262 relations: Abul Kalam Azad, Adolf Hitler, Ainslie Embree, Aksai Chin, Alexander Grantham, All India Congress Committee, All India Institutes of Medical Sciences, All India States Peoples Conference, All-India Muslim League, Allahabad, Allahabad High Court, Allies of World War II, An Autobiography (Nehru), Anand Bhavan, Annexation of Goa, Annie Besant, Atomic Energy Commission of India, Ayub Khan (President of Pakistan), Bakshi Ghulam Mohammad, Bal Diwas, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bal Ram Nanda, Barrister, Beatrice Webb, Bengal famine of 1943, Benito Mussolini, Benjamin Gilani, Bertrand Russell, Bharat Ek Khoj, Bharat Ratna, Bharatiya Jana Sangh, Bharatiya Janata Party, Big tent, Bokaro Steel City, Bombay Presidency, British Empire, British Raj, Buddhist texts, C. D. Deshmukh, C. Rajagopalachari, Call to the bar, Cambridge University Press, Chauri Chaura incident, Chief of staff, China–India relations, Chittaranjan Das, Christianity, City Law School, Cold War, Commonwealth of Nations, ..., Communist Party of India, Congress Working Committee, Constitution of India, Dag Hammarskjöld, Dehradun, Delhi, Divine right of kings, Dock (maritime), Dominion, Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam, Ebrahim Alkazi, Edwina Mountbatten, Countess Mountbatten of Burma, Effects of nuclear explosions on human health, Fabian Society, Fazal Ali, Feroze Gandhi, Filibuster, Final Solution, Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, Francisco Franco, Frank Moraes, Frontline (magazine), G. M. Trevelyan, Gamal Abdel Nasser, Gandhi (film), Gandhi cap, George Bernard Shaw, George VI, Girish Karnad, Giuseppe Garibaldi, Glimpses of World History, Goldsworthy Lowes Dickinson, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Government of India Act, 1935, Govind Ballabh Pant, Gulzarilal Nanda, H. G. Wells, Harrow School, Hindi, Hindu texts, Homi J. Bhabha, Import substitution industrialization, India, India Today, Indian Army, Indian Civil Service (British India), Indian general election, 1951–52, Indian general election, 1957, Indian general election, 1962, Indian Home Rule movement, Indian independence movement, Indian Institutes of Management, Indian Institutes of Technology, Indian National Congress, Indian provincial elections, 1937, Indira Gandhi, Indo-Pakistani War of 1947, Indus Waters Treaty, Inner Temple, Interim Government of India, International Monetary Fund, Isaiah Berlin, Islam, Janata Party, Jawaharlal Nehru Port, Jawaharlal Nehru University, John F. Kennedy, John Maynard Keynes, Kailash Nath Katju, Kamala Nehru, Kashmir, Kashmiri Pandit, Kerala, Ketan Mehta, Khaki, Khaksars, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Korean War, Krishna Hutheesing, Lady Pamela Hicks, Lahore, Lal Bahadur Shastri, Letters from a Father to His Daughter, List of political families, List of Presidents of the Indian National Congress, List of Prime Ministers of India, London Declaration, Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma, Lucknow Pact, Mahant, Maharashtra, Mahatma Gandhi, Manifesto, Manikonda Chalapathi Rau, Meredith Townsend, Minister of Defence (India), Minister of External Affairs (India), Minister of Finance (India), Mixed economy, Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms, Morarji Desai, Motilal Nehru, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Multi-party system, Mussoorie, Myanmar, Myocardial infarction, N. Gopalaswami Ayyangar, Nabha State, Nathuram Godse, National Defence Academy (India), National Institutes of Technology, National School of Drama, Natural science, Nehru jacket, Nehru Memorial Museum & Library, Nehru Planetarium, Nehru–Gandhi family, Nepotism, New Delhi, Non-Aligned Movement, Non-cooperation movement, Nuclear disarmament, Nuclear weapon, Oxford University Press, Pacifism, Padmaja Naidu, Pakistan, Palestinian territories, Pandit, Partition of India, Patna, Planning Commission (India), Portuguese India, Prime Minister of India, Princely state, Private sector, Public sector, Pupul Jayakar, Purana Qila, Purna Swaraj, Quit India Movement, Raipur, Raj Ghat and associated memorials, Rajendra Prasad, Rajiv Gandhi, Rajmohan Gandhi, Ramachandra Guha, Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, Ravi River, Referendum, Richard Attenborough, Right of asylum, Roshan Seth, Rourkela Steel Plant, Russo-Japanese War, Sanjay Gandhi, Sardar (1993 film), Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, Satyagraha, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, Scientific temper, Second Boer War, Secular humanism, Secular state, Secularism, Self-governance, Selig S. Harrison, Seva Dal, Sheikh Abdullah, Sherwani, Shyam Benegal, Sino-Indian War, South Asian American Digital Archive, Soviet Union, Spanish Civil War, Special Marriage Act, 1954, St John Ambulance, States Reorganisation Commission, Subhas Chandra Bose, Suez Crisis, Superpower, Swaraj Bhavan, Swaraj Party, T. T. Krishnamachari, Taiwan, Teen Murti Bhavan, The Discovery of India, The Hindu, The light has gone out of our lives, The Times of India, Theosophical Society, Treaty series, Trinity College, Cambridge, Triple Entente, Tryst with Destiny, United Nations General Assembly, United Nations Security Council, United Provinces of British India, Uttar Pradesh, V. K. Krishna Menon, V. P. Menon, Vallabhbhai Patel, Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit, World War I, World War II, Yamuna, Yashwantrao Chavan, Zhou Enlai, 14th Dalai Lama, 1946 Cabinet Mission to India. Expand index (212 more) » « Shrink index
Maulana Sayyid Abul Kalam Ghulam Muhiyuddin Ahmed bin Khairuddin Al-Hussaini Azad (11 November 1888 – 22 February 1958) was an Indian scholar and the senior Muslim leader of the Indian National Congress during the Indian independence movement.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
Ainslie Thomas Embree (January 1, 1921 – June 6, 2017) was an American Indologist and historian.
