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Index Jewellery

Jewellery (British English) or jewelry (American English)see American and British spelling differences consists of small decorative items worn for personal adornment, such as brooches, rings, necklaces, earrings, pendants, bracelets, and cufflinks. [1]

329 relations: Abraham Lincoln, Adhesive, Adornment, Agate, Al-Baqara 255, Albert, Prince Consort, Alexander the Great, Amazonite, Amber, American English, Americas, Amethyst, Amulet, Ancient Egypt, Anglicisation, Anglo-Saxons, Angola, Ankh, Archaeology, Art Deco, Art jewelry, Art Nouveau, Artifact (archaeology), Arts and Crafts movement, Assay office, Assyria, Australia, Australian English, Aztecs, Bangle, Bauhaus, BBC News, Bead, Beadwork, Belt (clothing), Bling-bling, Blood diamond, Body modification, Body piercing, Bone, Botswana, Bowenite, Bracelet, Breakfast at Tiffany's (film), British English, Bronze, Bronze Age, Bronze and brass ornamental work, Brooch, Brushed metal, ..., Buckle, Buddhism, Bulgari, Byzantine Empire, Cameo (carving), Canada, Canadian English, Carat (mass), Cartier (jeweler), Casting (metalworking), Celtic art, Celts, Central America, Chalon-sur-Saône, Charles Lewis Tiffany, Charles Robert Ashbee, Cheapside Hoard, China, Choker, Christianity, Chrysoberyl, Clay, Cloisonné, Coin, Common ostrich, Commonwealth of England, Computer-aided technologies, Conch, Copper, Coral, Cordierite, Costume jewelry, Crown Jewels of the United Kingdom, Crucifix, Cubic zirconia, Cufflink, Cullinan Diamond, Culture, Culture of Africa, Cylinder seal, Darmstadt Artists' Colony, Devotional medal, Diamond, Diamond simulant, Dowry, Dragon, Earring, Egyptians, Emerald, Engagement ring, England, Engraved gem, Engraving, Enkapune Ya Muto, Estate jewelry, Europe, European early modern humans, Evil eye, Exoskeleton, Fabergé egg, Feather, Fibula (brooch), Filigree, First contact (anthropology), First Nations, Fold-forming, Forging, François-Désiré Froment-Meurice, French language, Garnet, Gemology, Gemstone, Genital jewellery, Georg Jensen, George Frederick Kunz, Glass, Glyph, Gold, Goldsmith, Granulation (jewellery), Grave goods, Greece, Grill (jewelry), Hairpin, Hallmark, Hamsa, Haram, Headband, Hei matau, Hei-tiki, Heirloom, Henry Thomas Riley, Hiberno-English, Hip hop, Hope Diamond, Household silver, India, Indian English, Indian subcontinent, Indus Valley Civilisation, Industrial Revolution, Innu, Insurgency, Iran, Islamic art, Ivory, Ivory Coast, Jade, Jasper, Jean-Baptiste Tavernier, Jet (lignite), Jewellery cleaning, Jewellery Quarter, Jewelry Television, John Bostock (physician), Judaism, Kayan people (Myanmar), Kingfisher, Kolt, Labret, Lapidary, Lapis lazuli, Latin, Liberty (department store), Lip plate, List of gemstones by species, List of jewellery types, List of topics characterized as pseudoscience, Live insect jewelry, Livery collar, London, Maharaja, Mammoth, Mari, Syria, Marriage, Mary of Burgundy, Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, Maya civilization, Māori culture, Merovingian dynasty, Mesopotamia, Metal, Metal clay, Metal Couture, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Middle Ages, Mikimoto Kōkichi, Milling (machining), Mixtec, Modern primitive, Modernisme, Moissanite, Mokume-gane, Monarch, Mursi people, Myanmar, Nacre, Napoleon, Nassarius, Native Americans in the United States, Naum Slutzky, Navaratna, Necklace, Nephrite, New York City, New Zealand, New Zealand English, North America, North Yorkshire, Objet d'art, Olbia, Onyx, Opal, Oyster, Pacific Ocean, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Parure, Patronage, Pearl, Pendant, Perfume, Peridot, Personalization, Peter Carl Fabergé, Pforzheim, Phoenicia, Phoenix (mythology), Photolithography, Pierre C. Cartier, Platinum, Plique-à-jour, Polyamide, Polychrome, Polymer clay, Pounamu, Precious metal, Prehistoric Egypt, Prototype, Puabi, Quartz, Queen Victoria, Quetzal, Quillwork, Raising (metalworking), Renaissance, René Lalique, Ring (jewellery), Ripley's Believe It or Not Special Edition, Rivet, Robert Lee Morris, Romanticism, Royal Cemetery at Ur, Ruby, Russia, Rutilated quartz, Sanskrit, Sapphire, Sara people, Sarpech, Scale (anatomy), Seal (emblem), Seashell, Secession (art), Seed bead, Shakudō, Ship burial, Siegfried Bing, Sierra Leone, Silver, Silversmith, Soapstone, Social status, Soldering, Souq, South African English, South America, Spain, Spinel, Sri Lanka, Stainless steel, Staple (fastener), Star Carr, Star Carr Pendant, Star of David, Steel, Sterling silver, Suffolk, Sumptuary law, Supernatural, Surface finish, Sutton Hoo, Tara Brooch, Tendon, Tiara, Tiffany & Co., Tlatoani, Toe ring, Topaz, Torc, Trade beads, Tribe (Native American), Turkey, Turquoise, Tusk, Venus of Hohle Fels, Victorian era, Vitreous enamel, Walter Gropius, Wax, Wedding ring, Weddings in India, Welding, Wiener Werkstätte, Wire sculpture, Wood, World War I, Yusuf al-Qaradawi, 3D printing. Expand index (279 more) »

Abraham Lincoln

Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th President of the United States from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865.

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An adhesive, also known as glue, cement, mucilage, or paste, is any substance applied to one surface, or both surfaces, of two separate items that binds them together and resists their separation.

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An adornment is generally an accessory or ornament worn to enhance the beauty or status of the wearer.

