143 relations: Academy for Jewish Religion (California), Affirmative prayer, Age of Enlightenment, Alhambra Decree, American Jewish Year Book, Anan ben David, Anti-Zionism, Ashkenazi Jews, Assyria, Baal Shem Tov, Babylonian captivity, Bar Kokhba revolt, Benjamin Nahawandi, Benjamin of Tudela, Beta Israel, Biblical law, Byzantine Empire, Christian Science, Christianity and Judaism, Christology, Conservative Judaism, Conversion to Judaism, Crimea, Crypto-Judaism, Cultural assimilation, Dead Sea Scrolls, Development of the New Testament canon, Disciple (Christianity), Ecstasy (emotion), Edah HaChareidis, Egypt, Essenes, France, God, Halakha, Haredi Judaism, Hasidic Judaism, Haskalah, Hebrew College, Hebrew language, Hillel International, Historical criticism, Holon, Humanistic Judaism, Iberian Peninsula, Interfaith marriage, Interfaith marriage in Judaism, International Federation of Rabbis, Israel, Jacob Frank, ..., Jerusalem, Jesus, Jewish Christian, Jewish culture, Jewish day school, Jewish emancipation, Jewish ethnic divisions, Jewish history, Jewish identity, Jewish leadership, Jewish political movements, Jewish prayer, Jewish principles of faith, Jewish Renewal, Jewish schisms, Jewish Science, Jewish secularism, Jewish state, Jewish views on religious pluralism, Jews, Josephus, Judea (Roman province), Karaite Judaism, Kingdom of Hungary, Kingdom of Israel (Samaria), Land of Israel, List of Jewish messiah claimants, List of religions and spiritual traditions, Lithuania, Maghrebi Jews, Maimonides, Marrano, Messiah in Judaism, Messianic Age, Messianism, Midrash, Mishnah, Misnagdim, Mizrahi Jews, Modern Orthodox Judaism, Morris Lichtenstein, Moses Mendelssohn, Mount Gerizim, Nablus, Neolog Judaism, Neturei Karta, New Testament, Newton Centre, Massachusetts, Non-denominational, Nontheism, Oral Torah, Orthodox Judaism, Pharisees, Philosophy, Poland, Politics of Israel, Rabbinic Judaism, Rabbinic literature, Reconstructionist Judaism, Reform Judaism, Relationships between Jewish religious movements, Renaissance, Rome, Sabbatai Zevi, Sadducees, Samaritans, Sanhedrin, Second Temple, Sect, Sephardi Jews, Sephardic law and customs, Shabbat, Sherwin Wine, Sofi Tsedaka, Spanish and Portuguese Jews, Split of early Christianity and Judaism, Switzerland, Synagogue, Talmud, Tanakh, Textual criticism, The Holocaust, Torah, Treaty of Trianon, Tribe of Ephraim, Tribe of Manasseh, Turkey, Ukraine, United States, West Bank, Who is a Jew?, Zealots, Zionism. Expand index (93 more) » « Shrink index
The Academy for Jewish Religion California (AJRCA), is a Jewish seminary located in Los Angeles, trains rabbis, cantors and chaplains to serve congregations and organizations of any Jewish denomination.
Affirmative prayer is a form of prayer or a metaphysical technique that is focused on a positive outcome rather than a negative situation.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
The Alhambra Decree (also known as the Edict of Expulsion; Spanish: Decreto de la Alhambra, Edicto de Granada) was an edict issued on 31 March 1492, by the joint Catholic Monarchs of Spain (Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon) ordering the expulsion of practicing Jews from the Kingdoms of Castile and Aragon and its territories and possessions by 31 July of that year.
The American Jewish Year Book (AJYB) has been published since 1899.
Anan Ben David (c. 715 - c. 795) (ענן בן דוד) is widely considered to be a major founder of the Karaite movement of Judaism.
Anti-Zionism is opposition to Zionism.
Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or simply Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכְּנַזִּים, Ashkenazi Hebrew pronunciation:, singular:, Modern Hebrew:; also), are a Jewish diaspora population who coalesced in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the first millennium.
Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant.
Israel ben Eliezer (born circa 1700, died 22 May 1760), known as the Baal Shem Tov (בעל שם טוב) or as the Besht, was a Jewish mystical rabbi considered the founder of Hasidic Judaism.
