242 relations: Absolute idealism, Academia.edu, Agrégation, Albert Camus, Albert Schweitzer, Alexandre Kojève, Algerian War, Alsace, Amphetamine, Anarchism, André Gide, André Malraux, Andreas Baader, Andy Blunden, Annie Cohen-Solal, Anti-Semite and Jew, Antimilitarism, Antisemitism, Atheism, Authenticity (philosophy), École normale supérieure (Paris), Élisabeth Roudinesco, Bachelor of Arts, Bad faith (existentialism), Being, Being and Nothingness, Being and Time, Berlin, Bertrand Russell, Bourgeoisie, Brian C. Anderson, Catholic Church, Chain smoking, Charles de Gaulle, Charles Lindbergh, Che Guevara, Civil disobedience, Classics, Clive James, Colonialism and Neocolonialism, Combat (newspaper), Conformity, Consciousness, Continental philosophy, Cours Hattemer, Critical theory, Critique of Dialectical Reason, Cuba, Cultural Amnesia (book), Culture, ..., Dirty Hands, Dominique Desanti, Edema, Edmund Husserl, Edward N. Zalta, Emmanuel Levinas, Epistemology, Essay, Ethics, Etiology, Existence precedes essence, Existential phenomenology, Existentialism, Existentialism Is a Humanism, Exotropia, Fernando Sabino, Fidel Castro, François Bondy, Frantz Fanon, Free France, French Army, French Communist Party, French Navy, French Resistance, French Third Republic, Freud: The Secret Passion, Friedrich Nietzsche, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Georges Canguilhem, Gilles Deleuze, Goxwiller, Gustave Flaubert, Gustave Lanson, Harold Bloom, Hélène de Beauvoir, Henri Bergson, Henri Delacroix, Henri Lefebvre, Henri Martin affair, Herbert Marcuse, Hermeneutics, Ian Birchall, Ian Ousby, Immanuel Kant, Index Librorum Prohibitorum, Indochina, Institut Français, Intellectual, Jacques Derrida, Jacques Rancière, Jean Genet, Jean Hyppolite, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Jean-Paul Sartre, Jean-Toussaint Desanti, Journey to the End of the Night, Judith Butler, Karl Marx, Khmer Rouge, La Rochelle, Laon, Lars Gyllensten, Le Figaro, Le Havre, Le Petit Parisien, Legion of Honour, Les Temps modernes, Letter on Humanism, Liberation of Paris, Liberty, Literary criticism, Literature, Look-alike, Louis Althusser, Louis-Ferdinand Céline, Lycée Condorcet, Lycée Pasteur (Neuilly-sur-Seine), Manifesto, Manifesto of the 121, Mao Zedong, Maoism, Marcel Déat, Marcel Proust, Martin Heidegger, Marxism, Master of Arts, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, May 1968 events in France, Media prank, Metaphysics, Meteorology, Meudon, Michael Walzer, Michel Foucault, Monogamy, Montparnasse Cemetery, Morality, Nancy, France, National Liberation Front (Algeria), Nausea (novel), Néstor Almendros, No Exit, Nobel Prize in Literature, Ontology, Open relationship, Oran, Organisation armée secrète, Otto von Stülpnagel, Padoux, Paper cutter, Paris, Paul Johnson (writer), Paul Nizan, Père Lachaise Cemetery, Phenomenology (philosophy), Political philosophy, Postcolonialism, Practical joke, Pragmatism, Prisoner of war, R. D. Laing, Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, Rationalism, Raymond Aron, Red Army Faction, Reification (fallacy), Review, Richard Webster (British author), Richard Wollheim, Robert Brasillach, Rubem Braga, Rue Bonaparte, Russell Tribunal, Saint Genet, Satire, Søren Kierkegaard, Search for a Method, Secondary education in France, Self-consciousness, Self-determination, Sigmund Freud, Simone de Beauvoir, Situation (Sartre), Sketch for a Theory of the Emotions, Society, Sociology, Spanish Civil War, Stalinism, Stammheim Prison, Suzanne Lilar, Svenska Dagbladet, The Age of Reason (novel), The Chips Are Down (screenplay), The Condemned of Altona, The Devil and the Good Lord, The Flies, The Imaginary (Sartre), The Independent, The Nation, The New York Times, The Phenomenology of Spirit, The Proud and the Beautiful, The Rebel (book), The Reprieve, The Respectful Prostitute, The Roads to Freedom, The Transcendence of the Ego, The Wall (short story collection), The Wall Street Journal, The Words (book), The Wretched of the Earth, Theatre, Thomas Baldwin (philosopher), Thus Spoke Zarathustra, Time and Free Will, Tribunal, Trier, Troubled Sleep, University of Paris, Vichy anti-Jewish legislation, Vietnam War, Vladimir Jankélévitch, Voltaire, War crime, Władysław Gomułka, Western Marxism, Western philosophy, What Is Literature?, Wilfrid Desan, Young Marx, 20th-century French philosophy, 20th-century philosophy. Expand index (192 more) » « Shrink index
Absolute idealism is an ontologically monistic philosophy "chiefly associated with G. W. F. Hegel and Friedrich Schelling, both German idealist philosophers of the 19th century, Josiah Royce, an American philosopher, and others, but, in its essentials, the product of Hegel".
