218 relations: Adam, Alexander Geddes, Alexander Harkavy, Allah, Allophone, American Standard Version, Amplified Bible, An American Translation, Aquila of Sinope, Babylonian vocalization, Baker Publishing Group, Benjamin Kennicott, Benjamin Wilson (biblical scholar), Bishops' Bible, British and Foreign Bible Society, Cambridge University Press, Charles IX of Sweden, Christian Community Bible, Cipriano de Valera, Coat of arms, Common English Bible, Confessor, Consonant, Contemporary English Version, Critici sacri, Cwm Rhondda, Darby Bible, De Interpretatione, Dead Sea Scrolls, Demetrius of Phalerum, Diacritic, Douay–Rheims Bible, El (deity), Elia Levita, Elohim, Emil G. Hirsch, Emphasized Bible, Emphatic Diaglott, English Standard Version, Enki, Enlil, Ernst Friedrich Karl Rosenmüller, Eusebius, Five Pauline Epistles, A New Translation, Fulton Oursler, Geneva Bible, Gerrit Verkuyl, Glottal stop, God, God in Christianity, ..., God in Islam, God in Judaism, God in Mormonism, God in the Bahá'í Faith, God the Father, God's Word Translation, Godfrey Rolles Driver, Good News Bible, Great Bible, Greek language, Green's Literal Translation, Guttural, Hebrew language, Hellenistic period, Henry Ainsworth, Henry Walter (antiquary), Hillel the Elder, Holman Christian Standard Bible, Hymn, I Am that I Am, Immanuel Tremellius, Isaiah, J, Jacob Alting, Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples, Jah, Jay P. Green, Jehovah's Witnesses, Jeremiah, Jerome, Jerusalem Bible, Jerusalem Talmud, Jesus, Johann Friedrich von Meyer, Johann Leusden, Johannes Buxtorf, Johannes Buxtorf II, John Calvin, John Gill (theologian), John Nelson Darby, John Owen (theologian), Josephus, Joshua, Julia E. Smith Parker Translation, Kabbalah, Karaite Judaism, Katharevousa, Kenneth N. Taylor, King James Only movement, King James Version, Kuzari, Late antiquity, Latin, Latinisation of names, Leo Jud, Lexham English Bible, List of English Bible translations, Literal English Version, Liturgical book, Louis Cappel, Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg, Masoretes, Masoretic Text, Matthew Bible, Matthew Poole, Messianic Bible translations, Middle Ages, Modern English Version, Modern Language Bible, Moffatt, New Translation, Mormonism, Morphology (linguistics), Multilingualism, Myles Coverdale, Names of God, Names of God in Judaism, Neophytos Vamvas, New American Bible, New American Standard Bible, New Century Version, New English Bible, New International Reader's Version, New International Version, New Jerusalem Bible, New King James Version, New Living Translation, New Revised Standard Version, New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures, Nicholas Fuller, Nicholas of Cusa, Niqqud, Noah Webster, Oral law, Oral Torah, Order of Jehova, Origen, Paul Fagius, Peshitta, Petrus Alphonsi, Philo, Phoneme, Phonetics, Pietro Colonna Galatino, Pistis Sophia, Pope Leo X, Porchetus, Praeparatio evangelica, Protestantism, Ptolemy II Philadelphus, Qere and Ketiv, Rabbi, Rabbinic Judaism, Raymond Martini, Recovery Version, Redaction, Reformation, Reina-Valera, Revised Standard Version, Revised Version, Robert Estienne, Robert Young (biblical scholar), Saadia Gaon, Sacred Name Bible, Sacred Scriptures Bethel Edition, Samaritans, Sanchuniathon, Sebastian Münster, Second Temple Judaism, Semitic languages, Septuagint, Shammai, Sixtinus Amama, Steven T. Byington, Strong's Concordance, Symmachus (translator), Talmud, Tanakh, Targum, Tetragrammaton, The Bible in Living English, The Living Bible, The Voice (Bible translation), Theodotion, Theophoric name, Third Millennium Bible, Thomas Gataker, Tiberian vocalization, Tittle, Torah, Tyndale House, U, University of Marburg, V, Vulgate, Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania, Webster's Revision, Wilhelm Gesenius, William Fulke, William Gunion Rutherford, William Robertson Smith, William Tyndale, World English Bible, Worms, Germany, Yahweh, Yam (god), Young's Literal Translation, Zohar, 21st Century King James Version. Expand index (168 more) » « Shrink index
Adam (ʾĀdam; Adám) is the name used in the opening chapters of the Book of Genesis for the first man created by God, but it is also used in a collective sense as "mankind" and individually as "a human".
Alexander Geddes (14 September 1737 – 26 February 1802) was a Scottish theologian and scholar.
