511 relations: Abba (given name), Abraham, Acts of the Apostles, Adam, Aelia Capitolina, Age of Enlightenment, Agora, Ahmadiyya, Al-Masih ad-Dajjal, Albert Kalthoff, Alexander the Great, Alexandria, Allah, Alms, Amy-Jill Levine, Analgesic, Ananias of Damascus, Ancient history, Anglicanism, Aniconism in Christianity, Annals (Tacitus), Annas, Anno Domini, Annunciation to the shepherds, Anointing, Antichrist, Antioch, Antiquities of the Jews, Apocalypse, Apocalypticism, Apocryphon of James, Apostles, Apostolic Age, Aramaic language, Arrest of Jesus, Arthur Drews, Ascension of Jesus, Atheism, Atonement in Christianity, Augustus, Authority of Jesus questioned, Authorship of the Bible, Avatar, Bahá'í Faith, Bahá'u'lláh, Baptism of Jesus, Barabbas, Bargain of Judas, Bart D. Ehrman, Beelzebub, ..., Beheading of St John the Baptist, Bethany, Bethlehem, Biblical Aramaic, Biblical Hebrew, Biblical inerrancy, Biblical Magi, Biography, Blasphemy, Bodhisattva, Book of Leviticus, Book of Revelation, Book of Zechariah, Books of the Bible, Bread of Life Discourse, Brothers of Jesus, Bruno Bauer, Buddhism, Burton L. Mack, Byzantine art, Byzantine Iconoclasm, Caesarea Maritima, Caiaphas, Calendar era, Calming the storm, Calvary, Capernaum, Carpentry, Catacombs of Rome, Catechism, Catholic devotions, Cefalù Cathedral, Census of Quirinius, Centurion, Charismatic authority, Christ (title), Christ Carrying the Cross, Christ myth theory, Christ Pantocrator, Christian, Christian denomination, Christian eschatology, Christian messianic prophecies, Christian mortalism, Christianity, Christianity in the 1st century, Christmas, Christology, Christopher Hitchens, Church History (Eusebius), Circa, Classics, Cleansing of the Temple, Cleansing ten lepers, Clergy, Client state, Colonies in antiquity, Commissioning of the Twelve Apostles, Common Era, Comparison of the founders of religious traditions, Confession of Peter, Confessionalism (religion), Consanguinity, Conversion of Paul the Apostle, Conversion to Judaism, Criterion of dissimilarity, Criterion of embarrassment, Criterion of multiple attestation, Crown of thorns, Crucifix, Crucifixion darkness, Crucifixion of Jesus, Cynicism (philosophy), Damascus, David, Davidic line, Denial of Peter, Descent from the Cross, Disciple whom Jesus loved, Docetism, Doubting Thomas, Dura-Europos church, E. P. Sanders, Earl Doherty, Early centers of Christianity, Early Christian art and architecture, Early Christianity, Early Muslim conquests, East–West Schism, Easter, Eastern Christianity, Eastern Orthodox Church, Ecumenical council, Edom, Egalitarianism, Elijah, Elisha, End time, Engagement, Entering Heaven alive, Epistle to the Galatians, Erasmus, Eschatology, Essenes, Eternal life (Christianity), Eucharist, Eusebius, Exorcism, F. Dale Bruner, Fall of man, Fall of the Western Roman Empire, Farewell Discourse, Feeding the multitude, First disciples of Jesus, First Epistle to the Corinthians, First seven ecumenical councils, Five Holy Wounds, Flagellation of Christ, Flight into Egypt, Foil (literature), Foot washing, Forum (Roman), Four Evangelists, Fra Angelico, Francis of Assisi, Gabriel, Galilean, Galilee, Gautama Buddha, Genealogy of Jesus, Gerd Theissen, Gethsemane, Giotto, Gnosis, Gnosticism, God in Islam, God the Son, Good Friday, Gospel, Gospel in Islam, Gospel of John, Gospel of Judas, Gospel of Luke, Gospel of Mark, Gospel of Matthew, Gospel of Peter, Gospel of Thomas, Graham Stanton, Great Commission, Greek language, Greg Boyd (theologian), Guru, Halakha, HarperCollins, Heaven in Christianity, Hebrew calendar, Hebrew language, Hellenistic Judaism, Hellenistic period, Hellenization, Helmut Koester, Herod Antipas, Herod the Great, Herodian kingdom, Herodian Tetrarchy, Herodias, Hinduism, Historical criticism, Historical Jesus, Historical reliability of the Acts of the Apostles, Historical reliability of the Gospels, Historicity of Jesus, History of the Jews in the Roman Empire, Holy anointing oil, Holy Face of Jesus, Holy Lance, Holy Nail, Holy Name of Jesus, Holy Spirit, Holy Spirit in Christianity, Holy Spirit in Islam, Homelessness of Jesus, Icon, Image of Edessa, Impenitent thief, Incarnation (Christianity), India, Indian people, Intermediate state, Ioudaios, Isa (name), Islamic views on Jesus' death, Israelites, Jack Finegan, James Dunn (theologian), James, brother of Jesus, Jehovah's Witnesses, Jerusalem, Jerusalem during the Second Temple Period, Jesuism, Jesus in Ahmadiyya Islam, Jesus in Christianity, Jesus in Islam, Jesus in Scientology, Jesus in the Talmud, Jesus predicts his betrayal, Jesus Seminar, Jesus the Jew, Jesus walking on water, Jesus, King of the Jews, Jewish Christian, Jewish Koine Greek, Jewish name, Jewish Palestinian Aramaic, Jews, Joe Nickell, Johannine literature, John 1, John 1:1, John 4, John Dominic Crossan, John Mark, John P. Meier, John the Apostle, John the Baptist, Jonah, Jordan River, Joseph of Arimathea, Josephus, Joses, Joshua (name), Judaean Desert, Judaism, Judaism's view of Jesus, Judaizers, Judas Iscariot, Jude, brother of Jesus, Judea, Judea (Roman province), Julian calendar, Karl Rahner, Kashmir, Ki Tissa, Kingdom of Heaven (Gospel of Matthew), Kingship and kingdom of God, Kiss of Judas, Koine Greek, Kregel Publications, L. Michael White, Lamb of God, Last Adam, Last Judgment, Last Supper, Latin Church, Letters to a Young Contrarian, List of books about Jesus, List of founders of religious traditions, List of High Priests of Israel, List of people claimed to be Jesus, List of people who have been considered deities, Literary genre, Logos (Christianity), Longinus, Louis Feldman, Luke 4, Lunisolar calendar, Magi, Maimonides, Malachi, Manger, Manichaeism, Manifestation of God, Marcan priority, Margaret M. Mitchell, Mark 10, Mark 6, Marriage at Cana, Mary in Islam, Mary Magdalene, Mary of Bethany, Mary, mother of James, Mary, mother of Jesus, Massacre of the Innocents, Master Jesus, Matthew 13, Matthew 2, Matthew 5:44, MENA, Messiah, Messiah in Judaism, Messianic Secret, Michael Grant (classicist), Michael Servetus, Ministry of Jesus, Miracle, Miracles of Jesus, Miraculous catch of fish, Mishneh Torah, Mocking of Jesus, Monotheism, Mosaic, Moses, Muhammad, Muhammad in Islam, Muslim, Myth, Names and titles of Jesus in the New Testament, Nativity of Jesus, Nativity scene, Nature (journal), Nazareth, New Age, New religious movement, New Revised Standard Version, New Testament, New Testament apocrypha, Nicene Creed, Nicodemus, Nontrinitarianism, Old Testament, Omnipresence, Oral gospel traditions, Ordinance (Christianity), Palestine (region), Palm Sunday, Parable, Parable of the Growing Seed, Parable of the Prodigal Son, Parables of Jesus, Paradox, Paramahansa Yogananda, Passion of Jesus, Passion Week, Passover, Patronymic, Paul the Apostle, Pauline epistles, Pella, Jordan, Penitent thief, Perea, Pharisees, Philip Ball, Philip the Apostle, Pilate's court, Pontius Pilate, Pope, Pope Benedict XVI, Pope John Paul II, Pre-existence of Christ, Precursor (religion), Prefect, Presentation of Jesus at the Temple, Progressive revelation (Bahá'í), Prophets and messengers in Islam, Proselyte, Q source, Quest for the historical Jesus, Quran, Rabbi, Raising of Jairus' daughter, Raising of Lazarus, Reconciliation (theology), Reformation, Reincarnation, Relic, Religious text, Renaissance, Repentance, Resurrection of Jesus, Resurrection of the dead, Revelation, Richard Burridge (priest), Richard Dawkins, Robert E. Van Voorst, Robert M. Price, Robert W. Funk, Roman Empire, Roman governor, Rooster, Roza Bal, Sabbath, Sabellianism, Sacrament, Sadducees, Sadhu, Sage (philosophy), Saint Joseph, Saint Joseph's dreams, Saint Peter, Saint Stephen, Salome (disciple), Salvation in Christianity, Samaria, Samaritan woman at the well, Sanhedrin, Sanhedrin trial of Jesus, Satan, Schism, Sea of Galilee, Second Coming, Second Temple, Second Temple Judaism, Septuagint, Sermon on the Mount, Sermon on the Plain, Seventy disciples, Shirk (Islam), Shraga Simmons, Shroud of Turin, Sicily, Siege of Jerusalem (70 CE), Simeon (Gospel of Luke), Simon of Cyrene, Simon, brother of Jesus, Sin, Social change, Socinianism, Son of God (Christianity), Son of man, Son of man (Christianity), Sortes (ancient Rome), Spirituality, Split of early Christianity and Judaism, Subordinationism, Synod of Elvira, Synoptic Gospels, Tacitus, Tahrif, Tanakh, Targum, Tawhid, Tektōn, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, The Jewish War, The Messiah's Donkey, Theosophy (Blavatskian), Third Temple, Thirty pieces of silver, Threefold office, Tiberius, Tomb, Torah, Transfiguration of Jesus, Transfiguration of Jesus in Christian art, Transliteration, Trinity, Triumphal entry into Jerusalem, True Cross, Turning the other cheek, Twelve Tribes of Israel, Unitarianism, Veil of Veronica, Via Dolorosa, Virgin birth of Jesus, Walter de Gruyter, Woes of the Pharisees, Yeshua, Zealots, Zoroaster, 14th Dalai Lama, 1st century. 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Abba is a form of ab, meaning "father" in many Semitic languages.
Abraham (Arabic: إبراهيم Ibrahim), originally Abram, is the common patriarch of the three Abrahamic religions.
Acts of the Apostles (Πράξεις τῶν Ἀποστόλων, Práxeis tôn Apostólōn; Actūs Apostolōrum), often referred to simply as Acts, is the fifth book of the New Testament; it tells of the founding of the Christian church and the spread of its message to the Roman Empire.
Adam (ʾĀdam; Adám) is the name used in the opening chapters of the Book of Genesis for the first man created by God, but it is also used in a collective sense as "mankind" and individually as "a human".
Aelia Capitolina (Latin in full) was a Roman colony, built under the emperor Hadrian on the site of Jerusalem, which was in ruins following the siege of 70 AD, leading in part to the Bar Kokhba revolt of 132–136 AD.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
The agora (ἀγορά agorá) was a central public space in ancient Greek city-states.
Ahmadiyya (officially, the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community or the Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama'at; الجماعة الإسلامية الأحمدية, transliterated: al-Jamā'ah al-Islāmiyyah al-Aḥmadiyyah; احمدیہ مسلم جماعت) is an Islamic religious movement founded in Punjab, British India, in the late 19th century.
Al-Masih ad-Dajjal (المسيح الدجّال, "the false messiah, liar, the deceiver") is an evil figure in Islamic eschatology.
Albert Kalthoff (5 March 1850 in Barmen – 11 May 1906 in Bremen) was a German Protestant theologian, who along with Emil Felden (1874-1959), Oscar Mauritz (1867-1958), Moritz Schwalb (1833-1916) and Friedrich Steudel (1866-1939) formed a group in Bremen, named the Deutscher Monistenbund (German Monists League), who no longer believed in Jesus as a historical figure.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
Allah (translit) is the Arabic word for God in Abrahamic religions.
Alms or almsgiving involves giving to others as an act of virtue, either materially or in the sense of providing capabilities (e.g. education) free.
