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Index Jelgava

Jelgava (Mitau; see also other names) is a city in central Latvia about southwest of Riga with about 63,000 inhabitants. [1]

115 relations: Alcamo, Aleksejs Auziņš, Anna of Russia, Annexation, Army Group North, Artūrs Skrastiņš, Assembly line, August Johann Gottfried Bielenstein, Ādolfs Alunāns Theatre, Šiauliai, Baltic Germans, Baranavichy, Baroque architecture, Belarus, Berlin, Białystok, Bolsheviks, Brazil, Castle, Charles of Saxony, Duke of Courland, Courland Governorate, Denmark, Duchy of Courland and Semigallia, Eastern European Summer Time, Eastern European Time, Eduard Totleben, Einars Repše, Ernst Johann von Biron, Estonia, Feodor Stepanovich Rojankovsky, FK Jelgava, Francesco Bartolomeo Rastrelli, Freikorps, French Revolution, Friedrich Kettler, German Empire, Hällefors, Investor, Italy, Ivano-Frankivsk, Jānis Lūsis, Jelgava Air Base, Jelgava Gymnasium, Jelgava massacres, Jelgava Palace, Jelgava Station, Joseph Hirshhorn, Karl Eichwald, Kaspars Znotiņš, Kingdom of Prussia, ..., Latvia, Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Latvian Football Cup, Latvian Higher League, Latvian language, Latvian Riflemen, Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic, Liberation of Jelgava (1919), Lielupe, List of rulers of Provence, Lithuania, Livonian language, Livonian Order, Livonian War, Livonians, Louis XVIII of France, Magadan, Mamert Stankiewicz, Mayor, Metres above sea level, Mexico, Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, Moscow, Nacka, Napoleonic Wars, Natalia Lashchenova, Nazi–Soviet population transfers, Nova Odessa, Partitions of Poland, Paul Schiemann, Pärnu, Peter von Biron, Poland, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Politics of the United Kingdom, Postal code, Private collection, Red Army, Red Guards (Russia), Renārs Kaupers, Riga, Riga Autobus Factory, Riga–Jelgava Railway, Rueil-Malmaison, Russia, Russian Empire, Saint Anne, Sarcophagus, Sea captain, Semigallia, Sister city, Soviet Union, Sphere of influence, Sugar refinery, Sweden, Taiwan, Telephone numbering plan, Toluca, Town privileges, Ukraine, Vassal, Vejle, World War I, World War II, Xinying District. Expand index (65 more) »


Alcamo (Sicilian: Àrcamu) is the fourth-largest town in the province of Trapani in Sicily, with a population of 45,307 inhabitants.

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Aleksejs Auziņš

Aleksejs Auziņš (7 August 1910 in Jelgava, Russian Empire – 25 April 1997 in Riga, Latvia) was a Latvian football midfielder, manager and also an ice hockey player.

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Anna of Russia

Anna Ioannovna (Анна Иоанновна; –), also spelled Anna Ivanovna and sometimes anglicized as Anne, was regent of the duchy of Courland from 1711 until 1730 and then ruled as Empress of Russia from 1730 to 1740.

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Annexation (Latin ad, to, and nexus, joining) is the administrative action and concept in international law relating to the forcible transition of one state's territory by another state.

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Army Group North

Army Group North (Heeresgruppe Nord) was a German strategic echelon formation, commanding a grouping of field armies during World War II.

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Artūrs Skrastiņš

Artūrs Skrastiņš (born 18 September 1974 in Aizpute, Latvian SSR) is a Latvian actor.

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Assembly line

An assembly line is a manufacturing process (often called a progressive assembly) in which parts (usually interchangeable parts) are added as the semi-finished assembly moves from workstation to workstation where the parts are added in sequence until the final assembly is produced.

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August Johann Gottfried Bielenstein

August Johann Gottfried Bielenstein (Augusts Bīlenšteins) (March 4, 1826 – July 6, 1907) was a Baltic German linguist, folklorist, ethnographer, and theologian.

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Ādolfs Alunāns Theatre

Ādolfs Alunāns Theatre (Ādolfa Alunāna teātris) is a theatre in Jelgava, Latvia that was established in 1896.

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Šiauliai is the fourth largest city in Lithuania, with a population of 107,086.

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Baltic Germans

The Baltic Germans (Deutsch-Balten or Deutschbalten, later Baltendeutsche) are ethnic German inhabitants of the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea, in what today are Estonia and Latvia.

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Baranavichy (Бара́навічы, Łacinka: Baranavičy, Baranavichy; Бара́новичи, Baranowicze, Baranovičiai, באראנאוויטש, Baranovitsh) is a city in the Brest Region of western Belarus with a population (as of 1995) of 173,000.