Alexander Harkavy (אַלכּסנדר האַרקאַווי, Александр Гаркави, Aleksandr Garkavi; May 5, 1863 at Nowogrudok, Minsk guberniya (governorate), Russian Empire (now Navahrudak, Hrodna Voblast, Belarus) - 1939 in New York City) was a Russian-born American writer, lexicographer and linguist.
Allah (translit) is the Arabic word for God in Abrahamic religions.
In phonology, an allophone (from the ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds, or phones, or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.
The Revised Version, Standard American Edition of the Bible, more commonly known as the American Standard Version (ASV), is a Bible translation into English that was completed in 1901, with the publication of the revision of the Old Testament; the revised New Testament had been released in 1900. It was originally best known by its full name, but soon came to have other names, such as the American Revised Version, the American Standard Revision, the American Standard Revised Bible, and the American Standard Edition. By the time its copyright was renewed in 1929, it had come to be known by its present name, the American Standard Version. Because of its prominence in seminaries, it was in America sometimes simply called the "Standard Bible".
The Amplified Bible (AMP) is an English translation of the Bible produced jointly by Zondervan (subsidiary of News Corp) and The Lockman Foundation.
The Bible, An American Translation (AAT) (not to be confused with Beck's American Translation done later) consists of the Old Testament translated by a group of scholars under the editorship of John Merlin Powis Smith, the Apocrypha translated by Edgar J. Goodspeed, and the New Testament translated by Edgar J. Goodspeed.
Aquila "Ponticus" (fl. 130 AD) of Sinope (modern-day Sinop, Turkey) was a translator of the Old Testament into Greek, proselyte, and disciple of Rabbi Akiva, assumed to be one and the same as Onkelos.
The Babylonian vocalization, also known as Babylonian supralinear punctuation, or Babylonian pointing or Babylonian niqqud Hebrew) is a system of diacritics (niqqud) and vowel symbols assigned above the text and devised by the Masoretes of Babylon to add to the consonantal text of the Hebrew Bible to indicate the proper pronunciation of words (vowel quality), reflecting the Hebrew of Babylon. The Babylonian system is no longer in use outside Temani Judaism, having been supplanted by the sublinear Tiberian vocalization.
Baker Publishing Group is a Christian book publisher based in Ada, Michigan.
Benjamin Kennicott (4 April 171818 September 1783) was an English churchman and Hebrew scholar.
Benjamin Wilson (1817–1900) was an autodidact Biblical scholar and writer of the Emphatic Diaglott translation of the Bible (which he translated between 1856 and 1864).
The Bishops' Bible is an English translation of the Bible which was produced under the authority of the established Church of England in 1568.
The British and Foreign Bible Society, often known in England and Wales as simply the Bible Society, is a non-denominational Christian Bible society with charity status whose purpose is to make the Bible available throughout the world.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Charles IX, also Carl (Karl IX; 4 October 1550 – 30 October 1611), was King of Sweden from 1604 until his death.
The Christian Community Bible is a translation of the Christian Bible in the English language originally produced in the Philippines.
Cipriano de Valera (1531–1602) was the editor of the first major revision of the Spanish Bible translation of Casiodoro de Reina.
A coat of arms is a heraldic visual design on an escutcheon (i.e., shield), surcoat, or tabard.
The Common English Bible (CEB) is an English translation of the Bible whose language is intended to be at a comfortable reading level for the majority of English readers.
Confessor is a title used within Christianity in several ways.
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
The Contemporary English Version or CEV (also known as Bible for Today's Family) is a translation of the Bible into English, published by the American Bible Society.
Critici sacri was a compilation of Latin biblical commentaries published in London from 1660, edited by John Pearson.
Cwm Rhondda, taken from the Welsh name for the Rhondda Valley, is a popular hymn tune written by John Hughes.
The Darby Bible (DBY, formal title The Holy Scriptures: A New Translation from the Original Languages by J. N. Darby) refers to the Bible as translated from Hebrew and Greek by John Nelson Darby.
De Interpretatione or On Interpretation (Greek: Περὶ Ἑρμηνείας, Peri Hermeneias) is the second text from Aristotle's Organon and is among the earliest surviving philosophical works in the Western tradition to deal with the relationship between language and logic in a comprehensive, explicit, and formal way.
Dead Sea Scrolls (also Qumran Caves Scrolls) are ancient Jewish religious, mostly Hebrew, manuscripts found in the Qumran Caves near the Dead Sea.
Demetrius of Phalerum (also Demetrius of Phaleron or Demetrius Phalereus; Δημήτριος ὁ Φαληρεύς; c. 350 – c. 280 BC) was an Athenian orator originally from Phalerum, a student of Theophrastus, and perhaps of Aristotle, himself, and one of the first Peripatetics.
A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.
