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Abraham ((אַבְרָהָם)), originally Abram, is the first of the three biblical patriarchs.
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Abrahamic religions (also Semitic religions) are monotheistic religions of West Asian origin, emphasizing and tracing their common origin to Abraham or recognizing a spiritual tradition identified with him.
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The Achaemenid Empire, also called the, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great, notable for embracing various civilizations and becoming the largest empire of the ancient history, spanning at its maximum extent from the Balkans and Eastern Europe proper in the west, to the Indus Valley in the east.
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Adherents.com is a website that aims to collect and present information about religious demographics, established in 1998.
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In linguistics, an adjective is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.
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Afrikaans is one of the official languages of South Africa.
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The aftermath of the Jewish holocaust had a profound effect on society in both Europe and the rest of the world.
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The Age of Enlightenment or simply the Enlightenment or Age of Reason is an era from the 1620s to the 1780s in which cultural and intellectual forces in Western Europe emphasized reason, analysis, and individualism rather than traditional lines of authority.
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al-Andalus (الأندلس, trans.; al-Ándalus; al-Ândalus; al-Andalus; al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus or Wandalus), also known as Muslim Spain or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim cultural domain and territory occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal.
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Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist.
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Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Μέγας, Aléxandros ho Mégas, from the Greek ἀλέξω (alexō) "defend" and ἀνδρ- (andr-), the stem of ἀνήρ (anēr) "man" and means "protector of men") was a King (Basileus) of the Ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;. and a member of the Argead dynasty, a famous ancient Greek royal house.
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Algeria (الجزائر), officially People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a country in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
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Aliyah (עֲלִיָּה aliyah, "ascent") is the immigration of Jews from the diaspora to the land of Israel (Eretz Yisrael).
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The Almohad Caliphate (Imweḥḥden, from Arabic الموحدون, "the monotheists" or "the unifiers") was a Moroccan Berber Muslim movement founded in the 12th century.
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The American Jewish Committee (AJC) is a Jewish ethnic advocacy group established in 1906.
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American Jews, also known as Jewish Americans, are American citizens who are Jews, either by religion, ancestry, or both.
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The American Journal of Human Genetics is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal in the field of human genetics.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now the modern country of Egypt.
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Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history that lasted from the Archaic period of the 8th to 6th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (circa 600 AD).
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Ancient Greek includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
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Ancient history is the aggregate of past events, "History" from the beginning of recorded human history and extending as far as the Early Middle Ages or the Postclassical Era.
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The ancient Near East was the home of early civilizations within a region roughly corresponding to the modern Middle East: Mesopotamia (modern Iraq, southeast Turkey, southwest Iran, northeastern Syria and Kuwait), ancient Egypt, ancient Iran (Elam, Media, Parthia and Persia), Anatolia/Asia Minor and Armenian Highlands (Turkey's Eastern Anatolia Region, Armenia, northwestern Iran, southern Georgia, and western Azerbaijan), the Levant (modern Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Israel, and Jordan), Cyprus and the Arabian Peninsula.
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Ancient Rome was an Italic civilization that began on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC.
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Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is prejudice against, hatred of, or discrimination against Jews as an ethnic, religious, or racial group.
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Anusim (אֲנוּסִים,; singular male, Anús, אָנוּס; singular female, Anusáh, אָנוּסָה, meaning "Coerced ") is a legal category of Jews in halakha (Jewish law) who were forced to abandon Judaism against their will, typically while forcibly converted to another religion.