Aksai Chin (ﺋﺎﻗﺴﺎﻱ ﭼﯩﻦ;Hindi-अक्साई चिन) is a disputed border area between China and India.
Sir Alexander William George Herder Grantham, GCMG (葛量洪 1899–1978) was a British colonial administrator who governed Hong Kong and Fiji.
The All India Congress Committee (AICC) is the Presidium or the central decision-making assembly of the Indian National Congress.
The All India Institutes of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) are a group of autonomous public medical colleges of higher education.
The All India States Peoples' Conference (AISPC) was a conglomeration of political movements in the princely states of the British Raj.
The All-India Muslim League (popularised as Muslim League) was a political party established during the early years of the 20th century in the British Indian Empire.
Prayag, or Allahabad is a large metropolitan city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh and the administrative headquarters of Allahabad District, the most populous district in the state and 13th most populous district in India, and the Allahabad Division.
The Allahabad High Court or the High Court of Judicature at Allahabad is a high court based in Allahabad that has jurisdiction over the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
An Autobiography also known as Toward Freedom, (1936) is an autobiographical book written by the first Prime Minister of India, Jawaharlal Nehru while he was in prison.
The Anand Bhavan is a historic house museum in Allahabad, India focusing on the Nehru Family.
The Annexation of Goa was the process in which the Republic of India annexed the former Portuguese Indian territories of Goa, Daman and Diu, starting with the "armed action" carried out by the Indian Armed Forces in December 1961.
Annie Besant, née Wood (1 October 1847 – 20 September 1933) was a British socialist, theosophist, women's rights activist, writer and orator and supporter of Irish and Indian self-rule.
The Atomic Energy Commission is the governing body of the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), Government of India.
Mohammad Ayub Khan (محمد ایوب خان; 14 May 1907 – 19 April 1974),, was a Pakistani military dictator and the 2nd President of Pakistan who forcibly assumed the presidency from 1st President through coup in 1958, the first successful coup d'état of the country. The popular demonstrations and labour strikes which were supported by the protests in East Pakistan ultimately led to his forced resignation in 1969., Retrieved 25 August 2015 Trained at the British Royal Military College, Ayub Khan fought in the World War II as a Colonel in the British Indian Army before deciding to transfer to join the Pakistan Army as an aftermath of partition of British India in 1947. His command assignment included his role as chief of staff of Eastern Command in East-Bengal and elevated as the first native commander-in-chief of Pakistan Army in 1951 by then-Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan in a controversial promotion over several senior officers., Retrieved 25 August 2015 From 1953–58, he served in the civilian government as Defence and Home Minister and supported Iskander Mirza's decision to impose martial law against Prime Minister Feroze Khan's administration in 1958., Retrieved 27 August 2015 Two weeks later, he took over the presidency from Mirza after the meltdown of civil-military relations between the military and the civilian President., Retrieved 25 August 2015 After appointing General Musa Khan as an army chief in 1958, the policy inclination towards the alliance with the United States was pursued that saw the allowance of American access to facilities inside Pakistan, most notably the airbase outside of Peshawar, from which spy missions over the Soviet Union were launched. Relations with neighboring China were strengthened but deteriorated with Soviet Union in 1962, and with India in 1965. His presidency saw the war with India in 1965 which ended with Soviet Union facilitating the Tashkent Declaration between two nations. At home front, the policy of privatisation and industrialization was introduced that made the country's economy as Asia's fastest-growing economies. During his tenure, several infrastructure programs were built that consisted the completion of hydroelectric stations, dams and reservoirs, as well as prioritizing the space program but reducing the nuclear deterrence. In 1965, Ayub Khan entered in a presidential race as PML candidate to counter the popular and famed non-partisan Fatima Jinnah and controversially reelected for the second term. He was faced with allegations of widespread intentional vote riggings, authorized political murders in Karachi, and the politics over the unpopular peace treaty with India which many Pakistanis considered an embarrassing compromise. In 1967, he was widely disapproved when the demonstrations across the country were led by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto over the price hikes of food consumer products and, dramatically fell amid the popular uprising in East led by Mujibur Rahman in 1969. Forced to resign to avoid further protests while inviting army chief Yahya Khan to impose martial law for the second time, he fought a brief illness and died in 1974. His legacy remains mixed; he is credited with an ostensible economic prosperity and what supporters dub the "decade of development", but is criticized for beginning the first of the intelligence agencies' incursions into the national politics, for concentrating corrupt wealth in a few hands, and segregated policies that later led to the breaking-up of nation's unity that resulted in the creation of Bangladesh., Retrieved 25 August 2015.
Bakshi Ghulam Mohammad (1907–1972) was a politician belonging to the Jammu & Kashmir National Conference and second in command to the principal leader Sheikh Abdullah.
Children's Day is celebrated across India to increase awareness of the rights, care and education of children.
Bal Gangadhar Tilak (or Lokmanya Tilak,; 23 July 1856 – 1 August 1920), born as Keshav Gangadhar Tilak, was an Indian nationalist, teacher, social reformer, lawyer and an independence activist.
Bal Ram Nanda (1917 – 30 May 2010) was a writer from New Delhi, India.