Amy-Jill Levine (born 1956) is E. Rhodes and Leona B. Carpenter Professor of New Testament Studies at Vanderbilt University Divinity School, Department of Religious Studies, and Graduate Department of Religion.
An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain.
Ananias (Ἀνανίας, same as Hebrew חנניה, Hananiah, "favoured of the ") was a disciple of Jesus at Damascus mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles in the Bible, which describes how he was sent by Jesus to restore the sight of "Saul, of Tarsus" (known later as Paul the Apostle) and provide him with additional instruction in the way of the Lord.
Ancient history is the aggregate of past events, "History" from the beginning of recorded human history and extending as far as the Early Middle Ages or the post-classical history.
Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition that evolved out of the practices, liturgy and identity of the Church of England following the Protestant Reformation.
Christianity has not generally practised aniconism, or the avoidance or prohibition of types of images, but has had an active tradition of making and venerating images of God and other religious figures.
The Annals (Annales) by Roman historian and senator Tacitus is a history of the Roman Empire from the reign of Tiberius to that of Nero, the years AD 14–68.
Annas, son of Seth (23/22 BC – death date unknown, probably around 40 A.D.), was appointed by the Roman legate Quirinius as the first High Priest of the newly formed Roman province of Iudaea in 6 A.D; just after the Romans had deposed Archelaus, Ethnarch of Judaea, thereby putting Judaea directly under Roman rule.
The terms anno Domini (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.
The Annunciation to the shepherds is an episode in the Nativity of Jesus described in the Bible in Luke 2, in which angels tell a group of shepherds about the birth of Jesus.
Anointing is the ritual act of pouring aromatic oil over a person's head or entire body.
In Christianity, antichrist is a term found solely in the First Epistle of John and Second Epistle of John, and often lowercased in Bible translations, in accordance with its introductory appearance: "Children, it is the last hour! As you heard that antichrist is coming, so now many antichrists have come".
Antioch on the Orontes (Antiókheia je epi Oróntou; also Syrian Antioch)Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Δάφνῃ, "Antioch on Daphne"; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ Μεγάλη, "Antioch the Great"; Antiochia ad Orontem; Անտիոք Antiok; ܐܢܛܝܘܟܝܐ Anṭiokya; Hebrew: אנטיוכיה, Antiyokhya; Arabic: انطاكية, Anṭākiya; انطاکیه; Antakya.
Antiquities of the Jews (Ἰουδαϊκὴ ἀρχαιολογία, Ioudaikē archaiologia; Antiquitates Judaicae), also Judean Antiquities (see Ioudaios), is a 20-volume historiographical work composed by the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus in the 13th year of the reign of Roman emperor Flavius Domitian which was around AD 93 or 94.
An apocalypse (Ancient Greek: ἀποκάλυψις apokálypsis, from ἀπό and καλύπτω, literally meaning "an uncovering") is a disclosure of knowledge or revelation.
Apocalypticism is the religious belief that there will be an apocalypse, a term which originally referred to a revelation, but now usually refers to the belief that the end of the world is imminent, even within one's own lifetime.
The Apocryphon of James, also known by the translation of its title – the Secret Book of James, is a pseudonymous text amongst the New Testament apocrypha.
In Christian theology and ecclesiology, the apostles, particularly the Twelve Apostles (also known as the Twelve Disciples or simply the Twelve), were the primary disciples of Jesus, the central figure in Christianity.
The Apostolic Age of the history of Christianity is traditionally regarded as the period of the Twelve Apostles, dating from the Great Commission of the Apostles by the risen Jesus in Jerusalem around 33 AD until the death of the last Apostle, believed to be John the Apostle in Anatolia c. 100.
Aramaic (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, ܐܪܡܝܐ, آرامية) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family.
The arrest of Jesus was a pivotal event in Christianity recorded in the canonical gospels.
Christian Heinrich Arthur Drews (November 1, 1865 – July 19, 1935) was a German writer, historian, philosopher, and important representative of German monist thought.
The ascension of Jesus (anglicized from the Vulgate Latin Acts 1:9-11 section title: Ascensio Iesu) is the departure of Christ from Earth into the presence of God.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
In western Christian theology, atonement describes how human beings can be reconciled to God through Christ's sacrificial suffering and death.
Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.
The authority of Jesus questioned is an episode in the life of Jesus that appears in all three Synoptic Gospels:, and.
Few biblical books are the work of a single author, and most have been edited and revised to produce the texts we have today.
An avatar (Sanskrit: अवतार, IAST), a concept in Hinduism that means "descent", refers to the material appearance or incarnation of a deity on earth.
The Bahá'í Faith (بهائی) is a religion teaching the essential worth of all religions, and the unity and equality of all people.
Bahá'u'lláh (بهاء الله, "Glory of God"; 12 November 1817 – 29 May 1892 and Muharram 2, 1233 - Dhu'l Qa'dah 2, 1309), born Mírzá Ḥusayn-`Alí Núrí (میرزا حسینعلی نوری), was the founder of the Bahá'í Faith.
The baptism of Jesus is described in the gospels of Matthew, Mark and Luke.
Barabbas (ישוע בר אבא Bar ʾAbbaʾ, literally "son of the father") is a figure mentioned in the New Testament of the Bible, in which he is an insurrectionary held by the Roman governor at the same time as Jesus, and whom Pontius Pilate freed at the Passover feast in Jerusalem, while keeping Jesus as a prisoner.
The Bargain of Judas is a biblical episode related to the life of Jesus which is recorded in all three Synoptic Gospels,, and.
Bart Denton Ehrman (born October 5, 1955) is an American New Testament scholar focusing on textual criticism of the New Testament, the historical Jesus, and the development of early Christianity.
Beelzebub or Beelzebul (or; בַּעַל זְבוּב Baʿal Zəvûv) is a name derived from a Philistine god, formerly worshipped in Ekron, and later adopted by some Abrahamic religions as a major demon.
The Beheading of Saint John the Baptist, also known as the Decollation of Saint John the Baptist or the Beheading of the Forerunner, is a holy day observed by various Christian churches that follow liturgical traditions.
Bethany (Βηθανία) is recorded in the New Testament as the home of the siblings Mary, Martha, and Lazarus, as well as that of Simon the Leper.
Bethlehem (بيت لحم, "House of Meat"; בֵּית לֶחֶם,, "House of Bread";; Bethleem; initially named after Canaanite fertility god Lehem) is a Palestinian city located in the central West Bank, Palestine, about south of Jerusalem.
Biblical Aramaic is the form of Aramaic that is used in the books of Daniel, Ezra and a few other places in the Hebrew Bible.
Biblical Hebrew (rtl Ivrit Miqra'it or rtl Leshon ha-Miqra), also called Classical Hebrew, is an archaic form of Hebrew, a Canaanite Semitic language spoken by the Israelites in the area known as Israel, roughly west of the Jordan River and east of the Mediterranean Sea.
Biblical inerrancy, as formulated in the "Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy", is the doctrine that the Protestant Bible "is without error or fault in all its teaching"; or, at least, that "Scripture in the original manuscripts does not affirm anything that is contrary to fact".
The biblical Magi (or; singular: magus), also referred to as the (Three) Wise Men or (Three) Kings, were, in the Gospel of Matthew and Christian tradition, a group of distinguished foreigners who visited Jesus after his birth, bearing gifts of gold, frankincense and myrrh.
A biography, or simply bio, is a detailed description of a person's life.
Blasphemy is the act of insulting or showing contempt or lack of reverence to a deity, or sacred things, or toward something considered sacred or inviolable.
In Buddhism, Bodhisattva is the Sanskrit term for anyone who has generated Bodhicitta, a spontaneous wish and compassionate mind to attain Buddhahood for the benefit of all sentient beings. Bodhisattvas are a popular subject in Buddhist art.
The Book of Leviticus is the third book of the Torah and of the Old Testament.
The Book of Revelation, often called the Revelation to John, the Apocalypse of John, The Revelation, or simply Revelation or Apocalypse (and often misquoted as Revelations), is a book of the New Testament that occupies a central place in Christian eschatology.
The Book of Zechariah, attributed to the Hebrew prophet Zechariah, is included in the Twelve Minor Prophets in the Hebrew Bible.
Different religious groups include different books in their biblical canons, in varying orders, and sometimes divide or combine books.
The Bread of Life Discourse is a portion of the teaching of Jesus which appears in the Gospel of John 6:22-59 and was delivered in the synagogue at Capernaum.
The New Testament describes James, Joseph (Joses), Judas (Jude), and Simon as brothers of Jesus.
Bruno Bauer (6 September 180913 April 1882) was a German philosopher and historian.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Burton L. Mack (born 1931) is an American author and scholar of early Christian history and the New Testament.
Byzantine art is the name for the artistic products of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire, as well as the nations and states that inherited culturally from the empire.
Byzantine Iconoclasm (Εἰκονομαχία, Eikonomachía, literally, "image struggle" or "struggle over images") refers to two periods in the history of the Byzantine Empire when the use of religious images or icons was opposed by religious and imperial authorities within the Eastern Church and the temporal imperial hierarchy.
Caesarea Maritima (Greek: Παράλιος Καισάρεια Parálios Kaisáreia), also known as Caesarea Palestinae, is an Israeli National Park in the Sharon plain, including the ancient remains of the coastal city of Caesarea.
Joseph Caiaphas, known simply as Caiaphas (Καϊάφας) in the New Testament, was the Jewish high priest who organized the plot to kill Jesus.
A calendar era is the year numbering system used by a calendar.
Calming the storm is one of the miracles of Jesus in the Gospels, reported in Matthew 8:23-27, Mark 4:35-41, and Luke 8:22-25.
Calvary, or Golgotha (Biblical Greek Γολγοθᾶ Golgotha, traditionally interpreted as reflecting Syriac (Aramaic) golgolta, as it were Hebrew gulgōleṯ "skull" Strong's Concordance.), was, according to the Gospels, a site immediately outside Jerusalem's walls where Jesus was crucified.
Capernaum (כְּפַר נַחוּם, Kfar Naḥūm; Arabic: كفر ناحوم, meaning "Nahum's village" in Hebrew) was a fishing village established during the time of the Hasmoneans, located on the northern shore of the Sea of Galilee.
Carpentry is a skilled trade in which the primary work performed is the cutting, shaping and installation of building materials during the construction of buildings, ships, timber bridges, concrete formwork, etc.
The Catacombs of Rome (Catacombe di Roma) are ancient catacombs, underground burial places under Rome, Italy, of which there are at least forty, some discovered only in recent decades.
A catechism (from κατηχέω, "to teach orally") is a summary or exposition of doctrine and serves as a learning introduction to the Sacraments traditionally used in catechesis, or Christian religious teaching of children and adult converts.
The United States Conference of Catholic Bishops defines Catholic devotions as "...expressions of love and fidelity that arise from the intersection of one's own faith, culture and the Gospel of Jesus Christ." Catholic devotions are not part of liturgical worship, even if they are performed in a Catholic church, in a group, or in the presence of (or even led by) a priest.
The Cathedral of Cefalù (Duomo di Cefalù) is a Roman Catholic basilica in Cefalù, Sicily.
The Census of Quirinius was a census of Judaea taken by Publius Sulpicius Quirinius, Roman governor of Syria, upon the imposition of direct Roman rule in 6 CE.
A centurion (centurio; κεντυρίων, kentyríōn, or ἑκατόνταρχος, hekatóntarkhos) was a professional officer of the Roman army after the Marian reforms of 107 BC.
Charismatic authority is a concept about leadership that was developed in 1922 (he died in 1920) by the German sociologist Max Weber.
In Christianity, Christ (Greek Χριστός, Christós, meaning "the anointed one") is a title for the saviour and redeemer who would bring salvation to the Jewish people and humanity.
Christ Carrying the Cross on his way to his crucifixion is an episode included in all four Gospels, and a very common subject in art, especially in the fourteen Stations of the Cross, sets of which are now found in almost all Catholic churches.
The Christ myth theory (also known as the Jesus myth theory, Jesus mythicism, mythicism, or Jesus ahistoricity theory) is "the view that the person known as Jesus of Nazareth had no historical existence." Alternatively, in terms given by Bart Ehrman as per his criticism of mythicism, "the historical Jesus did not exist.
