237 relations: Aelius Donatus, Against Jovinianus, Alban Butler, Allegory, Ambrose, Anachronism, Anatolia, Anchorite, Ancient Egypt, Androcles, Anglican Communion, Anthony the Great, Antioch, Apollinaris of Laodicea, Apologetics, Apostles, Apostolic Age, Aquileia, Arabah, Archaeology, Archivist, Arianism, Arish, Arnobius, Asceticism, Augustine of Hippo, Baptism, Barley bread, Baroque, Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore, Ben Sira, Bethlehem, Bible, Bible translations, Biblical apocrypha, Biblical canon, Biblical criticism, Biblical inspiration, Blaesilla, Bonosus of Sardica, Book, Book of Baruch, Book of Daniel, Book of Ezekiel, Book of Isaiah, Book of Jeremiah, Book of Wisdom, Cardinal (Catholic Church), Cassiodorus, Catechetical School of Alexandria, ..., Catechism, Catholic Church, Child, Chronicon (Eusebius), Chronicon (Jerome), Church Fathers, Church History (Eusebius), Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Classics, Confessor, Conscience, Consecrated virgin, Constantinople, Cross, Cult (religious practice), Dalmatia (Roman province), De Viris Illustribus (Jerome), Deacon, Didymus the Blind, Doctor of the Church, Dogma, Eastern Christianity, Eastern Orthodox Church, Ecclesiology, El Escorial, Emona, Encyclopedia, Epiphanius of Salamis, Epistle, Epistle to Philemon, Epistle to the Ephesians, Epistle to the Galatians, Epistle to Titus, Epitome, Ethics, Etiology, Eugene F. Rice Jr., Eusebius, Eustochium, Ferdinand Cavallera, Galilee, Gaul, Genesius of Arles, Gerasimus of the Jordan, Golden Legend, Gospel, Gospel of John, Gospel of Luke, Gospel of Mark, Gospel of Matthew, Gospel of the Hebrews, Greek language, Gregory of Nazianzus, Hagiography, Hebrew language, Hell, Hellenistic Judaism, Helvidius, Heresy, Heresy in Christianity, Hexapla, Hieronymites, Hilary of Poitiers, Hippos, Holy Land, Holy Spirit, Hortative, Hosea, Iconography, Illyrians, International Translation Day, Italy, Jacobus da Varagine, Jerusalem, Jesus, Jewish Christian, Jews, John II, Bishop of Jerusalem, Jovinian, Kadesh (biblical), Lactantius, Last Judgment, Latin, Letter of Jerome to Pope Damasus, Librarian, Library, Lion, Lucifer of Cagliari, Lutheranism, Malchus of Syria, Martin Luther, Martyr, Martyrologium Hieronymianum, Meletius of Antioch, Morong, Rizal, Moses, Mysticism, Nazarene (sect), Nepi, New Mexico State University, New Testament, Nitria (monastic site), Nobiles, Old Testament, Oral tradition, Oriental Orthodoxy, Origen, Owl, Palaestina Prima, Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society, Pammachius, Pannonia, Pastoral theology, Patrician (ancient Rome), Patristics, Patrologia Latina, Patron saint, Paul of Thebes, Paula of Rome, Paulinus II of Antioch, Pederasty, Pederasty in ancient Greece, Pelagianism, Perpetual virginity of Mary, Philo, Philology, Philosophy, Pieter Coecke van Aelst, Piety, Pinturicchio, Pneumatomachi, Polemic, Pope Damasus I, Pope Gregory I, Presbyter, Prosper of Aquitaine, Protestantism, Protocanonical books, Qinnasrin, Rabbinic Judaism, Religious conversion, Renaissance, Revelation, Rhetoric, Rome, Saint, Saint Lea, Saint Marcella, Saint Peter, Schism, Sea of Galilee, Secular clergy, Secularity, Septuagint, Skull, Song of Songs, Stridon, Student, Synaxarium, Synod, Syria, Syria Palaestina, Tanakh, Taurus Mountains, The Shepherd of Hermas, The Twelve Caesars, Thebaid, Theology, Thrace, Translation, Translation project, Trier, Trinity, Trumpet, Tyrannius Rufinus, Vanitas, Vetus Latina, Victor of Tunnuna, Vigilantius, Virgil, Vision (spirituality), Vitamin A deficiency, Vulgate, Walters Art Museum, Western Christianity, World, Writing material. Expand index (187 more) » « Shrink index
Aelius Donatus (fl. mid-fourth century AD) was a Roman grammarian and teacher of rhetoric.
Against Jovinianus is a two-volume treatise by the Church Father Saint Jerome.
Alban Butler (13 October 171015 May 1773) was an English Roman Catholic priest and hagiographer.
As a literary device, an allegory is a metaphor in which a character, place or event is used to deliver a broader message about real-world issues and occurrences.
Aurelius Ambrosius (– 397), better known in English as Ambrose, was a bishop of Milan who became one of the most influential ecclesiastical figures of the 4th century.