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Baroque architecture

Baroque architecture is the building style of the Baroque era, begun in late 16th-century Italy, that took the Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical and theatrical fashion, often to express the triumph of the Catholic Church.

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Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.

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Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.

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Białystok (Bielastok, Balstogė, Belostok, Byalistok) is the largest city in northeastern Poland and the capital of the Podlaskie Voivodeship.

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The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from bol'shinstvo (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.

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Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.

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A castle (from castellum) is a type of fortified structure built during the Middle Ages by predominantly the nobility or royalty and by military orders.

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Charles of Saxony, Duke of Courland

Prince Karl Christian Joseph of Saxony (13 July 1733 – 16 June 1796) was a German prince of the House of Wettin and a Duke of Courland and Semigallia.

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Courland Governorate

Courland Governorate, also known as the Province of Courland, Governorate of Kurland (Курля́ндская губерния), and Government of Courland (Kurländisches Gouvernement, Kurzemes guberņa), was one of the Baltic governorates of the Russian Empire, that is now part of the Republic of Latvia.

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Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.

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Duchy of Courland and Semigallia

The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia (Ducatus Curlandiæ et Semigalliæ, Księstwo Kurlandii i Semigalii, Herzogtum Kurland und Semgallen, Kurzemes un Zemgales hercogiste) was a duchy in the Baltic region that existed from 1561 to 1569 as a vassal state of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and from 1569 to 1726 to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, incorporated into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth by Sejm in 1726, On 28 March 1795, it was annexed by the Russian Empire in the Third Partition of Poland.

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Eastern European Summer Time

Eastern European Summer Time (EEST) is one of the names of UTC+3 time zone, 3 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time.

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Eastern European Time

Eastern European Time (EET) is one of the names of UTC+02:00 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time.

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Eduard Totleben

Eduard Ivanovich Totleben (Эдуа́рд Ива́нович Тотле́бен, sometimes transliterated as Todleben; &ndash) was a Baltic German military engineer and Imperial Russian Army general.

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Einars Repše

Einars Repše (born 9 December 1961 in Jelgava, Latvia) is a Latvian politician, chairman of the Association for Latvian Development.

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Ernst Johann von Biron

Ernst Johann von Biron (Ernst Johann von Biron; Эрнст Иоганн Бирон; (Bühren); –) was a Duke of Courland and Semigallia (1737) and regent of the Russian Empire (1740).

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Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.

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Feodor Stepanovich Rojankovsky

Feodor Stepanovich Rojankovsky (Фёдор Степанович Рожанковский) (December 24, 1891 – October 12, 1970), also known as Rojan, was a Russian émigré illustrator.

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FK Jelgava

FK Jelgava is a Latvian football club that is based in Jelgava.

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Francesco Bartolomeo Rastrelli

Francesco Bartolomeo Rastrelli (Russian: Франче́ско Бартоломе́о (Варфоломе́й Варфоломеевич) Растрелли) (1700 in Paris, Kingdom of France — 29 April 1771 in Saint Petersburg, Russian Empire) was a Russian architect of Italian origin.

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Freikorps ("Free Corps") were German volunteer units that existed from the 18th to the early 20th centuries, which effectively fought as mercenary or private armies, regardless of their own nationality.

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French Revolution

The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.

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Friedrich Kettler

Friedrich Kettler (Latvian: Frīdrihs Ketlers, 25 November 1569 in Mītava (German: Mitau, now Jelgava) – 17 August 1642) was Duke of Courland and Semigallia (Latvian: Kurzemes un Zemgales hercogiste, now part of Latvia) from 1587 to 1642.

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German Empire

The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.

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Hällefors is a locality and the seat of Hällefors Municipality, Örebro County, Sweden with 4,530 inhabitants in 2010.

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An investor is a person that allocates capital with the expectation of a future financial return.

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Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Ivano-Frankivsk (Ivano-Frankivsk; formerly Stanyslaviv, Stanislau, or Stanisławów; see below) is a historic city located in Western Ukraine.

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Jānis Lūsis

Jānis Lūsis (born 19 May 1939) is a Latvian (and Soviet) athlete who competed in javelin throw.

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Jelgava Air Base

Jelgava Airfield is an airfield in Latvia located on the north border of Jelgava, a city in Latvia.

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Jelgava Gymnasium

Jelgava Gymnasium or Academia Petrina is the oldest higher educational establishment in Latvia.

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Jelgava massacres

The Jelgava massacres were the killing of the Jewish population of the city of Jelgava, Latvia that occurred in the second half of July or in early August 1941.

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Jelgava Palace

Jelgava Palace (Jelgavas pils) or Mitau Palace is the largest Baroque-style palace in the Baltic states.