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Agate is a rock consisting primarily of cryptocrystalline silica, chiefly chalcedony, alternating with microgranular quartz.

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Al-Baqara 255

The Throne Verse (ʾĀyat al-Kursī) is the 255th verse of the 2nd surah of the Qur'an, Al-Baqara.

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Albert, Prince Consort

Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Francis Albert Augustus Charles Emmanuel; 26 August 1819 – 14 December 1861) was the husband and consort of Queen Victoria.

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Alexander the Great

Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.

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Amazonite (sometimes called "Amazon stone") is a green variety of microcline feldspar.

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Amber is fossilized tree resin, which has been appreciated for its color and natural beauty since Neolithic times.

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American English

American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States.

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The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.

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Amethyst is a violet variety of quartz often used in jewelry.

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An amulet is an object that is typically worn on one's person, that some people believe has the magical or miraculous power to protect its holder, either to protect them in general or to protect them from some specific thing; it is often also used as an ornament though that may not be the intended purpose of it.

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Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.

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Anglicisation (or anglicization, see English spelling differences), occasionally anglification, anglifying, englishing, refers to modifications made to foreign words, names and phrases to make them easier to spell, pronounce, or understand in English.

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The Anglo-Saxons were a people who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century.

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Angola, officially the Republic of Angola (República de Angola; Kikongo, Kimbundu and Repubilika ya Ngola), is a country in Southern Africa.

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The ankh (Egyptian ˁnḫ), also known as "crux ansata" (the Latin for "cross with a handle") is an ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic ideograph symbolizing "life".

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Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.

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Art Deco

Art Deco, sometimes referred to as Deco, is a style of visual arts, architecture and design that first appeared in France just before World War I. Art Deco influenced the design of buildings, furniture, jewelry, fashion, cars, movie theatres, trains, ocean liners, and everyday objects such as radios and vacuum cleaners.

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Art jewelry

Art jewelry is one of the names given to jewelry created by studio craftspeople.

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Art Nouveau

Art Nouveau is an international style of art, architecture and applied art, especially the decorative arts, that was most popular between 1890 and 1910.

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Artifact (archaeology)

An artifact, or artefact (see American and British English spelling differences), is something made or given shape by humans, such as a tool or a work of art, especially an object of archaeological interest.

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Arts and Crafts movement

The Arts and Crafts movement was an international movement in the decorative and fine arts that began in Britain and flourished in Europe and North America between about 1880 and 1920, emerging in Japan (the Mingei movement) in the 1920s.

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Assay office

Assay offices are institutions set up to assay (test the purity of) precious metals, in order to protect consumers.

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Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant.

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Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.

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Australian English

Australian English (AuE, en-AU) is a major variety of the English language, used throughout Australia.

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The Aztecs were a Mesoamerican culture that flourished in central Mexico in the post-classic period from 1300 to 1521.

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Bangles are rigid bracelets, usually from metal, wood, glass or plastic.

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Staatliches Bauhaus, commonly known simply as Bauhaus, was a German art school operational from 1919 to 1933 that combined crafts and the fine arts, and was famous for the approach to design that it publicized and taught.

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BBC News

BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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A bead is a small, decorative object that is formed in a variety of shapes and sizes of a material such as stone, bone, shell, glass, plastic, wood or pearl and with a small hole for threading or stringing.

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Beadwork is the art or craft of attaching beads to one another by stringing them with a sewing needle or beading needle and thread or thin wire, or sewing them to cloth.

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Belt (clothing)

A belt is a flexible band or strap, typically made of leather or heavy cloth, and worn around the waist.

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Bling-bling is a slang term popularized in hip hop culture, referring to flashy, ostentatious, or elaborate jewelry and ornamented accessories that are carried, worn, or installed, such as cell phones or tooth caps.

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Blood diamond

Blood diamonds (also called conflict diamonds, war diamonds, hot diamonds, or red diamonds) is a term used for a diamond mined in a war zone and sold to finance an insurgency, an invading army's war efforts, or a warlord's activity.

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Body modification

Body modification (or body alteration) is the deliberate altering of the human anatomy or human physical appearance.

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Body piercing

Body piercing, a form of body modification, is the practice of puncturing or cutting a part of the human body, creating an opening in which jewelry may be worn.

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A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton.

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Botswana, officially the Republic of Botswana (Lefatshe la Botswana), is a landlocked country located in Southern Africa.

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Bowenite is a hard, compact variety of the serpentinite species antigorite, (Mg3(OH)O4Si2O5).

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A bracelet is an article of jewellery that is worn around the wrist.

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Breakfast at Tiffany's (film)

Breakfast at Tiffany's is a 1961 American romantic comedy film directed by Blake Edwards and written by George Axelrod, loosely based on Truman Capote's novella of the same name.

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British English

British English is the standard dialect of English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom.

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Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.

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Bronze Age

The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.

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Bronze and brass ornamental work

The use of bronze dates from remote antiquity.

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A brooch is a decorative jewelry item designed to be attached to garments, often to hold them closed.

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Brushed metal

A piece of brushed aluminium A collection of brushed stainless steel Breville small appliances A DeLorean DMC-12 featuring non-structural brushed stainless steel panels The Gateway Arch in St. Louis, Missouri Brushed or dull polished metal is metal with a unidirectional satin finish.

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The buckle or clasp is a device used for fastening two loose ends, with one end attached to it and the other held by a catch in a secure but adjustable manner.

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Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.

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Bulgari (stylized as BVLGARI) is an Italian jewelry and luxury goods brand that produces and markets several product lines including jewelry, watches, fragrances, accessories, and hotels.

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Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).

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Cameo (carving)

Cameo is a method of carving an object such as an engraved gem, item of jewellery or vessel.

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Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.

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Canadian English

Canadian English (CanE, CE, en-CA) is the set of varieties of the English language native to Canada.

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Carat (mass)

The carat (ct) (not to be confused with the karat, sometimes spelled carat, a unit of purity of gold alloys), is a unit of mass equal to 200 mg (0.2 g; 0.007055 oz) and is used for measuring gemstones and pearls.