An anachronism (from the Greek ἀνά ana, "against" and χρόνος khronos, "time") is a chronological inconsistency in some arrangement, especially a juxtaposition of persons, events, objects, or customs from different periods of time.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
An anchorite or anchoret (female: anchoress; adj. anchoritic; from ἀναχωρητής, anachōrētḗs, "one who has retired from the world", from the verb ἀναχωρέω, anachōréō, signifying "to withdraw", "to retire") is someone who, for religious reasons, withdraws from secular society so as to be able to lead an intensely prayer-oriented, ascetic, or Eucharist-focused life.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Androcles (Ἀνδροκλῆς) or Androclus is the name given by some sources to the main character of a common folktale that is included in the Aarne–Thompson classification system as type 156.
The Anglican Communion is the third largest Christian communion with 85 million members, founded in 1867 in London, England.
Saint Anthony or Antony (Ἀντώνιος Antṓnios; Antonius); January 12, 251 – January 17, 356) was a Christian monk from Egypt, revered since his death as a saint. He is distinguished from other saints named Anthony such as, by various epithets of his own:,, and For his importance among the Desert Fathers and to all later Christian monasticism, he is also known as the. His feast day is celebrated on January 17 among the Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches and on Tobi 22 in the Egyptian calendar used by the Coptic Church. The biography of Anthony's life by Athanasius of Alexandria helped to spread the concept of Christian monasticism, particularly in Western Europe via its Latin translations. He is often erroneously considered the first Christian monk, but as his biography and other sources make clear, there were many ascetics before him. Anthony was, however, the first to go into the wilderness (about 270), which seems to have contributed to his renown. Accounts of Anthony enduring supernatural temptation during his sojourn in the Eastern Desert of Egypt inspired the often-repeated subject of the temptation of St. Anthony in Western art and literature. Anthony is appealed to against infectious diseases, particularly skin diseases. In the past, many such afflictions, including ergotism, erysipelas, and shingles, were referred to as St. Anthony's fire.
Antioch on the Orontes (Antiókheia je epi Oróntou; also Syrian Antioch)Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Δάφνῃ, "Antioch on Daphne"; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ Μεγάλη, "Antioch the Great"; Antiochia ad Orontem; Անտիոք Antiok; ܐܢܛܝܘܟܝܐ Anṭiokya; Hebrew: אנטיוכיה, Antiyokhya; Arabic: انطاكية, Anṭākiya; انطاکیه; Antakya.
Apollinaris the Younger (died 382 or 390) was a bishop of Laodicea in Syria.
Apologetics (from Greek ἀπολογία, "speaking in defense") is the religious discipline of defending religious doctrines through systematic argumentation and discourse.
In Christian theology and ecclesiology, the apostles, particularly the Twelve Apostles (also known as the Twelve Disciples or simply the Twelve), were the primary disciples of Jesus, the central figure in Christianity.
The Apostolic Age of the history of Christianity is traditionally regarded as the period of the Twelve Apostles, dating from the Great Commission of the Apostles by the risen Jesus in Jerusalem around 33 AD until the death of the last Apostle, believed to be John the Apostle in Anatolia c. 100.
Aquileia (Acuilee/Aquilee/Aquilea;bilingual name of Aquileja - Oglej in: Venetian: Aquiłeja/Aquiłegia; Aglar/Agley/Aquileja; Oglej) is an ancient Roman city in Italy, at the head of the Adriatic at the edge of the lagoons, about from the sea, on the river Natiso (modern Natisone), the course of which has changed somewhat since Roman times.
The Arabah (وادي عربة, Wādī ʻAraba), or Arava/Aravah (הָעֲרָבָה, HaAravah, lit. "desolate and dry area"), as it is known by its respective Arabic and Hebrew names, is a geographic area south of the Dead Sea basin, which forms part of the border between Israel to the west and Jordan to the east.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
An archivist (AR-kiv-ist) is an information professional who assesses, collects, organizes, preserves, maintains control over, and provides access to records and archives determined to have long-term value.
Arianism is a nontrinitarian Christological doctrine which asserts the belief that Jesus Christ is the Son of God who was begotten by God the Father at a point in time, a creature distinct from the Father and is therefore subordinate to him, but the Son is also God (i.e. God the Son).
Arish or el Arīsh (العريش, Hrinokorura) is the capital and largest city (with 164,830 inhabitants) of the Egyptian governorate of North Sinai, as well as the largest city on the entire Sinai Peninsula, lying on the Mediterranean coast of the Sinai peninsula, northeast of Cairo.
Arnobius of Sicca (died c. 330) was an Early Christian apologist of Berber origin, during the reign of Diocletian (284–305).
Asceticism (from the ἄσκησις áskesis, "exercise, training") is a lifestyle characterized by abstinence from sensual pleasures, often for the purpose of pursuing spiritual goals.
Saint Augustine of Hippo (13 November 354 – 28 August 430) was a Roman African, early Christian theologian and philosopher from Numidia whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy.
Baptism (from the Greek noun βάπτισμα baptisma; see below) is a Christian sacrament of admission and adoption, almost invariably with the use of water, into Christianity.
Barley bread is a type of bread made from barley flour derived from the grain of the barley plant.
The Baroque is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, art and music that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the late 18th century.
The Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore ('Basilica of Saint Mary Major', Basilica Sanctae Mariae Maioris), or church of Santa Maria Maggiore, is a Papal major basilica and the largest Catholic Marian church in Rome, Italy, from which size it receives the appellation "major".
Ben Sira, or Ben Sirach, also known as Shimon ben Yeshua ben Eliezer ben Sira or Jesus Ben Sirach, (fl. 2nd century BCE) was a Hellenistic Jewish scribe, sage, and allegorist from Jerusalem.
Bethlehem (بيت لحم, "House of Meat"; בֵּית לֶחֶם,, "House of Bread";; Bethleem; initially named after Canaanite fertility god Lehem) is a Palestinian city located in the central West Bank, Palestine, about south of Jerusalem.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
The Bible has been translated into many languages from the biblical languages of Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek.
The Biblical apocrypha (from the Greek ἀπόκρυφος, apókruphos, meaning "hidden") denotes the collection of apocryphal ancient books found in some editions of Christian Bibles in a separate section between the Old and New Testaments or as an appendix after the New Testament.
A biblical canon or canon of scripture is a set of texts (or "books") which a particular religious community regards as authoritative scripture.
Biblical criticism is a philosophical and methodological approach to studying the Bible, using neutral non-sectarian judgment, that grew out of the scientific thinking of the Age of Reason (1700–1789).
Biblical inspiration is the doctrine in Christian theology that the authors and editors of the Bible were led or influenced by God with the result that their writings may be designated in some sense the word of God.
Blaesilla (died 384) was the daughter of Paula, and sister of Eustochium, from one of the Senatorial families of Ancient Rome.
Bonosus was a Bishop of Sardica in the latter part of the fourth century, who taught against the doctrine of the perpetual virginity of Mary.
A book is a series of pages assembled for easy portability and reading, as well as the composition contained in it.
The Book of Baruch, occasionally referred to as 1 Baruch, is a deuterocanonical book of the Bible in some Christian traditions.
The Book of Daniel is a biblical apocalypse, combining a prophecy of history with an eschatology (the study of last things) which is both cosmic in scope and political in its focus.
The Book of Ezekiel is the third of the Latter Prophets in the Tanakh and one of the major prophetic books in the Old Testament, following Isaiah and Jeremiah.
The Book of Isaiah (ספר ישעיהו) is the first of the Latter Prophets in the Hebrew Bible and the first of the Major Prophets in the Christian Old Testament.
The Book of Jeremiah (ספר יִרְמְיָהוּ; abbreviated Jer. or Jerm. in citations) is the second of the Latter Prophets in the Hebrew Bible, and the second of the Prophets in the Christian Old Testament.
The Wisdom of Solomon or Book of Wisdom is a Jewish work, written in Greek, composed in Alexandria (Egypt).
A cardinal (Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae cardinalis, literally Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church) is a senior ecclesiastical leader, considered a Prince of the Church, and usually an ordained bishop of the Roman Catholic Church.
Flavius Magnus Aurelius Cassiodorus Senator (c. 485 – c. 585), commonly known as Cassiodorus, was a Roman statesman and writer serving in the administration of Theoderic the Great, king of the Ostrogoths.
The Catechetical School of Alexandria was a school of Christian theologians and priests in Alexandria.
A catechism (from κατηχέω, "to teach orally") is a summary or exposition of doctrine and serves as a learning introduction to the Sacraments traditionally used in catechesis, or Christian religious teaching of children and adult converts.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Biologically, a child (plural: children) is a human being between the stages of birth and puberty.
The Chronicon or Chronicle (Greek: Παντοδαπὴ ἱστορία Pantodape historia, "Universal history") was a work in two books by Eusebius of Caesarea.
The Chronicle (or Chronicon or Temporum liber, The Book of Times) was a universal chronicle, one of Jerome's earliest attempts at history.
The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers, Christian Fathers, or Fathers of the Church are ancient and influential Christian theologians and writers.
The Church History (Ἐκκλησιαστικὴ ἱστορία; Historia Ecclesiastica or Historia Ecclesiae) of Eusebius, the bishop of Caesarea was a 4th-century pioneer work giving a chronological account of the development of Early Christianity from the 1st century to the 4th century.
The Church of the Holy Sepulchre (كَنِيسَةُ ٱلْقِيَامَة Kanīsatu al-Qiyāmah; Ναὸς τῆς Ἀναστάσεως Naos tes Anastaseos; Սուրբ Հարության տաճար Surb Harut'yan tač̣ar; Ecclesia Sancti Sepulchri; כנסיית הקבר, Knesiyat ha-Kever; also called the Church of the Resurrection or Church of the Anastasis by Orthodox Christians) is a church in the Christian Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem.
Classics or classical studies is the study of classical antiquity.
Confessor is a title used within Christianity in several ways.
Conscience is an aptitude, faculty, intuition or judgment that assists in distinguishing right from wrong.
In the Catholic Church, a consecrated virgin is a woman who has been consecrated by the church to a life of perpetual virginity in the service of God.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
A cross is a geometrical figure consisting of two intersecting lines or bars, usually perpendicular to each other.