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Jelgava Station

Jelgava Station is a railway station on the Riga – Jelgava, Jelgava – Liepāja, Jelgava – Meitene, Tukums II – Jelgava and Jelgava – Krustpils railways.

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Joseph Hirshhorn

Joseph Herman Hirshhorn (August 11, 1899 – August 31, 1981) was an entrepreneur, financier, and art collector.

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Karl Eichwald

Karl Eduard von Eichwald (4 July 1795, in Mitau, Courland Governorate – 10 November 1876, in Saint Petersburg; Эдуард Иванович Эйхвальд, Eduard Ivanovich Eykhval'd) was a Baltic German geologist, physician, and naturalist, who worked in Russia.

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Kaspars Znotiņš

Kaspars Znotiņš (born 7 October 1975) is a Latvian stage and film actor.

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Kingdom of Prussia

The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.

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Latvia (or; Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a sovereign state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.

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Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies

The Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies (until March 6, 2018 – Latvia University of Agriculture (LLU); Latvijas Lauksaimniecības universitāte; LLU) is a university in Jelgava, Latvia, specializing in agricultural science, forestry, food technology and related areas.

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Latvian Football Cup

The Latvian Football Cup is the main "knockout" cup competition in Latvian football.

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Latvian Higher League

Latvian Higher League or Virslīga, (sponsored name of SynotTip Higher League), is a professional football league and the top tier of association football in Latvia.

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Latvian language

Latvian (latviešu valoda) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.

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Latvian Riflemen

Latvian riflemen (Latviešu strēlnieki, Латышские стрелки) were originally a military formation of the Imperial Russian Army assembled starting 1915 in Latvia in order to defend Baltic territories against Germans in World War I. Initially the battalions were formed by volunteers, and from 1916 by conscription among the Latvian population.

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Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic

The Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic (Latvian SSR; Latvijas Padomju Sociālistiskā Republika; Латвийская Советская Социалистическая Республика, Latviyskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika), also known as Soviet Latvia or Latvia, was a republic of the Soviet Union.

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Liberation of Jelgava (1919)

The liberation of Jelgava in November 1919 was an operation of the Latvian Army from 15 to 21 November 1919 during the Latvian War of Independence.

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The Lielupe (in Latvian literally: Large River, Lielupė, Kurländische Aa) is a river in central Latvia.

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List of rulers of Provence

The land of Provence has a history quite separate from that of any of the larger nations of Europe.

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Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.

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Livonian language

Livonian (Livonian: līvõ kēļ or rāndakēļ) is a Finnic language.

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Livonian Order

The Livonian Order was an autonomous branch of the Teutonic Order, formed in 1237.

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Livonian War

The Livonian War (1558–1583) was fought for control of Old Livonia (in the territory of present-day Estonia and Latvia), when the Tsardom of Russia faced a varying coalition of Denmark–Norway, the Kingdom of Sweden, and the Union (later Commonwealth) of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Kingdom of Poland.

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The Livonians, or Livs (Livonian: līvlizt), are a Finnic ethnic group indigenous to northern Latvia and southwestern Estonia.

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Louis XVIII of France

Louis XVIII (Louis Stanislas Xavier; 17 November 1755 – 16 September 1824), known as "the Desired" (le Désiré), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1814 to 1824, except for a period in 1815 known as the Hundred Days.

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Magadan (p) is a port town and the administrative center of Magadan Oblast, Russia, located on the Sea of Okhotsk in Nagayev Bay (within Taui Bay) and serving as a gateway to the Kolyma region.

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Mamert Stankiewicz

Mamert Stankiewicz (January 22, 1889 – November 26, 1939) was a Polish naval officer of the merchant marine, the commander of Lwów, SS Polonia and finally the captain of the Polish ocean liner MS ''Piłsudski''.

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In many countries, a mayor (from the Latin maior, meaning "bigger") is the highest-ranking official in a municipal government such as that of a city or a town.

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Metres above sea level

Metres above mean sea level (MAMSL) or simply metres above sea level (MASL or m a.s.l.) is a standard metric measurement in metres of the elevation or altitude of a location in reference to a historic mean sea level.

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Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.

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Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact

The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, also known as the Nazi–Soviet Pact,Charles Peters (2005), Five Days in Philadelphia: The Amazing "We Want Willkie!" Convention of 1940 and How It Freed FDR to Save the Western World, New York: PublicAffairs, Ch.

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Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.

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Nacka is the municipal seat of Nacka Municipality and part of Stockholm urban area in Sweden.

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Napoleonic Wars

The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.