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Cartier (jeweler)

Société Cartier is a French luxury goods conglomerate company which designs, manufactures, distributes, and sells jewellery and watches.

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Casting (metalworking)

In metalworking and jewellery making, casting is a process in which a liquid metal is somehow delivered into a mold (it is usually delivered by a crucible) that contains a hollow shape (i.e., a 3-dimensional negative image) of the intended shape.

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Celtic art

Celtic art is associated with the peoples known as Celts; those who spoke the Celtic languages in Europe from pre-history through to the modern period, as well as the art of ancient peoples whose language is uncertain, but have cultural and stylistic similarities with speakers of Celtic languages.

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The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.

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Central America

Central America (América Central, Centroamérica) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with the South American continent on the southeast.

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Chalon-sur-Saône is a commune in the Saône-et-Loire department in the region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté in eastern France.

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Charles Lewis Tiffany

Charles Lewis Tiffany (February 15, 1812 – February 18, 1902) was a nineteenth century leader in the American jewelry trade and founded New York City's Tiffany & Co. in 1837.

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Charles Robert Ashbee

Charles Robert Ashbee (17 May 1863 – 23 May 1942) was an English architect and designer who was a prime mover of the Arts and Crafts movement that took its craft ethic from the works of John Ruskin and its co-operative structure from the socialism of William Morris.

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Cheapside Hoard

The Cheapside Hoard is a hoard of jewellery from the late 16th and early 17th centuries, discovered in 1912 by workmen using a pickaxe to excavate in a cellar at 30–32 Cheapside in London, on the corner with Friday Street.

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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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A choker is a close-fitting necklace worn around the neck.

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ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.

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The mineral or gemstone chrysoberyl is an aluminate of beryllium with the formula BeAl2O4.

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Clay is a finely-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with possible traces of quartz (SiO2), metal oxides (Al2O3, MgO etc.) and organic matter.

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Cloisonné is an ancient technique for decorating metalwork objects.

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A coin is a small, flat, (usually) round piece of metal or plastic used primarily as a medium of exchange or legal tender.

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Common ostrich

The ostrich or common ostrich (Struthio camelus) is either of two species of large flightless birds native to Africa, the only living member(s) of the genus Struthio, which is in the ratite family.

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Commonwealth of England

The Commonwealth was the period from 1649 to 1660 when England and Wales, later along with Ireland and Scotland, was ruled as a republic following the end of the Second English Civil War and the trial and execution of Charles I. The republic's existence was declared through "An Act declaring England to be a Commonwealth", adopted by the Rump Parliament on 19 May 1649.

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Computer-aided technologies

Computer-aided technologies (CAx) is the use of computer technology to aid in the design, analysis, and manufacture of products.

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Conch is a common name that is applied to a number of different medium to large-sized shells.

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Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.

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Corals are marine invertebrates in the class Anthozoa of phylum Cnidaria.

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"Praseolite" redirects here.

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Costume jewelry

Costume jewelry, trinkets, fashion jewelry, junk jewelry, fake jewelry, or fallalery is jewelry manufactured as ornamentation to complement a particular fashionable costume or garmentBaker, Lillian.

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Crown Jewels of the United Kingdom

The Crown Jewels of the United Kingdom, originally the Crown Jewels of England, are 140 royal ceremonial objects kept in the Tower of London, which include the regalia and vestments worn by British kings and queens at their coronations.

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A crucifix (from Latin cruci fixus meaning "(one) fixed to a cross") is an image of Jesus on the cross, as distinct from a bare cross.

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Cubic zirconia

Cubic zirconia (CZ) is the cubic crystalline form of zirconium dioxide (ZrO2).

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Cufflinks are items of jewelry that are used to secure the cuffs of dress shirts.

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Cullinan Diamond

The Cullinan Diamond is the largest gem-quality rough diamond ever found,Scarratt and Shor, p. 120.

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Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.

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Culture of Africa

The culture of Africa is varied and manifold, consisting of a mixture of countries with various tribes that each have their own unique characteristics from the continent of Africa.

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Cylinder seal

A cylinder seal is a small round cylinder, typically about one inch in length, engraved with written characters or figurative scenes or both, used in ancient times to roll an impression onto a two-dimensional surface, generally wet clay.

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Darmstadt Artists' Colony

The Darmstadt Artists’ Colony refers both to a group of Jugendstil artists as well as to the buildings in Mathildenhöhe in Darmstadt in which these artists lived and worked.

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Devotional medal

A devotional medal is a medal issued for religious devotion most commonly associated with Roman Catholic faith, but sometimes used by adherents of the Orthodox and Anglican denominations.

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Diamond is a solid form of carbon with a diamond cubic crystal structure.

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Diamond simulant

A diamond simulant, diamond imitation or imitation diamond is an object or material with gemological characteristics similar to those of a diamond.

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A dowry is a transfer of parental property, gifts or money at the marriage of a daughter.

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A dragon is a large, serpent-like legendary creature that appears in the folklore of many cultures around the world.

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An earring is a piece of jewelry attached to the ear via a piercing in the earlobe or another external part of the ear (except in the case of clip earrings, which clip onto the lobe). Earrings are worn by both sexes, although more common among women, and have been used by different civilizations in different times. Locations for piercings other than the earlobe include the rook, tragus, and across the helix (see image at right). The simple term "ear piercing" usually refers to an earlobe piercing, whereas piercings in the upper part of the external ear are often referred to as "cartilage piercings". Cartilage piercings are more complex to perform than earlobe piercings and take longer to heal. Earring components may be made of any number of materials, including metal, plastic, glass, precious stone, beads, wood, bone, and other materials. Designs range from small loops and studs to large plates and dangling items. The size is ultimately limited by the physical capacity of the earlobe to hold the earring without tearing. However, heavy earrings worn over extended periods of time may lead to stretching of the earlobe and the piercing.

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Egyptians (مَصريين;; مِصريّون; Ni/rem/en/kīmi) are an ethnic group native to Egypt and the citizens of that country sharing a common culture and a common dialect known as Egyptian Arabic.