In Christian iconography, Christ Pantocrator is a specific depiction of Christ.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
A Christian denomination is a distinct religious body within Christianity, identified by traits such as a name, organisation, leadership and doctrine.
Christian eschatology is a major branch of study within Christian theology dealing with the "last things." Eschatology, from two Greek words meaning "last" (ἔσχατος) and "study" (-λογία), is the study of 'end things', whether the end of an individual life, the end of the age, the end of the world and the nature of the Kingdom of God.
The New Testament frequently cites Jewish scripture to support the claim of the Early Christians that Jesus of Nazareth is the Messiah, and faith in Jesus as the Christos and his imminent expected Second Coming.
Christian mortalism incorporates the belief that the human soul is not naturally immortal;.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Christianity in the 1st century deals with the formative years of the Early Christian community.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
Christology (from Greek Χριστός Khristós and -λογία, -logia) is the field of study within Christian theology which is primarily concerned with the ontology and person of Jesus as recorded in the canonical Gospels and the epistles of the New Testament.
Christopher Eric Hitchens (13 April 1949 – 15 December 2011) was an Anglo-American author, columnist, essayist, orator, religious and literary critic, social critic, and journalist.
The Church History (Ἐκκλησιαστικὴ ἱστορία; Historia Ecclesiastica or Historia Ecclesiae) of Eusebius, the bishop of Caesarea was a 4th-century pioneer work giving a chronological account of the development of Early Christianity from the 1st century to the 4th century.
Circa, usually abbreviated c., ca. or ca (also circ. or cca.), means "approximately" in several European languages (and as a loanword in English), usually in reference to a date.
Classics or classical studies is the study of classical antiquity.
The cleansing of the Temple narrative tells of Jesus expelling the merchants and the money changers from the Temple, and occurs in all four canonical gospels of the New Testament.
Jesus' cleansing of ten lepers is one of the miracles of Jesus reported in the Gospels (Gospel of Luke 17:11-19).
Clergy are some of the main and important formal leaders within certain religions.
A client state is a state that is economically, politically, or militarily subordinate to another more powerful state in international affairs.
Colonies in antiquity were city-states founded from a mother-city (its "metropolis"), not from a territory-at-large.
The commissioning of the Twelve Apostles is an episode in the ministry of Jesus that appears in all three Synoptic Gospels: Matthew 10:1–4, Mark 3:13–19 and Luke 6:12–16.
Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.
The below table is a comparison of the lives of the founders of religious traditions.
In Christianity, the Confession of Peter (anglicized from the Matthean Vulgate Latin section title: Confessio Petri) refers to an episode in the New Testament in which the Apostle Peter proclaims Jesus to be the Christ (Jewish Messiah).
Confessionalism, in a religious (and particularly Christian) sense, is a belief in the importance of full and unambiguous assent to the whole of a religious teaching.
Consanguinity ("blood relation", from the Latin consanguinitas) is the property of being from the same kinship as another person.
The conversion of Paul the Apostle, was, according to the New Testament, an event in the life of Paul the Apostle that led him to cease persecuting early Christians and to become a follower of Jesus.
Conversion to Judaism (גיור, giyur) is the religious conversion of non-Jews to become members of the Jewish religion and Jewish ethnoreligious community.
The criterion of dissimilarity (also called criterion of discontinuity) is used in Biblical criticism to determine if a statement attributed to Jesus may be authentic.
The criterion of embarrassment is a type of critical analysis in which an account likely to be embarrassing to its author is presumed to be true because the author would have no reason to invent an embarrassing account about him- or herself.
The criterion of multiple attestation or independent attestation is a tool used by Biblical scholars to help determine whether certain actions or sayings by Jesus in the New Testament are from Historical Jesus.
According to three of the canonical Gospels, a woven crown of thorns was placed on the head of Jesus during the events leading up to the crucifixion of Jesus.
A crucifix (from Latin cruci fixus meaning "(one) fixed to a cross") is an image of Jesus on the cross, as distinct from a bare cross.
The Crucifixion darkness is an episode in three of the canonical gospels in which the sky becomes dark in daytime during the crucifixion of Jesus.
The crucifixion of Jesus occurred in 1st-century Judea, most likely between AD 30 and 33.
Cynicism (κυνισμός) is a school of thought of ancient Greek philosophy as practiced by the Cynics (Κυνικοί, Cynici).
Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.
David is described in the Hebrew Bible as the second king of the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah.
The Davidic line refers to the tracing of lineage to King David through the texts in the Hebrew Bible, in the New Testament, and through the following centuries.
The Denial of Peter (or Peter's Denial) refers to three acts of denial of Jesus by the Apostle Peter as described in all four Gospels of the New Testament.
The Descent from the Cross (Ἀποκαθήλωσις, Apokathelosis), or Deposition of Christ, is the scene, as depicted in art, from the Gospels' accounts of Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus taking Christ down from the cross after his crucifixion.
The phrase "the disciple whom Jesus loved" (ὁ μαθητὴς ὃν ἠγάπα ὁ Ἰησοῦς, ho mathētēs hon ēgapā ho Iēsous) or, in John 20:2, the disciple beloved of Jesus (ὃν ἐφίλει ὁ Ἰησοῦς, hon ephilei ho Iēsous) is used six times in the Gospel of John, but in no other New Testament accounts of Jesus.
In Christianity, docetism (from the Greek δοκεῖν/δόκησις dokeĩn (to seem) dókēsis (apparition, phantom), is the doctrine that the phenomenon of Christ, his historical and bodily existence, and above all the human form of Jesus, was mere semblance without any true reality. Broadly it is taken as the belief that Jesus only seemed to be human, and that his human form was an illusion. The word Δοκηταί Dokētaí (illusionists) referring to early groups who denied Jesus' humanity, first occurred in a letter by Bishop Serapion of Antioch (197–203), who discovered the doctrine in the Gospel of Peter, during a pastoral visit to a Christian community using it in Rhosus, and later condemned it as a forgery. It appears to have arisen over theological contentions concerning the meaning, figurative or literal, of a sentence from the Gospel of John: "the Word was made Flesh". Docetism was unequivocally rejected at the First Council of Nicaea in 325. and is regarded as heretical by the Catholic Church, Orthodox Church, Coptic Church and many other Christian denominations that accept and hold to the statements of these early church councils.
A doubting Thomas is a skeptic who refuses to believe without direct personal experience—a reference to the Apostle Thomas, who refused to believe that the resurrected Jesus had appeared to the ten other apostles, until he could see and feel the wounds received by Jesus on the cross.
The Dura-Europos church (also known as the Dura-Europos house church) is the earliest identified Christian house church.
Ed Parish Sanders, FBA (born 18 April 1937) is a New Testament scholar and one of the principal proponents of the "New Perspective on Paul".
Earl J. Doherty (born 1941) is a Canadian author of The Jesus Puzzle (1999), Challenging the Verdict (2001), and Jesus: Neither God Nor Man (2009).
Early Christianity (generally considered the time period from its origin to the First Council of Nicaea in 325) spread from the Eastern Mediterranean throughout the Roman Empire and beyond.
Early Christian art and architecture or Paleochristian art is the art produced by Christians or under Christian patronage from the earliest period of Christianity to, depending on the definition used, sometime between 260 and 525.
Early Christianity, defined as the period of Christianity preceding the First Council of Nicaea in 325, typically divides historically into the Apostolic Age and the Ante-Nicene Period (from the Apostolic Age until Nicea).
The early Muslim conquests (الفتوحات الإسلامية, al-Futūḥāt al-Islāmiyya) also referred to as the Arab conquests and early Islamic conquests began with the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the 7th century.
The East–West Schism, also called the Great Schism and the Schism of 1054, was the break of communion between what are now the Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox churches, which has lasted since the 11th century.
Easter,Traditional names for the feast in English are "Easter Day", as in the Book of Common Prayer, "Easter Sunday", used by James Ussher and Samuel Pepys and plain "Easter", as in books printed in,, also called Pascha (Greek, Latin) or Resurrection Sunday, is a festival and holiday celebrating the resurrection of Jesus from the dead, described in the New Testament as having occurred on the third day of his burial after his crucifixion by the Romans at Calvary 30 AD.
Eastern Christianity consists of four main church families: the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox churches, the Eastern Catholic churches (that are in communion with Rome but still maintain Eastern liturgies), and the denominations descended from the Church of the East.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
An ecumenical council (or oecumenical council; also general council) is a conference of ecclesiastical dignitaries and theological experts convened to discuss and settle matters of Church doctrine and practice in which those entitled to vote are convoked from the whole world (oikoumene) and which secures the approbation of the whole Church.
Edom (Assyrian: 𒌑𒁺𒈠𒀀𒀀 Uduma; Syriac: ܐܕܘܡ) was an ancient kingdom in Transjordan located between Moab to the northeast, the Arabah to the west and the Arabian Desert to the south and east.
Egalitarianism – or equalitarianism – is a school of thought that prioritizes equality for all people.
Elijah (meaning "My God is Yahu/Jah") or latinized form Elias (Ἡλίας, Elías; ܐܸܠܝܼܵܐ, Elyāe; Arabic: إلياس or إليا, Ilyās or Ilyā) was, according to the Books of Kings in the Hebrew Bible, a prophet and a miracle worker who lived in the northern kingdom of Israel during the reign of King Ahab (9th century BC).
Elisha (Greek: Ἐλισαῖος, Elisaîos or Ἐλισαιέ, Elisaié) was, according to the Hebrew Bible, a prophet and a wonder-worker.
The end time (also called end times, end of time, end of days, last days, final days, or eschaton) is a future time-period described variously in the eschatologies of several world religions (both Abrahamic and non-Abrahamic), which believe that world events will reach a final climax.
An engagement, betrothal, or fiancer is a promise to wed, and also the period of time between a marriage proposal and a marriage.
Entering Heaven alive (called by various religions "ascension", "assumption", or "translation") is a belief held in various religions.
The Epistle to the Galatians, often shortened to Galatians, is the ninth book of the New Testament.
Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (28 October 1466Gleason, John B. "The Birth Dates of John Colet and Erasmus of Rotterdam: Fresh Documentary Evidence," Renaissance Quarterly, The University of Chicago Press on behalf of the Renaissance Society of America, Vol. 32, No. 1 (Spring, 1979), pp. 73–76; – 12 July 1536), known as Erasmus or Erasmus of Rotterdam,Erasmus was his baptismal name, given after St. Erasmus of Formiae.
Eschatology is a part of theology concerned with the final events of history, or the ultimate destiny of humanity.
The Essenes (Modern Hebrew:, Isiyim; Greek: Ἐσσηνοί, Ἐσσαῖοι, or Ὀσσαῖοι, Essenoi, Essaioi, Ossaioi) were a sect of Second Temple Judaism which flourished from the 2nd century BC to the 1st century AD.
Eternal life traditionally refers to continued life after death, as outlined in Christian eschatology.
The Eucharist (also called Holy Communion or the Lord's Supper, among other names) is a Christian rite that is considered a sacrament in most churches and an ordinance in others.
Eusebius of Caesarea (Εὐσέβιος τῆς Καισαρείας, Eusébios tés Kaisareías; 260/265 – 339/340), also known as Eusebius Pamphili (from the Εὐσέβιος τοῦ Παμϕίλου), was a historian of Christianity, exegete, and Christian polemicist. He became the bishop of Caesarea Maritima about 314 AD. Together with Pamphilus, he was a scholar of the Biblical canon and is regarded as an extremely learned Christian of his time. He wrote Demonstrations of the Gospel, Preparations for the Gospel, and On Discrepancies between the Gospels, studies of the Biblical text. As "Father of Church History" (not to be confused with the title of Church Father), he produced the Ecclesiastical History, On the Life of Pamphilus, the Chronicle and On the Martyrs. During the Council of Antiochia (325) he was excommunicated for subscribing to the heresy of Arius, and thus withdrawn during the First Council of Nicaea where he accepted that the Homoousion referred to the Logos. Never recognized as a Saint, he became counselor of Constantine the Great, and with the bishop of Nicomedia he continued to polemicize against Saint Athanasius of Alexandria, Church Fathers, since he was condemned in the First Council of Tyre in 335.
Exorcism (from Greek εξορκισμός, exorkismós "binding by oath") is the religious or spiritual practice of evicting demons or other spiritual entities from a person, or an area, that are believed to be possessed.