Cult is literally the "care" (Latin cultus) owed to deities and to temples, shrines, or churches.
Dalmatia was a Roman province.
De Viris Illustribus (On Illustrious Men) is a collection of short biographies of 135 authors, written in Latin, by the 4th-century Latin Church Father Jerome.
A deacon is a member of the diaconate, an office in Christian churches that is generally associated with service of some kind, but which varies among theological and denominational traditions.
Didymus the Blind (alternatively spelled Dedimus or Didymous) (c. 313398) was a Christian theologian in the Church of Alexandria, where he taught for about half a century.
Doctor of the Church (Latin doctor "teacher") is a title given by the Catholic Church to saints whom they recognize as having been of particular importance, particularly regarding their contribution to theology or doctrine.
The term dogma is used in pejorative and non-pejorative senses.
Eastern Christianity consists of four main church families: the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox churches, the Eastern Catholic churches (that are in communion with Rome but still maintain Eastern liturgies), and the denominations descended from the Church of the East.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
In Christian theology, ecclesiology is the study of the Christian Church, the origins of Christianity, its relationship to Jesus, its role in salvation, its polity, its discipline, its destiny, and its leadership.
The Royal Site of San Lorenzo de El Escorial (Monasterio y Sitio de El Escorial en Madrid), commonly known as El Escorial, is a historical residence of the King of Spain, in the town of San Lorenzo de El Escorial, about northwest of the capital, Madrid, in Spain.
Emona or Aemona (short for Colonia Iulia Aemona) was a Roman castrum, located in the area where the navigable Ljubljanica river came closest to Castle Hill,; Museum and Galleries of Ljubljana 2010 serving the trade between the city's settlers - colonists from the northern part of Roman Italy - and the rest of the empire.
An encyclopedia or encyclopaedia is a reference work or compendium providing summaries of information from either all branches of knowledge or from a particular field or discipline.
Epiphanius of Salamis (Ἐπιφάνιος; c. 310–320 – 403) was bishop of Salamis, Cyprus, at the end of the 4th century.
An epistle (Greek ἐπιστολή, epistolē, "letter") is a writing directed or sent to a person or group of people, usually an elegant and formal didactic letter.
The Epistle of Paul to Philemon, known simply as Philemon, is one of the books of the Christian New Testament.
The Epistle to the Ephesians, also called the Letter to the Ephesians and often shortened to Ephesians, is the tenth book of the New Testament.
The Epistle to the Galatians, often shortened to Galatians, is the ninth book of the New Testament.
The Epistle of Paul to Titus, usually referred to simply as Titus, is one of the three Pastoral Epistles (along with 1 Timothy and 2 Timothy) in the New Testament, historically attributed to Paul the Apostle but now considered by most scholars to have been written by someone else.
An epitome (ἐπιτομή, from ἐπιτέμνειν epitemnein meaning "to cut short") is a summary or miniature form, or an instance that represents a larger reality, also used as a synonym for embodiments.
Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.
Etiology (alternatively aetiology or ætiology) is the study of causation, or origination.
Eugene Franklin Rice Jr. (August 20, 1924 – August 4, 2008) was an American historian specializing in the Church Fathers, Early Modern Europe, and Western homosexualities.
Eusebius of Caesarea (Εὐσέβιος τῆς Καισαρείας, Eusébios tés Kaisareías; 260/265 – 339/340), also known as Eusebius Pamphili (from the Εὐσέβιος τοῦ Παμϕίλου), was a historian of Christianity, exegete, and Christian polemicist. He became the bishop of Caesarea Maritima about 314 AD. Together with Pamphilus, he was a scholar of the Biblical canon and is regarded as an extremely learned Christian of his time. He wrote Demonstrations of the Gospel, Preparations for the Gospel, and On Discrepancies between the Gospels, studies of the Biblical text. As "Father of Church History" (not to be confused with the title of Church Father), he produced the Ecclesiastical History, On the Life of Pamphilus, the Chronicle and On the Martyrs. During the Council of Antiochia (325) he was excommunicated for subscribing to the heresy of Arius, and thus withdrawn during the First Council of Nicaea where he accepted that the Homoousion referred to the Logos. Never recognized as a Saint, he became counselor of Constantine the Great, and with the bishop of Nicomedia he continued to polemicize against Saint Athanasius of Alexandria, Church Fathers, since he was condemned in the First Council of Tyre in 335.
Saint Eustochium (ca. 368 – September 28, 419 or 420).
Ferdinand Cavallera (1875–1954) was born in Puy-en-Velay, France, of parents of Piedmontese origin.
Galilee (הגליל, transliteration HaGalil); (الجليل, translit. al-Jalīl) is a region in northern Israel.
Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.
Saint Genesius of Arles (in French Saint Genès) was a notary martyred under Maximianus in 303 or 308.
Gerasimus of the Jordan (Γεράσιμος ἐν Ιορδάν, Abba Gerasimus, Holy Righteous Father Gerasimus of Jordan—also spelled Gerasimos or Gerasim) was a Christian saint, monk and abbot of the 5th century AD.