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Emerald is a precious gemstone and a variety of the mineral beryl (Be3Al2(SiO3)6) colored green by trace amounts of chromium and sometimes vanadium.

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Engagement ring

An engagement ring is a ring indicating that the person wearing it is engaged to be married, especially in Western cultures.

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England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.

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Engraved gem

An engraved gem, frequently referred to as an intaglio, is a small and usually semi-precious gemstone that has been carved, in the Western tradition normally with images or inscriptions only on one face.

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Engraving is the practice of incising a design onto a hard, usually flat surface by cutting grooves into it.

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Enkapune Ya Muto

Enkapune Ya Muto, also known as Twilight Cave, is a Late Stone Age site on the Mau Escarpment of Kenya.

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Estate jewelry

Estate jewelry (or estate jewellery) is a term used, most commonly in a retail sense, to refer to jewelry and often timepieces which are part of the 'estate' of a deceased person.

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Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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European early modern humans

European early modern humans (EEMH) in the context of the Upper Paleolithic in Europe refers to the early presence of anatomically modern humans in Europe.

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Evil eye

The evil eye is a curse or legend believed to be cast by a malevolent glare, usually given to a person when they are unaware.

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An exoskeleton (from Greek έξω, éxō "outer" and σκελετός, skeletós "skeleton") is the external skeleton that supports and protects an animal's body, in contrast to the internal skeleton (endoskeleton) of, for example, a human.

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Fabergé egg

A Fabergé egg (Яйца Фаберже́, yaytsa faberzhe) is a jeweled egg (possibly numbering as many as 69, of which 57 survive today) created by the House of Fabergé, in St. Petersburg, Imperial Russia.

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Feathers are epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on birds and other, extinct species' of dinosaurs.

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Fibula (brooch)

A fibula (/ˈfɪbjʊlə/, plural fibulae /ˈfɪbjʊli/) is a brooch or pin for fastening garments.

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Filigree (also less commonly spelled filagree, and formerly written filigrann or filigrene) is a delicate kind of jewellery metalwork, usually of gold and silver, made with tiny beads or twisted threads, or both in combination, soldered together or to the surface of an object of the same metal and arranged in artistic motifs.

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First contact (anthropology)

In anthropology, first contact is the first meeting of two cultures previously unaware of one another.

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First Nations

In Canada, the First Nations (Premières Nations) are the predominant indigenous peoples in Canada south of the Arctic Circle.

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Foldforming is a technique of metalworking whereby metal is folded, repeatedly forged and annealed, and unfolded; at which stage it generally has a dramatic new three-dimensional form.

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Forging is a manufacturing process involving the shaping of metal using localized compressive forces.

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François-Désiré Froment-Meurice

François-Désiré Froment-Meurice (31 December 1802 (Paris)— (Paris) 17 February 1855) was a French goldsmith, working in a free and naturalistic manner in the tradition of Mannerist and Baroque masters.

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.

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Garnets are a group of silicate minerals that have been used since the Bronze Age as gemstones and abrasives.

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Gemology or gemmology is the science dealing with natural and artificial gemstone materials.

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A gemstone (also called a gem, fine gem, jewel, precious stone, or semi-precious stone) is a piece of mineral crystal which, in cut and polished form, is used to make jewelry or other adornments.

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Genital jewellery

Genital jewellery, also known as sex jewellery and adult jewellery, is jewellery which is designed specifically for wear on or to accentuate the genitals.

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Georg Jensen

Georg Arthur Jensen (31 August 1866 in Rådvad – 2 October 1935 in Copenhagen) was a Danish silversmith and founder of Georg Jensen A/S.

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George Frederick Kunz

George Frederick Kunz (September 29, 1856 – June 29, 1932) was an American mineralogist and mineral collector.

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Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.

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In typography, a glyph is an elemental symbol within an agreed set of symbols, intended to represent a readable character for the purposes of writing.

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Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.

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A goldsmith is a metalworker who specializes in working with gold and other precious metals.

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Granulation (jewellery)

Granulation is a jewellery manufacturing technique whereby a surface is covered in spherules or granules of precious metal.

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Grave goods

Grave goods, in archaeology and anthropology, are the items buried along with the body.

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No description.

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Grill (jewelry)

A gold dental grill In hip hop culture, a grill (most commonly referred to as grills), also known as fronts or golds, is a type of jewelry worn over the teeth.

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A hair pin or hairpin is a long device used to hold a person's hair in place.

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A hallmark is an official mark or series of marks struck on items made of metal, mostly to certify the content of noble metals—such as platinum, gold, silver and in some nations, palladium.

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The hamsa (خمسة khamsah; חַמְסָה, also romanized khamsa; ⵜⴰⴼⵓⵙⵜ tafust), is a palm-shaped amulet popular throughout the Middle East and North Africa and commonly used in jewelry and wall hangings.

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Haram (حَرَام) is an Arabic term meaning "forbidden".

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A headband is a clothing accessory worn in the hair or around the forehead, usually to hold hair away from the face or eyes.

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Hei matau

A hei matau is a bone or greenstone carving in the shape of a highly stylised fish hook typical of the Māori people of New Zealand.

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The hei-tiki is an ornamental pendant of the Māori of New Zealand.

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In popular usage, an heirloom is something, perhaps an antique or some kind of jewelry, that has been passed down for generations through family members.

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Henry Thomas Riley

Henry Thomas Riley (1816–1878) was an English translator, lexicographer, and antiquary.

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Hiberno‐English (from Latin Hibernia: "Ireland") or Irish English is the set of English dialects natively written and spoken within the island of Ireland (including both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland).

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Hip hop

Hip hop, or hip-hop, is a subculture and art movement developed in the Bronx in New York City during the late 1970s.

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Hope Diamond

The Hope Diamond is one of the most famous jewels in the world, with ownership records dating back almost four centuries.

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Household silver

Household silver or silverware (the silver, the plate, or silver service) includes tableware, cutlery, and other household items made of sterling silver, Britannia silver, or Sheffield plate silver.

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India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Indian English

Indian English is any of the forms of English characteristic of India.

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Indian subcontinent

The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.