The fall of man, or the fall, is a term used in Christianity to describe the transition of the first man and woman from a state of innocent obedience to God to a state of guilty disobedience.
The Fall of the Western Roman Empire (also called Fall of the Roman Empire or Fall of Rome) was the process of decline in the Western Roman Empire in which it failed to enforce its rule, and its vast territory was divided into several successor polities.
In the New Testament, Chapters 14-17 of the Gospel of John are known as the Farewell Discourse given by Jesus to eleven of his disciples immediately after the conclusion of the Last Supper in Jerusalem, the night before his crucifixion.
Feeding the multitude is a term used to refer to two separate miracles of Jesus reported in the Gospels.
The call of the first disciples of Jesus is a key episode in the life of Jesus in the New Testament.
The First Epistle to the Corinthians (Α΄ ᾽Επιστολὴ πρὸς Κορινθίους), usually referred to simply as First Corinthians and often written 1 Corinthians, is one of the Pauline epistles of the New Testament of the Christian Bible.
In the history of Christianity, the first seven ecumenical councils, include the following: the First Council of Nicaea in 325, the First Council of Constantinople in 381, the Council of Ephesus in 431, the Council of Chalcedon in 451, the Second Council of Constantinople in 553, the Third Council of Constantinople from 680–681 and finally, the Second Council of Nicaea in 787.
In Christian tradition, the Five Holy Wounds or Five Sacred Wounds are the five piercing wounds Jesus Christ suffered during the crucifixion.
The Flagellation of Christ, sometimes known as Christ at the Column or the Scourging at the Pillar, is a scene from the Passion of Christ very frequently shown in Christian art, in cycles of the Passion or the larger subject of the Life of Christ.
The flight into Egypt is a story recounted in the Gospel of Matthew (Matthew 2:13–23) and the New Testament apocrypha.
In fiction, a foil is a character who contrasts with another character - usually the protagonist— to highlight particular qualities of the other character.
Maundy (from the Vulgate of John 13:34 mandatum meaning "command"), or the Washing of the Feet, is a religious rite observed by various Christian denominations.
A forum (Latin forum "public place outdoors", plural fora; English plural either fora or forums) was a public square in a Roman municipium, or any civitas, reserved primarily for the vending of goods; i.e., a marketplace, along with the buildings used for shops and the stoas used for open stalls.
In Christian tradition, the Four Evangelists are Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, the authors attributed with the creation of the four Gospel accounts in the New Testament that bear the following titles: Gospel according to Matthew; Gospel according to Mark; Gospel according to Luke and Gospel according to John.
Fra Angelico (born Guido di Pietro; February 18, 1455) was an Early Italian Renaissance painter described by Vasari in his Lives of the Artists as having "a rare and perfect talent".
Saint Francis of Assisi (San Francesco d'Assisi), born Giovanni di Pietro di Bernardone, informally named as Francesco (1181/11823 October 1226), was an Italian Catholic friar, deacon and preacher.
Gabriel (lit, lit, ⲅⲁⲃⲣⲓⲏⲗ, ܓܒܪܝܝܠ), in the Abrahamic religions, is an archangel who typically serves as God's messenger.
Generically, a Galilean is an inhabitant of Galilee.
Galilee (הגליל, transliteration HaGalil); (الجليل, translit. al-Jalīl) is a region in northern Israel.
Gautama Buddha (c. 563/480 – c. 483/400 BCE), also known as Siddhārtha Gautama, Shakyamuni Buddha, or simply the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was an ascetic (śramaṇa) and sage, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.
The New Testament provides two accounts of the genealogy of Jesus, one in the Gospel of Matthew and another in the Gospel of Luke.
Gerd Theißen (or Theissen; born 24 April 1943) is a German Protestant theologian and New Testament scholar.
Gethsemane (Γεθσημανή, Gethsemane; גת שמנים, Gat Shmanim; ܓܕܣܡܢ, Gaḏ Šmānê, lit. "oil press") is an urban garden at the foot of the Mount of Olives in Jerusalem, most famous as the place where Jesus prayed and his disciples slept the night before His crucifixion; i.e. the site recorded as where the agony in the garden took place.
Giotto di Bondone (1267 – January 8, 1337), known mononymously as Giotto and Latinised as Giottus, was an Italian painter and architect from Florence during the Late Middle Ages.
Gnosis is the common Greek noun for knowledge (γνῶσις, gnôsis, f.). The term is used in various Hellenistic religions and philosophies.
Gnosticism (from γνωστικός gnostikos, "having knowledge", from γνῶσις, knowledge) is a modern name for a variety of ancient religious ideas and systems, originating in Jewish-Christian milieus in the first and second century AD.
In Islam, God (Allāh, contraction of الْإِلٰه al-ilāh, lit. "the god") is indivisible, the God, the absolute one, the all-powerful and all-knowing ruler of the universe, and the creator of everything in existence within the universe.
God the Son (Θεός ὁ υἱός) is the second person of the Trinity in Christian theology.
Good Friday is a Christian holiday celebrating the crucifixion of Jesus and his death at Calvary.
Gospel is the Old English translation of Greek εὐαγγέλιον, evangelion, meaning "good news".
Injil (ʾInjīl, alternative spellings: Ingil or Injeel) is the Arabic name for the Gospel of Jesus (Isa).
The Gospel According to John is the fourth of the canonical gospels.
The Gospel of Judas is a Gnostic gospel whose content consists of conversations between Jesus and Judas Iscariot.
The Gospel According to Luke (Τὸ κατὰ Λουκᾶν εὐαγγέλιον, to kata Loukan evangelion), also called the Gospel of Luke, or simply Luke, is the third of the four canonical Gospels.
The Gospel According to Mark (τὸ κατὰ Μᾶρκον εὐαγγέλιον, to kata Markon euangelion), is one of the four canonical gospels and one of the three synoptic gospels.
The Gospel According to Matthew (translit; also called the Gospel of Matthew or simply, Matthew) is the first book of the New Testament and one of the three synoptic gospels.
The Gospel of Peter (κατά Πέτρον ευαγγέλιον, kata Petrōn euangelion), or Gospel according to Peter, is one of the non-canonical gospels rejected as apocryphal by the Church Fathers and the Catholic Church's synods of Carthage and Rome, which established the New Testament canon.
The Gospel According to Thomas is an early Christian non-canonical sayings gospel that many scholars believe provides insight into the oral gospel traditions.
Graham Norman Stanton (9 July 1940 – 18 July 2009) was a New Zealander who became a prominent and widely respected New Testament scholar in a teaching career at King's College London and as Lady Margaret's Professor of Divinity at Cambridge University.
In Christianity, the Great Commission is the instruction of the resurrected Jesus Christ to his disciples to spread his teachings to all the nations of the world.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Gregory A. Boyd (born June 2, 1957) is an American theologian, pastor, and author.
Guru (गुरु, IAST: guru) is a Sanskrit term that connotes someone who is a "teacher, guide, expert, or master" of certain knowledge or field.
Halakha (הֲלָכָה,; also transliterated as halacha, halakhah, halachah or halocho) is the collective body of Jewish religious laws derived from the Written and Oral Torah.
HarperCollins Publishers L.L.C. is one of the world's largest publishing companies and is one of the Big Five English-language publishing companies, alongside Hachette, Macmillan, Penguin Random House, and Simon & Schuster.
In Christianity, heaven is traditionally the location of the throne of God as well as the holy angelsEhrman, Bart.
The Hebrew or Jewish calendar (Ha-Luah ha-Ivri) is a lunisolar calendar used today predominantly for Jewish religious observances.
Hellenistic Judaism was a form of Judaism in the ancient world that combined Jewish religious tradition with elements of Greek culture.
The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
Hellenization or Hellenisation is the historical spread of ancient Greek culture, religion and, to a lesser extent, language, over foreign peoples conquered by Greeks or brought into their sphere of influence, particularly during the Hellenistic period following the campaigns of Alexander the Great in the fourth century BC.
Helmut Koester (December 18, 1926 – January 1, 2016) was a German-born American scholar of the New Testament and early Christianity at Harvard Divinity School.
Herod Antipater (Ἡρῴδης Ἀντίπατρος, Hērǭdēs Antipatros; born before 20 BC – died after 39 AD), known by the nickname Antipas, was a 1st-century ruler of Galilee and Perea, who bore the title of tetrarch ("ruler of a quarter") and is referred to as both "Herod the Tetrarch" and "King Herod" in the New Testament although he never held the title of king.
Herod (Greek:, Hērōdēs; 74/73 BCE – c. 4 BCE/1 CE), also known as Herod the Great and Herod I, was a Roman client king of Judea, referred to as the Herodian kingdom.
The Herodian kingdom of Judea was a client state of the Roman Republic from 37 BCE, when Herod the Great was appointed "King of the Jews" by the Roman Senate.
The Herodian Tetrarchy was formed following the death of Herod the Great in 4 BCE, when his kingdom was divided between his sons Herod Archelaus as ethnarch, Herod Antipas and Philip as tetrarchs in inheritance, while Herod's sister Salome I shortly ruled a toparchy of Jamnia.
Herodias (Ἡρωδιάς, Hērōdiás; c. 15 BC — after 39 AD) was a princess of the Herodian dynasty of Judaea during the time of the Roman Empire.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
Historical criticism, also known as the historical-critical method or higher criticism, is a branch of criticism that investigates the origins of ancient texts in order to understand "the world behind the text".
The term historical Jesus refers to attempts to "reconstruct the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth by critical historical methods", in "contrast to Christological definitions ('the dogmatic Christ') and other Christian accounts of Jesus ('the Christ of faith')." It also considers the historical and cultural context in which Jesus lived.
The historical reliability of the Acts of the Apostles, the principal historical source for the Apostolic Age, is of interest for biblical scholars and historians of Early Christianity as part of the debate over the historicity of the Bible.
The historical reliability of the Gospels refers to the reliability and historic character of the four New Testament gospels as historical documents.
The historicity of Jesus concerns the degree to which sources show Jesus of Nazareth existed as a historical figure.
The history of the Jews in the Roman Empire traces the interaction of Jews and Romans during the period of the Roman Empire (27 BC – AD 476).
The holy anointing oil (Hebrew: שמן המשחה shemen ha-mishchah, "oil of anointing") formed an integral part of the ordination of the priesthood and the High Priest as well as in the consecration of the articles of the Tabernacle (Exodus 30:26) and subsequent temples in Jerusalem.
The Holy Face of Jesus is a title for specific images which some Catholics believe to have been miraculously formed representations of the face of Jesus Christ.
The Holy Lance, also known as the Holy Spear, the Spear of Destiny, or the Lance of Longinus (named after Saint Longinus), according to the Gospel of John, is the lance that pierced the side of Jesus as he hung on the cross.
Relics that are claimed to be the Holy Nails with which Christ was crucified are objects of veneration among some Christians, particularly Roman Catholics and the Eastern Orthodox.
In Roman Catholicism, the veneration Holy Name of Jesus (also Most Holy Name of Jesus, Santissimo Nome di Gesù) developed as a separate type of devotion in the Early Modern period, in parallel to that of the Sacred Heart.
Holy Spirit (also called Holy Ghost) is a term found in English translations of the Bible that is understood differently among the Abrahamic religions.
For the majority of Christian denominations, the Holy Spirit or Holy Ghost is the third person (hypostasis) of the Trinity: the Triune God manifested as God the Father, God the Son, and the Holy Spirit; each person itself being God.
The Holy Spirit (روح القدس, Rūḥ al-Qudus) in the Islamic faith refers to the source of prophetic or divine revelation.
The gospels demonstrate the homelessness of Jesus lasting for the entirety of his public ministry.
An icon (from Greek εἰκών eikōn "image") is a religious work of art, most commonly a painting, from the Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, and certain Eastern Catholic churches.
According to Christian tradition, the Image of Edessa was a holy relic consisting of a square or rectangle of cloth upon which a miraculous image of the face of Jesus had been imprinted—the first icon ("image").
The impenitent thief is a character described in the New Testament account of the Crucifixion of Jesus.