The Babylonian captivity or Babylonian exile is the period in Jewish history during which a number of people from the ancient Kingdom of Judah were captives in Babylonia.
The Bar Kokhba revolt (מרד בר כוכבא; Mered Bar Kokhba) was a rebellion of the Jews of the Roman province of Judea, led by Simon bar Kokhba, against the Roman Empire.
Benjamin Nahawandi or Benjamin ben Moses Nahawandi (Nahāwandī, بنیامین نهاوندی; בנימין אלנהאונדי) was a prominent Persian Jewish scholar of Karaite Judaism.
Benjamin of Tudela (בִּנְיָמִין מִטּוּדֶלָה,; بنيامين التطيلي;‎ Tudela, Kingdom of Navarre, 1130Castile, 1173) was a medieval Jewish traveler who visited Europe, Asia, and Africa in the 12th century.
Beta Israel (בֵּיתֶא יִשְׂרָאֵל, Beyte (beyt) Yisrael; ቤተ እስራኤል, Bēta 'Isrā'ēl, modern Bēte 'Isrā'ēl, EAE: "Betä Ǝsraʾel", "House of Israel" or "Community of Israel"), also known as Ethiopian Jews (יְהוּדֵי אֶתְיוֹפְּיָה: Yehudey Etyopyah; Ge'ez: የኢትዮጵያ አይሁድዊ, ye-Ityoppya Ayhudi), are Jews whose community developed and lived for centuries in the area of the Kingdom of Aksum and the Ethiopian Empire that is currently divided between the Amhara and Tigray Regions of Ethiopia and Eritrea.
Biblical law refers to the legal aspects of the Bible, the holy scriptures of Judaism and Christianity.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Christian Science is a set of beliefs and practices belonging to the metaphysical family of new religious movements.
Christianity is rooted in Second Temple Judaism, but the two religions diverged in the first centuries of the Christian Era.
Christology (from Greek Χριστός Khristós and -λογία, -logia) is the field of study within Christian theology which is primarily concerned with the ontology and person of Jesus as recorded in the canonical Gospels and the epistles of the New Testament.
Conservative Judaism (known as Masorti Judaism outside North America) is a major Jewish denomination, which views Jewish Law, or Halakha, as both binding and subject to historical development.
Conversion to Judaism (גיור, giyur) is the religious conversion of non-Jews to become members of the Jewish religion and Jewish ethnoreligious community.
Crimea (Крым, Крим, Krym; Krym; translit;; translit) is a peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea in Eastern Europe that is almost completely surrounded by both the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov to the northeast.
Crypto-Judaism is the secret adherence to Judaism while publicly professing to be of another faith; practitioners are referred to as "crypto-Jews" (origin from Greek kryptos – κρυπτός, 'hidden').
Cultural assimilation is the process in which a minority group or culture comes to resemble those of a dominant group.
Dead Sea Scrolls (also Qumran Caves Scrolls) are ancient Jewish religious, mostly Hebrew, manuscripts found in the Qumran Caves near the Dead Sea.
The canon of the New Testament is the set of books Christians regard as divinely inspired and constituting the New Testament of the Christian Bible.
In Christianity, the term disciple primarily refers to dedicated followers of Jesus.
Ecstasy (from Ancient Greek ἔκστασις ékstasis) is a subjective experience of total involvement of the subject, with an object of his or her awareness.
The Orthodox Council of Jerusalem (OJC) (העדה החרדית, ha-Edah ha-Charedit, Ashkenazi pronunciation: ha-Aideh Charaidis or ha-Eido ha-Chareidis; "Congregation of God-Fearers") is a large Ultra-Orthodox Jewish communal organization based in Jerusalem, with several thousands affiliated households.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
The Essenes (Modern Hebrew:, Isiyim; Greek: Ἐσσηνοί, Ἐσσαῖοι, or Ὀσσαῖοι, Essenoi, Essaioi, Ossaioi) were a sect of Second Temple Judaism which flourished from the 2nd century BC to the 1st century AD.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
In monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the Supreme Being and the principal object of faith.