Academia.edu is a for-profit American social networking website for academics.
In France, the agrégation is a competitive examination for civil service in the French public education system.
Albert Camus (7 November 1913 – 4 January 1960) was a French philosopher, author, and journalist.
Albert Schweitzer, OM (14 January 1875 – 4 September 1965) was a French-German theologian, organist, writer, humanitarian, philosopher, and physician.
Alexandre Kojève (28 April 1902 – 4 June 1968) was a Russian-born French philosopher and statesman whose philosophical seminars had an immense influence on 20th-century French philosophy, particularly via his integration of Hegelian concepts into twentieth century continental philosophy.
Alsace (Alsatian: ’s Elsass; German: Elsass; Alsatia) is a cultural and historical region in eastern France, on the west bank of the upper Rhine next to Germany and Switzerland.
Amphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.
Anarchism is a political philosophy that advocates self-governed societies based on voluntary institutions.
André Paul Guillaume Gide (22 November 1869 – 19 February 1951) was a French author and winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature.
André Malraux DSO (3 November 1901 – 23 November 1976) was a French novelist, art theorist and Minister of Cultural Affairs.
Berndt Andreas Baader (6 May 1943 – 18 October 1977) was one of the first leaders of the German left-wing militant organization Red Army Faction, also commonly known as the Baader-Meinhof Group.
Andy Blunden (born 11 October 1945) is an Australian writer and Marxist philosopher based in Melbourne.
Annie Cohen-Solal is a French sociologist, academic and writer.
Anti-Semite and Jew (Réflexions sur la question juive, "Reflections on the Jewish Question") is an essay about antisemitism written by Jean-Paul Sartre shortly after the liberation of Paris from German occupation in 1944.
Antimilitarism (also spelt anti-militarism) is a doctrine that opposes war, relying heavily on a critical theory of imperialism and was an explicit goal of the First and Second International.
Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
Authenticity is a concept in psychology (in particular existential psychiatry) as well as existentialist philosophy and aesthetics (in regard to various arts and musical genres).
The École normale supérieure (also known as Normale sup', Ulm, ENS Paris, l'École and most often just as ENS) is one of the most selective and prestigious French grandes écoles (higher education establishment outside the framework of the public university system) and a constituent college of Université PSL.
Élisabeth Roudinesco (Rudinescu; born 10 September 1944) is a French historian and psychoanalyst, affiliated researcher in history at Paris Diderot University, in the group « Identités-Cultures-Territoires ». She also conducts a seminar on the history of psychoanalysis at the École Normale Supérieure.
A Bachelor of Arts (BA or AB, from the Latin baccalaureus artium or artium baccalaureus) is a bachelor's degree awarded for an undergraduate course or program in either the liberal arts, sciences, or both.
Bad faith (French: mauvaise foi) is a philosophical concept utilized by existentialist philosophers Simone de Beauvoir and Jean-Paul Sartre to describe the phenomenon in which human beings, under pressure from social forces, adopt false values and disown their innate freedom, hence acting inauthentically.
Being is the general concept encompassing objective and subjective features of reality and existence.
Being and Nothingness: An Essay on Phenomenological Ontology (L'Être et le néant: Essai d'ontologie phénoménologique), sometimes published with the subtitle A Phenomenological Essay on Ontology, is a 1943 book by the philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre, in which the author asserts the individual's existence as prior to the individual's essence ("existence precedes essence") and seeks to demonstrate that free will exists.
Being and Time (Sein und Zeit) is a 1927 book by the German philosopher Martin Heidegger, in which the author seeks to analyse the concept of Being.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, social critic, political activist, and Nobel laureate.
The bourgeoisie is a polysemous French term that can mean.
Brian C. Anderson is an American writer and editor of City Journal, a quarterly magazine, published by the Manhattan Institute for Policy Research.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Chain smoking is the practice of smoking several cigarettes in succession, sometimes using the ember of a finished cigarette to light the next.
Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French general and statesman who led the French Resistance against Nazi Germany in World War II and chaired the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 1944 to 1946 in order to reestablish democracy in France.