In Christian theology, the doctrine of the Incarnation holds that Jesus, the preexistent divine Logos (Koine Greek for "Word") and the second hypostasis of the Trinity, God the Son and Son of the Father, taking on a human body and human nature, "was made flesh" and conceived in the womb of Mary the Theotokos (Greek for "God-bearer"). The doctrine of the Incarnation, then, entails that Jesus Christ is fully God and fully human, his two natures joined in hypostatic union.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
In some forms of Christian eschatology, the intermediate state or interim state refers to a person's "intermediate" existence between one's death and the universal resurrection.
Ioudaios (Ἰουδαῖος; pl. Ἰουδαῖοι Ioudaioi). is an Ancient Greek ethnonym used in classical and biblical literature which commonly translates to "Jew" or "Judean". The choice of translation is the subject of frequent scholarly debate, given its central importance to passages in the Bible (both the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament) as well as works of other writers such as Josephus and Philo. Translating it as Jews is seen to imply connotations as to the religious beliefs of the people, whereas translating it as Judeans confines the identity within the geopolitical boundaries of Judea.James D. G. Dunn Jesus, Paul, and the Gospels 2011 Page 124 "6.6 and 9.17, where for the first time Ioudaios can properly be translated 'Jew'; and in Greco-Roman writers, the first use of Ioudaios as a religious term appears at the end of the first century ce (90- 96, 127, 133-36). 12." A related translation debate refers to the terms ἰουδαΐζειν (verb), literally translated as "Judaizing" (compare Judaizers), and Ἰουδαϊσμός (noun), controversially translated as Judaism or Judeanism.
Isa is a unisex given name originating from a variety of sources.
The issue of the crucifixion, death and resurrection of Jesus (Isa) is rejected by most Muslims, but similar to Christians they believe that Jesus will return before the end of time.
The Israelites (בני ישראל Bnei Yisra'el) were a confederation of Iron Age Semitic-speaking tribes of the ancient Near East, who inhabited a part of Canaan during the tribal and monarchic periods.
Jack Finegan (July 11, 1908-July 15, 2000) was an American biblical scholar, and Professor of New Testament History and Archaeology at the Pacific School of Religion, Berkeley, California.
James D. G. "Jimmy" Dunn (born 21 October 1939) is a British New Testament scholar who was for many years the Lightfoot Professor of Divinity in the Department of Theology at the University of Durham, now Emeritus Lightfoot Professor.
James the Just, or a variation of James, brother of the Lord, (יעקב Ya'akov; Ἰάκωβος Iákōbos, can also be Anglicized as Jacob), was an early leader of the so-called Jerusalem Church of the Apostolic Age, to which Paul was also affiliated.
Jehovah's Witnesses is a millenarian restorationist Christian denomination with nontrinitarian beliefs distinct from mainstream Christianity.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
Jerusalem during the Second Temple period describes the history of the city from the return to Zion under Cyrus the Great to the 70 CE siege of Jerusalem by Titus during the First Jewish–Roman War, which saw both region and city change hands several times.
Jesuism, also called Jesusism or Jesuanism, is the teachings of Jesus in distinction to the teachings of mainstream Christianity.
The Ahmadiyya movement believe that Jesus survived The Crucifixion and migrated eastward towards Kashmir to escape persecution.
In Christianity, Jesus is believed to be the Messiah (Christ) and through his crucifixion and resurrection, humans can be reconciled to God and thereby are offered salvation and the promise of eternal life.
In Islam, ʿĪsā ibn Maryam (lit), or Jesus, is understood to be the penultimate prophet and messenger of God (Allah) and al-Masih, the Arabic term for Messiah (Christ), sent to guide the Children of Israel with a new revelation: al-Injīl (Arabic for "the gospel").
Scientology founder L. Ron Hubbard described Scientology as "the Western Anglicized continuance of many earlier forms of wisdom", and cites the teachings of Jesus Christ among belief systems of those "earlier forms".
The Talmud contains passages that some scholars have concluded are references to Christian traditions about Jesus (through mentions of several individuals called "Yeshu", the native Aramaic form of Jesus' Hebrew name Yeshua).
Jesus predicts his betrayal is an episode in the New Testament narrative which is included in all four Canonical Gospels.
The Jesus Seminar was a group of about 50 critical Biblical scholars and 100 laymen founded in 1985 by Robert Funk that originated under the auspices of the Westar Institute.
Jesus the Jew: A historian's reading of the Gospels (1973) is a book by Geza Vermes, who was a Reader in Jewish Studies at the University of Oxford when it was written.
Jesus walking on water is one of the miracles of Jesus recounted in the New Testament.
In the New Testament, Jesus is referred to as the King of the Jews (or of the Judeans), both at the beginning of his life and at the end.
Jewish Christians, also Hebrew Christians or Judeo-Christians, are the original members of the Jewish movement that later became Christianity.
Jewish Koine Greek, or Jewish Hellenistic Greek, is the variety of Koine Greek or "common Attic" found in a number of Alexandrian dialect texts of Hellenistic Judaism, most notably in the Septuagint translation of the Hebrew Bible and associated literature, as well as in Greek Jewish texts from Palestine.
The Jewish name has historically varied, encompassing throughout the centuries several different traditions.
Jewish Palestinian Aramaic was a Western Aramaic language spoken by the Jews during the Classic Era in Judea and the Levant, specifically in Hasmonean, Herodian and Roman Judea and adjacent lands in the late first millennium BCE and later in Syria Palaestina and Palaestina Secunda in the early first millennium CE.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Joe Nickell (born December 1, 1944) is an American prominent skeptic and investigator of the paranormal.
Johannine literature refers to the collection of New Testament works that are traditionally attributed to John the Apostle or to Johannine Christian community.
John 1 is the first chapter in the Gospel of John in the New Testament of the Christian Bible.
John 1:1 is the first verse in the opening chapter of the Gospel of John.
John 4 is the fourth chapter of the Gospel of John in the New Testament of the Christian Bible.
John Dominic Crossan (born February 17, 1934Official website,, Retrieved April 2, 2013.) is an Irish-American New Testament scholar, historian of early Christianity, and former Catholic priest who has produced both scholarly and popular works.
John Mark is named in the Acts of the Apostles as an assistant accompanying Paul and Barnabas on their missionary journeys.
John Paul Meier (born 1942) is an American biblical scholar and Roman Catholic priest.
John the Apostle (ܝܘܚܢܢ ܫܠܝܚܐ; יוחנן בן זבדי; Koine Greek: Ιωάννης; ⲓⲱⲁⲛⲛⲏⲥ or ⲓⲱ̅ⲁ; Latin: Ioannes) was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus according to the New Testament, which refers to him as Ἰωάννης.
John the Baptist (יוחנן המטביל Yokhanan HaMatbil, Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτιστής, Iōánnēs ho baptistḗs or Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτίζων, Iōánnēs ho baptízōn,Lang, Bernhard (2009) International Review of Biblical Studies Brill Academic Pub p. 380 – "33/34 CE Herod Antipas's marriage to Herodias (and beginning of the ministry of Jesus in a sabbatical year); 35 CE – death of John the Baptist" ⲓⲱⲁⲛⲛⲏⲥ ⲡⲓⲡⲣⲟⲇⲣⲟⲙⲟⲥ or ⲓⲱ̅ⲁ ⲡⲓⲣϥϯⲱⲙⲥ, يوحنا المعمدان) was a Jewish itinerant preacherCross, F. L. (ed.) (2005) Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, 3rd ed.
Jonah or Jonas is the name given in the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh/Old Testament) to a prophet of the northern kingdom of Israel in about the 8th century BCE.
The Jordan River (also River Jordan; נְהַר הַיַּרְדֵּן Nahar ha-Yarden, ܢܗܪܐ ܕܝܘܪܕܢܢ, نَهْر الْأُرْدُنّ Nahr al-Urdunn, Ancient Greek: Ιορδάνης, Iordànes) is a -long river in the Middle East that flows roughly north to south through the Sea of Galilee (Hebrew: כנרת Kinneret, Arabic: Bohayrat Tabaraya, meaning Lake of Tiberias) and on to the Dead Sea.
Joseph of Arimathea was, according to all four canonical Christian Gospels, the man who assumed responsibility for the burial of Jesus after his crucifixion.
Titus Flavius Josephus (Φλάβιος Ἰώσηπος; 37 – 100), born Yosef ben Matityahu (יוסף בן מתתיהו, Yosef ben Matityahu; Ἰώσηπος Ματθίου παῖς), was a first-century Romano-Jewish scholar, historian and hagiographer, who was born in Jerusalem—then part of Roman Judea—to a father of priestly descent and a mother who claimed royal ancestry.
Joses is a name, usually regarded as a form of Joseph, occurring many times in the New Testament.
Joshua is a Biblical given name derived from the Hebrew Yehoshua.
The Judaean Desert or Judean Desert (מִדְבַּר יְהוּדָה Midbar Yehuda, both Desert of Judah or Judaean Desert; صحراء يهودا Sahara Yahudan) is a desert in Israel and the West Bank that lies east of Jerusalem and descends to the Dead Sea.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Among followers of Judaism, Jesus is viewed as having been the most influential, and consequently, the most damaging of all false messiahs.
Judaizers is a term for Christians who decide to adopt Jewish customs and practices such as, primarily, the Law of Moses.
Judas Iscariot (died AD) was a disciple and one of the original Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ.
Jude (alternatively Judas or Judah) is believed by some to be one of the brothers of Jesus according to the New Testament.
Judea or Judæa (from יהודה, Standard Yəhuda, Tiberian Yəhûḏāh, Ἰουδαία,; Iūdaea, يهودا, Yahudia) is the ancient Hebrew and Israelite biblical, the exonymic Roman/English, and the modern-day name of the mountainous southern part of Canaan-Israel.
The Roman province of Judea (יהודה, Standard Tiberian; يهودا; Ἰουδαία; Iūdaea), sometimes spelled in its original Latin forms of Iudæa or Iudaea to distinguish it from the geographical region of Judea, incorporated the regions of Judea, Samaria and Idumea, and extended over parts of the former regions of the Hasmonean and Herodian kingdoms of Judea.
The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC (708 AUC), was a reform of the Roman calendar.
Karl Rahner (5 March 1904 – 30 March 1984) was a German Jesuit priest and theologian who, alongside Henri de Lubac, Hans Urs von Balthasar, and Yves Congar, is considered one of the most influential Roman Catholic theologians of the 20th century.
Kashmir is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent.
Ki Tisa, Ki Tissa, Ki Thissa, or Ki Sisa (— Hebrew for "when you take," the sixth and seventh words, and first distinctive words in the parashah) is the 21st weekly Torah portion (parashah) in the annual Jewish cycle of Torah reading and the ninth in the Book of Exodus.
Kingdom of Heaven (Greek: βασιλεία τῶν οὐρανῶν) is a term used in the Gospel of Matthew in preference to the "kingdom of God" (Greek: βασιλεία τοῦ θεοῦ) of the Gospel of Mark and the Gospel of Luke, thought to be the main content of Jesus's preaching, described by referring to "a process, a course of events, whereby God begins to govern or to act as king or Lord, an action, therefore, by which God manifests his being-God in the world of men".
The concept of the kingship of God appears in all Abrahamic religions, where in some cases the terms Kingdom of God and Kingdom of Heaven are also used.
The kiss of Judas, also known (especially in art) as the Betrayal of Christ, is how Judas identified Jesus to the multitude with swords and clubs who had come from the chief priests and elders of the people to arrest him, according to the Synoptic Gospels.
Kregel Publications is an Evangelical Christian book publisher based in Grand Rapids, Michigan.
Lamb of God (Ἀμνὸς τοῦ Θεοῦ, Amnos tou Theou; Agnus Deī) is a title for Jesus that appears in the Gospel of John.
The Last Adam, also given as the Final Adam or the Ultimate Adam, is a title given to Jesus in the New Testament.
The Last Judgment, Final Judgment, Day of Judgment, Judgment Day, Doomsday, or The Day of the Lord (Hebrew Yom Ha Din) (יום הדין) or in Arabic Yawm al-Qiyāmah (یوم القيامة) or Yawm ad-Din (یوم الدین) is part of the eschatological world view of the Abrahamic religions and in the Frashokereti of Zoroastrianism.
The Last Supper is the final meal that, in the Gospel accounts, Jesus shared with his Apostles in Jerusalem before his crucifixion.
The Latin Church, sometimes called the Western Church, is the largest particular church sui iuris in full communion with the Pope and the rest of the Catholic Church, tracing its history to the earliest days of Christianity.
