A "Hello, World!" program is a computer program that outputs or displays "Hello, World!" to a user.
The Abstract Window Toolkit (AWT) is Java's original platform-dependent windowing, graphics, and user-interface widget toolkit, preceding Swing.
Ada is a structured, statically typed, imperative, and object-oriented high-level computer programming language, extended from Pascal and other languages.
Android is a mobile operating system developed by Google, based on a modified version of the Linux kernel and other open source software and designed primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets.
Android Runtime (ART) is an application runtime environment used by the Android operating system.
Android software development is the process by which new applications are created for devices running the Android operating system.
Apache Groovy is a Java-syntax-compatible object-oriented programming language for the Java platform.
Apache Harmony is a retired open source, free Java implementation, developed by the Apache Software Foundation.
Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, California, that designs, develops, and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and online services.
In computing, an applet is any small application that performs one specific task that runs within the scope of a dedicated widget engine or a larger program, often as a plug-in.
In computer programming, an application programming interface (API) is a set of subroutine definitions, protocols, and tools for building software.
Aqua is the graphical user interface (GUI) and visual theme of Apple's macOS operating system.
ARM, previously Advanced RISC Machine, originally Acorn RISC Machine, is a family of reduced instruction set computing (RISC) architectures for computer processors, configured for various environments.
Language support for array types may include certain built-in array data types, some syntactic constructions (array type constructors) that the programmer may use to define such types and declare array variables, and special notation for indexing array elements.
Arthur van Hoff (born 16 February 1963) is a Dutch computer scientist and businessman.
In computer science, an associative array, map, symbol table, or dictionary is an abstract data type composed of a collection of (key, value) pairs, such that each possible key appears at most once in the collection.
Azul Systems, Inc., a privately held company, develops runtime platforms for executing Java-based applications.
BeanShell is a Java-like scripting language, invented by Patrick Niemeyer.
In computer science, the Boolean data type is a data type that has one of two possible values (usually denoted true and false), intended to represent the two truth values of logic and Boolean algebra.
In computer science, bootstrapping is the technique for producing a self-compiling compiler — that is, compiler (or assembler) written in the source programming language that it intends to compile.
C (as in the letter ''c'') is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations.
C# (/si: ʃɑːrp/) is a multi-paradigm programming language encompassing strong typing, imperative, declarative, functional, generic, object-oriented (class-based), and component-oriented programming disciplines.
C++ ("see plus plus") is a general-purpose programming language.
Chapel, the Cascade High Productivity Language, is a parallel programming language developed by Cray.
In object-oriented programming, a class is an extensible program-code-template for creating objects, providing initial values for state (member variables) and implementations of behavior (member functions or methods).
Class-based programming, or more commonly class-orientation, is a style of object-oriented programming (OOP) in which inheritance is achieved by defining classes of objects, as opposed to the objects themselves (compare prototype-based programming).
A client is a piece of computer hardware or software that accesses a service made available by a server.
Clojure (like "closure") is a dialect of the Lisp programming language.
Indonesia was the fourth largest producer of coffee in the world in 2014.
A command-line interface or command language interpreter (CLI), also known as command-line user interface, console user interface and character user interface (CUI), is a means of interacting with a computer program where the user (or client) issues commands to the program in the form of successive lines of text (command lines).
The Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) is a standard defined by the Object Management Group (OMG) designed to facilitate the communication of systems that are deployed on diverse platforms.
This article compares two programming languages: C# with Java.
This is a comparison of Java and C++, two prominent object-oriented programming languages.
Programming languages are used for controlling the behavior of a machine (often a computer).
A compiler is computer software that transforms computer code written in one programming language (the source language) into another programming language (the target language).
In computer engineering, computer architecture is a set of rules and methods that describe the functionality, organization, and implementation of computer systems.
A computer network, or data network, is a digital telecommunications network which allows nodes to share resources.
Cybersecurity, computer security or IT security is the protection of computer systems from theft of or damage to their hardware, software or electronic data, as well as from disruption or misdirection of the services they provide.
Computer Weekly is a digital magazine and website for IT professionals in the United Kingdom.
A computing platform or digital platform is the environment in which a piece of software is executed.