Charles Augustus Lindbergh (February 4, 1902 – August 26, 1974), nicknamed Lucky Lindy, The Lone Eagle, and Slim was an American aviator, military officer, author, inventor, explorer, and environmental activist.
Ernesto "Che" Guevara (June 14, 1928 – October 9, 1967)The date of birth recorded on was June 14, 1928, although one tertiary source, (Julia Constenla, quoted by Jon Lee Anderson), asserts that he was actually born on May 14 of that year.
Civil disobedience is the active, professed refusal of a citizen to obey certain laws, demands, orders or commands of a government or occupying international power.
Classics or classical studies is the study of classical antiquity.
Vivian Leopold James, AO, CBE, FRSL (born 7 October 1939), known as Clive James, is an Australian author, critic, broadcaster, poet, translator and memoirist, best known for his autobiographical series Unreliable Memoirs, for his chat shows and documentaries on British television and for his prolific journalism.
Colonialism and Neocolonialism by Jean-Paul Sartre (first published in French in 1964) is a controversial and influential critique of French policies in Algeria.
Combat was a French newspaper created during the Second World War.
Conformity is the act of matching attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors to group norms.
Consciousness is the state or quality of awareness, or, of being aware of an external object or something within oneself.
Continental philosophy is a set of 19th- and 20th-century philosophical traditions from mainland Europe.
Cours Hattemer is a French private, secular school.
Critical theory is a school of thought that stresses the reflective assessment and critique of society and culture by applying knowledge from the social sciences and the humanities.
Critique of Dialectical Reason (Critique de la raison dialectique) is a 1960 book by the philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre, in which the author further develops the existentialist Marxism he first expounded in his essay Search for a Method (1957).
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
Cultural Amnesia is a book of biographical essays by Clive James, first published in 2007.
Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.
Dirty Hands (Les mains sales) is a play by Jean-Paul Sartre.
Dominique Desanti (1920 – April 8, 2011) was a French journalist, novelist, educator and biographer.
Edema, also spelled oedema or œdema, is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitium, located beneath the skin and in the cavities of the body, which can cause severe pain.
Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl (or;; 8 April 1859 – 27 April 1938) was a German philosopher who established the school of phenomenology.
Edward N. Zalta (born March 16, 1952) is a senior research scholar at the Center for the Study of Language and Information.
Emmanuel Levinas (12 January 1906 – 25 December 1995) was a French philosopher of Lithuanian Jewish ancestry who is known for his work related to Jewish philosophy, existentialism, ethics, phenomenology and ontology.
Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.
An essay is, generally, a piece of writing that gives the author's own argument — but the definition is vague, overlapping with those of a paper, an article, a pamphlet, and a short story.
Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.
Etiology (alternatively aetiology or ætiology) is the study of causation, or origination.
The proposition that existence precedes essence (l'existence précède l'essence) is a central claim of existentialism, which reverses the traditional philosophical view that the essence (the nature) of a thing is more fundamental and immutable than its existence (the mere fact of its being).
Existential phenomenology is Martin Heidegger's brand of phenomenology.
Existentialism is a tradition of philosophical inquiry associated mainly with certain 19th and 20th-century European philosophers who, despite profound doctrinal differences,Oxford Companion to Philosophy, ed.
Existentialism Is a Humanism (L'existentialisme est un humanisme) is a 1946 work by the philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre, based on a lecture by the same name he gave at Club Maintenant in Paris, on 29 October 1945.
Exotropia is a form of strabismus where the eyes are deviated outward.
Fernando Tavares Sabino (October 12, 1923 – October 11, 2004) was a Brazilian writer and journalist.
Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (August 13, 1926 – November 25, 2016) was a Cuban communist revolutionary and politician who governed the Republic of Cuba as Prime Minister from 1959 to 1976 and then as President from 1976 to 2008.
François Bondy (born in Berlin, 1 January 1915, died in Zurich on 27 May 2003) was a Swiss journalist and novelist.
Frantz Fanon (20 July 1925 – 6 December 1961) was a Martinican psychiatrist, philosopher, revolutionary, and writer whose works are influential in the fields of post-colonial studies, critical theory, and Marxism.
Free France and its Free French Forces (French: France Libre and Forces françaises libres) were the government-in-exile led by Charles de Gaulle during the Second World War and its military forces, that continued to fight against the Axis powers as one of the Allies after the fall of France.
The French Army, officially the Ground Army (Armée de terre) (to distinguish it from the French Air Force, Armée de L'air or Air Army) is the land-based and largest component of the French Armed Forces.
The French Communist Party (Parti communiste français, PCF) is a communist party in France.
The French Navy (Marine Nationale), informally "La Royale", is the maritime arm of the French Armed Forces.