Halakha (הֲלָכָה,; also transliterated as halacha, halakhah, halachah or halocho) is the collective body of Jewish religious laws derived from the Written and Oral Torah.
Haredi Judaism (חֲרֵדִי,; also spelled Charedi, plural Haredim or Charedim) is a broad spectrum of groups within Orthodox Judaism, all characterized by a rejection of modern secular culture.
Hasidism, sometimes Hasidic Judaism (hasidut,; originally, "piety"), is a Jewish religious group.
The Haskalah, often termed Jewish Enlightenment (השכלה; literally, "wisdom", "erudition", Yiddish pronunciation Heskole) was an intellectual movement among the Jews of Central and Eastern Europe, with certain influence on those in Western Europe and the Muslim world.
Hebrew College is an college of Jewish studies in Newton Centre, Massachusetts.
Hillel: The Foundation for Jewish Campus Life (known as Hillel International or Hillel) is the largest Jewish campus organization in the world, working with thousands of college students globally.
Historical criticism, also known as the historical-critical method or higher criticism, is a branch of criticism that investigates the origins of ancient texts in order to understand "the world behind the text".
Holon (חוֹלוֹן; حُولُون Ḥūlūn) is a city on the central coastal strip south of Tel Aviv, Israel.
Humanistic Judaism (Yahdut Humanistit) is a Jewish movement that offers a nontheistic alternative in contemporary Jewish life.
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
Interfaith marriage, traditionally called "mixed marriage", is marriage between spouses professing different religions.
Interfaith marriage in Judaism (also called mixed marriage or intermarriage) was historically looked upon with very strong disfavour by Jewish leaders, and it remains a controversial issue among them today.
The International Federation of Rabbis (IFR) was founded in 2000 as a Non-denominational organization for Jewish rabbis of all backgrounds.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Jacob Joseph Frank (יעקב פרנק, Jakub Józef Frank, born Jakub Lejbowicz; 1726 – December 10, 1791) was an 18th-century Polish-Jewish religious leader who claimed to be the reincarnation of the self-proclaimed messiah Sabbatai Zevi (1626–1676) and also of the biblical patriarch Jacob.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
Jewish Christians, also Hebrew Christians or Judeo-Christians, are the original members of the Jewish movement that later became Christianity.
Jewish culture is the culture of the Jewish people from the formation of the Jewish nation in biblical times through life in the diaspora and the modern state of Israel.
A Jewish day school is a modern Jewish educational institution that is designed to provide children of Jewish parents with both a Jewish and a secular education in one school on a full-time basis.
Jewish emancipation was the external (and internal) process in various nations in Europe of eliminating Jewish disabilities, e.g. Jewish quotas, to which Jewish people were then subject, and the recognition of Jews as entitled to equality and citizenship rights on a communal, not merely individual, basis.
Jewish ethnic divisions refers to a number of distinctive communities within the world's ethnically Jewish population.
Jewish history is the history of the Jews, and their religion and culture, as it developed and interacted with other peoples, religions and cultures.
Jewish identity is the objective or subjective state of perceiving oneself as a Jew and as relating to being Jewish.
Jewish leadership has evolved over time.
Jewish political movements refer to the organized efforts of Jews to build their own political parties or otherwise represent their interest in politics outside the Jewish community.
Jewish prayer (תְּפִלָּה, tefillah; plural תְּפִלּוֹת, tefillot; Yiddish תּפֿלה tfile, plural תּפֿלות tfilles; Yinglish: davening from Yiddish דאַוון daven ‘pray’) are the prayer recitations and Jewish meditation traditions that form part of the observance of Rabbinic Judaism.
There is no established formulation of principles of faith that are recognized by all branches of Judaism.
Jewish Renewal is a recent movement in Judaism which endeavors to reinvigorate modern Judaism with Kabbalistic, Hasidic, and musical practices.
Schisms among the Jews are cultural as well as religious.
Jewish Science is a Judaic spiritual movement comparable with the New Thought Movement.
Jewish secularism comprises the non-religious Jewish people and the body of work produced by them.
The "Jewish state" is a political term used to describe the nation state of Israel.