Concurrent computing is a form of computing in which several computations are executed during overlapping time periods—concurrently—instead of sequentially (one completing before the next starts).
The Concurrent mark sweep collector (concurrent mark-sweep collector, concurrent collector or CMS) is a mark-sweep garbage collector in the Oracle HotSpot Java virtual machine (JVM) available since version 1.4.1.
Dalvik is a discontinued process virtual machine (VM) in Google's Android operating system (while its bytecode format is still used as a distribution format, but no longer at runtime in newer Android) that executes applications written for Android.
A data center (American English) or data centre (Commonwealth English) is a facility used to house computer systems and associated components, such as telecommunications and storage systems.
In computer science, a data structure is a data organization and storage format that enables efficient access and modification.
A standard is a custom or convention that has achieved a dominant position by public acceptance or market forces (for example, by early entrance to the market).
A debugger or debugging tool is a computer program that is used to test and debug other programs (the "target" program).
A delimiter is a sequence of one or more characters used to specify the boundary between separate, independent regions in plain text or other data streams.
In computer science, a double-ended queue (abbreviated to deque) is an abstract data type that generalizes a queue, for which elements can be added to or removed from either the front (head) or back (tail).
Eclipse is an integrated development environment (IDE) used in computer programming, and is the most widely used Java IDE.
Ecma is a standards organization for information and communication systems.
ECMAScript (or ES) is a trademarked scripting-language specification standardized by Ecma International in ECMA-262 and ISO/IEC 16262.
Eiffel is an object-oriented programming language designed by Bertrand Meyer (an object-orientation proponent and author of Object-Oriented Software Construction) and Eiffel Software.
In product development, an end user (sometimes end-user) is a person who ultimately uses or is intended to ultimately use a product.
Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) is one of several Java APIs for modular construction of enterprise software.
In compiler optimization, escape analysis is a method for determining the dynamic scope of pointers where in the program a pointer can be accessed.
Excelsior JET is a proprietary Java SE technology implementation built around an ahead-of-time (AOT) Java to native code compiler.
Exception handling is the process of responding to the occurrence, during computation, of exceptions – anomalous or exceptional conditions requiring special processing – often changing the normal flow of program execution.
In computing, executable code or an executable file or executable program, sometimes simply referred to as an executable or binary, causes a computer "to perform indicated tasks according to encoded instructions," as opposed to a data file that must be parsed by a program to be meaningful.
For each (or foreach) is a control flow statement for traversing items in a collection.
Free and open-source software (FOSS) is software that can be classified as both free software and open-source software.
Free software or libre software is computer software distributed under terms that allow users to run the software for any purpose as well as to study, change, and distribute it and any adapted versions.
In computer science, functional programming is a programming paradigm—a style of building the structure and elements of computer programs—that treats computation as the evaluation of mathematical functions and avoids changing-state and mutable data.
Gambas is the name of an object-oriented dialect of the BASIC programming language, as well as the integrated development environment that accompanies it.
In computer science, garbage collection (GC) is a form of automatic memory management.
The Garbage-first collector (G1) is a garbage collection algorithm introduced in the Oracle HotSpot Java virtual machine (JVM) 6 and supported from 7 Update 4.
Generic programming is a style of computer programming in which algorithms are written in terms of types to-be-specified-later that are then instantiated when needed for specific types provided as parameters.
Generics are a facility of generic programming that were added to the Java programming language in 2004 within version J2SE 5.0.
GNU Classpath is a free software implementation of the standard class library for the Java programming language.
The GNU Compiler for Java (GCJ) is a free compiler for the Java programming language.
The GNU General Public License (GNU GPL or GPL) is a widely used free software license, which guarantees end users the freedom to run, study, share and modify the software.
GraalVM is an extension of the Java virtual machine to support more languages and execution modes.
The graphical user interface (GUI), is a type of user interface that allows users to interact with electronic devices through graphical icons and visual indicators such as secondary notation, instead of text-based user interfaces, typed command labels or text navigation.
GTK+ (formerly GIMP Toolkit) is a cross-platform widget toolkit for creating graphical user interfaces.
Hack is a programming language for the HipHop Virtual Machine (HHVM), created by Facebook as a dialect of PHP.