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Arab citizens of Israel is the Israeli government's designation for non-Jewish Israeli citizens, the majority of whose cultural and linguistic heritage or ethnic identity is Arab or Palestinian and commonly self-designate as Palestinian citizens of Israel.See the terminology section for an extended discussion of the various terms used to refer to this population. The traditional vernacular of most Arab citizens, irrespective of religion, is the Palestinian dialect of Arabic. Most Arab citizens of Israel are functionally bilingual, their second language being Modern Hebrew. By religious affiliation, most are Muslim, particularly of the Sunni branch of Islam. There is a significant Arab Christian minority from various denominations as well as Druze, among other religious communities. Israeli Mizrahi Jews are not usually considered to form part of this population. According to Israel's Central Bureau of Statistics, the Arab population in 2013 was estimated at 1,658,000, representing 20.7% of the country's population. The majority of these identify themselves as Arab or Palestinian by nationality and Israeli by citizenship.. "The issue of terminology relating to this subject is sensitive and at least partially a reflection of political preferences. Most Israeli official documents refer to the Israeli Arab community as "minorities". The Israeli National Security Council (NSC) has used the term "Arab citizens of Israel". Virtually all political parties, movements and non-governmental organisations from within the Arab community use the word "Palestinian" somewhere in their description – at times failing to make any reference to Israel. For consistency of reference and without prejudice to the position of either side, ICG will use both Arab Israeli and terms the community commonly uses to describe itself, such as Palestinian citizens of Israel or Palestinian Arab citizens of Israel."An IDI Guttman Study of 2008 shows that most Arab citiens of Israel identify as Arabs (45%). While 24% consider themselves Palestinian, 12% consider themselves Israelis, and 19% identify themselves according to religion. Many have family ties to Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, as well as to Palestinian refugees in Jordan, Syria, and Lebanon. Negev Bedouins and Druze tend to identify more as Israelis than other Arab citizens of Israel. Most of the Arabs living in East Jerusalem and the Golan Heights, occupied by Israel in the Six-Day War of 1967 and later annexed, were offered Israeli citizenship, but most have refused, not wanting to recognize Israel's claim to sovereignty. They became permanent residents instead. They have the right to apply for citizenship, are entitled to municipal services, and have municipal voting rights.
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Arab nationalism (القومية العربية al-Qawmiyya al-`arabiyya) is a nationalist ideology celebrating the glories of Arab civilization, the language and literature of the Arabs, calling for rejuvenation and political union in the Arab world.
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The Arab world (العالم العربي; formally: الوطن العربي), also known as the Arab Nation (الأمة العربية), consists of the 22 Arabic-speaking countries of the Arab League.
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The Arab–Israeli conflict (الصراع العربي الإسرائيلي Al-Sira'a Al'Arabi A'Israili; הסכסוך הישראלי-ערבי Ha'Sikhsukh Ha'Yisraeli-Aravi) refers to the political tension and military conflicts between a number of Arab countries and Israel.
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Arabic (العَرَبِية, or عربي,عربى) is the Classical Arabic language of the 6th century and its modern descendants excluding Maltese.
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Arabs (عرب, ʿarab) are a major panethnic group whose native language is Arabic, comprising the majority of the Arab world.
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Aramaic (Arāmāyā, ܐܪܡܝܐ) is a family of languages or dialects belonging to the Semitic family.
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Archaeology or archeology, is the study of human activity in the past, primarily through the recovery and analysis of the material culture and environmental data that has been left behind by past human populations, which includes artifacts, architecture, biofacts (also known as eco-facts) and cultural landscapes (the archaeological record).
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Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located in southeastern South America.
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Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης, Aristotélēs; 384322 BC) was a Greek philosopher and scientist born in the Macedonian city of Stagira, Chalkidice, on the northern periphery of Classical Greece.
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Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or simply Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכְּנַזִּים, Ashkenazi Hebrew pronunciation:, singular:, Modern Hebrew:; also, lit. "The Jews of Germany"), are a Jewish ethnic division who coalesced as a distinct community of Jews in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the 1st millennium.
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Assyria, a major Mesopotamian East Semitic kingdom and empire of the Ancient Near East, existed as an independent state for a period of approximately nineteen centuries, from the 25th century BC to 605 BC, spanning the mid to Early Bronze Age through to the late Iron Age.