The Douay–Rheims Bible (pronounced or) (also known as the Rheims–Douai Bible or Douai Bible, and abbreviated as D–R and DRB) is a translation of the Bible from the Latin Vulgate into English made by members of the English College, Douai, in the service of the Catholic Church.
(or ’Il, written aleph-lamed, e.g. 𐎛𐎍; 𐤀𐤋; אל; ܐܠ; إل or rtl; cognate to ilu) is a Northwest Semitic word meaning "god" or "deity", or referring (as a proper name) to any one of multiple major Ancient Near East deities.
Elia Levita (13 February 1469 – 28 January 1549), (Hebrew: אליהו בן אשר הלוי אשכנזי) also known as Elijah Levita, Elias Levita, Élie Lévita, Elia Levita Ashkenazi, Eliyahu haBahur ("Elijah the Bachelor") was a Renaissance Hebrew grammarian, scholar and poet.
Elohim (Hebrew: ’ĕlōhîm) is one of the many names or titles for God in the Hebrew Bible; the term is also used in the Hebrew Bible to refer to other gods.
Emil Gustav Hirsch (May 22, 1851 – January 7, 1923) was a major Reform movement rabbi in the United States.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (abbreviated EBR to avoid confusion with the REB) is a translation of the Bible that uses various methods, such as "emphatic idiom" and special diacritical marks, to bring out nuances of the underlying Greek, Hebrew, and Aramaic texts.
The Emphatic Diaglott is a diaglot, or two-language polyglot translation, of the New Testament by Benjamin Wilson, first published in 1864.
The English Standard Version (ESV) is an English translation of the Bible published in 2001 by Crossway.
Enki (Sumerian: dEN.KI(G)) is the Sumerian god of water, knowledge (gestú), mischief, crafts (gašam), and creation (nudimmud).
Enlil, later known as Elil, was the ancient Mesopotamian god of wind, air, earth, and storms.
Ernst Friedrich Karl Rosenmüller (10 December 1768 in Heßberg (Hildburghausen) – 17 September 1835 in Leipzig) was a German Orientalist and Protestant theologian.
Eusebius of Caesarea (Εὐσέβιος τῆς Καισαρείας, Eusébios tés Kaisareías; 260/265 – 339/340), also known as Eusebius Pamphili (from the Εὐσέβιος τοῦ Παμϕίλου), was a historian of Christianity, exegete, and Christian polemicist. He became the bishop of Caesarea Maritima about 314 AD. Together with Pamphilus, he was a scholar of the Biblical canon and is regarded as an extremely learned Christian of his time. He wrote Demonstrations of the Gospel, Preparations for the Gospel, and On Discrepancies between the Gospels, studies of the Biblical text. As "Father of Church History" (not to be confused with the title of Church Father), he produced the Ecclesiastical History, On the Life of Pamphilus, the Chronicle and On the Martyrs. During the Council of Antiochia (325) he was excommunicated for subscribing to the heresy of Arius, and thus withdrawn during the First Council of Nicaea where he accepted that the Homoousion referred to the Logos. Never recognized as a Saint, he became counselor of Constantine the Great, and with the bishop of Nicomedia he continued to polemicize against Saint Athanasius of Alexandria, Church Fathers, since he was condemned in the First Council of Tyre in 335.
The Five Pauline Epistles, A New Translation is a partial Bible translation produced by Scottish scholar William Gunion Rutherford, of five books of the New Testament.
Charles Fulton Oursler (January 22, 1893 – May 24, 1952) was an American journalist, playwright, editor and writer.
The Geneva Bible is one of the most historically significant translations of the Bible into English, preceding the King James Version by 51 years.
Gerrit Verkuijl or Gerrit Verkuyl (18 September 1872, Haarlemmermeer – 19 March 1967, Alameda, California) was a New Testament Greek scholar and Bible Translator.
The glottal stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages, produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract or, more precisely, the glottis.
In monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the Supreme Being and the principal object of faith.
God in Christianity is the eternal being who created and preserves all things.
In Islam, God (Allāh, contraction of الْإِلٰه al-ilāh, lit. "the god") is indivisible, the God, the absolute one, the all-powerful and all-knowing ruler of the universe, and the creator of everything in existence within the universe.
In Judaism, God has been conceived in a variety of ways.
In orthodox Mormonism, the term God generally refers to the biblical God the Father, whom Mormons sometimes call Elohim, and the term Godhead refers to a council of three distinct divine persons consisting of God the Father, Jesus (his firstborn Son, whom Mormons sometimes call Jehovah), and the Holy Ghost (Holy Spirit).
The Bahá'í view of God is essentially monotheistic.
God the Father is a title given to God in various religions, most prominently in Christianity.
The God's Word Translation (GW) is an English translation of the Bible translated by the God's Word to the Nations Society.