Religious pluralism is a set of religious world views that hold that one's religion is not the sole and exclusive source of truth, and thus recognizes that some level of truth and value exists in other religions.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Titus Flavius Josephus (Φλάβιος Ἰώσηπος; 37 – 100), born Yosef ben Matityahu (יוסף בן מתתיהו, Yosef ben Matityahu; Ἰώσηπος Ματθίου παῖς), was a first-century Romano-Jewish scholar, historian and hagiographer, who was born in Jerusalem—then part of Roman Judea—to a father of priestly descent and a mother who claimed royal ancestry.
The Roman province of Judea (יהודה, Standard Tiberian; يهودا; Ἰουδαία; Iūdaea), sometimes spelled in its original Latin forms of Iudæa or Iudaea to distinguish it from the geographical region of Judea, incorporated the regions of Judea, Samaria and Idumea, and extended over parts of the former regions of the Hasmonean and Herodian kingdoms of Judea.
Karaite Judaism or Karaism (also spelt Qaraite Judaism or Qaraism) is a Jewish religious movement characterized by the recognition of the Tanakh alone as its supreme authority in Halakha (Jewish religious law) and theology.
The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the twentieth century (1000–1946 with the exception of 1918–1920).
According to the Hebrew Bible, the Kingdom of Israel was one of two successor states to the former United Kingdom of Israel and Judah.
The Land of Israel is the traditional Jewish name for an area of indefinite geographical extension in the Southern Levant.
Messiah in Judaism originally meant a divinely appointed king or "anointed one" and included Jewish priests, prophets and kings such as David, Cyrus the Great or Alexander the Great.
Religion is a collection of cultural systems, beliefs and world views that establishes symbols relating humanity to spirituality and, often, to moral values.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
Maghrebi Jews (מַגּרֶבִּים Maghrebim or) or North African Jews (Yehudei Tzfon Africa) are Jews who had traditionally lived in the Maghreb region of North Africa (al-Maghrib, Arabic for "the west") under Arab rule during the Middle Ages.
Moses ben Maimon (Mōšeh bēn-Maymūn; موسى بن ميمون Mūsā bin Maymūn), commonly known as Maimonides (Μαϊμωνίδης Maïmōnídēs; Moses Maimonides), and also referred to by the acronym Rambam (for Rabbeinu Mōšeh bēn Maimun, "Our Rabbi Moses son of Maimon"), was a medieval Sephardic Jewish philosopher who became one of the most prolific and influential Torah scholars of the Middle Ages.
Marranos were Jews living in the Iberian Peninsula who converted or were forced to convert to Christianity during the Middle Ages yet continued to practice Judaism in secret.
The messiah in Judaism is a savior and liberator of the Jewish people.
In Abrahamic religions, the Messianic Age is the future period of time on earth in which the messiah will reign and bring universal peace and brotherhood, without any evil.
In Abrahamic religions, Messianism is the belief and doctrine that is centered on the advent of the messiah, who acts as the chosen savior and leader of humanity by God.
In Judaism, the midrash (. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. מִדְרָשׁ; pl. מִדְרָשִׁים midrashim) is the genre of rabbinic literature which contains early interpretations and commentaries on the Written Torah and Oral Torah (spoken law and sermons), as well as non-legalistic rabbinic literature (aggadah) and occasionally the Jewish religious laws (halakha), which usually form a running commentary on specific passages in the Hebrew Scripture (Tanakh).
The Mishnah or Mishna (מִשְׁנָה, "study by repetition", from the verb shanah, or "to study and review", also "secondary") is the first major written collection of the Jewish oral traditions known as the "Oral Torah".
Misnagdim (also Mitnagdim; singular misnaged/mitnaged) is a Hebrew word meaning "opponents".
Mizrahi Jews, Mizrahim (מִזְרָחִים), also referred to as Edot HaMizrach ("Communities of the East"; Mizrahi Hebrew), ("Sons of the East"), or Oriental Jews, are descendants of local Jewish communities in the Middle East from biblical times into the modern era.
Modern Orthodox Judaism (also Modern Orthodox or Modern Orthodoxy) is a movement within Orthodox Judaism that attempts to synthesize Jewish values and the observance of Jewish law, with the secular, modern world.
Morris Lichtenstein (1889–1938) was the founder of the Society of Jewish Science.