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Assyrian people (ܐܫܘܪܝܐ), also known as Chaldeans, Syriacs, and Arameans, (see names of Syriac Christians) are a Christian, Semitic,James Minahan, Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: A-C, pp.
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Australia (colloquially), officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is an Oceanian country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands.
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An auto-da-fé or auto-de-fé (from Portuguese auto da fé, meaning "act of faith") was the ritual of public penance of condemned heretics and apostates that took place when the Spanish Inquisition, Portuguese Inquisition or the Mexican Inquisition had decided their punishment, followed by the execution by the civil authorities of the sentences imposed.
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An autosome is a chromosome that is not an allosome (i.e., not a sex chromosome).
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Baal teshuva or ba'al teshuvah (בעל תשובה; for a woman,,; plural,,, "master of return "), sometimes abbreviated to BT, is a term that often refers to a Jew who turns to embrace Orthodox Judaism.
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Babylon (Bābili or Babilim; بابل, Bābil) was a significant city in ancient Mesopotamia, in the fertile plain between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.
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The Babylonian captivity or Babylonian exile is the period in Jewish history during which a number of Judahites of the ancient Kingdom of Judah were captives in Babylonia.
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Baghdad (بغداد, Iraqi pronunciation) is the capital of the Republic of Iraq, as well as the coterminous Baghdad Province.
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The Bar Kokhba revolt (מרד בר כוכבא or mered Bar Kokhba), was a rebellion of the Jews of Judea Province, led by Simon bar Kokhba, against the Roman Empire.
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Baruch Spinoza (born Benedito de Espinosa; 24 November 1632 – 21 February 1677, later Benedict de Spinoza) was a Dutch philosopher of Sephardi Portuguese origin.
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The Basic Laws of Israel (חוקי היסוד, ħuqey ha-yesod; القوانين الأساسية لإسرائيل) are the constitutional law of Israel.
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BBC Brasil is the subsidiary of BBC in Brazil and Latin America.
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Beit Hatfutsot - The Museum of the Jewish People (Hebrew: בית התפוצות, "The Diaspora House") — the Nahum Goldmann Museum of the Jewish People, is located on the campus of Tel Aviv University in Ramat Aviv, Tel Aviv, Israel.
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The Bene Ephraim (בני אפריים) Bnei Ephraim ("Sons of Ephraim"), also called Telugu Jews because they speak Telugu, are a small community living primarily in Kotha Reddy palem, a village outside Chebrolu, Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh, India, near the delta of the River Krishna.
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The Bene Israel ("Sons of Israel") are a historic community of Jews in India, believed by some to have been one of the disputed Lost Tribes and descendants of ancestors who had settled there centuries ago.
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The Berlin Wall (Berliner Mauer) was a barrier that divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989.
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Bernard Lewis, FBA (born 31 May 1916) is a British-American historian specializing in oriental studies.
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Beta Israel (בֵּיתֶא יִשְׂרָאֵל, Beyte (beyt) Yisrael; ቤተ እስራኤል, Bēta 'Isrā'ēl, modern Bēte 'Isrā'ēl, EAE: "Betä Ǝsraʾel", "House of Israel" or "Community of Israel"), also known as Ethiopian Jews (יְהוּדֵי אֶתְיוֹפְּיָה: Yehudey Etyopyah; Ge'ez: የኢትዮጵያ አይሁድዊ, ye-Ityoppya Ayhudi), are Jewish communities who located for centuries in the area of Aksumite and Ethiopian Empires (Habesha or Abyssinia), currently divided between Amhara and Tigray regions, although most have now moved to Israel.
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Biblical Aramaic is the form of the Aramaic language that is used in the books of Daniel, Ezra and a few other places in the Hebrew Bible.
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Biblical Hebrew, also called Classical Hebrew, is the archaic form of the Hebrew language, a Canaanite Semitic language spoken by the Israelites in the area known as Israel, roughly west of the Jordan River and east of the Mediterranean Sea.
