
Progressive enhancement is a strategy for web design that emphasizes core webpage content first.
Prototype-based programming is a style of object-oriented programming in which behaviour reuse (known as inheritance) is performed via a process of reusing existing objects via delegation that serve as prototypes.
Pyjs (formerly Pyjamas before May 2012), is a rich Internet application framework for developing client-side web and desktop applications in Python.
Python is an interpreted high-level programming language for general-purpose programming.
QML (Qt Modeling Language) is a user interface markup language.
Qt ("cute") is a cross-platform application framework and widget toolkit for creating classic and embedded graphical user interfaces, and applications that run on various software and hardware platforms with little or no change in the underlying codebase, while still being a native application with native capabilities and speed.
Qt Quick is a free software application framework developed and maintained by the Qt Project within the Qt framework.
In computer science, a queue is a particular kind of abstract data type or collection in which the entities in the collection are kept in order and the principal (or only) operations on the collection are the addition of entities to the rear terminal position, known as enqueue, and removal of entities from the front terminal position, known as dequeue.
Racket (formerly PLT Scheme) is a general-purpose, multi-paradigm programming language in the Lisp-Scheme family.
Recursion in computer science is a method of solving a problem where the solution depends on solutions to smaller instances of the same problem (as opposed to iteration).
A regular expression, regex or regexp (sometimes called a rational expression) is, in theoretical computer science and formal language theory, a sequence of characters that define a search pattern.
Rendering or image synthesis is the automatic process of generating a photorealistic or non-photorealistic image from a 2D or 3D model (or models in what collectively could be called a scene file) by means of computer programs.
RhoMobile Suite, based on the Rhodes open source framework, is a set of development tools for creating data-centric, cross-platform, native mobile consumer and enterprise applications.
Role-oriented programming as a form of computer programming aims at expressing things in terms that are analogous to human conceptual understanding of the World.
Row hammer (also written as rowhammer) is an unintended side effect in dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) that causes memory cells to leak their charges and interact electrically between themselves, possibly leaking the contents of nearby memory rows that were not addressed in the original memory access.
RPG Maker, known in Japan as, is the name of a series of programs for the development of role-playing games (RPGs) first created by the Japanese group ASCII, then succeeded by Enterbrain.
Safari is a web browser developed by Apple based on the WebKit engine.
In computing, the same-origin policy is an important concept in the web application security model.
In computer security, a sandbox is a security mechanism for separating running programs, usually in an effort to mitigate system failures or software vulnerabilities from spreading.
Scala is a general-purpose programming language providing support for functional programming and a strong static type system.
Scheme is a programming language that supports multiple paradigms, including functional programming and imperative programming, and is one of the two main dialects of Lisp.
In computer programming, the scope of a name binding – an association of a name to an entity, such as a variable – is the region of a computer program where the binding is valid: where the name can be used to refer to the entity.
A scripting or script language is a programming language that supports scripts: programs written for a special run-time environment that automate the execution of tasks that could alternatively be executed one-by-one by a human operator.
Self is an object-oriented programming language based on the concept of prototypes.
Server-side refers to operations that are performed by the server in a client–server relationship in a computer network.
Server-side scripting is a technique used in web development which involves employing scripts on a web server which produce a response customized for each user's (client's) request to the website.
A single-page application (SPA) is a web application or web site that interacts with the user by dynamically rewriting the current page rather than loading entire new pages from a server.
The slash is an oblique slanting line punctuation mark.
Smalltalk is an object-oriented, dynamically typed, reflective programming language.
In computer programming, a software framework is an abstraction in which software providing generic functionality can be selectively changed by additional user-written code, thus providing application-specific software.
In computing, a solution stack or software stack is a set of software subsystems or components needed to create a complete platform such that no additional software is needed to support applications.
In computing, source code is any collection of code, possibly with comments, written using a human-readable programming language, usually as plain text.
A source-to-source compiler, transcompiler or transpiler is a type of compiler that takes the source code of a program written in one programming language as its input and produces the equivalent source code in another programming language.
SQL (S-Q-L, "sequel"; Structured Query Language) is a domain-specific language used in programming and designed for managing data held in a relational database management system (RDBMS), or for stream processing in a relational data stream management system (RDSMS).
The Squeak programming language is a dialect of Smalltalk.
A standard library in computer programming is the library made available across implementations of a programming language.
In computer programming, a statement is a syntactic unit of an imperative programming language that expresses some action to be carried out.
In computer programming, a string is traditionally a sequence of characters, either as a literal constant or as some kind of variable.
In computer programming, programming languages are often colloquially classified as to whether the language's type system makes it strongly typed or weakly typed (loosely typed).
Structured programming is a programming paradigm aimed at improving the clarity, quality, and development time of a computer program by making extensive use of the structured control flow constructs of selection (if/then/else) and repetition (while and for), block structures, and subroutines in contrast to using simple tests and jumps such as the go to statement, which can lead to "spaghetti code" that is potentially difficult to follow and maintain.
In computer programming, a subroutine is a sequence of program instructions that performs a specific task, packaged as a unit.