Moses Mendelssohn (6 September 1729 – 4 January 1786) was a German Jewish philosopher to whose ideas the Haskalah, the 'Jewish enlightenment' of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, is indebted.
Mount Gerizim (Samaritan Hebrew: ࠄࠟࠓࠂࠝࠓࠜࠉࠆࠜࠉࠌ Īargerēzēm; Hebrew: Tiberian Hebrew translit. Har Gərīzīm, Modern Hebrew: translit. Har Gərizim; جَبَل جَرِزِيم Jabal Jarizīm or جبل الطور Jabal et Tur) is one of the two mountains in the immediate vicinity of the West Bank city of Nablus (biblical Shechem), and forms the southern side of the valley in which Nablus is situated, the northern side being formed by Mount Ebal.
Nablus (نابلس, שכם, Biblical Shechem ISO 259-3 Škem, Νεάπολις Νeapolis) is a city in the northern West Bank, approximately north of Jerusalem, (approximately by road), with a population of 126,132.
Neologs (neológ irányzat, "Neolog Faction") are one of the two large communal organizations among Hungarian Jewry.
Neturei Karta (Jewish Babylonian Aramaic: נָטוֹרֵי קַרְתָּא, literally "Guardians of the City") is a religious group of Haredi Jews, formally created in Jerusalem, British Mandate of Palestine, in 1938, splitting off from Agudas Yisrael.
The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
Newton Centre is a village of Newton, Massachusetts, United States.
A non-denominational person or organization is not restricted to any particular or specific religious denomination.
Nontheism or non-theism is a range of both religious and nonreligious attitudes characterized by the absence of espoused belief in a God or gods.
According to Rabbinic Judaism, the Oral Torah or Oral Law (lit. "Torah that is on the mouth") represents those laws, statutes, and legal interpretations that were not recorded in the Five Books of Moses, the "Written Torah" (lit. "Torah that is in writing"), but nonetheless are regarded by Orthodox Jews as prescriptive and co-given.
Orthodox Judaism is a collective term for the traditionalist branches of Judaism, which seek to maximally maintain the received Jewish beliefs and observances and which coalesced in opposition to the various challenges of modernity and secularization.
The Pharisees were at various times a political party, a social movement, and a school of thought in the Holy Land during the time of Second Temple Judaism.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
Politics in Israel is dominated by Zionist parties.
Rabbinic Judaism or Rabbinism (יהדות רבנית Yahadut Rabanit) has been the mainstream form of Judaism since the 6th century CE, after the codification of the Babylonian Talmud.
Rabbinic literature, in its broadest sense, can mean the entire spectrum of rabbinic writings throughout Jewish history.
Reconstructionist Judaism is a modern Jewish movement that views Judaism as a progressively evolving civilization and is based on the conceptions developed by Mordecai Kaplan (1881–1983).
Reform Judaism (also known as Liberal Judaism or Progressive Judaism) is a major Jewish denomination that emphasizes the evolving nature of the faith, the superiority of its ethical aspects to the ceremonial ones, and a belief in a continuous revelation not centered on the theophany at Mount Sinai.
The relationships between the various denominations of American Judaism can be conciliatory, welcoming, or even antagonistic.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
Sabbatai Zevi (other spellings include Shabbetai Ẓevi, Shabbeṯāy Ṣeḇī, Shabsai Tzvi, and Sabetay Sevi in Turkish) (August 1, 1626 – c. September 17, 1676) was a Sephardic ordained Rabbi, though of Romaniote origin and a kabbalist, active throughout the Ottoman Empire, who claimed to be the long-awaited Jewish Messiah.
The Sadducees (Hebrew: Ṣĕḏûqîm) were a sect or group of Jews that was active in Judea during the Second Temple period, starting from the second century BCE through the destruction of the Temple in 70 CE.
The Samaritans (Samaritan Hebrew: ࠔࠠࠌࠝࠓࠩࠉࠌ,, "Guardians/Keepers/Watchers (of the Torah)") are an ethnoreligious group of the Levant originating from the Israelites (or Hebrews) of the Ancient Near East.
The Sanhedrin (Hebrew and Jewish Palestinian Aramaic: סנהדרין; Greek: Συνέδριον, synedrion, "sitting together," hence "assembly" or "council") was an assembly of twenty-three or seventy-one rabbis appointed to sit as a tribunal in every city in the ancient Land of Israel.