Letters to a Young Contrarian is Christopher Hitchens' contribution, released in 2001, to the Art of Mentoring series published by Basic Books.
This is a bibliography of works with information or interpretations of the life and teachings of Jesus. The list is grouped by date, and sorted within each group (except for the very earliest works) alphabetically by name of author.
This article lists historical figures credited with founding religions or religious philosophies or people who first codified older known religious traditions.
This page gives one list of the High Priests of Ancient Israel up to the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 AD.
This is a partial list of notable people who have been claimed, either by themselves or by their followers, in some way to be the reincarnation or incarnation of Jesus, or the Second Coming of Christ.
This is a list of notable people who were considered deities by themselves or others.
A literary genre is a category of literary composition.
In Christology, the Logos (lit) is a name or title of Jesus Christ, derived from the prologue to the Gospel of John (c 100) "In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God", as well as in the Book of Revelation (c 85), "And he was clothed with a vesture dipped in blood: and his name is called The Word of God." These passages have been important for establishing the doctrine of the divinity of Jesus since the earliest days of Christianity.
Longinus is the name given in Christian mythology to the unnamed Roman soldier who pierced Jesus in his side with a lance and who in medieval and some modern Christian traditions is described as a convert to Christianity.
Louis Harry Feldman (October 29, 1926 – March 25, 2017) was an American professor of classics and literature.
Luke 4 is the fourth chapter of the Gospel of Luke in the New Testament of the Christian Bible.
A lunisolar calendar is a calendar in many cultures whose date indicates both the moon phase and the time of the solar year.
Magi (singular magus; from Latin magus) denotes followers of Zoroastrianism or Zoroaster.
Moses ben Maimon (Mōšeh bēn-Maymūn; موسى بن ميمون Mūsā bin Maymūn), commonly known as Maimonides (Μαϊμωνίδης Maïmōnídēs; Moses Maimonides), and also referred to by the acronym Rambam (for Rabbeinu Mōšeh bēn Maimun, "Our Rabbi Moses son of Maimon"), was a medieval Sephardic Jewish philosopher who became one of the most prolific and influential Torah scholars of the Middle Ages.
Malachi, Malachias, Malache or Mal'achi was the writer of the Book of Malachi, the last book of the Neviim (prophets) section in the Hebrew Bible.
A manger, or feeding trough, is a structure or feeder used to hold food for animals.
Manichaeism (in Modern Persian آیین مانی Āyin-e Māni) was a major religious movement that was founded by the Iranian prophet Mani (in مانی, Syriac: ܡܐܢܝ, Latin: Manichaeus or Manes from Μάνης; 216–276) in the Sasanian Empire.
The Manifestation of God is a concept in the Bahá'í Faith that refers to what are commonly called prophets.
Marcan priority, the hypothesis that the Gospel of Mark was the first-written of the three Synoptic Gospels and was used as a source by the other two (Matthew and Luke) is a central element in discussion of the synoptic problem – the question of the documentary relationship among these three Gospels.
Margaret M. Mitchell is an American scholar of Early Christianity.
Mark 10 is the tenth chapter of the Gospel of Mark in the New Testament of the Christian Bible.
Mark 6 is the sixth chapter of the Gospel of Mark in the New Testament of the Christian Bible.
The transformation of water into wine at the Marriage at Cana or Wedding at Cana is the first miracle attributed to Jesus in the Gospel of John.
Mary (translit), the mother of Jesus (Isa), holds a singularly exalted place in Islam as the only woman named in the Quran, which refers to her seventy times and explicitly identifies her as the greatest of all women, stating, with reference to the angelic saluation during the annunciation, "O Mary, God has chosen you, and purified you; He has chosen you above all the women of creation." In the Quran, her story is related in three Meccan chapters (19, 21, 23) and four Medinan chapters (3, 4, 5, 66), and the nineteenth chapter of the scripture, titled "Mary" (Surat Maryam), is named after her.
Saint Mary Magdalene, sometimes called simply the Magdalene, was a Jewish woman who, according to the four canonical gospels, traveled with Jesus as one of his followers and was a witness to his crucifixion, burial, and resurrection.
Mary of Bethany (Judeo-Aramaic מרים, Maryām, rendered Μαρία, Maria, in the Koine Greek of the New Testament; form of Hebrew, Miryām, or Miriam, "wished for child", "bitter" or "rebellious") is a biblical figure described in the Gospels of John and Luke in the Christian New Testament.
Mary is identified in the synoptic gospels as one of the women who went to Jesus' tomb after He was buried.
Mary was a 1st-century BC Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth, and the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran.
The Massacre of the Innocents is the biblical account of infanticide by Herod the Great, the Roman-appointed King of the Jews.
Master Jesus is the theosophical concept of Jesus in Theosophy and the Ascended Master Teachings.
Matthew 13 is the thirteenth chapter in the Gospel of Matthew in the New Testament section of the Christian Bible.
Matthew 2 is the second chapter of the Gospel of Matthew in the New Testament.
Matthew 5:44 is the 44th verse of the fifth chapter of the Gospel of Matthew in the New Testament and is part of the Sermon on the Mount.
MENA is an English-language acronym referring to the Middle East and North Africa region.
In Abrahamic religions, the messiah or messias is a saviour or liberator of a group of people.
The messiah in Judaism is a savior and liberator of the Jewish people.
In Biblical criticism, the Messianic Secret refers to a motif primarily in the Gospel of Mark in which Jesus is portrayed as commanding his followers to maintain silence about his Messianic mission.
Michael Grant CBE (21 November 1914 – 4 October 2004) was an English classicist, numismatist, and author of numerous popular books on ancient history.
Michael Servetus (Miguel Serveto, Michel Servet), also known as Miguel Servet, Miguel Serveto, Michel Servet, Revés, or Michel de Villeneuve (29 September 1509 or 1511 – 27 October 1553), was a Spanish (then French) theologian, physician, cartographer, and Renaissance humanist.
In the Christian gospels, the ministry of Jesus begins with his baptism in the countryside of Roman Judea and Transjordan, near the river Jordan, and ends in Jerusalem, following the Last Supper with his disciples.
A miracle is an event not explicable by natural or scientific laws.
The miracles of Jesus are the supernatural deeds attributed to Jesus in Christian and Islamic texts.
The miraculous catch of fish or more traditionally the Miraculous Draught of Fish/es, is either of two miracles attributed to Jesus in the Canonical gospels.
The Mishneh Torah (מִשְׁנֵה תּוֹרָה, "Repetition of the Torah"), subtitled Sefer Yad ha-Hazaka (ספר יד החזקה "Book of the Strong Hand"), is a code of Jewish religious law (Halakha) authored by Maimonides (Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon, also known as RaMBaM or "Rambam").
The mocking of Jesus occurred several times, after his trial and before his crucifixion according to the canonical gospels of the New Testament.
Monotheism has been defined as the belief in the existence of only one god that created the world, is all-powerful and intervenes in the world.
A mosaic is a piece of art or image made from the assemblage of small pieces of colored glass, stone, or other materials.
Mosesמֹשֶׁה, Modern Tiberian ISO 259-3; ܡܘܫܐ Mūše; موسى; Mωϋσῆς was a prophet in the Abrahamic religions.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
Muḥammad ibn ʿAbdullāh ibn ʿAbdul-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāshim (مُـحَـمَّـد ابْـن عَـبْـد الله ابْـن عَـبْـد الْـمُـطَّـلِـب ابْـن هَـاشِـم) (circa 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE), in short form Muhammad, is the last Messenger and Prophet of God in all the main branches of Islam.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Myth is a folklore genre consisting of narratives that play a fundamental role in society, such as foundational tales.
Two names and a variety of titles are used to refer to Jesus in the New Testament.
The nativity of Jesus or birth of Jesus is described in the gospels of Luke and Matthew.
In the Christian tradition, a nativity scene (also known as a manger scene, crib, crèche (or, or in Italian presepio or presepe) is the special exhibition, particularly during the Christmas season, of art objects representing the birth of Jesus.Berliner, R. The Origins of the Creche. Gazette des Beaux-Arts, 30 (1946), p. 251. While the term "nativity scene" may be used of any representation of the very common subject of the Nativity of Jesus in art, it has a more specialized sense referring to seasonal displays, either using model figures in a setting or reenactments called "living nativity scenes" (tableau vivant) in which real humans and animals participate. Nativity scenes exhibit figures representing the infant Jesus, his mother, Mary, and her husband, Joseph. Other characters from the nativity story, such as shepherds, sheep, and angels may be displayed near the manger in a barn (or cave) intended to accommodate farm animals, as described in the Gospel of Luke. A donkey and an ox are typically depicted in the scene, and the Magi and their camels, described in the Gospel of Matthew, are also included. Several cultures add other characters and objects that may or may not be Biblical. Saint Francis of Assisi is credited with creating the first live nativity scene in 1223 in order to cultivate the worship of Christ. He himself had recently been inspired by his visit to the Holy Land, where he'd been shown Jesus's traditional birthplace. The scene's popularity inspired communities throughout Catholic countries to stage similar pantomimes. Distinctive nativity scenes and traditions have been created around the world, and are displayed during the Christmas season in churches, homes, shopping malls, and other venues, and occasionally on public lands and in public buildings. Nativity scenes have not escaped controversy, and in the United States their inclusion on public lands or in public buildings has provoked court challenges.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Nazareth (נָצְרַת, Natzrat; النَّاصِرَة, an-Nāṣira; ܢܨܪܬ, Naṣrath) is the capital and the largest city in the Northern District of Israel.
New Age is a term applied to a range of spiritual or religious beliefs and practices that developed in Western nations during the 1970s.
A new religious movement (NRM), also known as a new religion or an alternative spirituality, is a religious or spiritual group that has modern origins and which occupies a peripheral place within its society's dominant religious culture.
The New Revised Standard Version (NRSV) is an English translation of the Bible published in 1989 by National Council of Churches.
The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
The New Testament apocrypha are a number of writings by early Christians that give accounts of Jesus and his teachings, the nature of God, or the teachings of his apostles and of their lives.
The Nicene Creed (Greek: or,, Latin: Symbolum Nicaenum) is a statement of belief widely used in Christian liturgy.
Nicodemus (Νικόδημος) was a Pharisee and a member of the Sanhedrin mentioned in three places in the Gospel of John.
Nontrinitarianism is a form of Christianity that rejects the mainstream Christian doctrine of the Trinity—the teaching that God is three distinct hypostases or persons who are coeternal, coequal, and indivisibly united in one being, or essence (from the Greek ousia).
The Old Testament (abbreviated OT) is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh), a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God.
Omnipresence or ubiquity is the property of being present everywhere.
Oral gospel traditions, cultural information passed on from one generation to the next by word of mouth, were the first stage in the formation of the written gospels.
This article is about the term "ordinance" as used by some Christians for religious rituals.
Palestine (فلسطين,,; Παλαιστίνη, Palaistinē; Palaestina; פלשתינה. Palestina) is a geographic region in Western Asia.
Palm Sunday is a Christian moveable feast that falls on the Sunday before Easter.
A parable is a succinct, didactic story, in prose or verse that illustrates one or more instructive lessons or principles.
The Parable of the Growing Seed (also called the Seed Growing Secretly) is a parable of Jesus which appears only in.
The Parable of the Prodigal Son (also known as the Two Brothers, Lost Son, Loving Father, or Lovesick Father) is one of the parables of Jesus and appears in.
The Parables of Jesus can be found in all the gospels, except for John, and in some of the non-canonical gospels, but are located mainly within the three Synoptic Gospels.
A paradox is a statement that, despite apparently sound reasoning from true premises, leads to an apparently self-contradictory or logically unacceptable conclusion.
Paramahansa Yogananda (পরমহংস যোগানন্দ.) (5 January 18937 March 1952), born Mukunda Lal Ghosh (মুকুন্দলাল ঘোষ.), was an Indian yogi and guru who introduced millions of Indians and westerners to the teachings of meditation and Kriya Yoga through his organization Yogoda Satsanga Society of India and Self-Realization Fellowship.
In Christianity, the Passion (from Late Latin: passionem "suffering, enduring") is the short final period in the life of Jesus covering his entrance visit to Jerusalem and leading to his crucifixion on Mount Calvary, defining the climactic event central to Christian doctrine of salvation history.