The Golden Legend (Latin: Legenda aurea or Legenda sanctorum) is a collection of hagiographies by Blessed Jacobus de Varagine that was widely read in late medieval Europe.
Gospel is the Old English translation of Greek εὐαγγέλιον, evangelion, meaning "good news".
The Gospel According to John is the fourth of the canonical gospels.
The Gospel According to Luke (Τὸ κατὰ Λουκᾶν εὐαγγέλιον, to kata Loukan evangelion), also called the Gospel of Luke, or simply Luke, is the third of the four canonical Gospels.
The Gospel According to Mark (τὸ κατὰ Μᾶρκον εὐαγγέλιον, to kata Markon euangelion), is one of the four canonical gospels and one of the three synoptic gospels.
The Gospel According to Matthew (translit; also called the Gospel of Matthew or simply, Matthew) is the first book of the New Testament and one of the three synoptic gospels.
The Gospel of the Hebrews (τὸ καθ' Ἑβραίους εὐαγγέλιον), or Gospel according to the Hebrews, was a syncretic Jewish–Christian gospel, the text of which is lost; only fragments of it survive as brief quotations by the early Church Fathers and in apocryphal writings.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Gregory of Nazianzus (Γρηγόριος ὁ Ναζιανζηνός Grēgorios ho Nazianzēnos; c. 329Liturgy of the Hours Volume I, Proper of Saints, 2 January. – 25 January 390), also known as Gregory the Theologian or Gregory Nazianzen, was a 4th-century Archbishop of Constantinople, and theologian.
A hagiography is a biography of a saint or an ecclesiastical leader.
Hell, in many religious and folkloric traditions, is a place of torment and punishment in the afterlife.
Hellenistic Judaism was a form of Judaism in the ancient world that combined Jewish religious tradition with elements of Greek culture.
Helvidius (sometimes Helvetius) was the author of a work written prior to 383 against the belief in the perpetual virginity of Mary.
Heresy is any belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs, in particular the accepted beliefs of a church or religious organization.
When heresy is used today with reference to Christianity, it denotes the formal denial or doubt of a core doctrine of the Christian faithJ.D Douglas (ed).
Hexapla (Ἑξαπλᾶ, "sixfold") is the term for a critical edition of the Hebrew Bible in six versions, four of them translated into Greek, preserved only in fragments.
The Order of Saint Jerome or Hieronymites (Ordo Sancti Hieronymi, abbreviated O.S.H.) is a Catholic enclosed religious order and a common name for several congregations of hermit monks living according to the Rule of Saint Augustine, though the inspiration and model of their lives is the 5th-century hermit and biblical scholar, Saint Jerome.
Hilary (Hilarius) of Poitiers (c. 310c. 367) was Bishop of Poitiers and is a Doctor of the Church.
Hippos (Ἵππος, "horse") is an archaeological site in Israel, located on a hill overlooking the Sea of Galilee.
The Holy Land (Hebrew: אֶרֶץ הַקּוֹדֶשׁ, Terra Sancta; Arabic: الأرض المقدسة) is an area roughly located between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea that also includes the Eastern Bank of the Jordan River.
Holy Spirit (also called Holy Ghost) is a term found in English translations of the Bible that is understood differently among the Abrahamic religions.
In linguistics, hortative modalities (abbreviated) are verbal expressions used by the speaker to encourage or discourage an action.
In the Hebrew Bible, Hosea (or;; Greek Ὠσηέ, Ōsēe), son of Beeri, was an 8th-century BC prophet in Israel who authored the book of prophecies bearing his name.
Iconography, as a branch of art history, studies the identification, description, and the interpretation of the content of images: the subjects depicted, the particular compositions and details used to do so, and other elements that are distinct from artistic style.
The Illyrians (Ἰλλυριοί, Illyrioi; Illyrii or Illyri) were a group of Indo-European tribes in antiquity, who inhabited part of the western Balkans.
International Translation Day is celebrated every year on 30 September on the feast of St. Jerome, the Bible translator who is considered the patron saint of translators.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Jacopo De Fazio, best known as the blessed Jacobus da Varagine (Giacomo da Varazze, Jacopo da Varazze; c. 1230July 13 or July 16, 1298) was an Italian chronicler and archbishop of Genoa.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
Jewish Christians, also Hebrew Christians or Judeo-Christians, are the original members of the Jewish movement that later became Christianity.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
John II (c. 356 – 10 January 417) was bishop of Jerusalem from AD 387 to AD 417.
Jovinian (Jovinianus; died c. 405), was an opponent of Christian asceticism in the 4th century and was condemned as a heretic at synods convened in Rome under Pope Siricius and in Milan by St Ambrose in 393.
Kadesh or Qadesh (in classical Hebrew קָדֵשׁ, from the root קדש "holy") is a place-name that occurs several times in the Hebrew Bible, describing a site or sites located south of, or at the southern border of, Canaan and the Kingdom of Judah.
Lucius Caecilius Firmianus Lactantius (c. 250 – c. 325) was an early Christian author who became an advisor to the first Christian Roman emperor, Constantine I, guiding his religious policy as it developed, and a tutor to his son Crispus.