A barrister (also known as barrister-at-law or bar-at-law) is a type of lawyer in common law jurisdictions.
Martha Beatrice Webb, Baroness Passfield, (née Potter; 22 January 1858 – 30 April 1943), was an English sociologist, economist, socialist, labour historian and social reformer.
The Bengal famine of 1943 (Bengali: pañcāśēra manvantara) was a major famine in the Bengal province in British India during World War II.
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician and journalist who was the leader of the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF).
Benjamin Gilani is an Indian actor of film, television and theatre.
Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, social critic, political activist, and Nobel laureate.
Bharat Ek Khoj (The Discovery of India) is a 53-episode Indian historical drama based on the book The Discovery of India (1946) by Jawaharlal Nehru that covers a 5000-year history of India from its beginnings to independence from the British in 1947.
The Bharat Ratna (Jewel of India) is the highest civilian award of the Republic of India.
The Bharatiya Jana Sangh (abbrv. BJS), commonly known as the Jan Sangh, was an Indian right wing political party that existed from 1951 to 1977 and was the political arm of Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS), a Hindu nationalist volunteer organisation.
The Bharatiya Janata Party (translation: Indian People's Party; BJP) is one of the two major political parties in India, along with the Indian National Congress.
In politics, a big tent or catch-all party is a type of political party that seeks to attract voters from different points of view and ideologies.
Bokaro Steel City is a city located in East India in the state of Jharkhand.
The Bombay Presidency, also known as Bombay and Sind from 1843 to 1936 and the Bombay Province, was an administrative subdivision (presidency) of British India.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.
Buddhist texts were initially passed on orally by monks, but were later written down and composed as manuscripts in various Indo-Aryan languages which were then translated into other local languages as Buddhism spread.
Sir Chintaman Dwarakanath Deshmukh, CIE, ICS (14 January 1896 – 2 October 1982) was an Indian civil servant and the first Indian to be appointed as the Governor of the Reserve Bank of India in 1943 by the British Raj authorities.
Chakravarti Rajagopalachari (10 December 1878 – 25 December 1972) informally called Rajaji or C.R., was an Indian politician, independence activist, lawyer, writer and statesman.
The call to the bar is a legal term of art in most common law jurisdictions where persons must be qualified to be allowed to argue in court on behalf of another party and are then said to have been "called to the bar" or to have received a "call to the bar".
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Chauri Chaura Shahid Samarak The Chauri Chaura incident occurred at Chauri Chaura in the Gorakhpur district of the United Province, (modern Uttar Pradesh) in British India on 5 February 1922, when a large group of protesters, participating in the Non-cooperation movement, clashed with police, who opened fire.
The title chief of staff (or head of staff) identifies the leader of a complex organization, institution, or body of persons and it also may identify a principal staff officer (PSO), who is the coordinator of the supporting staff or a primary aide-de-camp to an important individual, such as a president or a senior military officer.
China–India relations, also called Sino-Indian relations or Indo-China relations, refers to the bilateral relationship between the People's Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of India.
Chittaranjan Das (C. R. Das) (চিত্তরঞ্জন দাশ Chittorônjon Dash), popularly called Deshbandhu (Friend of the Nation), (5 November 1869 – 16 June 1925), was a leading Indian politician, a prominent lawyer, an activist of the Indian National Movement and founder-leader of the Swaraj (Independence) Party in Bengal during British occupation in India.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
The City Law School is one of the five schools of City, University of London.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
The Communist Party of India (CPI) (Bhāratīya Kamyunisṭ Pārṭī) is a communist party in India.
The Congress Working Committee (CWC) is the executive committee of the Indian National Congress.
The Constitution of India is the supreme law of India.
Dag Hjalmar Agne Carl Hammarskjöld (29 July 1905 – 18 September 1961) was a Swedish economist and diplomat who served as the second Secretary-General of the United Nations.
Dehradun or Dehra Dun is the interim capital city of Uttarakhand, a state in the northern part of India.
Delhi (Dilli), officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT), is a city and a union territory of India.
The divine right of kings, divine right, or God's mandate is a political and religious doctrine of royal and political legitimacy.
A dock (from Dutch dok) is the area of water between or next to one or a group of human-made structures that are involved in the handling of boats or ships (usually on or near a shore) or such structures themselves.
Dominions were semi-independent polities under the British Crown, constituting the British Empire, beginning with Canadian Confederation in 1867.
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK), (Dravidian Progress Federation) is a state political party in the states of Tamil Nadu, Puducherry, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh in India.
Ebrahim Alkazi (born 18 October 1925) is an Indian theatre director and drama teacher.
Edwina Cynthia Annette Mountbatten, Countess Mountbatten of Burma, (née Ashley; 28 November 1901 – 21 February 1960) was an English heiress, socialite, relief worker and the last Vicereine of India as wife of Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma.
The medical effects of the atomic bomb on Hiroshima upon humans can be put into the four categories below, with the effects of larger thermonuclear weapons producing blast and thermal effects so large that there would be a negligible number of survivors close enough to the center of the blast who would experience prompt/acute radiation effects, which were observed after the 16 kiloton yield Hiroshima bomb, due to its relatively low yield:http://www.remm.nlm.gov/RemmMockup_files/radiationlethality.jpg.
The Fabian Society is a British socialist organization whose purpose is to advance the principles of democratic socialism via gradualist and reformist effort in democracies, rather than by revolutionary overthrow.
Khan Bahadur Sayyid Sir Fazl Ali, also known as Fazal Ali OBE (19 September 1886 – 22 August 1959) was an Indian judge, the governor of two Indian states (Assam and Odisha), and the head of the States Reorganisation Commission which determined the boundaries of several Indian states in the 1950s.