Sir Godfrey Rolles Driver, CBE, FBA (20 August 1892 – 22 April 1975), known as G. R. Driver, was an English Orientalist noted for his studies of Semitic languages and Assyriology.
The Good News Bible (GNB), also called the Good News Translation (GNT) in the United States, is an English translation of the Bible by the American Bible Society.
The Great Bible of 1539 was the first authorized edition of the Bible in English, authorized by King Henry VIII of England to be read aloud in the church services of the Church of England.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Green's Literal Translation (Literal Translation of the Holy Bible - LITV), is a translation of the Bible by Jay P. Green, Sr., first published in 1985.
Guttural speech sounds are those with a primary place of articulation near the back of the oral cavity.
The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
Henry Ainsworth (1571–1622) was an English Nonconformist clergyman and scholar.
Henry Walter (1785–1859) was an English cleric and antiquary.
Hillel (הלל; variously called Hillel HaGadol, or Hillel HaZaken, Hillel HaBavli or HaBavli,. was born according to tradition in Babylon c. 110 BCE, died 10 CE in Jerusalem) was a Jewish religious leader, one of the most important figures in Jewish history.
The Holman Christian Standard Bible (HCSB) is a modern English Bible translation from Holman Bible Publishers.
A hymn is a type of song, usually religious, specifically written for the purpose of adoration or prayer, and typically addressed to a deity or deities, or to a prominent figure or personification.
I am that I am is a common English translation of the Hebrew phrase, ’ehyeh ’ăšer ’ehyeh - also “I am who am”, "I am who I am" or "I will be what I will be" or even "I create what(ever) I create".
Immanuel Tremellius (Giovanni Emmanuele Tremellio; 1510 – 9 October 1580) was an Italian Jewish convert to Christianity.
Isaiah (or;; ܐܹܫܲܥܝܵܐ ˀēšaˁyā; Greek: Ἠσαΐας, Ēsaïās; Latin: Isaias; Arabic: إشعيا Ašaʿyāʾ or šaʿyā; "Yah is salvation") was the 8th-century BC Jewish prophet for whom the Book of Isaiah is named.
J is the tenth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Jacob Alting (27 September 1618 – 20 August 1679) was a Dutch philologist and theologian.
Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples or Jacobus Faber Stapulensis (c. 1455 – 1536) was a French theologian and humanist.
Jah or Yah (יהּ Yah) is a short form of Yahweh (in consonantal spelling YHWH יהוה, called the Tetragrammaton), the proper name of God in the Hebrew Bible.
Jay P. Green, Sr. (1918 – May 20, 2008) was an ordained minister, Bible translator, publisher, and businessman.
Jehovah's Witnesses is a millenarian restorationist Christian denomination with nontrinitarian beliefs distinct from mainstream Christianity.
Jeremiah (יִרְמְיָהוּ, Modern:, Tiberian:; Ἰερεμίας; إرميا meaning "Yah Exalts"), also called the "Weeping prophet", was one of the major prophets of the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament).
Jerome (Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus; Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος; c. 27 March 347 – 30 September 420) was a priest, confessor, theologian, and historian.
The Jerusalem Bible (JB or TJB) is an English translation of the Bible published in 1966 by Darton, Longman & Todd.
The Jerusalem Talmud (תַּלְמוּד יְרוּשַׁלְמִי, Talmud Yerushalmi, often Yerushalmi for short), also known as the Palestinian Talmud or Talmuda de-Eretz Yisrael (Talmud of the Land of Israel), is a collection of Rabbinic notes on the second-century Jewish oral tradition known as the Mishnah.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
Johann Friedrich von Meyer (12 September 1772 – 28 January 1849) was a senator of Frankfurt, who published a translation of the Bible in 1819 (Die heilige Schrift in berichtigter Übersetzung mit kurzen Anmerkungen; 2nd edition, 1823; 3rd edition, 1855).
Johannes Leusden (also called Jan (informal), John (English), or Johann (German)) (26 April 1624 – 30 September 1699) was a Dutch Calvinist theologian and orientalist.
Johannes Buxtorf (December 25, 1564September 13, 1629) was a celebrated Hebraist, member of a family of Orientalists; professor of Hebrew for thirty-nine years at Basel and was known by the title, "Master of the Rabbis".
Johannes Buxtorf the Younger, (August 13, 1599 – August 16, 1664) was son of the scholar Johannes Buxtorf, and a Protestant Christian Hebraist.
John Calvin (Jean Calvin; born Jehan Cauvin; 10 July 150927 May 1564) was a French theologian, pastor and reformer in Geneva during the Protestant Reformation.
John Gill (23 November 1697 – 14 October 1771) was an English Baptist pastor, biblical scholar, and theologian who held to a firm Calvinistic soteriology.
John Nelson Darby (18 November 1800 – 29 April 1882) was an Anglo-Irish Bible teacher, one of the influential figures among the original Plymouth Brethren and the founder of the Exclusive Brethren.