Passion Week is a name for the week beginning on Passion Sunday, as the Fifth Sunday of Lent was once called in the Roman Rite.
Passover or Pesach (from Hebrew Pesah, Pesakh) is a major, biblically derived Jewish holiday.
A patronymic, or patronym, is a component of a personal name based on the given name of one's father, grandfather (i.e., an avonymic), or an even earlier male ancestor.
Paul the Apostle (Paulus; translit, ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; c. 5 – c. 64 or 67), commonly known as Saint Paul and also known by his Jewish name Saul of Tarsus (translit; Saũlos Tarseús), was an apostle (though not one of the Twelve Apostles) who taught the gospel of the Christ to the first century world.
The Pauline epistles, Epistles of Paul, or Letters of Paul, are the 13 New Testament books which have the name Paul (Παῦλος) as the first word, hence claiming authorship by Paul the Apostle.
Pella (Ancient Greek: Πέλλα, also known in Arabic as Tabaqat Fahl, طبقة فحل) is found in northwestern Jordan, 27.4 km (17 miles) south of the Sea of Galilee.
The Penitent Thief, also known as the Good Thief or the Thief on the Cross, is one of two unnamed persons mentioned in a version of the Crucifixion of Jesus in the New Testament.
Perea or Peraea (Greek: Περαία, "the country beyond"), was the portion of the kingdom of Herod the Great occupying the eastern side of the Jordan River valley, from about one third the way down from the Sea of Galilee to about one third the way down the eastern shore of the Dead Sea; it did not extend very far to the east.
The Pharisees were at various times a political party, a social movement, and a school of thought in the Holy Land during the time of Second Temple Judaism.
Philip Ball (born 1962) is a British science writer.
Philip the Apostle (Φίλιππος; ⲫⲓⲗⲓⲡⲡⲟⲥ, Philippos) was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus.
In the canonical gospels, Pilate's court refers to the trial of Jesus in praetorium before Pontius Pilate, preceded by the Sanhedrin preliminary hearing.
Pontius Pilate (Latin: Pontius Pīlātus, Πόντιος Πιλάτος, Pontios Pilatos) was the fifth prefect of the Roman province of Judaea, serving under Emperor Tiberius from AD 26 to 36.
The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.
Pope Benedict XVI (Benedictus XVI; Benedetto XVI; Benedikt XVI; born Joseph Aloisius Ratzinger;; 16 April 1927) served as Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 2005 until his resignation in 2013.
Pope John Paul II (Ioannes Paulus II; Giovanni Paolo II; Jan Paweł II; born Karol Józef Wojtyła;; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) served as Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 to 2005.
The doctrine of the pre-existence (or preexistence) of Christ asserts the ontological or personal existence of Christ before his incarnation.
In religion, a precursor, also known as forerunner, predecessor, harbinger or herald, is a holy person who announced the approaching appearance of a prophet or who identified a prophet during the latter’s childhood.
Prefect (from the Latin praefectus, substantive adjectival form of praeficere: "put in front", i.e., in charge) is a magisterial title of varying definition, but which, basically, refers to the leader of an administrative area.
The Presentation of Jesus at the Temple is an early episode in the life of Jesus, describing his presentation at the Temple in Jerusalem in order to officially induct him into Judaism, that is celebrated by many Christian Churches on the holiday of Candlemas.
Progressive revelation is a core teaching in the Bahá'í Faith that suggests that religious truth is revealed by God progressively and cyclically over time through a series of divine Messengers, and that the teachings are tailored to suit the needs of the time and place of their appearance.
Prophets in Islam (الأنبياء في الإسلام) include "messengers" (rasul, pl. rusul), bringers of a divine revelation via an angel (Arabic: ملائكة, malāʾikah);Shaatri, A. I. (2007).
The biblical term "proselyte" is an anglicization of the Koine Greek term προσήλυτος (proselytos), as used in the Septuagint (Greek Old Testament) for "stranger", i.e. a "newcomer to Israel"; a "sojourner in the land", and in the Greek New Testament for a first century convert to Judaism, generally from Ancient Greek religion.
The Q source (also Q document, Q Gospel, or Q from Quelle, meaning "source") is a hypothetical written collection of primarily Jesus' sayings (logia).
The quest for the historical Jesus refers to academic efforts to provide a historical portrait of Jesus.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
In Judaism, a rabbi is a teacher of Torah.
The record of the daughter of Jairus is a combination of miracles of Jesus in the Gospels (Mark 5:21–43, Matthew 9:18–26, Luke 8:40–56).
The raising of Lazarus or the resurrection of Lazarus, recounted only in the Gospel of John (John 11:1–44), is a miracle of Jesus in which Jesus brings Lazarus of Bethany back to life four days after his burial.
Reconciliation, in Christian theology, is an element of salvation that refers to the results of atonement.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
Reincarnation is the philosophical or religious concept that an aspect of a living being starts a new life in a different physical body or form after each biological death.
In religion, a relic usually consists of the physical remains of a saint or the personal effects of the saint or venerated person preserved for purposes of veneration as a tangible memorial.
Religious texts (also known as scripture, or scriptures, from the Latin scriptura, meaning "writing") are texts which religious traditions consider to be central to their practice or beliefs.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
Repentance is the activity of reviewing one's actions and feeling contrition or regret for past wrongs, which is accompanied by commitment to change for the better.
The resurrection of Jesus or resurrection of Christ is the Christian religious belief that, after being put to death, Jesus rose again from the dead: as the Nicene Creed expresses it, "On the third day he rose again in accordance with the Scriptures".
Resurrection of the dead, or resurrection from the dead (Koine: ἀνάστασις νεκρῶν, anastasis nekron; literally: "standing up again of the dead"; is a term frequently used in the New Testament and in the writings and doctrine and theology in other religions to describe an event by which a person, or people are resurrected (brought back to life). In the New Testament of the Christian Bible, the three common usages for this term pertain to (1) the Christ, rising from the dead; (2) the rising from the dead of all men, at the end of this present age and (3) the resurrection of certain ones in history, who were restored to life. Predominantly in Christian eschatology, the term is used to support the belief that the dead will be brought back to life in connection with end times. Various other forms of this concept can also be found in other eschatologies, namely: Islamic, Jewish and Zoroastrian eschatology. In some Neopagan views, this refers to reincarnation between the three realms: Life, Death, and the Realm of the Divine; e.g.: Christopaganism. See Christianity and Neopaganism.
In religion and theology, revelation is the revealing or disclosing of some form of truth or knowledge through communication with a deity or other supernatural entity or entities.
Richard Alan Burridge (born 11 June 1955) is a Church of England priest and biblical scholar.
Clinton Richard Dawkins (born 26 March 1941) is an English ethologist, evolutionary biologist, and author.
Robert E. Van Voorst (born 5 June 1952) is an American theologian and educator.
Robert McNair Price (born July 7, 1954) is an American theologian and writer, known for arguing against the existence of a historical Jesus (the Christ myth theory). He taught philosophy and religion at the Johnnie Colemon Theological Seminary. He is a professor of biblical criticism at the Center for Inquiry Institute, and the author of a number of books on theology and the historicity of Jesus. A former Baptist minister, he was the editor of the Journal of Higher Criticism from 1994 until it ceased publication in 2003. He has also written extensively about the Cthulhu Mythos, a "shared universe" created by the writer H. P. Lovecraft. He also co-wrote a book with his wife, Carol Selby Price, Mystic Rhythms: The Philosophical Vision of Rush (1999), on the rock band Rush. Price is a fellow of the Jesus Seminar, a group of 150 writers and scholars who study the historicity of Jesus, the organizer of a Web community for those interested in the history of Christianity, and sits on the advisory board of the Secular Student Alliance. Secular Student Alliance, accessed April 15, 2010. He is a religious skeptic, especially of orthodox Christian beliefs, occasionally describing himself as a Christian atheist.
Robert W. Funk (July 18, 1926 – September 3, 2005) was an American biblical scholar, founder of the Jesus Seminar and the nonprofit Westar Institute in Santa Rosa, California.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
A Roman governor was an official either elected or appointed to be the chief administrator of Roman law throughout one or more of the many provinces constituting the Roman Empire.
A rooster, also known as a gamecock, a cockerel or cock, is a male gallinaceous bird, usually a male chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus).
The Roza Bal or Rauza Bal or Rozabal is the name of a shrine located in the Khanyaar quarter in Downtown area of Srinagar in Kashmir.
Sabbath is a day set aside for rest and worship.
In Christianity, Sabellianism in the Eastern church or Patripassianism in the Western church is the belief that the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit are three different modes or aspects of God, as apposed to a Trinitarian view of three distinct persons within the Godhead.
A sacrament is a Christian rite recognized as of particular importance and significance.
The Sadducees (Hebrew: Ṣĕḏûqîm) were a sect or group of Jews that was active in Judea during the Second Temple period, starting from the second century BCE through the destruction of the Temple in 70 CE.
A sadhu (IAST: (male), sādhvī (female)), also spelled saddhu, is a religious ascetic, mendicant (monk) or any holy person in Hinduism and Jainism who has renounced the worldly life.
A sage (σοφός, sophos), in classical philosophy, is someone who has attained the wisdom which a philosopher seeks.
Joseph (translit) is a figure in the Gospels who was married to Mary, Jesus' mother, and, in the Christian tradition, was Jesus's legal father.
Saint Joseph's dreams are four dreams described in the Gospel of Matthew in the New Testament in which Joseph, the legal father of Jesus, is visited by an angel of the Lord and receives specific instructions and warnings of impending danger.
Saint Peter (Syriac/Aramaic: ܫܸܡܥܘܿܢ ܟܹ݁ܐܦ݂ܵܐ, Shemayon Keppa; שמעון בר יונה; Petros; Petros; Petrus; r. AD 30; died between AD 64 and 68), also known as Simon Peter, Simeon, or Simon, according to the New Testament, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, leaders of the early Christian Great Church.
Stephen (Στέφανος Stéphanos, meaning "wreath, crown" and by extension "reward, honor", often given as a title rather than as a name), (c. AD 5 – c. AD 34) traditionally venerated as the protomartyr or first martyr of Christianity,, St.
Salome (שלומית, Shelomit), or Mary Salome, was a follower of Jesus who appears briefly in the canonical gospels and in more detail in apocryphal writings.
Salvation in Christianity, or deliverance, is the saving of the soul from sin and its consequences.
Samaria (שֹׁמְרוֹן, Standard, Tiberian Šōmərôn; السامرة, – also known as, "Nablus Mountains") is a historical and biblical name used for the central region of ancient Land of Israel, also known as Palestine, bordered by Galilee to the north and Judaea to the south.
The Samaritan woman at the well is a figure from the Gospel of John, in.
The Sanhedrin (Hebrew and Jewish Palestinian Aramaic: סנהדרין; Greek: Συνέδριον, synedrion, "sitting together," hence "assembly" or "council") was an assembly of twenty-three or seventy-one rabbis appointed to sit as a tribunal in every city in the ancient Land of Israel.
In the New Testament, the Sanhedrin trial of Jesus refers to the trial of Jesus before the Sanhedrin (a Jewish judicial body) following his arrest in Jerusalem and prior to his dispensation by Pontius Pilate.
Satan is an entity in the Abrahamic religions that seduces humans into sin.
A schism (pronounced, or, less commonly) is a division between people, usually belonging to an organization, movement, or religious denomination.
The Sea of Galilee, also Kinneret or Kinnereth, Lake of Gennesaret, or Lake Tiberias (יָם כִּנֶּרֶת, Judeo-Aramaic: יַמּא דטבריא; גִּנֵּיסַר بحيرة طبريا), is a freshwater lake in Israel.
The Second Coming (sometimes called the Second Advent or the Parousia) is a Christian and Islamic belief regarding the future (or past) return of Jesus Christ after his incarnation and ascension to heaven about two thousand years ago.
The Second Temple (בֵּית־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי, Beit HaMikdash HaSheni) was the Jewish Holy Temple which stood on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem during the Second Temple period, between 516 BCE and 70 CE.
Second Temple Judaism is Judaism between the construction of the Second Temple in Jerusalem, c. 515 BCE, and its destruction by the Romans in 70 CE.
The Septuagint or LXX (from the septuāgintā literally "seventy"; sometimes called the Greek Old Testament) is the earliest extant Greek translation of the Old Testament from the original Hebrew.