Feroze Gandhi (born Feroze Jehangir Ghandy;: "Feroze Gandhi was also from the Nehrus' home town, Allahabad. A Parsi by faith, he at first spelt his surname 'Ghandy'. However, after he joined the national movement as a young man, he changed the spelling to bring it in line with that of Mahatma Gandhi." 12 September 1912 – 8 September 1960) was an Indian politician and journalist.
A filibuster is a political procedure where one or more members of parliament or congress debate over a proposed piece of legislation so as to delay or entirely prevent a decision being made on the proposal.
The Final Solution (Endlösung) or the Final Solution to the Jewish Question (die Endlösung der Judenfrage) was a Nazi plan for the extermination of the Jews during World War II.
The Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, known as the Panchsheel Treaty: Non-interference in others internal affairs and respect for each other's territorial unity integrity and sovereignty (from Sanskrit, panch: five, sheel: virtues), are a set of principles to govern relations between states.
Francisco Franco Bahamonde (4 December 1892 – 20 November 1975) was a Spanish general who ruled over Spain as a military dictator from 1939, after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War, until his death in 1975.
Francis Robert "Frank" Moraes (12 November 1907 – 2 May 1974) was editor of many prominent newspapers in post-Independence India, including The Indian Express.
Frontline is a fortnightly English language magazine published by The Hindu Group of publications from Chennai, India.
George Macaulay Trevelyan, (16 February 1876 – 21 July 1962), was a British historian and academic.
Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein (جمال عبد الناصر حسين,; 15 January 1918 – 28 September 1970) was the second President of Egypt, serving from 1956 until his death in 1970.
Gandhi is a 1982 epic historical drama film based on the life of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, the leader of India's non-violent, non-cooperative independence movement against the United Kingdom's rule of the country during the 20th century.
The Gandhi cap (गांधी टोपी) is a white coloured sidecap, pointed in front and back and having a wide band.
George Bernard Shaw (26 July 1856 – 2 November 1950), known at his insistence simply as Bernard Shaw, was an Irish playwright, critic, polemicist, and political activist.
George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Commonwealth from 11 December 1936 until his death in 1952.
Girish Raghunath Karnad (born 19 May 1938) is an Indian actor, film director, Kannada writer playwright and a Rhodes Scholar, who predominantly works in South Indian cinema and Bollywood.
Giuseppe Garibaldi; 4 July 1807 – 2 June 1882) was an Italian general, politician and nationalist. He is considered one of the greatest generals of modern times and one of Italy's "fathers of the fatherland" along with Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, Victor Emmanuel II of Italy and Giuseppe Mazzini. Garibaldi has been called the "Hero of the Two Worlds" because of his military enterprises in Brazil, Uruguay and Europe. He personally commanded and fought in many military campaigns that led eventually to the Italian unification. Garibaldi was appointed general by the provisional government of Milan in 1848, General of the Roman Republic in 1849 by the Minister of War, and led the Expedition of the Thousand on behalf and with the consent of Victor Emmanuel II. His last military campaign took place during the Franco-Prussian War as commander of the Army of the Vosges. Garibaldi was very popular in Italy and abroad, aided by exceptional international media coverage at the time. Many of the greatest intellectuals of his time, such as Victor Hugo, Alexandre Dumas, and George Sand, showered him with admiration. The United Kingdom and the United States helped him a great deal, offering him financial and military support in difficult circumstances. In the popular telling of his story, he is associated with the red shirts worn by his volunteers, the Garibaldini, in lieu of a uniform.
Glimpses of World History, a book published by Jawaharlal Nehru in 1942, is a panoramic sweep of the history of humankind.
Goldsworthy Lowes Dickinson (6 August 1862 – 3 August 1932), known as Goldie, was a British political scientist and philosopher.
Gopal Krishna Gokhale CIE (9 May 1866 – 19 February 1915) was one of the political leaders and a social reformer during the Indian Independence Movement against the British Empire in India.
The Government of India Act,1935 was originally passed in August 1935 (25 & 26 Geo. 5 c. 42), and is said to be the longest Act (British) of Parliament ever enacted by that time.
Pandit Govind Ballabh Pant (10 September 1887 – 7 March 1961) was an Indian freedom fighter and one of the architects of modern India.
Gulzarilal Nanda (4 July 1898 – 15 January 1998) was an Indian politician and economist who specialized in labour issues.
Herbert George Wells.
Harrow School is an independent boarding school for boys in Harrow, London, England.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
Hindu texts are manuscripts and historical literature related to any of the diverse traditions within Hinduism.
Homi Jehangir Bhabha (30 October 1909 – 24 January 1966) was an Indian nuclear physicist, founding director, and professor of physics at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR).
Import substitution industrialization (ISI) is a trade and economic policy which advocates replacing foreign imports with domestic production.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
India Today is an Indian English-language fortnightly news magazine and news television channel.
The Indian Army is the land-based branch and the largest component of the Indian Armed Forces.
The Indian Civil Service (ICS) for part of the 19th century officially known as the Imperial Civil Service, was the elite higher civil service of the British Empire in British India during British rule in the period between 1858 and 1947.
The Indian general election of 1951–52 elected the first Lok Sabha since India became independent in August 1947.
The Indian general election of 1957 elected the 2nd Lok Sabha of India.
The Indian general election of 1962 elected the 3rd Lok Sabha of India and was held from 19 to 25 February.
The Indian Home Rule movement was a movement in British India on the lines of Irish Home Rule movement and other home rule movements.