Haxe is a high-level cross-platform multi-paradigm programming language and compiler that can produce applications and source code, for many different computing platforms, from one code-base.
HotSpot, released as Java HotSpot Performance Engine, is a Java virtual machine for desktop and server computers, maintained and distributed by Oracle Corporation.
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the standard markup language for creating web pages and web applications.
The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application protocol for distributed, collaborative, and hypermedia information systems.
IcedTea is a build and integration project for OpenJDK launched by Red Hat in June 2007.
In computer science, imperative programming is a programming paradigm that uses statements that change a program's state.
In object-oriented programming (OOP), an inner class or nested class is a class declared entirely within the body of another class or interface.
An integrated development environment (IDE) is a software application that provides comprehensive facilities to computer programmers for software development.
An interface in the Java programming language is an abstract type that is used to specify a behavior that classes must implement.
International Data Group, Inc. (IDG) is a Chinese-owned, American-based media, data and marketing services and venture capital organization.
In computing, internationalization and localization are means of adapting computer software to different languages, regional differences and technical requirements of a target locale.
ISO/IEC JTC 1 is a joint technical committee of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC).
Visual J# (pronounced "jay-sharp") is an implementation of the J# programming language that was a transitional language for programmers of Java and Visual J++ languages, so they could use their existing knowledge and applications with the.NET Framework.
James Arthur Gosling, OC (born May 19, 1955) is a Canadian computer scientist, best known as the founder and lead designer behind the Java programming language.
A JAR (Java ARchive) is a package file format typically used to aggregate many Java class files and associated metadata and resources (text, images, etc.) into one file for distribution.
Java is a set of computer software and specifications developed by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems, which was later acquired by the Oracle Corporation, that provides a system for developing application software and deploying it in a cross-platform computing environment.
In the Java computer programming language, an annotation is a form of syntactic metadata that can be added to Java source code.
JAX-RS: Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) is a Java programming language API spec that provides support in creating web services according to the Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural pattern.
The Java API for XML Web Services (JAX-WS) is a Java programming language API for creating web services, particularly SOAP services.
A Java applet was a small application that is written in the Java programming language, or another programming language that compiles to Java bytecode, and delivered to users in the form of Java bytecode.
Java bytecode is the instruction set of the Java virtual machine (JVM).
Java Card refers to a software technology that allows Java-based applications (applets) to be run securely on smart cards and similar small memory footprint devices.
A Java class file is a file (with the.class filename extension) containing Java bytecode that can be executed on the Java Virtual Machine (JVM).
The Java Class Library (JCL) is a set of dynamically loadable libraries that Java applications can call at run time.
The Java collections framework (JCF) is a set of classes and interfaces that implement commonly reusable collection data structures.
The Java Community Process (JCP), established in 1998, is a formalized mechanism that allows interested parties to develop standard technical specifications for Java technology.
A Java compiler is a compiler for the programming language Java.
The Java programming language's Java Collections Framework version 1.5 and later defines and implements the original regular single-threaded Maps, and also new thread-safe Maps implementing the interface among other concurrent interfaces.
Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) is an application programming interface (API) for the programming language Java, which defines how a client may access a database.
The Java Development Kit (JDK) is an implementation of either one of the Java Platform, Standard Edition, Java Platform, Enterprise Edition, or Java Platform, Micro Edition platforms released by Oracle Corporation in the form of a binary product aimed at Java developers on Solaris, Linux, macOS or Windows.
Java Management Extensions (JMX) is a Java technology that supplies tools for managing and monitoring applications, system objects, devices (such as printers) and service-oriented networks.
The Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) is a Java API for a directory service that allows Java software clients to discover and look up data and resources (in the form of Java objects) via a name.
The Java Native Interface (JNI) is a programming framework that enables Java code running in a Java Virtual Machine (JVM) to call and be called by native applications (programs specific to a hardware and operating system platform) and libraries written in other languages such as C, C++ and assembly.
A Java package organizes Java classes into namespaces, providing a unique namespace for each type it contains.
Java Platform, Enterprise Edition (Java EE), formerly Java 2 Platforms, Enterprise Edition (J2EE), currently Jakarta EE, is a set of specifications, extending Java SE with specifications for enterprise features such as distributed computing and web services.