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Indus Valley Civilisation

The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC), or Harappan Civilisation, was a Bronze Age civilisation (5500–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) mainly in the northwestern regions of South Asia, extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India.

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Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.

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The Innu (or Montagnais) are the Indigenous inhabitants of an area in Canada they refer to as Nitassinan (“Our Land”), which comprises most of the northeastern portion of the present-day province of Quebec and some eastern portions of Labrador.

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An insurgency is a rebellion against authority (for example, an authority recognized as such by the United Nations) when those taking part in the rebellion are not recognized as belligerents (lawful combatants).

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Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Islamic art

Islamic art encompasses the visual arts produced from the 7th century onward by people who lived within the territory that was inhabited by or ruled by culturally Islamic populations.

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Ivory is a hard, white material from the tusks (traditionally elephants') and teeth of animals, that can be used in art or manufacturing.

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Ivory Coast

Ivory Coast, also known as Côte d'Ivoire and officially as the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, is a sovereign state located in West Africa.

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Jade is an ornamental mineral, mostly known for its green varieties, which is featured prominently in ancient Asian art.

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Jasper, an aggregate of microgranular quartz and/or chalcedony and other mineral phases,Kostov, R. I. 2010.

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Jean-Baptiste Tavernier

Jean-Baptiste Tavernier (1605 – 1689) was a 17th-century French gem merchant and traveler.

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Jet (lignite)

Pendant in Jet, Magdalenian, Marsoulas MHNT Jet is a type of lignite, a precursor to coal, and is a gemstone.

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Jewellery cleaning

Jewelry cleaning is the practice of removing dirt or tarnish from jewelry to improve its appearance.

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Jewellery Quarter

The Jewellery Quarter is an area of central Birmingham, UK.

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Jewelry Television

Jewelry Television (commonly initialized as JTV) is an American television network, formerly called "America's Collectibles Network." It has an estimated reach of more than 80 million U.S. households, through cable and satellite providers, online streaming and limited over-the-air broadcasters.

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John Bostock (physician)

John Bostock, Jr. MD FRS (baptised 29 June 1773, died 6 August 1846) was an English physician, scientist and geologist from Liverpool.

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Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.

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Kayan people (Myanmar)

The Kayan are a sub-group of Red Karen (Karenni people), Tibeto-Burman ethnic minority of Myanmar (Burma).

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Kingfishers or Alcedinidae are a family of small to medium-sized, brightly colored birds in the order Coraciiformes.

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Kolt or kolty was a part of a female headgear, hanging on a ryasna at both temples as a sign of family's wealth, common in 11th-13th centuries in Old Rus'.

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A labret is one form of body piercing.

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A lapidary (lapidarist, lapidarius) is an artist or artisan who forms stone, minerals, or gemstones into decorative items such as cabochons, engraved gems (including cameos), and faceted designs.

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Lapis lazuli

Lapis lazuli, or lapis for short, is a deep blue metamorphic rock used as a semi-precious stone that has been prized since antiquity for its intense color.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Liberty (department store)

Liberty is a department store on Great Marlborough Street in the West End of London.

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Lip plate

The lip plate, also known as a lip plug or lip disc, is a form of body modification.

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List of gemstones by species

This is a list of gemstones, organized by species and type.

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List of jewellery types

This list of jewelry types is a listing of most types of jewelry made.

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List of topics characterized as pseudoscience

This is a list of topics that have, at one point or another in their history, been characterized as pseudoscience by academics or researchers.

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Live insect jewelry

Live insect jewelry refers to jewelry made from living creatures – usually bejeweled oversized insects – which is worn as a fashion accessory.

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Livery collar

A livery collar or chain of office is a collar or heavy chain, usually of gold, worn as insignia of office or a mark of fealty or other association in Europe from the Middle Ages onwards.

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London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Mahārāja (महाराज, also spelled Maharajah, Moharaja) is a Sanskrit title for a "great ruler", "great king" or "high king".

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A mammoth is any species of the extinct genus Mammuthus, proboscideans commonly equipped with long, curved tusks and, in northern species, a covering of long hair.

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Mari, Syria

Mari (modern Tell Hariri, تل حريري) was an ancient Semitic city in modern-day Syria.

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Marriage, also called matrimony or wedlock, is a socially or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity (in-laws and other family through marriage).

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Mary of Burgundy

Mary (Marie; Maria; 13 February 1457 – 27 March 1482), Duchess of Burgundy, reigned over many of the territories of the Duchy of Burgundy, now mainly in France and the Low Countries, from 1477 until her death.

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Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor

Maximilian I (22 March 1459 – 12 January 1519) was King of the Romans (also known as King of the Germans) from 1486 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death, though he was never crowned by the Pope, as the journey to Rome was always too risky.

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Maya civilization

The Maya civilization was a Mesoamerican civilization developed by the Maya peoples, and noted for its hieroglyphic script—the only known fully developed writing system of the pre-Columbian Americas—as well as for its art, architecture, mathematics, calendar, and astronomical system.

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Māori culture

Māori culture is the culture of the Māori of New Zealand (an Eastern Polynesian people) and forms a distinctive part of New Zealand culture.

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Merovingian dynasty

The Merovingians were a Salian Frankish dynasty that ruled the Franks for nearly 300 years in a region known as Francia in Latin, beginning in the middle of the 5th century.

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Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.

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A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.

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Metal clay

Metal clay is a crafting medium consisting of very small particles of metal such as silver, gold, bronze, or copper mixed with an organic binder and water for use in making jewelry, beads and small sculptures.

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Metal Couture

Metal Couture is a type of adornment or fashion item, made of metal, generally made as art, for fashion photography or high-end couture catwalk.

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Metropolitan Museum of Art

The Metropolitan Museum of Art of New York, colloquially "the Met", is the largest art museum in the United States.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Mikimoto Kōkichi

was a Japanese entrepreneur who is credited with creating the first cultured pearl and subsequently starting the cultured pearl industry with the establishment of his luxury pearl company Mikimoto.