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A biblical judge (Hebrew: shofet שופט, pl. shoftim שופטים) was "a ruler or a military leader, as well as someone who presided over legal hearings." Following the conquest of Canaan by Joshua until the formation of the first Kingdom of Israel (ca. 1150–1025 BC), the Israelite tribes formed a loose confederation.
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Birth control, also known as contraception and fertility control, are methods or devices used to prevent pregnancy.
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The Bnei Menashe (בני מנשה, "Sons of Menasseh") are a small group within the indigenous people of India's North-Eastern border states of Manipur and Mizoram; since the late 20th century, they claim descent from one of the Lost Tribes of Israel and have adopted the practice of Judaism.
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Bohdan Zynoviy Mykhailovych Khmelnytsky (Богдан Зиновій Михайлович Хмельницький; Богда́н Хмельни́цкий, Bogdan Khmelnitsky; Bohdan Zenobi Chmielnicki (c. 1595 – 6 August 1657), was the Hetman of the Zaporozhian Host of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (now part of Ukraine). He led an uprising against the Commonwealth and its magnates (1648–1654) which resulted in the creation of a Ukrainian Cossack state. In 1654, he concluded the Treaty of Pereyaslav with the Tsardom of Russia.
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The Book of Deuteronomy (from Greek Δευτερονόμιον, Deuteronomion, "second law"; דְּבָרִים, Devarim, " words") is the fifth book of the Hebrew Bible, and of the Jewish Torah.
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The Book of Esther, also known in Hebrew as "the Scroll" (Megillah), is a book in the third section (Ketuvim, "Writings") of the Jewish Tanakh (the Hebrew Bible) and in the Christian Old Testament.
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The Book of Exodus or, simply, Exodus (from Greek ἔξοδος, exodos, meaning "going out"; שמות, Sh'mot, "Names"), is the second book of the Torah and the Hebrew Bible (the Old Testament).
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Brandeis University is an American private research university with a liberal arts focus.
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Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and the Latin American region.
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The brit milah (בְּרִית מִילָה,; Ashkenazi pronunciation:, "covenant of circumcision"; Yiddish pronunciation: bris) is a Jewish religious male circumcision ceremony performed by a mohel on the eighth day of a male infant's life.
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Bukharan Jews, also Bukharian Jews or Bukhari Jews (یهودی بخارایی Yahūde-ye Bukhārāī; Бухарские евреи Bukharskie evrei; בוכרים Bukharim; Tajik and Bukhori Cyrillic: яҳудиёни бухороӣ Yahudiyoni bukhoroī (Bukharan Jews) or яҳудиёни Бухоро Yahudiyoni Bukhoro (Jews of Bukhara), Bukhori Hebrew Script: יהודיאני בוכאראי and יהודיאני בוכארי), also called the Binai Israel, are Jews from Central Asia who historically spoke Bukhori, a dialect of the Tajik-Persian language.
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The Byzantine Empire, or Eastern Roman Empire, was the predominantly Greek-speaking continuation of the eastern part of the Roman Empire during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages.
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Canaan (Northwest Semitic:; Phoenician: 𐤊𐤍𐤏𐤍; Biblical Hebrew: כנען /; Masoretic: כְּנָעַן /) was, during the late 2nd millennium BC, a region in the Ancient Near East.
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Canada is a country, consisting of ten provinces and three territories, in the northern part of the continent of North America.
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The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is, the largest Christian church, with more than 1.25 billion members worldwide.
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The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black and the Caspian seas.
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Central Asia is the core region of the Asian continent and stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
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Central Europe (archaically "Middle Europe") is a region lying between the variously defined areas of the Eastern and Western parts of the European continent.
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Chaldea, from Χαλδαία,; māt Kaldu/Kašdu; כשדים,; ܟܠܕܘ,, also spelled Chaldaea, was a small Semitic nation that emerged between the late 10th and early 9th century BC, surviving until the mid 6th century BC, after which it disappeared as the Chaldean tribes were absorbed into the native population of Babylonia.