John Owen (161624 August 1683) was an English Nonconformist church leader, theologian, and academic administrator at the University of Oxford.
Titus Flavius Josephus (Φλάβιος Ἰώσηπος; 37 – 100), born Yosef ben Matityahu (יוסף בן מתתיהו, Yosef ben Matityahu; Ἰώσηπος Ματθίου παῖς), was a first-century Romano-Jewish scholar, historian and hagiographer, who was born in Jerusalem—then part of Roman Judea—to a father of priestly descent and a mother who claimed royal ancestry.
Joshua or Jehoshua (יְהוֹשֻׁעַ Yehōšuʿa) or Isho (Aramaic: ܝܼܫܘܿܥ ܒܲܪ ܢܘܿܢ Eesho Bar Non) is the central figure in the Hebrew Bible's Book of Joshua.
The Julia Evelina Smith Parker Translation is considered the first complete translation of the Bible into English by a woman.
Kabbalah (קַבָּלָה, literally "parallel/corresponding," or "received tradition") is an esoteric method, discipline, and school of thought that originated in Judaism.
Karaite Judaism or Karaism (also spelt Qaraite Judaism or Qaraism) is a Jewish religious movement characterized by the recognition of the Tanakh alone as its supreme authority in Halakha (Jewish religious law) and theology.
Katharevousa (Καθαρεύουσα,, literally "purifying ") is a conservative form of the Modern Greek language conceived in the early 19th century as a compromise between Ancient Greek and the Demotic Greek of the time.
Kenneth Nathaniel Taylor (May 8, 1917 – June 10, 2005) was an American publisher and author, better known as the creator of The Living Bible and the founder of Tyndale House, a Christian publishing company and Living Bibles International.
The King James Only movement is a movement within Anglosphere Protestantism which asserts the King James Version of the Bible as being superior to all other English translations.
The King James Version (KJV), also known as the King James Bible (KJB) or simply the Version (AV), is an English translation of the Christian Bible for the Church of England, begun in 1604 and completed in 1611.
The Kuzari, full title The Book of Refutation and Proof in Support of the Abased Religion (كتاب الحجة والدليل في نصرة الدين الذليل), also known as the Book of the Kuzari, (ספר הכוזרי) is one of the most famous works of the medieval Spanish Jewish philosopher and poet Judah Halevi, completed around 1140.
Late antiquity is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages in mainland Europe, the Mediterranean world, and the Near East.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Latinisation or Latinization is the practice of rendering a non-Latin name (or word) in a Latin style.
Leo Jud (also Leo Juda, Leo Judä, Leo Judas, Leonis Judae, Ionnes Iuda, Leo Keller) (1482 – 19 June 1542), known to his contemporaries as Meister Leu, was a Swiss reformer who worked with Huldrych Zwingli in Zürich.
The Lexham English Bible (LEB) is an online bible released by Logos Bible Software.
The Bible has been translated into many languages from the biblical languages of Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek.
The Literal English Version of Scripture (LEV) is a translation of the Bible, based on the World English Bible.
A liturgical book, or service book, is a book published by the authority of a church body that contains the text and directions for the liturgy of its official religious services.
Louis Cappel (15 October 1585 – 18 June 1658) was a French Protestant churchman and scholar.
The Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg (Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg), also referred to as MLU, is a public, research-oriented university in the cities of Halle and Wittenberg in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.
The Masoretes (Hebrew: Ba'alei ha-Masora) were groups of Jewish scribe-scholars who worked between the 6th and 10th centuries CE, based primarily in early medieval Palestine in the cities of Tiberias and Jerusalem, as well as in Iraq (Babylonia).
The Masoretic Text (MT, 𝕸, or \mathfrak) is the authoritative Hebrew and Aramaic text of the Tanakh for Rabbinic Judaism.
The Matthew Bible, also known as Matthew's Version, was first published in 1537 by John Rogers, under the pseudonym "Thomas Matthew".
Matthew Poole (1624–1679) was an English Nonconformist theologian.
Messianic Bible translations are translations, or editions of translations, in English of the Christian Bible, some of which are widely used within Messianic Judaism.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The Modern English Version (MEV) is an English translation of the Bible begun in 2005 and completed in 2014.
The Modern Language Bible carries the subtitle, The New Berkeley Version in Modern English; however, only the New Testament was revised.
Moffatt, New Translation (MNT) is an abbreviation of the title "The Holy Bible Containing the Old and New Testaments, a New Translation" by James Moffatt.
Mormonism is the predominant religious tradition of the Latter Day Saint movement of Restorationist Christianity started by Joseph Smith in Western New York in the 1820s and 30s.
In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.
Multilingualism is the use of more than one language, either by an individual speaker or by a community of speakers.