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Milling (machining)

Milling is the machining process of using rotary cutters to remove material from a workpiece by advancing (or feeding) the cutter into the workpiece at a certain direction.

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The Mixtecs, or Mixtecos, are indigenous Mesoamerican peoples of Mexico inhabiting the region known as La Mixteca of Oaxaca and Puebla as well as the state of Guerrero's Región Montañas, and Región Costa Chica, which covers parts of the Mexican states of Oaxaca, Guerrero and Puebla. The Mixtec region and the Mixtec peoples are traditionally divided into three groups, two based on their original economic caste and one based on the region they settled. High Mixtecs or mixteco alto were of the upper class and generally richer; the Low Mixtecs or "mixteco bajo" were generally poorer. In recent times, an economic reversal or equalizing has been seen. The third group is Coastal Mixtecs "mixteco de la costa" whose language is closely related to that of the Low Mixtecs; they currently inhabit the Pacific slope of Oaxaca and Guerrero. The Mixtec languages form a major branch of the Otomanguean language family. In pre-Columbian times, a number of Mixtecan city states competed with each other and with the Zapotec kingdoms. The major Mixtec polity was Tututepec which rose to prominence in the 11th century under the leadership of Eight Deer Jaguar Claw, the only Mixtec king who ever united the Highland and Lowland polities into a single state. Like the rest of the indigenous peoples of Mexico, the Mixtec were conquered by the Spanish invaders and their indigenous allies in the 16th century. Pre-Columbia Mixtecs numbered around 1.5 million. Today there are approximately 800,000 Mixtec people in Mexico, and there are also large populations in the United States.

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Modern primitive

Modern primitives or urban primitives are people in developed and culturally altered post-colonial nations who engage in body modification rituals and practices while making reference or homage to the rite of passage practices in "primitive cultures".

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Modernisme (Catalan for "modernism"), also known as Catalan modernism, is the historiographic denomination given to an art and literature movement associated with the search of a new entitlement of Catalan culture, one of the most predominant cultures within Spain.

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Moissanite is naturally occurring silicon carbide and its various crystalline polymorphs.

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is a Japanese metalworking procedure which produces a mixed-metal laminate with distinctive layered patterns, as well as that laminate itself.

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A monarch is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy.

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Mursi people

The Mursi (or Mun as they refer to themselves) are a Nilotic pastoralist ethnic group in Ethiopia.

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Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.

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Nacre (also), also known as mother of pearl, is an organic-inorganic composite material produced by some molluscs as an inner shell layer; it also makes up the outer coating of pearls.

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Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.

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Nassarius, common name nassa mud snails (USA) or dog whelks (UK), is a genus of minute to medium-sized sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs in the family Nassariidae.

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Native Americans in the United States

Native Americans, also known as American Indians, Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States.

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Naum Slutzky

Naum Slutzky (28 February 1894 in Kiev, Russian Empire (now Ukraine) – 4 November 1965 in Stevenage, England) was a goldsmith, industrial designer and master craftsman of the Bauhaus.

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Navaratna (नवरत्न) is a Sanskrit compound word meaning "nine gems".

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A necklace is an article of jewelry that is worn around the neck.

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Nephrite is a variety of the calcium, magnesium, and iron-rich amphibole minerals tremolite or actinolite (aggregates of which also make up one form of asbestos).

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New York City

The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.

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New Zealand

New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.

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New Zealand English

New Zealand English (NZE) is the variant of the English language spoken by most English-speaking New Zealanders.

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North America

North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.

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North Yorkshire

North Yorkshire is a non-metropolitan county (or shire county) and larger ceremonial county in England.

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Objet d'art

Objet d'art (plural objets d'art) means literally "art object", or work of art, in French, but in practice the term has long been reserved in English to describe works of art that are not paintings, large or medium-sized sculptures, prints or drawings.

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Olbia (Terranòa; Gallurese: Tarranòa) is a city and comune of 59,885 inhabitants (November 2016) in the Italian insular province of Sassari in northeastern Sardinia (Italy), in the Gallura sub-region.

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Onyx is a banded variety of the oxide mineral chalcedony.

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Opal is a hydrated amorphous form of silica (SiO2·nH2O); its water content may range from 3 to 21% by weight, but is usually between 6 and 10%.

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Oyster is the common name for a number of different families of salt-water bivalve molluscs that live in marine or brackish habitats.

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Pacific Ocean

The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.

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Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.

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Papua New Guinea

Papua New Guinea (PNG;,; Papua Niugini; Hiri Motu: Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is an Oceanian country that occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and its offshore islands in Melanesia, a region of the southwestern Pacific Ocean north of Australia.

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A parure is a set of various items of matching jewelry, which rose to popularity in 17th-century Europe.

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Patronage is the support, encouragement, privilege, or financial aid that an organization or individual bestows to another.

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A pearl is a hard glistening object produced within the soft tissue (specifically the mantle) of a living shelled mollusk or another animal, such as a conulariid.

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The word pendant derives from the Latin word pendere and Old French word pendr, both of which translate to "to hang down".

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Perfume (parfum) is a mixture of fragrant essential oils or aroma compounds, fixatives and solvents, used to give the human body, animals, food, objects, and living-spaces an agreeable scent.

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Peridot is gem-quality olivine, which is a silicate mineral with the formula of (Mg, Fe)2SiO4.

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Personalization, broadly known as customization, consists of tailoring a service or a product to accommodate specific individuals, sometimes tied to groups or segments of individuals.

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Peter Carl Fabergé

Peter Carl Fabergé, also known as Karl Gustavovich Fabergé (Карл Гу́ставович Фаберже́, Karl Gustavovich Faberzhe; 30 May 1846 – 24 September 1920), was a Russian jeweller best known for the famous Fabergé eggs made in the style of genuine Easter eggs, but using precious metals and gemstones rather than more mundane materials.

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Pforzheim is a city of nearly 120,000 inhabitants in the federal state of Baden-Württemberg, in the southwest of Germany.

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Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη, meaning "purple country") was a thalassocratic ancient Semitic civilization that originated in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the west of the Fertile Crescent.