The French Resistance (La Résistance) was the collection of French movements that fought against the Nazi German occupation of France and against the collaborationist Vichy régime during the Second World War.
The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870 when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War until 1940 when France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.
Freud: The Secret Passion, also known as Freud, is a 1962 American biographical film drama based on the life of the Austrian psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud, directed by John Huston and starring Montgomery Clift as Freud.
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, philologist and a Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history.
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and the most important figure of German idealism.
Georges Canguilhem (or; 4 June 1904 – 11 September 1995) was a French philosopher and physician who specialized in epistemology and the philosophy of science (in particular, biology).
Gilles Deleuze (18 January 1925 – 4 November 1995) was a French philosopher who, from the early 1960s until his death in 1995, wrote on philosophy, literature, film, and fine art.
Goxwiller is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Alsace in northeastern France.
Gustave Flaubert (12 December 1821 – 8 May 1880) was a French novelist.
Gustave Lanson (5 August 1857 – 15 December 1934) was a French historian and literary critic.
Harold Bloom (born July 11, 1930) is an American literary critic and Sterling Professor of Humanities at Yale University.
Henriette-Hélène de Beauvoir (6 June 1910, Paris – 1 July 2001, Goxwiller) was a French painter.
Henri-Louis Bergson (18 October 1859 – 4 January 1941) was a French-Jewish philosopher who was influential in the tradition of continental philosophy, especially during the first half of the 20th century until World War II.
Henri Delacroix (2 December 1873, Paris – 3 December 1937, Paris) was a French psychologist, "one of the most famous and most prolific French psychologists working at the beginning of century." Born in Paris, Henri Delacroix was educated at the Lycée Henri-IV and the Sorbonne, gaining his agrégation in philosophy in 1894.
Henri Lefebvre (16 June 1901 – 29 June 1991) was a French Marxist philosopher and sociologist, best known for pioneering the critique of everyday life, for introducing the concepts of the right to the city and the production of social space, and for his work on dialectics, alienation, and criticism of Stalinism, existentialism, and structuralism.
The Henri Martin affair was a political-military scandal that occurred under the French Fourth Republic during the First Indochina War in the early 1950s.
Herbert Marcuse (July 19, 1898 – July 29, 1979) was a German-American philosopher, sociologist, and political theorist, associated with the Frankfurt School of Critical Theory.
Hermeneutics is the theory and methodology of interpretation, especially the interpretation of biblical texts, wisdom literature, and philosophical texts.
Ian Birchall (born 1939) is a British Marxist historian and translator, a former member of the Socialist Workers Party and author of numerous articles and books, particularly relating to the French Left.
Ian Vaughan Kenneth Ousby (26 June 1947 – 6 August 2001) was a British historian, author and editor.
Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.
The Index Librorum Prohibitorum (List of Prohibited Books) was a list of publications deemed heretical, or contrary to morality by the Sacred Congregation of the Index (a former Dicastery of the Roman Curia) and thus Catholics were forbidden to read them.
Indochina, originally Indo-China, is a geographical term originating in the early nineteenth century and referring to the continental portion of the region now known as Southeast Asia.
The Institut Français (French capitalization, Institut français; "French institute") is a French public industrial and commercial organization (EPIC).
An intellectual is a person who engages in critical thinking, research, and reflection about society and proposes solutions for its normative problems.
Jacques Derrida (born Jackie Élie Derrida;. See also. July 15, 1930 – October 9, 2004) was a French Algerian-born philosopher best known for developing a form of semiotic analysis known as deconstruction, which he discussed in numerous texts, and developed in the context of phenomenology.
Jacques Rancière (born 1940) is a French philosopher, Professor of Philosophy at European Graduate School in Saas-Fee and Emeritus Professor of Philosophy at the University of Paris VIII: Vincennes—Saint-Denis who came to prominence when he co-authored Reading Capital (1968), with the structuralist Marxist philosopher Louis Althusser.
Jean Genet (–) was a French novelist, playwright, poet, essayist, and political activist.
Jean Hyppolite (January 8, 1907 – October 26, 1968) was a French philosopher known for championing the work of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, and other German philosophers, and educating some of France's most prominent post-war thinkers.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Genevan philosopher, writer and composer.
Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (21 June 1905 – 15 April 1980) was a French philosopher, playwright, novelist, political activist, biographer, and literary critic.
Jean-Toussaint Desanti (October 8, 1914 – January 20, 2002) was a French educator and philosopher known for his work on both the philosophy of mathematics and phenomenology.
Journey to the End of the Night (Voyage au bout de la nuit, 1932) is the first novel by Louis-Ferdinand Céline.
Judith Butler FBA (born February 24, 1956) is an American philosopher and gender theorist whose work has influenced political philosophy, ethics and the fields of third-wave feminist, queer and literary theory.