Myles Coverdale, first name also spelt Miles (1488 – 20 January 1569), was an English ecclesiastical reformer chiefly known as a Bible translator, preacher and, briefly, Bishop of Exeter (1551-1553).
A number of traditions have lists of many names of God, many of which enumerate the various qualities of a Supreme Being.The English word "God" (and its equivalent in other languages) is used by multiple religions as a noun or name to refer to different deities, or specifically to the Supreme Being, as denoted in English by the capitalized and uncapitalized terms "god" and "God".
The name of God most often used in the Hebrew Bible is the Tetragrammaton (YHWH). It is frequently anglicized as Jehovah and Yahweh and written in most English editions of the Bible as "the " owing to the Jewish tradition viewing the divine name as increasingly too sacred to be uttered.
Neophytos Vamvas (Νεόφυτος Βάμβας; 1770 – 9 January 1856) was a Greek cleric and educator of the 19th century.
The New American Bible (NAB) is an English translation of the Bible first published in 1970.
The New American Standard Bible (NASB) is an English translation of the Bible by the Lockman Foundation.
The New Century Version of the Bible is a revision of the International Children's Bible.
The New English Bible (NEB) is an English translation of the Bible.
The New International Reader's Version (NIrV) is an English translation of the Christian Bible.
The New International Version (NIV) is an English translation of the Bible first published in 1978 by Biblica (formerly the International Bible Society).
The New Jerusalem Bible (NJB) is an English-language translation of the Bible published in 1985 by Darton, Longman and Todd and Les Editions du Cerf, edited by Henry Wansbrough and approved for use in study and personal devotion by Roman Catholics.
The New King James Version (NKJV) is an English translation of the Bible first published in 1982 by Thomas Nelson.
The New Living Translation (NLT) is a translation of the Bible into modern English.
The New Revised Standard Version (NRSV) is an English translation of the Bible published in 1989 by National Council of Churches.
The New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures (NWT) is a translation of the Bible published by the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society.
Nicholas Fuller (c. 1557 – 1626) was an English Hebraist and philologist.
Nicholas of Cusa (1401 – 11 August 1464), also referred to as Nicholas of Kues and Nicolaus Cusanus, was a German philosopher, theologian, jurist, and astronomer.
In Hebrew orthography, niqqud or nikkud is a system of diacritical signs used to represent vowels or distinguish between alternative pronunciations of letters of the Hebrew alphabet.
Noah Webster Jr. (October 16, 1758 – May 28, 1843) was an American lexicographer, textbook pioneer, English-language spelling reformer, political writer, editor, and prolific author.
An oral law is a code of conduct in use in a given culture, religion or community application, by which a body of rules of human behaviour is transmitted by oral tradition and effectively respected, or the single rule that is orally transmitted.
According to Rabbinic Judaism, the Oral Torah or Oral Law (lit. "Torah that is on the mouth") represents those laws, statutes, and legal interpretations that were not recorded in the Five Books of Moses, the "Written Torah" (lit. "Torah that is in writing"), but nonetheless are regarded by Orthodox Jews as prescriptive and co-given.
The Royal Order of Jehova (Jehovaorden) was a Swedish dynastic order of knighthood instituted in 1606 by King Charles IX of Sweden.
Origen of Alexandria (184 – 253), also known as Origen Adamantius, was a Hellenistic scholar, ascetic, and early Christian theologian who was born and spent the first half of his career in Alexandria.
Paul Fagius (1504 – 13 November 1549) was a Renaissance scholar of Biblical Hebrew and Protestant reformer.
The Peshitta (ܦܫܝܛܬܐ) is the standard version of the Bible for churches in the Syriac tradition.
Petrus Alphonsi was a Jewish Spanish physician, writer, astronomer, and polemicist, who converted to Christianity in 1106.
Philo of Alexandria (Phílōn; Yedidia (Jedediah) HaCohen), also called Philo Judaeus, was a Hellenistic Jewish philosopher who lived in Alexandria, in the Roman province of Egypt.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
Phonetics (pronounced) is the branch of linguistics that studies the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign.
Pietro Colonna Galatino (1460 – 1540), also known as Petrus Galatinus, was an Italian Friar Minor, philosopher, theologian and Orientalist.
Pistis Sophia ('Πίστις Σοφία') is a Gnostic text discovered in 1773, possibly written between the 3rd and 4th centuries AD.
Pope Leo X (11 December 1475 – 1 December 1521), born Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici, was Pope from 9 March 1513 to his death in 1521.
Porchetus (died c. 1315) was a Genoese Carthusian monk.