Java Platform, Micro Edition or Java ME is a computing platform for development and deployment of portable code for embedded and mobile devices (micro-controllers, sensors, gateways, mobile phones, personal digital assistants, TV set-top boxes, printers).
Java Platform, Standard Edition (Java SE) is a computing platform for development and deployment of portable code for desktop and server environments.
In computing, the Java Remote Method Invocation (Java RMI) is a Java API that performs remote method invocation, the object-oriented equivalent of remote procedure calls (RPC), with support for direct transfer of serialized Java classes and distributed garbage-collection.
A Java servlet is a Java program that extends the capabilities of a server.
The Java language has undergone several changes since JDK 1.0 as well as numerous additions of classes and packages to the standard library.
A Java virtual machine (JVM) is a virtual machine that enables a computer to run Java programs as well as programs written in other languages and compiled to Java bytecode.
In computing, Java Web Start (also known as JavaWS, javaws or JAWS) is a framework developed by Sun Microsystems (now Oracle) that allows users to start application software for the Java Platform directly from the Internet using a web browser.
Javadoc (originally cased JavaDoc) is a documentation generator created by Sun Microsystems for the Java language (now owned by Oracle Corporation) for generating API documentation in HTML format from Java source code.
JavaFX is a software platform for creating and delivering desktop applications, as well as rich Internet applications (RIAs) that can run across a wide variety of devices.
JavaOne was an annual conference first organized in 1996 by Sun Microsystems to discuss Java technologies, primarily among Java developers.
Jazelle DBX (Direct Bytecode eXecution) is an extension that allows some ARM processors to execute Java bytecode in hardware as a third execution state alongside the existing ARM and Thumb modes.
JRockit, a proprietary Java virtual machine (JVM) originally developed by Appeal Virtual Machines and acquired by BEA Systems in 2002, became part of Oracle Fusion Middleware as part of acquisition of BEA Systems in 2008.
In computing, just-in-time (JIT) compilation, (also dynamic translation or run-time compilation), is a way of executing computer code that involves compilation during execution of a program – at run time – rather than prior to execution.
In computer science, a library is a collection of non-volatile resources used by computer programs, often for software development.
Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems built around the Linux kernel.
The Linux kernel is an open-source monolithic Unix-like computer operating system kernel.
In computer science, a list or sequence is an abstract data type that represents a countable number of ordered values, where the same value may occur more than once.
There are two types Java programming language application programming interfaces (APIs).
In the Java programming language, a keyword is one of 50 reserved words that have a predefined meaning in the language; because of this, programmers cannot use keywords as names for variables, methods, classes, or as any other identifier.
This article provides non-exhaustive lists of Java SE Java virtual machines (JVMs).
This list of JVM Languages comprises notable computer programming languages that are used to produce computer software that runs on the Java virtual machine (JVM).
A low-level programming language is a programming language that provides little or no abstraction from a computer's instruction set architecture—commands or functions in the language map closely to processor instructions.
Machine code is a computer program written in machine language instructions that can be executed directly by a computer's central processing unit (CPU).
macOS (previously and later) is a series of graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001.
In computer science, manifest typing is explicit identification by the software programmer of the type of each variable being declared.
It is difficult to determine which programming languages are "most widely used" because what usage means varies by context.
In computer science, a memory leak is a type of resource leak that occurs when a computer program incorrectly manages memory allocations in such a way that memory which is no longer needed is not released.
Mesa is a programming language developed in the late 1970s at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center in Palo Alto, California, United States.
Microsoft Corporation (abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.
The Microsoft Java Virtual Machine (MSJVM) is a discontinued proprietary Java virtual machine from Microsoft.
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.
Modula-3 is a programming language conceived as a successor to an upgraded version of Modula-2 known as Modula-2+.
In computing, Motif refers to both a graphical user interface (GUI) specification and the widget toolkit for building applications that follow that specification under the X Window System on Unix and Unix-like operating systems.
Multiple inheritance is a feature of some object-oriented computer programming languages in which an object or class can inherit characteristics and features from more than one parent object or parent class.