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
The Khmer Rouge ("Red Khmers"; ខ្មែរក្រហម Khmer Kror-Horm) was the name popularly given to the followers of the Communist Party of Kampuchea and by extension to the regime through which the CPK ruled Cambodia between 1975 and 1979.
La Rochelle is a city in western France and a seaport on the Bay of Biscay, a part of the Atlantic Ocean.
Laon is the capital city of the Aisne department in Hauts-de-France, northern France.
Lars Johan Wictor Gyllensten (12 November 1921 – 25 May 2006) was a Swedish author and physician, and a member of the Swedish Academy, which has the aim of furthering the "purity, vigour and majesty" of the Swedish language and selects the recipient of the Nobel Prize for Literature each year.
Le Figaro is a French daily morning newspaper founded in 1826 and published in Paris.
Le Havre, historically called Newhaven in English, is an urban French commune and city in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region of northwestern France.
Le Petit Parisien was a prominent French newspaper during the French Third Republic.
The Legion of Honour, with its full name National Order of the Legion of Honour (Ordre national de la Légion d'honneur), is the highest French order of merit for military and civil merits, established in 1802 by Napoléon Bonaparte and retained by all the divergent governments and regimes later holding power in France, up to the present.
Les Temps modernes (Modern Times) is a French journal whose first issue appeared in October 1945.
Letter on Humanism (Brief über den Humanismus) refers to a famous letter written by Martin Heidegger in December 1946 in response to a series of questions by Jean Beaufret (10 November 1946) about the development of French existentialism.
The Liberation of Paris (also known as the Battle for Paris and Belgium; Libération de Paris) was a military action that took place during World War II from 19 August 1944 until the German garrison surrendered the French capital on 25 August 1944.
Liberty, in politics, consists of the social, political, and economic freedoms to which all community members are entitled.
Literary criticism (or literary studies) is the study, evaluation, and interpretation of literature.
Literature, most generically, is any body of written works.
A look-alike, double, or doppelgänger is a person who closely resembles another person in appearance.
Louis Pierre Althusser (16 October 1918 – 22 October 1990) was a French Marxist philosopher.
Louis-Ferdinand Céline was the pen name of Louis Ferdinand Auguste Destouches (27 May 1894 – 1 July 1961), a French novelist, pamphleteer and physician.
The Lycée Condorcet is a school founded in 1803 in Paris, France, located at 8, rue du Havre, in the city's 9th arrondissement.
The Lycée Pasteur (French: Lycée Pasteur de Neuilly-sur-Seine) is a French state-run secondary school in Neuilly-sur-Seine, on the outskirts of Paris.
A manifesto is a published verbal declaration of the intentions, motives, or views of the issuer, be it an individual, group, political party or government.
The Manifesto of the 121 (Manifeste des 121, full title: Déclaration sur le droit à l’insoumission dans la guerre d’Algérie or Declaration on the right of insubordination in the Algerian War) was an open letter signed by 121 intellectuals and published on 6 September 1960 in the magazine Vérité-Liberté.
Mao Zedong (December 26, 1893September 9, 1976), commonly known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who became the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he ruled as the Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976.
Maoism, known in China as Mao Zedong Thought, is a political theory derived from the teachings of the Chinese political leader Mao Zedong, whose followers are known as Maoists.
Marcel Déat (7 March 1894 – 5 January 1955) was a French socialist politician until 1933, when he initiated a spin-off from the French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO) along with other right-wing 'Neosocialists'.
Valentin Louis Georges Eugène Marcel Proust (10 July 1871 – 18 November 1922), known as Marcel Proust, was a French novelist, critic, and essayist best known for his monumental novel À la recherche du temps perdu (In Search of Lost Time; earlier rendered as Remembrance of Things Past), published in seven parts between 1913 and 1927.
Martin Heidegger (26 September 188926 May 1976) was a German philosopher and a seminal thinker in the Continental tradition and philosophical hermeneutics, and is "widely acknowledged to be one of the most original and important philosophers of the 20th century." Heidegger is best known for his contributions to phenomenology and existentialism, though as the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy cautions, "his thinking should be identified as part of such philosophical movements only with extreme care and qualification".
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
A Master of Arts (Magister Artium; abbreviated MA; also Artium Magister, abbreviated AM) is a person who was admitted to a type of master's degree awarded by universities in many countries, and the degree is also named Master of Arts in colloquial speech.
Maurice Merleau-Ponty (14 March 1908 – 3 May 1961) was a French phenomenological philosopher, strongly influenced by Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger.
The volatile period of civil unrest in France during May 1968 was punctuated by demonstrations and massive general strikes as well as the occupation of universities and factories across France.