The Indian independence movement encompassed activities and ideas aiming to end the East India Company rule (1757–1857) and the British Indian Empire (1857–1947) in the Indian subcontinent.
The Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs) are a group of 20 public, autonomous institutes of management education and research in India.
The Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) are autonomous public institutes of higher education, located in India.
The Indian National Congress (INC, often called Congress Party) is a broadly based political party in India.
Provincial elections were held in British India in the winter of 1936-37 as mandated by the Government of India Act 1935.
Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (née Nehru; 19 November 1917 – 31 October 1984) was an Indian politician, stateswoman and a central figure of the Indian National Congress.
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1947–1948, sometimes known as the First Kashmir War, was fought between India and Pakistan over the princely state of Kashmir and Jammu from 1947 to 1948.
The Indus Waters Treaty (English) or सिंधु जल संधि (Hindi) or "سندھ طاس معاہدہ" (Urdu) is a water-shareing treaty between India and Pakistan, brokered by the World Bank (then the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development) The Guardian, Monday 3 June 2002 01.06 BST The treaty was signed in Karachi on September 19, 1960 by the first Prime Minister of India Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru and then President of Pakistan Ayub Khan.
The Honourable Society of the Inner Temple, commonly known as Inner Temple, is one of the four Inns of Court (professional associations for barristers and judges) in London.
The interim government of India, formed on 2 September 1946 from the newly elected Constituent Assembly of India, had the task of assisting the transition of British India to independence.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
Sir Isaiah Berlin (6 June 1909 – 5 November 1997) was a Russian-British social and political theorist, philosopher and historian of ideas.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
The Janata Party (JP or JNP) (translation: People's Party) was an amalgam of Indian political parties opposed to the State of Emergency that was imposed between 1975 and 1977 by the Government of India under the Prime Ministership of Indira Gandhi and her party, the Indian National Congress (R).
Jawaharlal Nehru Port, also known as Nhava Sheva, is the largest container port in India.
Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU) is a public central university located in New Delhi, India.
John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), commonly referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963.
John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes (5 June 1883 – 21 April 1946), was a British economist whose ideas fundamentally changed the theory and practice of macroeconomics and the economic policies of governments.
Kailash Nath Katju (17 June 1887 – 17 February 1968) was a prominent politician of India.
Kamala Kaul Nehru (1 August 1899 – 28 February 1936) was a freedom fighter and the wife of Jawaharlal Nehru (the leader of the Indian National Congress and later the first Prime Minister of India). Her daughter Indira also served later as prime minister of India.
Kashmir is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent.
The Kashmiri Pandits (also known as Kashmiri Brahmins) are a Saraswat Brahmin community from the Kashmir Valley, a mountainous region in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.
Kerala is a state in South India on the Malabar Coast.
Ketan Mehta (born 1952) is an Indian film director, who has also directed documentaries and television serials since 1975.
Khaki (Canada and) is a color, a light shade of yellow-brown.
The Khaksar movement (تحریکِ خاکسار) was a social movement based in Lahore, Punjab, British India, established by Allama Mashriqi in 1931, with the aim of freeing India from the rule of the British Empire and establish a Hindu-Muslim government in India.
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (abbreviated as KP; خیبر پختونخوا; خیبر پښتونخوا) is one of the four administrative provinces of Pakistan, located in the northwestern region of the country along the international border with Afghanistan.
The Korean War (in South Korean, "Korean War"; in North Korean, "Fatherland: Liberation War"; 25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953) was a war between North Korea (with the support of China and the Soviet Union) and South Korea (with the principal support of the United States).
Krishna Nehru Hutheesing (1907–1967) was an Indian writer, the youngest sister of Jawaharlal Nehru and Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit, and part of the Nehru-Gandhi family.
Lady Pamela Carmen Louise Hicks (née Mountbatten; born 19 April 1929) is a British aristocrat.
Lahore (لاہور, لہور) is the capital city of the Pakistani province of Punjab, and is the country’s second-most populous city after Karachi.
Lal Bahadur Shastri (2 October 1904 – 11 January 1966) was the 2nd Prime Minister of India and a senior leader of the Indian National Congress political party.
Letters from a Father to His Daughter is a collection of 30 letters written by Jawaharlal Nehru in 1928 to his daughter Indira Gandhi when she was 10 years old.
This is a partial listing of prominent political families.
The Indian National Congress (INC) is one of the two major parties in the political system of Republic of India.
The Prime Minister of India is the chief executive of the Government of India.
The London Declaration was a declaration issued by the 1949 Commonwealth Prime Ministers' Conference on the issue of India's continued membership in the Commonwealth of Nations after its transition to a republican constitution.
Admiral of the Fleet Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma, (born Prince Louis of Battenberg; 25 June 1900 – 27 August 1979) was a British Royal Navy officer and statesman, an uncle of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, and second cousin once removed of Queen Elizabeth II.
The Lucknow Pact was an agreement reached between the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League at the joint session of both the parties held in Lucknow in December 1916.
A mahant is a religious superior, in particular the chief priest of a temple or the head of a monastery.
Maharashtra (abbr. MH) is a state in the western region of India and is India's second-most populous state and third-largest state by area.
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was an Indian activist who was the leader of the Indian independence movement against British rule.
A manifesto is a published verbal declaration of the intentions, motives, or views of the issuer, be it an individual, group, political party or government.
Manikonda Chalapathi Rau (also known as MC and Magnus) (1910 - 25 March 1983) was an Indian journalist and an authority on the Nehruvian thought.
Meredith White Townsend (1831–1911) was an English journalist and editor of The Spectator.