The Last Judgment, Final Judgment, Day of Judgment, Judgment Day, Doomsday, or The Day of the Lord (Hebrew Yom Ha Din) (יום הדין) or in Arabic Yawm al-Qiyāmah (یوم القيامة) or Yawm ad-Din (یوم الدین) is part of the eschatological world view of the Abrahamic religions and in the Frashokereti of Zoroastrianism.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Epistle of Jerome to Pope Damasus I (Latin: Epistula Hieronymi ad Damasum papam), written in 376 or 377 AD, is a response of Jerome to an epistle from Damasus, who had urged him to make a new translational work of the Holy Scripture.
A librarian is a person who works professionally in a library, providing access to information and sometimes social or technical programming.
A library is a collection of sources of information and similar resources, made accessible to a defined community for reference or borrowing.
The lion (Panthera leo) is a species in the cat family (Felidae).
Lucifer Calaritanus (Lucifero da Cagliari) (d. May 20, 370 or 371) was a bishop of Cagliari in Sardinia known for his passionate opposition to Arianism.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
Saint Malchus of Syria (or Malchus of Chalcis, Malchus of Maronia) (died c. 390) is the subject of Saint Jerome's biography Life of Malchus the Captive Monk (Vita Malchi monachi captivi), written in Latin around 391/392 CE.
Martin Luther, (10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German professor of theology, composer, priest, monk, and a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation.
A martyr (Greek: μάρτυς, mártys, "witness"; stem μάρτυρ-, mártyr-) is someone who suffers persecution and death for advocating, renouncing, refusing to renounce, or refusing to advocate a belief or cause as demanded by an external party.
The Martyrologium Hieronymianum or Martyrologium sancti Hieronymi (both meaning "martyrology of Jerome") is an ancient martyrology or list of Christian martyrs in calendar order, one of the most used and influential of the Middle Ages.
Saint Meletius of Antioch (Μελέτιος) (died 381) was a Christian bishop, or Patriarch of Antioch, from 360 until his death.
, officially the, (name), is a settlement_text in the province of,. According to the, it has a population of people.
Mosesמֹשֶׁה, Modern Tiberian ISO 259-3; ܡܘܫܐ Mūše; موسى; Mωϋσῆς was a prophet in the Abrahamic religions.
Mysticism is the practice of religious ecstasies (religious experiences during alternate states of consciousness), together with whatever ideologies, ethics, rites, myths, legends, and magic may be related to them.
The Nazarenes originated as a sect of first-century Judaism.
Nepi (anciently Nepet or Nepete) is a town and comune in Italy in the province of Viterbo, region of Lazio.
New Mexico State University (NMSU or NM State) is a public, land-grant, research university in Las Cruces, New Mexico, United States, and the flagship campus of NMSU System.
The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
Nitria is one of the earliest Christian monastic sites in Egypt.
During the Roman Republic, nobilis ("noble," plural nobiles) was a descriptive term of social rank, usually indicating that a member of the family had achieved the consulship.
The Old Testament (abbreviated OT) is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh), a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God.
Oral tradition, or oral lore, is a form of human communication where in knowledge, art, ideas and cultural material is received, preserved and transmitted orally from one generation to another.
Oriental Orthodoxy is the fourth largest communion of Christian churches, with about 76 million members worldwide.
Origen of Alexandria (184 – 253), also known as Origen Adamantius, was a Hellenistic scholar, ascetic, and early Christian theologian who was born and spent the first half of his career in Alexandria.
Owls are birds from the order Strigiformes, which includes about 200 species of mostly solitary and nocturnal birds of prey typified by an upright stance, a large, broad head, binocular vision, binaural hearing, sharp talons, and feathers adapted for silent flight.
Palæstina Prima or Palaestina I was a Byzantine province from 390, until the 7th century.
The Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society, also known as PPTS, was a text publication society, which specialised in publishing editions and translations of medieval texts relevant to the history of pilgrimage to the Holy Land.
Pammachius (died 409 AD) was a Roman senator who is venerated as a saint in the Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic Churches.
Pannonia was a province of the Roman Empire bounded north and east by the Danube, coterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia.
Pastoral theology is the branch of practical theology concerned with the application of the study of religion in the context of regular church ministry.
The patricians (from patricius) were originally a group of ruling class families in ancient Rome.
Patristics or patrology is the study of the early Christian writers who are designated Church Fathers.
The Patrologia Latina (Latin for The Latin Patrology) is an enormous collection of the writings of the Church Fathers and other ecclesiastical writers published by Jacques-Paul Migne between 1841 and 1855, with indices published between 1862 and 1865.
A patron saint, patroness saint, patron hallow or heavenly protector is a saint who in Roman Catholicism, Anglicanism, Eastern Orthodoxy, or particular branches of Islam, is regarded as the heavenly advocate of a nation, place, craft, activity, class, clan, family or person.
Paul of Thebes, commonly known as Paul or in Egyptian Arabic as Amba Bola, the First Hermit or Paul the Anchorite,; (d. c. 341) is regarded as the first Christian hermit; who lived alone in the desert from the age of sixteen to one hundred thirteen years of his age.