A media prank is a type of media event, perpetrated by staged speeches, activities, or press releases, designed to trick legitimate journalists into publishing erroneous or misleading articles.
Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.
Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with a major focus on weather forecasting.
Meudon is a municipality in the southwestern suburbs of Paris, France.
Michael Walzer (March 3, 1935) is a prominent American political theorist and public intellectual.
Paul-Michel Foucault (15 October 1926 – 25 June 1984), generally known as Michel Foucault, was a French philosopher, historian of ideas, social theorist, and literary critic.
Monogamy is a form of relationship in which an individual has only one partner during their lifetime — alternately, only one partner at any one time (serial monogamy) — as compared to non-monogamy (e.g., polygamy or polyamory).
Montparnasse Cemetery (Cimetière du Montparnasse) is a cemetery in the Montparnasse quarter of Paris, part of the city's 14th arrondissement.
Morality (from) is the differentiation of intentions, decisions and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper.
Nancy (Nanzig) is the capital of the north-eastern French department of Meurthe-et-Moselle, and formerly the capital of the Duchy of Lorraine, and then the French province of the same name.
The National Liberation Front (جبهة التحرير الوطني Jabhatu l-Taḥrīru l-Waṭanī; Front de libération nationale, FLN) is a socialist political party in Algeria.
Nausea (La Nausée) is a philosophical novel by the existentialist philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre, published in 1938.
Néstor Almendros Cuyás A.S.C. (30 October 1930 – 4 March 1992) was a Spanish cinematographer.
No Exit (Huis Clos) is a 1944 existentialist French play by Jean-Paul Sartre.
The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur) is a Swedish literature prize that has been awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: "den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning").
Ontology (introduced in 1606) is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations.
An open relationship is an intimate relationship which is consensually non-monogamous.
Oran (وَهران, Wahrān; Berber language: ⵡⴻⵂⵔⴰⵏ, Wehran) is a major coastal city located in the north-west of Algeria.
The Organisation armée secrète or OAS (meaning Secret Army Organisation) was a short-lived right-wing French dissident paramilitary organization during the Algerian War (1954–62).
Otto von Stülpnagel (16 June 1878 – 6 February 1948) was a German military commander of occupied France during the Second World War.
Padoux is a commune in the Vosges department in Grand Est in northeastern France.
A paper cutter (also known as a paper trimmer, and sometimes described as a "paper guillotine") is a tool often found in offices and classrooms, designed to cut a large set of paper sheets at once with a straight edge.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
Paul Bede Johnson (born 2 November 1928) is an English journalist, popular historian, speechwriter, and author.
Paul-Yves Nizan (7 February 1905 – 23 May 1940) was a French philosopher and writer.
Cemetery (Cimetière du Père-Lachaise,; formerly,, "Cemetery of the East") is the largest cemetery in the city of Paris, although there are larger cemeteries in the city's suburbs.
Phenomenology (from Greek phainómenon "that which appears" and lógos "study") is the philosophical study of the structures of experience and consciousness.
Political philosophy, or political theory, is the study of topics such as politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law, and the enforcement of laws by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what, if anything, makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it should take and why, what the law is, and what duties citizens owe to a legitimate government, if any, and when it may be legitimately overthrown, if ever.
Postcolonialism or postcolonial studies is the academic study of the cultural legacy of colonialism and imperialism, focusing on the human consequences of the control and exploitation of colonised people and their lands.
A practical joke, or prank, is a mischievous trick played on someone, generally causing the victim to experience embarrassment, perplexity, confusion, or discomfort.
Pragmatism is a philosophical tradition that began in the United States around 1870.
A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.
Ronald David Laing (7 October 1927 – 23 August 1989), usually cited as R. D. Laing, was a Scottish psychiatrist who wrote extensively on mental illnessin particular, the experience of psychosis.
Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary is a large American dictionary, first published in 1966 as The Random House Dictionary of the English Language: The Unabridged Edition.
In philosophy, rationalism is the epistemological view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification".
Raymond Claude Ferdinand Aron (14 March 1905 – 17 October 1983) was a French philosopher, sociologist, political scientist, and journalist. He is best known for his 1955 book The Opium of the Intellectuals, the title of which inverts Karl Marx's claim that religion was the opium of the people – Aron argues that in post-war France, Marxism was the opium of the intellectuals.
The Red Army Faction (RAF; German),See the section ''Faction'' versus ''Fraktion'' also known as the Baader-Meinhof Group or Baader-Meinhof Gang, was a West German far-left militant organization founded in 1970.
Reification (also known as concretism, hypostatization, or the fallacy of misplaced concreteness) is a fallacy of ambiguity, when an abstraction (abstract belief or hypothetical construct) is treated as if it were a concrete real event or physical entity.