Sun Microsystems, Inc. was an American company that sold computers, computer components, software, and information technology services and created the Java programming language, the Solaris operating system, ZFS, the Network File System (NFS), and SPARC.
In computer science, the syntax of a computer language is the set of rules that defines the combinations of symbols that are considered to be a correctly structured document or fragment in that language.
Tamarin is a free software virtual machine with just-in-time compilation (JIT) support intended to implement the 4th edition of the ECMAScript (ES4) language standard.
Tcl (pronounced "tickle" or tee cee ell) is a high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming language.
A trademark, trade mark, or trade-markThe styling of trademark as a single word is predominantly used in the United States and Philippines only, while the two-word styling trade mark is used in many other countries around the world, including the European Union and Commonwealth and ex-Commonwealth jurisdictions (although Canada officially uses "trade-mark" pursuant to the Trade-mark Act, "trade mark" and "trademark" are also commonly used).
In computer programming, a trait is a concept used in object-oriented programming, which represents a set of methods that can be used to extend the functionality of a class.
A translator or programming language processor is a computer program that performs the translation of a program written in a given programming language into a functionally equivalent program in another computer language (the target language), without losing the functional or logical structure of the original code (the "essence" of each program).
In computing, a Trojan horse, or Trojan, is any malicious computer program which misleads users of its true intent.
In computer science, a type signature or type annotation defines the inputs and outputs for a function, subroutine or method.
In programming languages, a type system is a set of rules that assigns a property called type to the various constructs of a computer program, such as variables, expressions, functions or modules.
TypeScript is an open-source programming language developed and maintained by Microsoft.
Ubuntu Touch (also known as Ubuntu Phone) is a mobile version of the Ubuntu operating system that was originally developed by Canonical Ltd. and is now being developed by the UBports community.
UltraEdit is a commercial text editor for Microsoft Windows, Linux and OS X created in 1994 by the founder of IDM Computer Solutions Inc., Ian D. Mead.
Unity is a cross-platform game engine developed by Unity Technologies, first announced and released in June 2005 at Apple Inc.'s Worldwide Developers Conference as an OS X-exclusive game engine.
The University of Illinois Urbana–Champaign (also known as U of I, Illinois, or colloquially as the University of Illinois or UIUC) is a public research university in the U.S. state of Illinois and the flagship institution of the University of Illinois System.
In computer science, a value is the representation of some entity that can be manipulated by a program.
In computer programming, a variable or scalar is a storage location (identified by a memory address) paired with an associated symbolic name (an identifier), which contains some known or unknown quantity of information referred to as a value.
In mathematics and in computer programming, a variadic function is a function of indefinite arity, i.e., one which accepts a variable number of arguments.
VBScript ("Microsoft Visual Basic Scripting Edition") is an Active Scripting language developed by Microsoft that is modeled on Visual Basic.
ViolaWWW is a discontinued browser, the first to be popular for the World Wide Web (WWW).
Web analytics is the measurement, collection, analysis and reporting of web data for purposes of understanding and optimizing web usage.
In computing, a web application or web app is a client–server computer program which the client (including the user interface and client-side logic) runs in a web browser.
A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is a software application for accessing information on the World Wide Web.
A web framework (WF) or web application framework (WAF) is a software framework that is designed to support the development of web applications including web services, web resources, and web APIs.
A web page (also written as webpage) is a document that is suitable for the World Wide Web and web browsers.
Web server refers to server software, or hardware dedicated to running said software, that can serve contents to the World Wide Web.
WebAssembly (Wasm, WA) is a web standard that defines a binary format and a corresponding assembly-like text format for executable code in Web pages.
WebKit is a browser engine used in Apple's Safari browser and other products.
webOS, also known as LG webOS and previously known as Open webOS, HP webOS and Palm webOS, is a Linux kernel-based multitasking operating system for smart devices such as smart TVs and it has been used as a mobile operating system.
A website is a collection of related web pages, including multimedia content, typically identified with a common domain name, and published on at least one web server.
Windows 8 is a personal computer operating system developed by Microsoft as part of the Windows NT family of operating systems.
The Microsoft Windows Script Host (WSH) (formerly named Windows Scripting Host) is an automation technology for Microsoft Windows operating systems that provides scripting abilities comparable to batch files, but with a wider range of supported features.
The World Wide Web (abbreviated WWW or the Web) is an information space where documents and other web resources are identified by Uniform Resource Locators (URLs), interlinked by hypertext links, and accessible via the Internet.
The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is the main international standards organization for the World Wide Web (abbreviated WWW or W3).
XChat is an Internet Relay Chat client.
XULRunner is a packaged version of the Mozilla platform to enable standalone desktop application development.
Yahoo! is a web services provider headquartered in Sunnyvale, California and wholly owned by Verizon Communications through Oath Inc..
Yahoo Widgets was a free application platform for Mac OS X and Microsoft Windows, specifically Windows XP, Vista and Win 7.
.NET Framework (pronounced dot net) is a software framework developed by Microsoft that runs primarily on Microsoft Windows.