Preparation for the Gospel (Εὐαγγελικὴ προπαρασκευή), commonly known by its Latin title Praeparatio evangelica, was a work of Christian apologetics written by Eusebius in the early part of the fourth century AD.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Ptolemy II Philadelphus (Πτολεμαῖος Φιλάδελφος, Ptolemaîos Philádelphos "Ptolemy Beloved of his Sibling"; 308/9–246 BCE) was the king of Ptolemaic Egypt from 283 to 246 BCE.
Qere and Ketiv, from the Aramaic qere or q're, (" read") and ketiv, or ketib, kethib, kethibh, kethiv, (" written"), also known as "keri uchesiv" or "keri uchetiv," refer to a small number of differences between what is written in the consonantal text of the Hebrew Bible, as preserved by scribal tradition, and what is read.
In Judaism, a rabbi is a teacher of Torah.
Rabbinic Judaism or Rabbinism (יהדות רבנית Yahadut Rabanit) has been the mainstream form of Judaism since the 6th century CE, after the codification of the Babylonian Talmud.
Raymond Martini, or Ramon Martí was a 13th-century Catalan Dominican friar and theologian.
The Recovery Version is a modern English translation of the Bible from the original languages, published by Living Stream Ministry.
Redaction is a form of editing in which multiple source texts are combined (redacted) and altered slightly to make a single document.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
The Reina–Valera is a Spanish translation of the Bible originally published in 1602Anon.
The Revised Standard Version (RSV) is an English translation of the Bible published in 1952 by the Division of Christian Education of the National Council of Churches.
The Revised Version (RV) or English Revised Version (ERV) of the Bible is a late 19th-century British revision of the King James Version.
Robert I Estienne (1503 – 7 September 1559), known as Robertus Stephanus in Latin and also referred to as Robert Stephens by 18th and 19th-century English writers, was a 16th-century printer and classical scholar in Paris.
Robert Young, LL.D., F.E.S.L. (10 September 1822 – 14 October 1888) was a Scottish publisher who was self-taught and proficient in various oriental languages.
Rabbi Sa'adiah ben Yosef Gaon (سعيد بن يوسف الفيومي / Saʻīd bin Yūsuf al-Fayyūmi, Sa'id ibn Yusuf al-Dilasi, Saadia ben Yosef aluf, Sa'id ben Yusuf ra's al-Kull; רבי סעדיה בן יוסף אלפיומי גאון' or in short:; alternative English Names: Rabeinu Sa'adiah Gaon ("our Rabbi Saadia Gaon"), RaSaG, Saadia b. Joseph, Saadia ben Joseph or Saadia ben Joseph of Faym or Saadia ben Joseph Al-Fayyumi; 882/892 – 942) was a prominent rabbi, Jewish philosopher, and exegete of the Geonic period who was active in the Abbasid Caliphate.
Sacred Name Bibles are Bible translations that consistently use Hebraic forms of God's personal name, instead of its English language translation, in both the Old and New Testaments.
The Sacred Scriptures Bethel Edition (SSBE) is a Sacred Name Bible which uses the names Yahweh and Yahshua in both the Old and New Testaments (Chamberlin p. 51-3).
The Samaritans (Samaritan Hebrew: ࠔࠠࠌࠝࠓࠩࠉࠌ,, "Guardians/Keepers/Watchers (of the Torah)") are an ethnoreligious group of the Levant originating from the Israelites (or Hebrews) of the Ancient Near East.
Sanchuniathon (Σαγχουνιάθων; probably from SKNYTN, Sakun-yaton, " Sakon has given") is the purported Phoenician author of three lost works originally in the Phoenician language, surviving only in partial paraphrase and summary of a Greek translation by Philo of Byblos, according to the Christian bishop Eusebius of Caesarea.
Sebastian Münster (20 January 1488 – 26 May 1552) was a German cartographer, cosmographer, and a Christian Hebraist scholar.
Second Temple Judaism is Judaism between the construction of the Second Temple in Jerusalem, c. 515 BCE, and its destruction by the Romans in 70 CE.
The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East.
The Septuagint or LXX (from the septuāgintā literally "seventy"; sometimes called the Greek Old Testament) is the earliest extant Greek translation of the Old Testament from the original Hebrew.
Shammai (50 BCE – 30 CE, שמאי) was a Jewish scholar of the 1st century, and an important figure in Judaism's core work of rabbinic literature, the Mishnah.
Sixtinus Amama (also Sextinus) (13 October 1593 – 9 November 1629) was a Dutch Reformed theologian and orientalist.
Steven Tracy Byington (birthname Stephen) (December 10, 1869 – October 12, 1957) was a noted intellectual, translator, and American individualist anarchist.
The Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible, generally known as Strong's Concordance, is a Bible concordance, an index of every word in the King James Version (KJV), constructed under the direction of James Strong.
Symmachus (Σύμμαχος "ally"; fl. late 2nd century) translated the Old Testament into Greek.