A review is an evaluation of a publication, service, or company such as a movie (a movie review), video game (video game review), musical composition (music review of a composition or recording), book (book review); a piece of hardware like a car, home appliance, or computer; or an event or performance, such as a live music concert, play, musical theater show, dance show, or art exhibition.
Richard Webster (17 December 1950 – 24 June 2011) was a British author.
Richard Arthur Wollheim (5 May 1923 – 4 November 2003) was a British philosopher noted for original work on mind and emotions, especially as related to the visual arts, specifically, painting.
Robert Brasillach (31 March 1909 – 6 February 1945) was a French author and journalist.
Rubem Braga (12 January 1913 - 19 December 1990) was a Brazilian writer of short stories.
Rue Bonaparte is a street in the 6th arrondissement of Paris.
The Russell Tribunal, also known as the International War Crimes Tribunal, Russell-Sartre Tribunal, or Stockholm Tribunal, was a private body organised by British philosopher and Nobel Prize winner Bertrand Russell and hosted by French philosopher and writer Jean-Paul Sartre.
Saint Genet, Actor and Martyr (Saint Genet, comédien et martyr) is a book by the French philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre about the writer Jean Genet especially on his The Thief's Journal.
Satire is a genre of literature, and sometimes graphic and performing arts, in which vices, follies, abuses, and shortcomings are held up to ridicule, ideally with the intent of shaming individuals, corporations, government, or society itself into improvement.
Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (5 May 1813 – 11 November 1855) was a Danish philosopher, theologian, poet, social critic and religious author who is widely considered to be the first existentialist philosopher.
Search for a Method or The Problem of Method (Questions de méthode) is a 1957 essay by Jean-Paul Sartre, in which he attempts to reconcile Marxism with existentialism.
In France, secondary education is in two stages.
Self-consciousness is a heightened sense of self-awareness.
The right of people to self-determination is a cardinal principle in modern international law (commonly regarded as a jus cogens rule), binding, as such, on the United Nations as authoritative interpretation of the Charter's norms.
Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.
Simone Lucie Ernestine Marie Bertrand de Beauvoir (or;; 9 January 1908 – 14 April 1986) was a French writer, intellectual, existentialist philosopher, political activist, feminist and social theorist.
One of the first times in which Jean-Paul Sartre discussed the concept of situation (situation) was in his 1943 Being and Nothingness, where he famously said that Earlier in 1939, in his short story The Childhood of a Leader, collected in his famous The Wall, referring to a fake turd, he said that in pranks "There is more destructive power in them than in all the works of Lenin." Another famous use of the term was in 1945, in his editorial of the first issue of Les Temps modernes (Modern Times); arguing the principle of the responsibility of the intellectual towards his own times and the principle of an engaged literature, he summarized: "the writer is in a situation with his epoch." An, influential use of the concept was in the context of theatre, in his 1947 essay For a Theatre of Situations.
Sketch for a Theory of the Emotions (Esquisse d'une théorie des émotions) is a 1939 book by Jean-Paul Sartre.
A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.
Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture.
The Spanish Civil War (Guerra Civil Española),Also known as The Crusade (La Cruzada) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War (Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlists, and The Rebellion (La Rebelión) or Uprising (Sublevación) among Republicans.
Stalinism is the means of governing and related policies implemented from the 1920s to 1953 by Joseph Stalin (1878–1953).
Stammheim Prison (Justizvollzugsanstalt Stuttgart-Stammheim) is a prison in Stuttgart, Baden Württemberg, Germany.
Baroness Suzanne Lilar (née Suzanne Verbist; 21 May 1901 – 12 December 1992) was a Flemish Belgian essayist, novelist, and playwright writing in French.
Svenska Dagbladet ("The Swedish Daily News"), abbreviated SvD, is a daily newspaper published in Stockholm, Sweden.
The Age of Reason (L'âge de raison) is a 1945 novel by Jean-Paul Sartre.
The Chips Are Down (Les jeux sont faits) is a screenplay written by Jean-Paul Sartre in 1943 and published in 1947.
The Condemned of Altona (French: Les Séquestrés d'Altona) is a play written by Jean-Paul Sartre, known in Great Britain as Loser Wins.
The Devil and the Good Lord (Le Diable et le Bon Dieu) is a 1951 play by French philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre.
The Flies (Les Mouches) is a play by Jean-Paul Sartre, written in 1943.