Saint Paula of Rome (AD 347–404) was an ancient Roman saint and early Desert Mother.
Paulinus II was a claimant to the See of Antioch from 362 to 388.
Pederasty or paederasty is a (usually erotic) homosexual relationship between an adult male and a pubescent or adolescent male.
Pederasty in ancient Greece was a socially acknowledged romantic relationship between an adult male (the erastes) and a younger male (the eromenos) usually in his teens.
Pelagianism is the belief that original sin did not taint human nature and that mortal will is still capable of choosing good or evil without special divine aid.
The perpetual virginity of Mary is a Marian doctrine, taught by the Catholic Church and held by a number of groups in Christianity, which asserts that Mary (the mother of Jesus) was "always a virgin, before, during and after the birth of Jesus Christ." This doctrine also proclaims that Mary had no marital relations after Jesus' birth nor gave birth to any children other than Jesus.
Philo of Alexandria (Phílōn; Yedidia (Jedediah) HaCohen), also called Philo Judaeus, was a Hellenistic Jewish philosopher who lived in Alexandria, in the Roman province of Egypt.
Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is a combination of literary criticism, history, and linguistics.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
Pieter Coecke van Aelst or Pieter Coecke van Aelst the Elder (Aalst, 14 August 1502 – Brussels, 6 December 1550) was a Flemish painter, sculptor, architect, author and designer of woodcuts, goldsmith's work, stained glass and tapestries.
In spiritual terminology, piety is a virtue that may include religious devotion, spirituality, or a mixture of both.
Pintoricchio or Pinturicchio whose formal name was Bernardino di Betto, also known as Benetto di Biagio or Sordicchio, was an Italian painter of the Renaissance.
The Pneumatomachi (Greek: Πνευματομάχοι), also known as Macedonians or Semi-Arians in Constantinople and the Tropici in Alexandria, were an anti-Nicene Creed sect which flourished in the countries adjacent to the Hellespont during the latter half of the fourth, and the beginning of the fifth century.
A polemic is contentious rhetoric that is intended to support a specific position by aggressive claims and undermining of the opposing position.
Pope Damasus I (c. 305 – 11 December 384) was Pope of the Catholic Church, from October 366 to his death in 384.
Pope Saint Gregory I (Gregorius I; – 12 March 604), commonly known as Saint Gregory the Great, Gregory had come to be known as 'the Great' by the late ninth century, a title which is still applied to him.
In the New Testament, a presbyter (Greek πρεσβύτερος: "elder") is a leader of a local Christian congregation.
Saint Prosper of Aquitaine (Prosper Aquitanus; – AD), a Christian writer and disciple of Saint Augustine of Hippo, was the first continuator of Jerome's Universal Chronicle.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
The protocanonical books are those books of the Old Testament that are also included in the Hebrew Bible (the Tanakh) and that came to be considered canonical during the formational period of Christianity.
Qinnasrin (قنسرين; ܩܢܫܪܝܢ, Qinnašrīn; meaning "Nest of Eagles"), also known by numerous other romanizations and originally known as (Chalcis ad Belum; Χαλκὶς, Khalkìs), was a historical town in northern Syria.
Rabbinic Judaism or Rabbinism (יהדות רבנית Yahadut Rabanit) has been the mainstream form of Judaism since the 6th century CE, after the codification of the Babylonian Talmud.
Religious conversion is the adoption of a set of beliefs identified with one particular religious denomination to the exclusion of others.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
In religion and theology, revelation is the revealing or disclosing of some form of truth or knowledge through communication with a deity or other supernatural entity or entities.
Rhetoric is the art of discourse, wherein a writer or speaker strives to inform, persuade, or motivate particular audiences in specific situations.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
A saint (also historically known as a hallow) is a person who is recognized as having an exceptional degree of holiness or likeness or closeness to God.
Saint Lea (died 383) is a fourth-century saint in the Roman Catholic Church based on the authority of Jerome.
Marcella (325–410) is a saint in the Roman Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox Church.
Saint Peter (Syriac/Aramaic: ܫܸܡܥܘܿܢ ܟܹ݁ܐܦ݂ܵܐ, Shemayon Keppa; שמעון בר יונה; Petros; Petros; Petrus; r. AD 30; died between AD 64 and 68), also known as Simon Peter, Simeon, or Simon, according to the New Testament, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, leaders of the early Christian Great Church.
A schism (pronounced, or, less commonly) is a division between people, usually belonging to an organization, movement, or religious denomination.
The Sea of Galilee, also Kinneret or Kinnereth, Lake of Gennesaret, or Lake Tiberias (יָם כִּנֶּרֶת, Judeo-Aramaic: יַמּא דטבריא; גִּנֵּיסַר بحيرة طبريا), is a freshwater lake in Israel.
The term secular clergy refers to deacons and priests who are not monastics or members of a religious institute.
Secularity (adjective form secular, from Latin saeculum meaning "worldly", "of a generation", "temporal", or a span of about 100 years) is the state of being separate from religion, or of not being exclusively allied with or against any particular religion.
The Septuagint or LXX (from the septuāgintā literally "seventy"; sometimes called the Greek Old Testament) is the earliest extant Greek translation of the Old Testament from the original Hebrew.