The Minister of Defence is the head of the Ministry of Defence of the Government of India.
The Minister of External Affairs (or simply Foreign Minister) is the head of the Ministry of External Affairs of the Government of India.
The Minister of Finance (or simply, Finance Minister) is the head of the Ministry of Finance of the Government of India.
A mixed economy is variously defined as an economic system blending elements of market economies with elements of planned economies, free markets with state interventionism, or private enterprise with public enterprise.
The Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms or more briefly known as Mont-Ford Reforms were reforms introduced by the British colonial government in India to introduce self-governing institutions gradually to India.
Morarji Desai (29 February 1896 – 10 April 1995) was an Indian independence activist and served between 1977 and 1979 as the 4th Prime Minister of India and led the government formed by the Janata Party.
Motilal Nehru (6 May 1861 – 6 February 1931) was an Indian lawyer, an activist of the Indian Independence Movement and an important leader of the Indian National Congress, who also served as the Congress President twice, 1919–1920 and 1928–1929.
Muhammad Ali Jinnah (محمد علی جناح ALA-LC:, born Mahomedali Jinnahbhai; 25 December 1876 – 11 September 1948) was a lawyer, politician, and the founder of Pakistan.
A multi-party system is a system in which multiple political parties across the political spectrum run for national election, and all have the capacity to gain control of government offices, separately or in coalition.
Mussoorie (Garhwali/Hindi: Masūrī) is a hill station and a municipal board in the Dehradun District of the northern Indian state of Uttarakhand.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.
Diwan Bahadur Sir Narasimha Ayyangar Gopalaswami Ayyangar, CSI, CIE (31 March 1882 – 10 February 1953), Member of the Drafting Committee of the Constitution, was a leader of the Rajya Sabha and a cabinet minister (railway minister) in the Government of India.
Nabha State, with its capital at Nabha, was one of the Phulkian princely states of Punjab during the British Raj in India.
Nathuram Vinayak Godse (19 May 1910 – 15 November 1949) was a right-wing advocate of Hindu nationalism who assassinated Mahatma Gandhi in New Delhi on 30 January 1948.
The National Defence Academy (NDA) is the Joint Services academy of the Indian Armed Forces, where cadets of the three services, the Army, the Navy and the Air Force train together before they go on to respective service academies for further pre-commissioning training.
The National Institutes of Technology (NITs) are autonomous public institutes of higher education, located in India.
National School of Drama or NSD) is a theatre training institute situated at New Delhi, India. It is an autonomous organization under Ministry of Culture, Government of India. It was set up in 1959 by the Sangeet Natak Akademi, and became an independent school in 1975. In 2005 it was granted deemed university status, but in 2011 it was revoked on the institute's request.
Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation.
The Nehru jacket is a hip-length tailored coat for men or women, with a mandarin collar, and with its front modelled on the Indian achkan or sherwani, a garment worn by Jawaharlal Nehru, the Prime Minister of India from 1947 to 1964.
The Nehru Memorial Museum & Library (NMML) is a museum and library in New Delhi, India, which aims to preserve and reconstruct the history of the Indian independence movement.
Nehru Planetariums are the five planetariums in India, named after India's first Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru.
The Nehru–Gandhi family is an Indian political dynasty that has occupied a prominent place in the politics of India.
Nepotism is based on favour granted to relatives in various fields, including business, politics, entertainment, sports, religion and other activities.
New Delhi is an urban district of Delhi which serves as the capital of India and seat of all three branches of Government of India.
The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a group of states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc.
This was a significant phase of the Indian independence movement from British rule.
Nuclear disarmament is the act of reducing or eliminating nuclear weapons.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Pacifism is opposition to war, militarism, or violence.
Padmaja Naidu (1900 – 2 May 1975) was an Indian freedom fighter and politician.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
Palestinian territories and occupied Palestinian territories (OPT or oPt) are terms often used to describe the West Bank (including East Jerusalem) and the Gaza Strip, which are occupied or otherwise under the control of Israel.
A pandit (paṇḍita; also spelled pundit, pronounced; abbreviated as Pt. or Pdt.; Panditain or Punditain can refer to a female pundit or the wife of a pundit) is a Brahmin scholar or a teacher of any field of knowledge in Hinduism, particularly the Vedic scriptures, dharma, Hindu philosophy, or secular subjects such as music.
The Partition of India was the division of British India in 1947 which accompanied the creation of two independent dominions, India and Pakistan.
Patna is the capital and largest city of the state of Bihar in India.
The Planning Commission (Hindi: योजना आयोग, Yojana Āyog) was an institution in the Government of India, which formulated India's Five-Year Plans, among other functions.
The State of India (Estado da Índia), also referred as the Portuguese State of India (Estado Português da Índia, EPI) or simply Portuguese India (Índia Portuguesa), was a state of the Portuguese Overseas Empire, founded six years after the discovery of a sea route between Portugal and the Indian Subcontinent to serve as the governing body of a string of Portuguese fortresses and colonies overseas.
The Prime Minister of India is the leader of the executive of the Government of India.
A princely state, also called native state (legally, under the British) or Indian state (for those states on the subcontinent), was a vassal state under a local or regional ruler in a subsidiary alliance with the British Raj.
The private sector is the part of the economy, sometimes referred to as the citizen sector, which is run by private individuals or groups, usually as a means of enterprise for profit, and is not controlled by the State.
The public sector (also called the state sector) is the part of the economy composed of both public services and public enterprises.
Pupul Jayakar née Mehta (11 September 1915 – 29 March 1997) was an Indian cultural activist and writer, best known for her work on the revival of traditional and village arts, handlooms, and handicrafts in post-independence India.