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Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
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The Council of Jerusalem during the Apostolic Age of the history of Christianity did not include religious male circumcision as a requirement for new gentile converts.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
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Cochin Jews, also called Malabar Jews, are of Mizrahi and Sephardi heritage.
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Within nations occupied by the Axis Powers, some citizens, driven by nationalism, ethnic hatred, anti-communism, anti-Semitism, or opportunism knowingly engaged in collaboration with the Axis Powers during World War II.
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a country situated in the northwest of South America, bordered to the northwest by Panama; to the east by Venezuela and Brazil; to the south by Ecuador and Peru; and it shares maritime limits with Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, Jamaica, Dominican Republic and Haiti.
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Columbia University Press is a university press based in New York City, and affiliated with Columbia University.
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Common Era (also Current Era or Christian Era), abbreviated as CE, is an alternative naming of the calendar era Anno Domini ("in the year of the/our Lord", abbreviated AD).
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Constantine's Sword: The Church and the Jews – A History (2001) is a book by James Carroll, a former priest, which documents the role of the Roman Catholic Church in the long European history of antisemitism.
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Conversion to Judaism (גיור, giyur) is a formal act undertaken by a non-Jewish person who wishes to be recognized as a full member of a Jewish community.
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A converso (convers,; "a convert", from Latin, "converted, turned around") and its feminine form conversa was a Jew or Muslim who converted to Catholicism in Spain or Portugal, particularly during the 14th and 15th centuries, or one of their descendents.
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Cossacks (козаки́, koza'ky; казаки́ or каза́ки), kazaki are a group of predominantly East Slavic people who became known as members of autonomous, semi-military communities, predominantly located in Ukraine, Russia, Serbia, Slovenia, Croatia, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Poland, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia.
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The Crusades were military campaigns sanctioned by the Catholic Church in the Middle Ages.
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Culture is, in the words of E.B. Tylor, "that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society." Cambridge English Dictionary states that culture is, "the way of life, especially the general customs and beliefs, of a particular group of people at a particular time." As a defining aspect of what it means to be human, culture is a central concept in anthropology, encompassing the range of phenomena that are transmitted through social learning in human societies.
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Cyrus II of Persia (Old Persian: Kūruš; New Persian: کوروش بُزُرگ Kurosh-e Bozorg  ; c. 600 or 576 – 530 BC), commonly known as Cyrus the Great  and also known as Cyrus the Elder, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire.
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Danish (dansk; dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.
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David Ben-Gurion (דָּוִד בֶּן-גּוּרִיּוֹן;, born David Grün; 16 October 1886, Płońsk – 1 December 1973, Tel Aviv, Israel) was the primary founder of the State of Israel and the first Prime Minister of Israel.
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A (ذمي,, collectively أهل الذمة / "the people of the dhimma") is a historical term referring to non-Muslim citizens of an Islamic state.
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The term dialect (from the ancient Greek word διάλεκτος diálektos, "discourse", from διά diá, "through" and λέγω legō, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways.
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Disabilities were legal restrictions and limitations placed on Jews in the Middle Ages.
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Dutch is a West Germanic language that is spoken in the European Union by about 23 million people as a first language—including most of the population of the Netherlands and about sixty percent of that of Belgium—and by another 5 million as a second language.
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The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period was the period of European history lasting from the 5th century to the 10th century.
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Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
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Einsatzgruppen (German for "task forces", "deployment groups"; singular Einsatzgruppe; official full name Einsatzgruppen der Sicherheitspolizei und des SD) were Schutzstaffel (SS) paramilitary death squads of Nazi Germany that were responsible for mass killings, primarily by shooting, during World War II.
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The Einstein Papers Project was established in 1986 to assemble, preserve, translate, and publish papers selected from the literary estate of Albert Einstein (more than forty thousand documents) and from other collections (more than fifteen thousand Einstein-related documents).