In computing, software or data formats that are native to a system are those that the system supports with minimal computational overhead and additional components.
Niklaus Emil Wirth (born 15 February 1934) is a Swiss computer scientist, best known for designing several programming languages, including Pascal, and for pioneering several classic topics in software engineering.
In computer science, a nominal or nominative type system (or name-based type system) is a major class of type system, in which compatibility and equivalence of data types is determined by explicit declarations and/or the name of the types.
In computer science, an algorithm is called non-blocking if failure or suspension of any thread cannot cause failure or suspension of another thread; for some operations, these algorithms provide a useful alternative to traditional blocking implementations.
O'Reilly Media (formerly O'Reilly & Associates) is an American media company established by Tim O'Reilly that publishes books and Web sites and produces conferences on computer technology topics.
An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus (Latin "oak tree") of the beech family, Fagaceae.
Oak is a discontinued programming language created by James Gosling in 1991, initially for Sun Microsystems' set-top box project.
Oberon is a general-purpose programming language created in 1986 by Niklaus Wirth and the latest member of the Wirthian family of ALGOL-like languages (Euler, Algol-W, Pascal, Modula, and Modula-2).
In object-oriented programming (OOP), the object lifetime (or life cycle) of an object is the time between an object's creation and its destruction.
Object Pascal refers to a branch of object-oriented derivatives of Pascal, mostly known as the primary programming language of Delphi.
Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm based on the concept of "objects", which may contain data, in the form of fields, often known as attributes; and code, in the form of procedures, often known as methods. A feature of objects is that an object's procedures can access and often modify the data fields of the object with which they are associated (objects have a notion of "this" or "self").
Objective-C is a general-purpose, object-oriented programming language that adds Smalltalk-style messaging to the C programming language.
The open-source model is a decentralized software-development model that encourages open collaboration.
Eclipse OpenJ9 (previously known as IBM J9) is a Java Virtual Machine developed by IBM and the Eclipse Foundation.
OpenJDK (Open Java Development Kit) is a free and open source implementation of the Java Platform, Standard Edition (Java SE).
In programming, operator overloading, sometimes termed operator ad hoc polymorphism, is a specific case of polymorphism, where different operators have different implementations depending on their arguments.
Oracle Corporation is an American multinational computer technology corporation, headquartered in Redwood Shores, California.
Patrick Naughton (born 1965) is an American software developer, known as one of the creators of the Java programming language and later a high-profile sex offender.
PersonalJava was a Java edition for mobile and embedded systems based on Java 1.1.8.
PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor (or simply PHP) is a server-side scripting language designed for Web development, but also used as a general-purpose programming language.
Pizza is an open-source superset of Java 1.4, prior to the introduction of generics for the Java programming language.
Pluggable look and feel is a mechanism used in the Java Swing widget toolkit allowing to change the look and feel of the graphical user interface at runtime.
In computer science, a pointer is a programming language object that stores the memory address of another value located in computer memory.
In computer science, primitive data type is either of the following.
A programming language is a formal language that specifies a set of instructions that can be used to produce various kinds of output.
Proprietary software is non-free computer software for which the software's publisher or another person retains intellectual property rights—usually copyright of the source code, but sometimes patent rights.
Python is an interpreted high-level programming language for general-purpose programming.
In computer science, a queue is a particular kind of abstract data type or collection in which the entities in the collection are kept in order and the principal (or only) operations on the collection are the addition of entities to the rear terminal position, known as enqueue, and removal of entities from the front terminal position, known as dequeue.
In the software development process, a reference implementation (or, less frequently, sample implementation or model implementation) is the standard from which all other implementations and corresponding customizations are derived.
In computer science, reflection is the ability of a computer program to examine, introspect, and modify its own structure and behavior at runtime.
Scala is a general-purpose programming language providing support for functional programming and a strong static type system.
Seed7 is an extensible general-purpose programming language designed by Thomas Mertes.
Server-side refers to operations that are performed by the server in a client–server relationship in a computer network.
In computer science, a set is an abstract data type that can store unique values, without any particular order.
In computer science, a smart pointer is an abstract data type that simulates a pointer while providing added features, such as automatic memory management or bounds checking.