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Phoenix (mythology)

In Greek mythology, a phoenix (φοῖνιξ, phoînix) is a long-lived bird that cyclically regenerates or is otherwise born again.

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Photolithography, also termed optical lithography or UV lithography, is a process used in microfabrication to pattern parts of a thin film or the bulk of a substrate.

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Pierre C. Cartier

Pierre Camille Cartier (March 10, 1878October 27, 1964) was a French jeweler.

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Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.

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Plique-à-jour (French for "letting in daylight") is a vitreous enamelling technique where the enamel is applied in cells, similar to cloisonné, but with no backing in the final product, so light can shine through the transparent or translucent enamel.

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A polyamide is a macromolecule with repeating units linked by amide bonds.

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Polychrome is the "'practice of decorating architectural elements, sculpture, etc., in a variety of colors." The term is used to refer to certain styles of architecture, pottery or sculpture in multiple colors.

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Polymer clay

Polymer clay is a type of hardenable modeling clay based on the polymer polyvinyl chloride (PVC).

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Pounamu refers to several types of hard, durable and highly valued nephrite jade, bowenite, or serpentinite stone found in southern New Zealand.

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Precious metal

A precious metal is a rare, naturally occurring metallic chemical element of high economic value.

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Prehistoric Egypt

The prehistory of Egypt spans the period from earliest human settlement to the beginning of the Early Dynastic Period of Egypt around 3100 BC, starting with the first Pharaoh, Narmer for some egyptologists, Hor-Aha for others, (also known as Menes).

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A prototype is an early sample, model, or release of a product built to test a concept or process or to act as a thing to be replicated or learned from.

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Puabi (Akkadian: "Word of my father"), also called Shubad due to a misinterpretation by Sir Charles Leonard Woolley, was an important person in the Sumerian city of Ur, during the First Dynasty of Ur (c. 2600 BC).

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Quartz is a mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall chemical formula of SiO2.

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Queen Victoria

Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death.

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Quetzal are strikingly colored birds in the trogon family.

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Quillwork is a form of textile embellishment traditionally practiced by Native Americans that employs the quills of porcupines as an aesthetic element.

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Raising (metalworking)

Raising is a metalworking technique whereby sheet metal is depressed in a stump or other solid object by repeated 'courses' of hammering and annealing.

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The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.

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René Lalique

René Jules Lalique (6 April 1860, Ay, Marne – 1 May 1945, Paris) was a French glass designer known for his creations of glass art, perfume bottles, vases, jewellery, chandeliers, clocks and automobile hood ornaments.

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Ring (jewellery)

A ring is a round band, usually of metal, worn as an ornamental piece of jewellery around the finger, or sometimes the toe; it is the most common current meaning of the word "ring".

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Ripley's Believe It or Not Special Edition

Ripley's Believe It or Not! Special Edition is a hardback non-fiction book published annually since 2004.

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A rivet is a permanent mechanical fastener.

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Robert Lee Morris

Robert Lee Morris is a jewelry designer and sculptor who attributes much of his inspiration to forms he admires in nature.

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Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.

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Royal Cemetery at Ur

The Royal Cemetery at Ur is an archaeological site in modern-day Dhi Qar Governorate in southern Iraq.

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A ruby is a pink to blood-red colored gemstone, a variety of the mineral corundum (aluminium oxide).

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Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Rutilated quartz

Rutilated quartz is a variety of quartz which contains acicular (needle-like) inclusions of rutile.

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Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.

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Sapphire is a precious gemstone, a variety of the mineral corundum, an aluminium oxide.

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Sara people

The Sara people are an ethnic group predominantly residing in southern Chad, the northwestern areas of the Central African Republic, and the southern border of North Sudan.

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Sarpech (سرپیچ/सरपेच, from Persian) also known as an aigrette is a turban ornament that was worn by significant Hindu and Muslim princes.

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Scale (anatomy)

In most biological nomenclature, a scale (Greek λεπίς lepis, Latin squama) is a small rigid plate that grows out of an animal's skin to provide protection.

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Seal (emblem)

A seal is a device for making an impression in wax, clay, paper, or some other medium, including an embossment on paper, and is also the impression thus made.

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A seashell or sea shell, also known simply as a shell, is a hard, protective outer layer created by an animal that lives in the sea.

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Secession (art)

Secession (Sezession) refers to a number of modernist artist groups that separated from the support of official academic art and its administrations in the late 19th and early 20th century.

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Seed bead

Seed beads or rocailles are uniformly shaped, spheroidal beads ranging in size from under a millimeter to several millimeters.

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Shakudō (赤銅) is a Japanese billon of gold and copper (typically 4–10% gold, 96–90% copper), one of the irogane class of colored metals, which can be treated to develop a black, or sometimes indigo, patina, resembling lacquer.

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Ship burial

A ship burial or boat grave is a burial in which a ship or boat is used either as a container for the dead and the grave goods, or as a part of the grave goods itself.

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Siegfried Bing

Samuel Siegfried Bing (26 February 1838 – 6 September 1905), who usually gave his name as S. Bing (not to be confused with his brother, Samuel Otto Bing, 1850–1905), was a German-French art dealer who lived in Paris as an adult, and who helped introduce Japanese art and artworks to the West and was a factor in the development of the Art Nouveau style during the late nineteenth century.

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Sierra Leone

Sierra Leone, officially the Republic of Sierra Leone, is a country in West Africa.

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Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.

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A silversmith is a craftsman who crafts objects from silver.

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Soapstone (also known as steatite or soaprock) is a talc-schist, which is a type of metamorphic rock.

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Social status

Social status is the relative respect, competence, and deference accorded to people, groups, and organizations in a society.

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Soldering (AmE:, BrE), is a process in which two or more items (usually metal) are joined together by melting and putting a filler metal (solder) into the joint, the filler metal having a lower melting point than the adjoining metal.

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A souq or souk (سوق, שוק shuq, Spanish: zoco, also spelled shuk, shooq, soq, esouk, succ, suk, sooq, suq, soek) is a marketplace or commercial quarter in Western Asian, North African and some Horn African cities (ሱቅ sooq).