The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד talmūd "instruction, learning", from a root LMD "teach, study") is the central text of Rabbinic Judaism and the primary source of Jewish religious law and theology.
The Tanakh (or; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach), also called the Mikra or Hebrew Bible, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament.
The targumim (singular: "targum", תרגום) were spoken paraphrases, explanations and expansions of the Jewish scriptures (also called the Tanakh) that a rabbi would give in the common language of the listeners, which was then often Aramaic.
The tetragrammaton (from Greek Τετραγράμματον, meaning " four letters"), in Hebrew and YHWH in Latin script, is the four-letter biblical name of the God of Israel.
The Bible in Living English is a translation of the Bible by Steven T. Byington.
The Living Bible (TLB) is an English paraphrase of the Bible created by Kenneth N. Taylor and first published in 1971.
The Voice is an English translation of the Bible developed by Thomas Nelson (a subsidiary of News Corp) and the Ecclesia Bible Society.
Theodotion (Θεοδοτίων, gen.: Θεοδοτίωνος; died c. 200) was a Hellenistic Jewish scholar, perhaps working in Ephesus, who in c. AD 150 translated the Hebrew Bible into Greek.
A theophoric name (from Greek: θεόφορος, theophoros, literally "bearing or carrying a god") embeds the name of a god, both invoking and displaying the protection of that deity.
The Third Millennium Bible (TMB), also known as the New Authorized Version, is a 1998 minor update of the King James Version of the Bible.
Thomas Gataker (* London, 4 September 1574 – † Cambridge, 27 June 1654) was an English clergyman and theologian.
The Tiberian vocalization, Tiberian pointing, or Tiberian niqqud (Hebrew: Nikkud Tveriyani) is a system of diacritics (niqqud) devised by the Masoretes of Tiberias to add to the consonantal text of the Hebrew Bible to produce the Masoretic Text.
A tittle or superscript dot is a small distinguishing mark, such as a diacritic or the dot on a lowercase i or j. The tittle is an integral part of the glyph of i and j, but diacritic dots can appear over other letters in various languages.
Torah (תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings.
Tyndale House is a publisher founded in 1962 by Kenneth N. Taylor, in order to publish his paraphrase of the Epistles, which he had composed while commuting to work at Moody Press in Chicago.
U (named u, plural ues) is the 21st letter and the fifth vowel in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
The Philipps University of Marburg (Philipps-Universität Marburg) was founded in 1527 by Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse, which makes it one of Germany's oldest universities and the oldest Protestant university in the world.
V (named vee) is the 22nd letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
The Vulgate is a late-4th-century Latin translation of the Bible that became the Catholic Church's officially promulgated Latin version of the Bible during the 16th century.
The Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania is a non-stock, not-for-profit organization headquartered in Warwick, New York.
Noah Webster's 1833 limited revision of the King James Version focused mainly on replacing archaic words and making simple grammatical changes.
Heinrich Friedrich Wilhelm Gesenius (3 February 1786 – 23 October 1842) was a German orientalist, Lutheran, and Biblical critic.
William Fulke (1538 – buried 28 August 1589) was an English Puritan divine.
William Gunion Rutherford (17 July 1853 – 19 July 1907) was a Scottish scholar.
William Robertson Smith (8 November 1846 – 31 March 1894) was a Scottish orientalist, Old Testament scholar, professor of divinity, and minister of the Free Church of Scotland.
William Tyndale (sometimes spelled Tynsdale, Tindall, Tindill, Tyndall; &ndash) was an English scholar who became a leading figure in the Protestant Reformation in the years leading up to his execution.
The World English Bible (also known as the WEB) is a free updated revision of the American Standard Version (1901).
Worms is a city in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, situated on the Upper Rhine about south-southwest of Frankfurt-am-Main.
Yahweh (or often in English; יַהְוֶה) was the national god of the Iron Age kingdoms of Israel (Samaria) and Judah.
Yam (also Yamm) is the god of the sea in the Canaanite pantheon.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT) is a translation of the Bible into English, published in 1862.
The Zohar (זֹהַר, lit. "Splendor" or "Radiance") is the foundational work in the literature of Jewish mystical thought known as Kabbalah.
The 21st Century King James Version is a minor update of the King James Version which stays true to the Textus Receptus and does not delete Bible passages based on Alexandrian Greek manuscripts.
Greek transcriptions of the Hebrew Divine Name, Iaoue, Iehova, Iehovah, JEHOVAH, Jahova, Jahovah, Jehova, Jehovah God, John God, Johova, Reconstructing the vowelized Hebrew spelling of the Tetragrammaton, Sovereign Lord Jehovah, Tetragrammaton (correct pronunciation), Transcription of the Tetragrammaton, Transcriptions of the Tetragrammaton, Yahave, Yahawe, Yahuah, Yehova, Yehovah, Yehowah.