A smartphone is a handheld personal computer with a mobile operating system and an integrated mobile broadband cellular network connection for voice, SMS, and Internet data communication; most, if not all, smartphones also support Wi-Fi.
SOAP (originally Simple Object Access Protocol) is a messaging protocol specification for exchanging structured information in the implementation of web services in computer networks.
Software relicensing is applied in open-source software development when software licenses of software modules are incompatible and are required to be compatible for a greater combined work.
Solaris is a Unix operating system originally developed by Sun Microsystems.
In mathematical logic, a logical system has the soundness property if and only if every formula that can be proved in the system is logically valid with respect to the semantics of the system.
The Spring Framework is an application framework and inversion of control container for the Java platform.
In computer science, a stack is an abstract data type that serves as a collection of elements, with two principal operations.
Stacks in computing architectures are regions of memory where data is added or removed in a last-in-first-out (LIFO) manner.
A standard library in computer programming is the library made available across implementations of a programming language.
In computer programming, standard streams are preconnected input and output communication channels between a computer program and its environment when it begins execution.
The Standard Widget Toolkit (SWT) is a graphical widget toolkit for use with the Java platform.
Structured programming is a programming paradigm aimed at improving the clarity, quality, and development time of a computer program by making extensive use of the structured control flow constructs of selection (if/then/else) and repetition (while and for), block structures, and subroutines in contrast to using simple tests and jumps such as the go to statement, which can lead to "spaghetti code" that is potentially difficult to follow and maintain.
The acquisition of Sun Microsystems by Oracle Corporation was completed on January 27, 2010.
Sun Microsystems, Inc. was an American company that sold computers, computer components, software, and information technology services and created the Java programming language, the Solaris operating system, ZFS, the Network File System (NFS), and SPARC.
A supercomputer is a computer with a high level of performance compared to a general-purpose computer.
Swing is a GUI widget toolkit for Java.
In computer science, the syntax of a computer language is the set of rules that defines the combinations of symbols that are considered to be a correctly structured document or fragment in that language.
A tablet computer, commonly shortened to tablet, is a portable personal computer, typically with a mobile operating system and LCD touchscreen display processing circuitry, and a rechargeable battery in a single thin, flat package.
In computer science, a thread of execution is the smallest sequence of programmed instructions that can be managed independently by a scheduler, which is typically a part of the operating system.
TIOBE programming community index is a measure of popularity of programming languages, created and maintained by the TIOBE Company based in Eindhoven, the Netherlands.
A tree structure or tree diagram is a way of representing the hierarchical nature of a structure in a graphical form.
In computer science, type safety is the extent to which a programming language discourages or prevents type errors.
In programming languages, a type system is a set of rules that assigns a property called type to the various constructs of a computer program, such as variables, expressions, functions or modules.
UCSD Pascal was a Pascal programming language system that ran on the UCSD p-System, a portable, highly machine-independent operating system.
In computer science, unreachable memory is a block of memory allocated dynamically where the program that allocated the memory no longer has any reachable pointer that refers to it.
The user interface (UI), in the industrial design field of human–computer interaction, is the space where interactions between humans and machines occur.
Vala is an object-oriented programming language with a self-hosting compiler that generates C code and uses the GObject system.
In mathematics and in computer programming, a variadic function is a function of indefinite arity, i.e., one which accepts a variable number of arguments.
A video game console is an electronic, digital or computer device that outputs a video signal or visual image to display a video game that one or more people can play.
In computing, a virtual machine (VM) is an emulation of a computer system.
A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is a software application for accessing information on the World Wide Web.
The term web service is either.
A control element (sometimes called a control or widget) in a graphical user interface is an element of interaction, such as a button or a scroll bar.
William Haskell Alsup (born June 27, 1945) is a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Northern District of California.
Wired is a monthly American magazine, published in print and online editions, that focuses on how emerging technologies affect culture, the economy, and politics.
"Write once, run anywhere" (WORA), or sometimes "write once, run everywhere" (WORE), was a slogan created by Sun Microsystems to illustrate the cross-platform benefits of the Java language.
In computing, Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language that defines a set of rules for encoding documents in a format that is both human-readable and machine-readable.
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