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Eliezer Ben‑Yehuda (lang-he‎; 7 January 1858 – 16 December 1922) was a Litvak lexicographer and newspaper editor.
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In linguistics, Elision or deletion is the omission of one or more sounds (such as a vowel, a consonant, or a whole syllable) in a word or phrase.
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The Embassy of Israel in Washington, D.C. is the diplomatic mission of the State of Israel to the United States.
The Encyclopaedia Judaica is a 26-volume English-language encyclopedia of the Jewish people and of Judaism.
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English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
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Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially known as the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
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An ethnic group or ethnicity is a socially defined category of people who identify with each other based on common ancestral, social, cultural or national experience.
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An ethnonym (from the ἔθνος, éthnos, "nation" and ὄνομα, ónoma, "name") is the name applied to a given ethnic group.
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An ethnoreligious group (or ethno-religious group) is an ethnic group of people whose members are also unified by a common religious background.
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Europe is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia.
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Evolution is change in the heritable traits of biological populations over successive generations.
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The German extermination camps or death camps were designed and built by Nazi Germany during World War II (1939–45) to systematically kill millions, primarily by gassing, but also in mass executions and through extreme work under starvation conditions.
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The Fertile Crescent is a crescent-shaped region containing the comparatively moist and fertile land of otherwise arid and semi-arid Western Asia, the Nile Valley and Nile Delta of northeast Africa.
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The Final Solution ((die) Endlösung) or Final Solution to the Jewish Question (die Endlösung der Judenfrage) was Nazi Germany's plan during World War II to systematically exterminate the Jewish population in Nazi-occupied Europe through genocide.
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The First Crusade (1096–1099) was the first of a number of crusades that attempted to capture the Holy Lands, called by Pope Urban II in 1095.
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A first language (also native language, mother tongue, arterial language, or L1) is the language or are the languages a person has learned from birth or within the critical period, or that a person speaks the best and so is often the basis for sociolinguistic identity.
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The fiscus Iudaicus (Latin for "Jewish tax") or fiscus Judaicus was a tax-collecting agency instituted to collect the tax imposed on Jews in the Roman Empire after the destruction of Jerusalem and its Temple in AD 70.
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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state comprising territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.
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French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language, belonging to the Indo-European family.
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Genetic studies on the Jews are part of population genetics.
Genocide is the systematic elimination of all or a significant part of a racial, ethnic, religious, cultural or national group.
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Gentile or Goy (from Latin gentilis, by the French gentil, feminine: gentille, meaning of or belonging to a clan or tribe) is an ethnonym that commonly means non–Jew.
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George Gershwin (September 26, 1898 July 11, 1937) was an American composer and pianist.
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The Georgian Jews (ქართველი ებრაელები, יהודים גאורגים) are from Georgia, in the Caucasus.
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German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that derives most of its vocabulary from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family.
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Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a federal parliamentary republic in western-central Europe.
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A ghetto is a part of a city in which members of a minority group live, especially because of social, legal, or economic pressure.
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Beginning with the invasion of Poland during World War II, the regime of Nazi Germany set up ghettos across occupied Europe in order to segregate and confine Jews, and sometimes Gypsies, into small sections of towns and cities furthering their exploitation.
The golden age of Jewish culture in Spain coincided with the Middle Ages in Europe, a period of Muslim rule throughout much of the Iberian Peninsula.
The Maghreb (or;Literally sunset; المغرب العربي, "the Arab West"; ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵖⴰ; previously known as Barbary Coast), or the Greater Maghreb (المغرب الكبير el-Maghrib el-Kbīr), is usually defined as much or most of the region of western North Africa or Northwest Africa, west of Egypt.
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Greek or Hellenic (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to the southern Balkans, the Aegean Islands, western Asia Minor, parts of northern and Eastern Anatolia and the South Caucasus, southern Italy, Albania and Cyprus.
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Hadith (or; حديث, plural: أحاديث) are the collections of the reports purporting to quote what the Islamic prophet Muhammad said verbatim on any matter.