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Natalia Lashchenova

Natalia Vasiliyevna Laschenova (Наталья Васильевна Лащенова) (born September 16, 1973 in Jelgava, Latvian SSR, Soviet Union) is a retired Soviet gymnast.

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Nazi–Soviet population transfers

The Nazi–Soviet population transfers were population transfers between 1939 and 1941 of ethnic Germans (actual) and ethnic East Slavs (planned) in an agreement according to the German–Soviet Frontier Treaty between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union.

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Nova Odessa

Nova Odessa (lit., New Odessa) is a Brazilian municipality in the state of São Paulo.

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Partitions of Poland

The Partitions of Poland were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that took place toward the end of the 18th century and ended the existence of the state, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland and Lithuania for 123 years.

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Paul Schiemann

Paul Schiemann (Pauls Šīmanis; 17 March 1876 – 23 June 1944) was a Baltic German journalist, editor and politician who was known for his commitment to minority rights.

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Pärnu (Pernau) is the fourth-largest city in Estonia.

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Peter von Biron

Peter von Biron (15 February 1724 – 13 January 1800) was the last Duke of Courland and Semigallia, from 1769 to 1795.

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Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.

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Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.

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Politics of the United Kingdom

The United Kingdom is a unitary state with devolution that is governed within the framework of a parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarchy in which the monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II, is the head of state while the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, currently Theresa May, is the head of government.

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Postal code

A postal code (also known locally in various English-speaking countries throughout the world as a postcode, post code, Eircode, PIN Code or ZIP Code) is a series of letters or digits or both, sometimes including spaces or punctuation, included in a postal address for the purpose of sorting mail.

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Private collection

A private collection is a privately owned collection of works (usually artworks).

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Red Army

The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

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Red Guards (Russia)

Red Guards (Красная гвардия) were paramilitary volunteer formations consisting mainly of factory workers, peasants, cossacks and partially of soldiers and sailors for "protection of the soviet power".

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Renārs Kaupers

Renārs Kaupers, artistic name Reynard Cowper (born 1 September 1974 in Jelgava) is a Latvian pop singer and songwriter.

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Riga (Rīga) is the capital and largest city of Latvia.

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Riga Autobus Factory

The Riga Autobus Factory (abbreviated RAF) was a factory in Jelgava, Latvia, making vans and minibuses under the brand name Latvija.

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Riga–Jelgava Railway

The Riga–Jelgava Railway is a long, gauge railway built in the 19th century to connect the cities of Riga and Jelgava.

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Rueil-Malmaison is a commune in the western suburbs of Paris, in the Hauts-de-Seine department of France.

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Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Russian Empire

The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.

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Saint Anne

Saint Anne, of David's house and line, was the mother of Mary and grandmother of Jesus according to apocryphal Christian and Islamic tradition.

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A sarcophagus (plural, sarcophagi) is a box-like funeral receptacle for a corpse, most commonly carved in stone, and usually displayed above ground, though it may also be buried.

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Sea captain

A sea captain, ship's captain, captain, master, or shipmaster, is a high-grade licensed mariner in ultimate command of the merchant vessel.

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Semigallia, also spelled Semigalia, (Zemgale; Semgallen; Žiemgala; Semigalia; Zemgāl) is a historical region of Latvia, sometimes also including a part of Lithuania.

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Sister city

Twin towns or sister cities are a form of legal or social agreement between towns, cities, counties, oblasts, prefectures, provinces, regions, states, and even countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Sphere of influence

In the field of international relations, a sphere of influence (SOI) is a spatial region or concept division over which a state or organization has a level of cultural, economic, military, or political exclusivity, accommodating to the interests of powers outside the borders of the state that controls it.

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Sugar refinery

A sugar refinery is a refinery which processes raw sugar into white refined sugar or that processes sugar beet to refined sugar.

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Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.

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Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.

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Telephone numbering plan

A telephone numbering plan is a type of numbering scheme used in telecommunication to assign telephone numbers to subscriber telephones or other telephony endpoints.

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Toluca, officially called Toluca de Lerdo, is the state capital of the State of Mexico as well as the seat of the Municipality of Toluca.

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Town privileges

Town privileges or borough rights were important features of European towns during most of the second millennium.

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Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.

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A vassal is a person regarded as having a mutual obligation to a lord or monarch, in the context of the feudal system in medieval Europe.

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Vejle is a town in Denmark, in the southeast of the Jutland Peninsula at the head of Vejle Fjord, where the Vejle River and Grejs River and their valleys converge.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Xinying District

Xinying District or Sinying District is a district and the location of second administration center of the city government of Tainan City in Taiwan.

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History of Jelgava, Jelgava, Latvia, Jelgawa, Miitavi, Mintauja, Mitau, Mitava, Mitawa, Mittau, Yelgava.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jelgava

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