The Imaginary: A Phenomenological Psychology of the Imagination (L'Imaginaire: Psychologie phénoménologique de l'imagination), also published under the title The Psychology of the Imagination, is a 1940 book by Jean-Paul Sartre, in which he propounds his concept of the imagination and discusses what the existence of imagination shows about the nature of human consciousness.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
The Nation is the oldest continuously published weekly magazine in the United States, and the most widely read weekly journal of progressive political and cultural news, opinion, and analysis.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Phenomenology of Spirit (Phänomenologie des Geistes) (1807) is Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel's most widely discussed philosophical work.
The Proud and the Beautiful (Les Orgueilleux, sub-title: Alvarado) is a 1953 Franco-Mexican co-production drama directed by Yves Allégret.
The Rebel (L'Homme révolté) is a 1951 book-length essay by Albert Camus, which treats both the metaphysical and the historical development of rebellion and revolution in societies, especially Western Europe.
The Reprieve (Le sursis) is a 1945 novel by Jean-Paul Sartre.
The Respectful Prostitute (La Putain respectueuse) is a French play by Jean-Paul Sartre, written in 1946, which observes a woman, a prostitute, caught up in a racially tense period of American history.
The Roads to Freedom (Les chemins de la liberté) is a series of novels by Jean-Paul Sartre.
The Transcendence of the Ego (La Transcendance de l'ego: Esquisse d'une description phénomenologique) is a philosophical and psychological essay written by Jean-Paul Sartre in 1934 and published in 1936.
The Wall (Le Mur) by Jean-Paul Sartre, a collection of short stories published in 1939 containing the eponymous story "The Wall," is considered one of the author's greatest existentialist works of fiction.
The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.
The Words (Les Mots) is Jean-Paul Sartre's 1963 autobiography.
The Wretched of the Earth (Les Damnés de la Terre) is a 1961 book by Frantz Fanon, in which the author provides a psychiatric and psychologic analysis of the dehumanizing effects of colonization upon the individual and the nation, and discusses the broader social, cultural, and political implications inherent to establishing a social movement for the decolonization of a person and of a people.
Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of fine art that uses live performers, typically actors or actresses, to present the experience of a real or imagined event before a live audience in a specific place, often a stage.
Thomas R. Baldwin (born 1947) is a British philosopher and professor of philosophy at the University of York.
Thus Spoke Zarathustra: A Book for All and None (Also sprach Zarathustra: Ein Buch für Alle und Keinen, also translated as Thus Spake Zarathustra) is a comedic philosophical novel by German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, composed in four parts between 1883 and 1885 and published between 1883 and 1891.
Time and Free Will: An Essay on the Immediate Data of Consciousness (French: Essai sur les données immédiates de la conscience) is Henri Bergson's doctoral thesis, first published in 1889.
A tribunal, generally, is any person or institution with authority to judge, adjudicate on, or determine claims or disputes—whether or not it is called a tribunal in its title.
Trier (Tréier), formerly known in English as Treves (Trèves) and Triers (see also names in other languages), is a city in Germany on the banks of the Moselle.
Troubled Sleep (La mort dans l'âme) is a 1949 novel by Jean-Paul Sartre.
The University of Paris (Université de Paris), metonymically known as the Sorbonne (one of its buildings), was a university in Paris, France, from around 1150 to 1793, and from 1806 to 1970.
Anti-Jewish laws were enacted by the Vichy France government in 1940 and 1941 affecting metropolitan France and its overseas territories during World War II.
The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.
Vladimir Jankélévitch (31 August 1903 – 6 June 1985) was a French philosopher and musicologist.
François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on Christianity as a whole, especially the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech and separation of church and state.
A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the laws of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility.
Władysław Gomułka (6 February 1905 – 1 September 1982) was a Polish communist politician.
Western Marxism is Marxist theory arising from Western and Central Europe in the aftermath of the 1917 October Revolution in Russia and the ascent of Leninism.
Western philosophy is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world.
What Is Literature? (Qu'est-ce que la littérature?), also published as Literature and Existentialism) is an essay by French philosopher and novelist Jean-Paul Sartre, published by Gallimard in 1948. Initially published in freestanding essays across French literary journals Les Temps modernes, Situations I and Situations II, essays "What is Writing?" and "Why Write?" were translated into English and published by the Paris-based literary journal Transition 1948. The English translation by Bernard Frechtman was published in 1950.
Wilfrid Desan (1908– 14 January 2001) was a professor in philosophy best known for introducing French existentialism and especially the thought of Jean-Paul Sartre to the United States.
Some theorists consider Karl Marx's thought to be divided into a "young" period and a "mature" one.
20th-century French philosophy is a strand of contemporary philosophy generally associated with post-World War II French thinkers, although it is directly influenced by previous philosophical movements.
20th-century philosophy saw the development of a number of new philosophical schools—including logical positivism, analytic philosophy, phenomenology, existentialism, and poststructuralism.
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