Purana Qila (Old Fort) is one of the oldest forts in Delhi.
The, or Declaration of the Independence of India, was promulgated by the Indian National Congress on 19 December 1929, resolving the Congress and Indian nationalists to fight for Purna Swaraj, or complete self-rule independent of the British Empire (literally in Sanskrit, purna (पूर्ण), "complete", swa (स्व), "self," raj (राज), "rule," thus "complete self-rule").
The Quit India Movement or the India August Movement, was a movement launched at the Bombay session of the All-India Congress Committee by Mahatma Gandhi on 8 August 1942, during World War II, demanding an end to British Rule of India.
Raipur is a city in Raipur district in the Indian state of Chhattisgarh.
Raj Ghat is a memorial dedicated to Mahatma Gandhi in Delhi, India.
Rajendra Prasad (3 December 1884 – 28 February 1963) was the first President of India, in office from 1950 to 1962.
Rajiv Ratna Gandhi (20 August 1944 – 21 May 1991) was an Indian politician who served as the 6th Prime Minister of India from 1984 to 1989.
Rajmohan Gandhi (born 7 August 1935) is a biographer and a research professor at the Center for South Asian and Middle Eastern Studies, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, US.
Ramachandra Guha (born 29 April 1958) is an Indian historian and writer whose research interests include environmental, social, political, contemporary and cricket history.
Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary is a large American dictionary, first published in 1966 as The Random House Dictionary of the English Language: The Unabridged Edition.
Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, abbreviated as RSS (Rāṣṭrīya Svayamsēvaka Saṅgha, IPA:, lit. "National Volunteer Organisation" or "National Patriotic Organisation"), is an Indian right-wing, Hindu nationalist, paramilitary volunteer organisation that is widely regarded as the parent organisation of the ruling party of India, the Bharatiya Janata Party.
The Ravi (ਰਾਵੀ, راوی, रावी) is a transboundary river crossing northwestern India and eastern Pakistan.
A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is invited to vote on a particular proposal.
Richard Samuel Attenborough, Baron Attenborough, (29 August 1923 – 24 August 2014), was an English actor, filmmaker, entrepreneur, and politician.
The right of asylum (sometimes called right of political asylum, from the Ancient Greek word ἄσυλον) is an ancient juridical concept, under which a person persecuted by his own country may be protected by another sovereign authority, such as another country or church official, who in medieval times could offer sanctuary.
Roshan Seth is an Indian-born British actor, who appears mainly in British and American films.
Rourkela Steel Plant (RSP), in Rourkela, Odisha is the first integrated steel plant in the public sector in India.
The Russo–Japanese War (Russko-yaponskaya voina; Nichirosensō; 1904–05) was fought between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over rival imperial ambitions in Manchuria and Korea.
Sanjay Gandhi (14 December 1946 – 23 June 1980) was an Indian politician.
Sardar is a 1993 Indian biographical drama film on Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, one of India's greatest freedom fighters, directed by Ketan Mehta and written by noted playwright Vijay Tendulkar.
Satyagraha सत्याग्रह; satya: "truth", graha: "insistence" or "holding firmly to") or holding onto truth or truth force – is a particular form of nonviolent resistance or civil resistance. The term satyagraha was coined and developed by Mahatma Gandhi (1869–1948). He deployed satyagraha in the Indian independence movement and also during his earlier struggles in South Africa for Indian rights. Satyagraha theory influenced Martin Luther King Jr.'s and James Bevel's campaigns during the Civil Rights Movement in the United States, and many other social justice and similar movements. Someone who practices satyagraha is a satyagrahi.
The Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Scheduled Tribes (STs) are officially designated groups of historically disadvantaged people in India.
The Scientific temper is a way of life (defined in this context as an individual and social process of thinking and acting) which uses the scientific method and which may, consequently, include questioning, observing physical reality, testing, hypothesizing, analysing, and communicating (not necessarily in that order).
The Second Boer War (11 October 1899 – 31 May 1902) was fought between the British Empire and two Boer states, the South African Republic (Republic of Transvaal) and the Orange Free State, over the Empire's influence in South Africa.
Secular humanism is a philosophy or life stance that embraces human reason, ethics, and philosophical naturalism while specifically rejecting religious dogma, supernaturalism, pseudoscience, and superstition as the basis of morality and decision making.
A secular state is an idea pertaining to secularism, whereby a state is or purports to be officially neutral in matters of religion, supporting neither religion nor irreligion.
Secularism is the principle of the separation of government institutions and persons mandated to represent the state from religious institution and religious dignitaries (the attainment of such is termed secularity).
Self-governance, self-government, or autonomy, is an abstract concept that applies to several scales of organization.
Selig Seidenman Harrison (March 19, 1927 – December 30, 2016) was a scholar and journalist, who specialized in South Asia and East Asia.
The Seva Dal is the grassroots front organization of the Indian National Congress.
Sheikh Mohammed Abdullah (5 December 1905 – 8 September 1982) was a Kashmiri politician who played a central role in the politics of Jammu and Kashmir, the northernmost Indian state.
Sherwani (शेरवानी; شیروانی; শেরওয়ানি) is a long coat-like garment worn in the Indian subcontinent, very similar to a British frock coat or a Polish żupan.
Shyam Benegal (born 14 December 1934) is an Indian director and screenwriter.
The Sino-Indian War (भारत-चीन युद्ध Bhārat-Chīn Yuddh), also known as the Sino-Indian Border Conflict, was a war between China and India that occurred in 1962.