The skull is a bony structure that forms the head in vertebrates.
The Song of Songs, also Song of Solomon or Canticles (Hebrew:, Šîr HašŠîrîm, Greek: ᾎσμα ᾎσμάτων, asma asmaton, both meaning Song of Songs), is one of the megillot (scrolls) found in the last section of the Tanakh, known as the Ketuvim (or "Writings"), and a book of the Old Testament.
Stridon (Strido Dalmatiae) was a town in the Roman province of Dalmatia.
A student is a learner or someone who attends an educational institution.
Synaxarion or Synexarion (plurals Synaxaria, Synexaria; Συναξάριον, from συνάγειν, synagein, "to bring together"; cf. etymology of synaxis and synagogue; Latin: Synaxarium, Synexarium; ⲥϫⲛⲁⲝⲁⲣⲓⲟⲛ) is the name given in the Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Eastern Catholic Churches to a compilation of hagiographies corresponding roughly to the martyrology of the Roman Church.
A synod is a council of a church, usually convened to decide an issue of doctrine, administration or application.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Syria Palaestina was a Roman province between 135 AD and about 390.
The Tanakh (or; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach), also called the Mikra or Hebrew Bible, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament.
The Taurus Mountains (Turkish: Toros Dağları, Armenian: Թորոս լեռներ, Ancient Greek: Ὄρη Ταύρου) are a mountain complex in southern Turkey, separating the Mediterranean coastal region of southern Turkey from the central Anatolian Plateau.
The Shepherd of Hermas (Ποιμὴν τοῦ Ἑρμᾶ, Poimēn tou Herma; sometimes just called The Shepherd) is a Christian literary work of the late 1st or mid-2nd century, considered a valuable book by many Christians, and considered canonical scripture by some of the early Church fathers such as Irenaeus.
De vita Caesarum (Latin; literal translation: About the Life of the Caesars), commonly known as The Twelve Caesars, is a set of twelve biographies of Julius Caesar and the first 11 emperors of the Roman Empire written by Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus.
The Thebaid or Thebais (Θηβαΐς, Thēbaïs) was a region of ancient Egypt, which comprised the thirteen southernmost nomes of Upper Egypt, from Abydos to Aswan.
Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine.
Thrace (Modern Θράκη, Thráki; Тракия, Trakiya; Trakya) is a geographical and historical area in southeast Europe, now split between Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey, which is bounded by the Balkan Mountains to the north, the Aegean Sea to the south and the Black Sea to the east.
Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text.
A translation project is a project that deals with the activity of translating.
Trier (Tréier), formerly known in English as Treves (Trèves) and Triers (see also names in other languages), is a city in Germany on the banks of the Moselle.
The Christian doctrine of the Trinity (from Greek τριάς and τριάδα, from "threefold") holds that God is one but three coeternal consubstantial persons or hypostases—the Father, the Son (Jesus Christ), and the Holy Spirit—as "one God in three Divine Persons".
A trumpet is a brass instrument commonly used in classical and jazz ensembles.
Tyrannius Rufinus, also called Rufinus of Aquileia (Rufinus Aquileiensis; 344/345–411), was a monk, historian, and theologian.
A vanitas is a symbolic work of art showing the transience of life, the futility of pleasure, and the certainty of death, often contrasting symbols of wealth and symbols of ephemerality and death.
Vetus Latina ("Old Latin" in Latin), also known as Vetus Itala ("Old Italian"), Itala ("Italian") See, for example, Quedlinburg ''Itala'' fragment.
Victor of Tunnuna (in Latin Victor Tunnunensis) (died circa 570) was Bishop of the North African town of Tunnuna, a chronicler from Late Antiquity, and considered a martyr by Isidore of Seville.
Vigilantius (fl. c. 400) the Christian presbyter, celebrated as the author of a work, no longer extant, against a number of orthodox catholic practices, which inspired one of the most violent of Jerome's polemical treatises.
Publius Vergilius Maro (traditional dates October 15, 70 BC – September 21, 19 BC), usually called Virgil or Vergil in English, was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period.
A vision is something seen in a dream, trance, or religious ecstasy, especially a supernatural appearance that usually conveys a revelation.
Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) or hypovitaminosis A is a lack of vitamin A in blood and tissues.
The Vulgate is a late-4th-century Latin translation of the Bible that became the Catholic Church's officially promulgated Latin version of the Bible during the 16th century.
The Walters Art Museum, located in Mount Vernon-Belvedere, Baltimore, Maryland, United States, is a public art museum founded and opened in 1934.
Western Christianity is the type of Christianity which developed in the areas of the former Western Roman Empire.
The world is the planet Earth and all life upon it, including human civilization.
Writing material refers to the materials that provide the surfaces on which humans use writing instruments to inscribe writings.
Eusebius Hieronymous, Eusebius Hieronymus, Eusebius Hieronymus Sophronius, Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus, Hierome, Hieronymus of Milano, Jerome (Doctor), Jerome of Stridonium, Jerome, Saint, Saint Jerome, Saint Jérôme, St Jerome, St. Jerome.