The Sermon on the Mount (anglicized from the Matthean Vulgate Latin section title: Sermo in monte) is a collection of sayings and teachings of Jesus, which emphasizes his moral teaching found in the Gospel of Matthew (chapters 5, 6, and 7).
In Christianity, the Sermon on the Plain refers to a set of teachings by Jesus in the Gospel of Luke, in 6:17–49.
The seventy disciples or seventy-two disciples (known in the Eastern Christian traditions as the Seventy Apostles) were early emissaries of Jesus mentioned in the Gospel of Luke.
In Islam, shirk (شرك širk) is the sin of practicing idolatry or polytheism, i.e. the deification or worship of anyone or anything besides the singular God, i.e. Allah.
Shraga Simmons (born 1 July 1961) is an Orthodox Jewish rabbi, journalist, filmmaker, brand builder and leader in Torah-themed marketing.
The Shroud of Turin or Turin Shroud (Sindone di Torino, Sacra Sindone or Santa Sindone) is a length of linen cloth bearing the negative image of a man who is alleged to be Jesus of Nazareth.
Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.
The Siege of Jerusalem in the year 70 CE was the decisive event of the First Jewish–Roman War.
Simeon (Simeon the God-receiver) at the Temple is the "just and devout" man of Jerusalem who, according to, met Mary, Joseph, and Jesus as they entered the Temple to fulfill the requirements of the Law of Moses on the 40th day from Jesus' birth at the presentation of Jesus at the Temple.
Simon of Cyrene ("Hearkening; listening", Standard Hebrew Šimʿon, Tiberian Hebrew Šimʿôn;, Simōn Kyrēnaios) was the man compelled by the Romans to carry the cross of Jesus as Jesus was taken to his crucifixion, according to all three Synoptic Gospels.
Simon is described in the New Testament, as one of the supposed brothers of Jesus.
In a religious context, sin is the act of transgression against divine law.
Social change is an alteration in the social order of a society.
Socinianism is a system of Christian doctrine named for Fausto Sozzini (Latin: Faustus Socinus), which was developed among the Polish Brethren in the Minor Reformed Church of Poland during the 16th and 17th centuries and embraced by the Unitarian Church of Transylvania during the same period.
The terms "son of God" and "son of the " are found in several passages of the Old Testament.
"Son of man" is a phrase used in the Hebrew Bible, various apocalyptic works of the intertestamental period, and in the Greek New Testament.
Son of man is an expression in the sayings of Jesus in Christian writings, including the Gospels, the Acts of the Apostles and the Book of Revelation.
Sortes (Latin singular: sors) were a frequent method of divination among the ancient Romans.
Traditionally, spirituality refers to a religious process of re-formation which "aims to recover the original shape of man," oriented at "the image of God" as exemplified by the founders and sacred texts of the religions of the world.
The split of early Christianity and Judaism took place during the first centuries CE.
Subordinationism is a belief within early Christianity that asserts that the Son and the Holy Spirit are subordinate to God the Father in nature and being.
The Synod of Elvira (Concilium Eliberritanum, Concilio de Elvira) was an ecclesiastical synod held at Elvira in the Roman province of Hispania Baetica, now Granada in southern Spain.
The gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke are referred to as the Synoptic Gospels because they include many of the same stories, often in a similar sequence and in similar or sometimes identical wording.
Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (–) was a senator and a historian of the Roman Empire.
(تحريف, "distortion, alteration") is an Arabic term used by Muslims for the alterations which Islamic tradition claims Jews and Christians have made to the revealed books, specifically those that make up the Tawrat (or Torah), Zabur (possibly Psalms) and Injil (or Gospel).
The Tanakh (or; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach), also called the Mikra or Hebrew Bible, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament.
The targumim (singular: "targum", תרגום) were spoken paraphrases, explanations and expansions of the Jewish scriptures (also called the Tanakh) that a rabbi would give in the common language of the listeners, which was then often Aramaic.
Tawhid (توحيد, meaning "oneness " also romanized as tawheed, touheed, or tevhid) is the indivisible oneness concept of monotheism in Islam.
The Ancient Greek noun tektōn (τέκτων) is a common term for an artisan/craftsman, in particular a carpenter, wood-worker, mason, builder or teacher.
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), often informally known as the Mormon Church, is a nontrinitarian, Christian restorationist church that is considered by its members to be the restoration of the original church founded by Jesus Christ.
The Jewish War or Judean War (in full Flavius Josephus's Books of the History of the Jewish War against the Romans, Φλαυίου Ἰωσήπου ἱστορία Ἰουδαϊκοῦ πολέμου πρὸς Ῥωμαίους βιβλία, Phlauiou Iōsēpou historia Ioudaikou polemou pros Rōmaious biblia), also referred to in English as The Wars of the Jews, is a book written by Josephus, a Roman-Jewish historian of the 1st century.
In Jewish tradition, the Messiah's Donkey (Hebrew: חמורו של משיח) refers to the donkey upon which the Messiah will arrive to redeem the world at the end of days.
Theosophy is an esoteric religious movement established in the United States during the late nineteenth century.
If built, the Third Temple (בית המקדש השלישי, Beit haMikdash haShlishi, literally: The House, the Holy, the Third) would be the third Jewish temple in Jerusalem after Solomon's Temple and the rebuilt Second Temple.
Thirty pieces of silver was the price for which Judas Iscariot betrayed Jesus, according to an account in the Gospel of Matthew 26:15 in the New Testament.
The threefold office (munus triplex) of Jesus Christ is a Christian doctrine based upon the teachings of the Old Testament of which Christians hold different views.
Tiberius (Tiberius Caesar Divi Augusti filius Augustus; 16 November 42 BC – 16 March 37 AD) was Roman emperor from 14 AD to 37 AD, succeeding the first emperor, Augustus.
A tomb (from τύμβος tumbos) is a repository for the remains of the dead.
Torah (תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings.
The Transfiguration of Jesus is an event reported in the New Testament when Jesus is transfigured and becomes radiant in glory upon a mountain.
The Transfiguration of Jesus has been an important subject in Christian art, above all in the Eastern church, some of whose most striking icons show the scene.
Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping letters (thus trans- + liter-) in predictable ways (such as α → a, д → d, χ → ch, ն → n or æ → e).
The Christian doctrine of the Trinity (from Greek τριάς and τριάδα, from "threefold") holds that God is one but three coeternal consubstantial persons or hypostases—the Father, the Son (Jesus Christ), and the Holy Spirit—as "one God in three Divine Persons".
In the accounts of the four canonical Gospels, Jesus' triumphal entry into Jerusalem takes place in the days before the Last Supper, marking the beginning of his Passion.
The True Cross is the name for physical remnants which, by a Christian Church tradition, are said to be from the cross upon which Jesus was crucified.
Turning the other cheek is a phrase in Christian doctrine that refers to responding to injury without revenge.
According to the Hebrew Bible, the Twelve Tribes of Israel or Tribes of Israel (שבטי ישראל) were said to have descended from the 12 sons of the patriarch Jacob (who was later named Israel) by two wives, Leah and Rachel, and two concubines, Zilpah and Bilhah.
Unitarianism (from Latin unitas "unity, oneness", from unus "one") is historically a Christian theological movement named for its belief that the God in Christianity is one entity, as opposed to the Trinity (tri- from Latin tres "three") which defines God as three persons in one being; the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.
The Veil of Veronica, or Sudarium (Latin for sweat-cloth), often called simply "The Veronica" and known in Italian as the Volto Santo or Holy Face (but not to be confused with the carved crucifix Volto Santo of Lucca), is a Christian relic of a piece of cloth which, according to tradition, bears the likeness of the face of Jesus not made by human hand (i.e. an acheiropoieton).
The Via Dolorosa (Latin for "Way of Grief," "Way of Sorrow," "Way of Suffering" or simply "Painful Way"; Hebrew: ויה דולורוזה; طريق الآلام) is a street within the Old City of Jerusalem, believed to be the path that Jesus walked on the way to his crucifixion.
The virgin birth of Jesus is the belief that Jesus was conceived in the womb of his mother Mary through the Holy Spirit without the agency of a human father and born while Mary was still a virgin.
Walter de Gruyter GmbH (or; brand name: De Gruyter) is a scholarly publishing house specializing in academic literature.
The Woes of the Pharisees is a list of criticisms by Jesus against scribes and Pharisees recorded in the Gospels of Luke and Matthew.
Yeshua (with vowel pointing – yēšūă‘ in Hebrew) was a common alternative form of the name ("Yehoshua" – Joshua) in later books of the Hebrew Bible and among Jews of the Second Temple period.
The Zealots were a political movement in 1st-century Second Temple Judaism, which sought to incite the people of Judea Province to rebel against the Roman Empire and expel it from the Holy Land by force of arms, most notably during the First Jewish–Roman War (66–70).
Zoroaster (from Greek Ζωροάστρης Zōroastrēs), also known as Zarathustra (𐬰𐬀𐬭𐬀𐬚𐬎𐬱𐬙𐬭𐬀 Zaraθuštra), Zarathushtra Spitama or Ashu Zarathushtra, was an ancient Iranian-speaking prophet whose teachings and innovations on the religious traditions of ancient Iranian-speaking peoples developed into the religion of Zoroastrianism.
The 14th Dalai Lama (religious name: Tenzin Gyatso, shortened from Jetsun Jamphel Ngawang Lobsang Yeshe Tenzin Gyatso; born Lhamo Thondup, 6 July 1935) is the current Dalai Lama.
The 1st century was the century that lasted from AD 1 to AD 100 according to the Julian calendar.
Character of Jesus Christ, Chief Shepherd, Christ, Christ Agony, Christ Holy, Christ Jesus, Christ Savior, Christ almighty, Christ our God, Christ the Savior, Christ the Saviour, Christ, Jesus, Chriſt, Divine Savior, Divine Saviour, Eashoa, Geezus, Gesus, Gesuz, Gesù, Gezus, Gezuz, Good Lord Jesus, Holy Son, IESVS, Iesous, Iesus Christos, Iesus Christus, Iesvs, Isa al Masih, J Christ, JESUS, JEsus, Jeasus, Jeesus, Jeshua Ben-Josef, Jeshua ben Joseph, Jeshua of Nazareth, Jesu Christ, Jesu Christo, Jesus (Christ), Jesus Chirst, Jesus Chris, Jesus Christ, Jesus Christ of Nazareth, Jesus Christ, our savior and lord, Jesus Christ, our savior and lord. Amen., Jesus Christus, Jesus Cristo, Jesus Of Galilee, Jesus Of Nazareth, Jesus The Christ, Jesus as Jew, Jesus christ, Jesus krist, Jesus of Nazareth, Jesus of Nazereth, Jesus of nazareth, Jesus son of Mary, Jesus the Anointed, Jesus the Christ, Jesus the Messiah, Jesus the Nazarene, Jesus the Nazarite, Jesus the messiah, Jesus', Jesus, son of God, Jesus-Christ, Jesus-christ, JesusChrist, Jesvs, Jesús Cristo, Jezus, Jezus Christ, Jezus Christus, Jezuz, Jhesus, Joshke, Joshua of Nazareth, Juesu, Khristos, King of the Church, Lord Jesus, Lord Jesus Christ, Lord of Earth, Lord of Heaven, Lord of Heaven and Earth, Merciful Jesus, Messiah ben David (Christianity), Nazarenos, Our Lord of Lords, Prince of Heaven, Prince of Princes, Prince of the Covenant, Rabbi Jesus, Savior (Christianity), Sayings of Jesus, Son of Mary, Soter (Christ), The Christ, The High Priest of Heaven, Theanthropos, White Christ, YHVShVa, Yasu al-Masih, Yasu l-Masih, Yasu ul-Masih, Yasu', Yasu'a, Yasu`, Yehoshua ben Yosef, Yeshua Ha Mashiach, Yeshua Messiah, Yeshua bar Yosef, Yeshua bar joseph, Yeshua ben Nazareth, Yeshua ben Yosef, Yeshua ben yoseph, Yeshua ben-Yosef, Yesus, Yoshua Ben-Yosef, Yoshua ben yosef, Yoshua bin yosef, Ίησούς, Ιησους, Χριστός, יֵשׁוּעַ, Ἰησοῦς.