The South Asian American Digital Archive (SAADA) is a 501(c)(3) not-for-profit organization.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Spanish Civil War (Guerra Civil Española),Also known as The Crusade (La Cruzada) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War (Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlists, and The Rebellion (La Rebelión) or Uprising (Sublevación) among Republicans.
The Special Marriage Act, 1954 is an Act of the Parliament of India enacted to provide a special form of marriage for the people of India and all Indian nationals in foreign countries, irrespective of the religion or faith followed by either party.
St John Ambulance is a trade name used by a number of affiliated organisations in different countries, counties, states or provinces dedicated to the teaching and practice of medical first aid and the provision of ambulance and community volunteer services, all of which derive their origins from the St John Ambulance Association founded in 1877 in the United Kingdom.
The States Reorganisation Commission (SRC) was a body constituted by the Central Government of India in 1953 to recommend the reorganisation of state boundaries.
Subhas Chandra Bose (23 January 1897 – 18 August 1945) was an Indian nationalist whose defiant patriotism made him a hero in India, but whose attempt during World War II to rid India of British rule with the help of Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan left a troubled legacy.
The Suez Crisis, or the Second Arab–Israeli War, also named the Tripartite Aggression (in the Arab world) and Operation Kadesh or Sinai War (in Israel),Also named: Suez Canal Crisis, Suez War, Suez–Sinai war, Suez Campaign, Sinai Campaign, Operation Musketeer (أزمة السويس /‎ العدوان الثلاثي, "Suez Crisis"/ "the Tripartite Aggression"; Crise du canal de Suez; מבצע קדש "Operation Kadesh", or מלחמת סיני, "Sinai War") was an invasion of Egypt in late 1956 by Israel, followed by the United Kingdom and France.
Superpower is a term used to describe a state with a dominant position, which is characterised by its extensive ability to exert influence or project power on a global scale.
Swaraj Bhavan (formerly Anand Bhavan, meaning Adobe of Bliss) is a large mansion located in Allahabad, India.
The Swaraj Party, Swarajaya Party or Swarajya Party or Swarajist Party, established as the Congress-Khilafat Swarajaya Party, was a political party formed in India in January 1923 after the Gaya annual conference in December 1922 of the National Congress, that sought greater self-government and political freedom for the Indian people from the British Raj.
Tiruvellore Thattai Krishnamachari (1899–1974) was the Indian Finance Minister from 1956–1958 and from 1964-1966.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
The Teen Murti Bhavan (Teen Murti House) is the former residence of the first Prime Minister of India, Jawaharlal Nehru in Delhi, India, who stayed here for 16 years until his death on May 27, 1964.
The Discovery of India was written by India's first Prime Minister Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru during his imprisonment in 1942–46 at Ahmednagar fort in Maharashtra, India.
The Hindu is an Indian daily newspaper, headquartered at Chennai.
The light has gone out of our lives is a speech that was delivered ex tempore by Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of India, on January 30, 1948 following the assassination of Mahatma Gandhi earlier that evening.
The Times of India (TOI) is an Indian English-language daily newspaper owned by The Times Group.
The Theosophical Society was an organization formed in 1875 by Helena Blavatsky to advance Theosophy.
A treaty series is an officially published collection of treaties and other international agreements.
Trinity College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in England.
The Triple Entente (from French entente "friendship, understanding, agreement") refers to the understanding linking the Russian Empire, the French Third Republic, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland after the signing of the Anglo-Russian Entente on 31 August 1907.
"Tryst with Destiny" was a speech delivered by Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of independent India, to the Indian Constituent Assembly in The Parliament, on the eve of India's Independence, towards midnight on 14 August 1947.
The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
The United Provinces of British India, more commonly known as the United Provinces, was a province of British India, which came into existence on 3 January 1921 as a result of the renaming of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh.
Uttar Pradesh (IAST: Uttar Pradeś) is a state in northern India.
Vengalil Krishnan Krishna Menon (3 May 1896 – 6 October 1974) was an Indian nationalist, diplomat, and politician, described by some as the second most powerful man in India, after his ally, 1st Prime Minister of India Jawaharlal Nehru.
Rao Bahadur Vappala Pangunni Menon, CSI, CIE (30 September 1893 – 31 December 1965) was an Indian civil servant who was the Constitutional Adviser and Political Reforms Commissioner to the last three Viceroys during British rule in India.
Vallabhbhai Jhaverbhai Patel (31 October 1875 – 15 December 1950), popularly known as Sardar Patel, was the first Deputy Prime Minister of India.
Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit (18 August 1900 – 1 December 1990) was an Indian diplomat and politician, the sister of Jawaharlal Nehru, the aunt of Indira Gandhi and the grand-aunt of Rajiv Gandhi, each of whom served as Prime Minister of India.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The Yamuna (Hindustani: /jəmʊnaː/), also known as the Jumna, (not to be mistaken with the Jamuna of Bangladesh) is the longest and the second largest tributary river of the Ganges (Ganga) in northern India.
Yashwantrao Balwantrao Chavan (12 March 1913 – 25 November 1984) was the first Chief Minister of Maharashtra after the division of Bombay State and the fifth Deputy Prime Minister of India.
Zhou Enlai (5 March 1898 – 8 January 1976) was the first Premier of the People's Republic of China, serving from October 1949 until his death in January 1976.
The 14th Dalai Lama (religious name: Tenzin Gyatso, shortened from Jetsun Jamphel Ngawang Lobsang Yeshe Tenzin Gyatso; born Lhamo Thondup, 6 July 1935) is the current Dalai Lama.
The United Kingdom Cabinet Mission of 1946 to India aimed to discuss the transfer of power from the British government to the Indian leadership, with the aim of preserving India's unity and granting it independence.
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