The Second Temple (בֵּית־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי, Beit HaMikdash HaSheni) was the Jewish Holy Temple which stood on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem during the Second Temple period, between 516 BCE and 70 CE.
A sect is a subgroup of a religious, political, or philosophical belief system, usually an offshoot of a larger group.
Sephardi Jews, also known as Sephardic Jews or Sephardim (סְפָרַדִּים, Modern Hebrew: Sefaraddim, Tiberian: Səp̄āraddîm; also Ye'hude Sepharad, lit. "The Jews of Spain"), originally from Sepharad, Spain or the Iberian peninsula, are a Jewish ethnic division.
Sephardic law and customs means the practice of Judaism as observed by the Sephardi and Mizrahi Jews, so far as it is peculiar to themselves and not shared with other Jewish groups such as the Ashkenazim.
Shabbat (שַׁבָּת, "rest" or "cessation") or Shabbos (Ashkenazi Hebrew and שבת), or the Sabbath is Judaism's day of rest and seventh day of the week, on which religious Jews, Samaritans and certain Christians (such as Seventh-day Adventists, the 7th Day movement and Seventh Day Baptists) remember the Biblical creation of the heavens and the earth in six days and the Exodus of the Hebrews, and look forward to a future Messianic Age.
Sherwin Theodore Wine (January 25, 1928 – July 21, 2007) was a rabbi and a founding figure in Humanistic Judaism.
Sofi Sarah Tsedaka (סופי צדקה; born 26 October 1975) is an Israeli actress, singer, television presenter and politician from the Samaritan community.
Spanish and Portuguese Jews, also called Western Sephardim, are a distinctive sub-group of Iberian Jews who are largely descended from Jews who lived as New Christians in the Iberian Peninsula during the immediate generations following the forced expulsion of unconverted Jews from Spain in 1492 and from Portugal in 1497.
The split of early Christianity and Judaism took place during the first centuries CE.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
A synagogue, also spelled synagog (pronounced; from Greek συναγωγή,, 'assembly', בית כנסת, 'house of assembly' or, "house of prayer", Yiddish: שול shul, Ladino: אסנוגה or קהל), is a Jewish house of prayer.
The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד talmūd "instruction, learning", from a root LMD "teach, study") is the central text of Rabbinic Judaism and the primary source of Jewish religious law and theology.
The Tanakh (or; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach), also called the Mikra or Hebrew Bible, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament.
Textual criticism is a branch of textual scholarship, philology, and literary criticism that is concerned with the identification of textual variants in either manuscripts or printed books.
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.
Torah (תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings.
The Treaty of Trianon was the peace agreement of 1920 that formally ended World War I between most of the Allies of World War I and the Kingdom of Hungary, the latter being one of the successor states to Austria-Hungary.
According to the Hebrew Bible, the Tribe of Ephraim was one of the Tribes of Israel.
According to the Hebrew Bible, the Tribe of Manasseh was one of the Tribes of Israel.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The West Bank (الضفة الغربية; הגדה המערבית, HaGadah HaMa'aravit) is a landlocked territory near the Mediterranean coast of Western Asia, the bulk of it now under Israeli control, or else under joint Israeli-Palestinian Authority control.
"Who is a Jew?" (מיהו יהודי) is a basic question about Jewish identity and considerations of Jewish self-identification.
The Zealots were a political movement in 1st-century Second Temple Judaism, which sought to incite the people of Judea Province to rebel against the Roman Empire and expel it from the Holy Land by force of arms, most notably during the First Jewish–Roman War (66–70).
Zionism (צִיּוֹנוּת Tsiyyonut after Zion) is the national movement of the Jewish people that supports the re-establishment of a Jewish homeland in the territory defined as the historic Land of Israel (roughly corresponding to Canaan, the Holy Land, or the region of Palestine).
Denominations of Judaism, Divisions of Judaism, Jewish Denominations, Jewish denomination, Jewish denominations, Jewish religious movement, Jewish sects, Movements of Judaism, Non-denominational Judaism, Post Denominational Judaism, Post-Denominational Judaism, Type of Judaism.