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South African English

South African English (SAfrE, SAfrEng, SAE, en-ZA) is the set of English dialects native to South Africans.

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South America

South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.

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Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.

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Spinel is the magnesium aluminium member of the larger spinel group of minerals.

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Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්‍රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.

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Stainless steel

In metallurgy, stainless steel, also known as inox steel or inox from French inoxydable (inoxidizable), is a steel alloy with a minimum of 10.5% chromium content by mass.

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Staple (fastener)

A staple is a type of two-pronged fastener, usually metal, used for joining or binding materials together.

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Star Carr

Star Carr is a Mesolithic archaeological site in North Yorkshire, England.

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Star Carr Pendant

The Star Carr Pendant is a unique engraved shale pendant from the Mesolithic site of Star Carr in North Yorkshire.

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Star of David

The Star of David (✡), known in Hebrew as the Shield of David or Magen David (Hebrew rtl; Biblical Hebrew Māḡēn Dāwīḏ, Tiberian, Modern Hebrew, Ashkenazi Hebrew and Yiddish Mogein Dovid or Mogen Dovid), is a generally recognized symbol of modern Jewish identity and Judaism.

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Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.

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Sterling silver

Sterling silver is an alloy of silver containing 92.5% by weight of silver and 7.5% by weight of other metals, usually copper.

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Suffolk is an East Anglian county of historic origin in England.

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Sumptuary law

Sumptuary laws (from Latin sumptuāriae lēgēs) are laws that attempt to regulate consumption; Black's Law Dictionary defines them as "Laws made for the purpose of restraining luxury or extravagance, particularly against inordinate expenditures in the matter of apparel, food, furniture, etc." Historically, they were laws that were intended to regulate and reinforce social hierarchies and morals through restrictions, often depending upon a person's social rank, on their permitted clothing, food, and luxury expenditures.

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The supernatural (Medieval Latin: supernātūrālis: supra "above" + naturalis "natural", first used: 1520–1530 AD) is that which exists (or is claimed to exist), yet cannot be explained by laws of nature.

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Surface finish

Surface finish, also known as surface texture or surface topography, is the nature of a surface as defined by the three characteristics of lay, surface roughness, and waviness.

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Sutton Hoo

Sutton Hoo, near Woodbridge, Suffolk, is the site of two 6th- and early 7th-century cemeteries.

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Tara Brooch

The Tara Brooch is a Celtic brooch of the pseudo-penannular type, made in 650 to 750 AD.

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A tendon or sinew is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that usually connects muscle to bone and is capable of withstanding tension.

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A tiara (from tiara, from τιάρα) is a jeweled, ornamental crown traditionally worn by women.

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Tiffany & Co.

Tiffany & Company (known colloquially as Tiffany or Tiffany's) is an American luxury jewelry and specialty retailer, headquartered in New York City.

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Tlatoani (tlahtoāni, "one who speaks, ruler"; plural tlahtohqueh or tlatoque), is the Classical Nahuatl term for the ruler of an āltepētl, a pre-Hispanic state.

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Toe ring

A toe ring is a ring made out of metals and non-metals worn on any of the toes.

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Topaz is a silicate mineral of aluminium and fluorine with the chemical formula Al2SiO4(F, OH)2.

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A torc, also spelled torq or torque, is a large rigid or stiff neck ring in metal, made either as a single piece or from strands twisted together.

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Trade beads

Trade beads (sometimes called aggry and slave beads) were otherwise decorative glass beads used between the 16th and 20th century as a token money to exchange for goods, services and slaves (hence the name).

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Tribe (Native American)

In the United States, an Indian tribe, Native American tribe, tribal nation or similar concept is any extant or historical clan, tribe, band, nation, or other group or community of Indigenous peoples in the United States.

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Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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Turquoise is an opaque, blue-to-green mineral that is a hydrated phosphate of copper and aluminium, with the chemical formula CuAl6(PO4)4(OH)8·4H2O.

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Tusks are elongated, continuously growing front teeth, usually but not always in pairs, that protrude well beyond the mouth of certain mammal species.

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Venus of Hohle Fels

The Venus of Hohle Fels (also known as the Venus of Schelklingen; in German variously Venus vom Hohlen Fels, vom Hohle Fels; Venus von Schelklingen) is an Upper Paleolithic Venus figurine made of mammoth ivory that was located near Schelklingen, Germany.

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Victorian era

In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era was the period of Queen Victoria's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901.

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Vitreous enamel

Vitreous enamel, also called porcelain enamel, is a material made by fusing powdered glass to a substrate by firing, usually between.

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Walter Gropius

Walter Adolph Georg Gropius (18 May 1883 – 5 July 1969) was a German architect and founder of the Bauhaus School, who, along with Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier and Frank Lloyd Wright, is widely regarded as one of the pioneering masters of modernist architecture.

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Waxes are a diverse class of organic compounds that are lipophilic, malleable solids near ambient temperatures.

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Wedding ring

A wedding ring or wedding band is a finger ring that indicates that its wearer is married.

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Weddings in India

Weddings in India vary regionally, the religion and per personal preferences of the bride and groom.

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Welding is a fabrication or sculptural process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing fusion, which is distinct from lower temperature metal-joining techniques such as brazing and soldering, which do not melt the base metal.

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Wiener Werkstätte

The Wiener Werkstätte (engl.: Vienna Workshop), established in 1903 by Koloman Moser and Josef Hoffmann, was a production community of visual artists in Vienna, Austria bringing together architects, artists and designers working in ceramics, fashion, silver, furniture and the graphic arts.

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Wire sculpture

Wire sculpture is the creation of sculpture or jewelry (sometimes called wire wrap jewelry) out of wire.

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Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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Yusuf al-Qaradawi

Yusuf al-Qaradawi (translit; or Yusuf al-Qardawi; born 9 September 1926) is an Egyptian Islamic theologian based in Doha, Qatar, and chairman of the International Union of Muslim Scholars.

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3D printing

3D printing is any of various processes in which material is joined or solidified under computer control to create a three-dimensional object, with material being added together (such as liquid molecules or powder grains being fused together).

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jewellery

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