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Halakha (הֲלָכָה,; also transliterated as halacha, halachah or halocho) is the collective body of Jewish religious laws derived from the Written and Oral Torah.
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Hamas (حماس, an acronym of حركة المقاومة الاسلامية Islamic Resistance Movement) is a Palestinian Islamic.
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Haredi Judaism (חֲרֵדִי,; also spelled Charedi, plural Charedim) is a stream of Orthodox Judaism characterized by rejection of modern secular culture.
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Haskalah (השכלה; "enlightenment" or "education" from sekhel "intellect", "mind"), the Jewish Enlightenment, was a movement among European Jews in the 18th–19th centuries that advocated adopting enlightenment values, pressing for integration into European society, and increasing education in secular studies, Hebrew language, and Jewish history.
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The Hasmonean dynasty (חשמונאים, Roman. Ḥashmona'im) was the ruling dynasty of Judea and surrounding regions during Classical antiquity.
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Hebrew Bible or Hebrew Scriptures (Biblia Hebraica) is the term used by biblical scholars to refer to the Tanakh (תנ"ך), the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is the common textual source of the several canonical editions of the Christian Old Testament.
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Hebrew is a West Semitic language of the Afroasiatic language family.
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Hebrews (Hebrew: עברים or עבריים, Tiberian ʿIḇrîm, ʿIḇriyyîm; Modern Hebrew ʿIvrim, ʿIvriyyim; ISO 259-3 ʕibrim, ʕibriyim) is a term appearing 34 times within 32 verses of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible).
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Hezbollah (pronounced; حزب الله, literally "Party of Allah" or "Party of God")—also transliterated Hizbullah, Hizballah, etc.
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Hispania was the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula.
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Hispanic (hispano, hispánico hispánico, hispaniar., hispà) is an ethnonym to people of country heritage that speak the Spanish language, in some definitions, to ancient Roman Hispania, which roughly comprised the Iberian Peninsula including the contemporary states of Spain, Portugal, Andorra and the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar.
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Israel and Judah were related Iron Age kingdoms of the ancient Levant.
The history of antisemitism – defined as hostile actions or discrimination against Jews as a religious or ethnic group – goes back many centuries; antisemitism has been called "the longest hatred." Jerome Chanes identifies six stages in the historical development of antisemitism.
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The Jewish people have long maintained both physical and religious ties with the land of Israel.
African Jewish communities include.
The history of the Jews of Argentina goes back to the early sixteenth centuries, following the Jewish expulsion from Spain.
The history of the Jews in Australia commenced with the British settlement of Australia in 1788.
Judaism has a long history in Belgium, from the 1st century CE until today.
The history of the Jews in Brazil is a rather long and complex one, as it stretches from the very beginning of the European settlement in the new continent.
Canadian Jews or, alternatively, Jewish Canadians are Canadian citizens of the Jewish faith or Jewish ethnicity.
Jews and Judaism in China have had a long history.
The historic core of the indigenous community consisted mainly of Arabic-speaking Rabbanites and Karaites.
The history of the Jews of France deals with the Jews and Jewish communities in France.
Jewish settlers founded the Ashkenazi Jewish community in the Early (5th to 10th centuries CE) and High Middle Ages (c.1000–1299 CE).
Jews have a long history in the region now known as Hungary, with some records even predating the 895 AD Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin by over 600 years.
The history of the Jews in India reaches back to ancient times.
The history of the Jews in Iraq (יְהוּדִים בָּבְלִים,, Yehudim Bavlim, يهود العراق), is documented from the time of the Babylonian captivity c. 586 BC.
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The history of the Jews in Italy spans more than two thousand years.
Jews of Kurdistan (יהודי כורדיסטן, Yehudei Kurdistan, lit. Jews of Kurdistan; אנשא דידן,, lit. our people; Kurdên cihû) are the ancient Eastern Jewish communities, inhabiting the region known as Kurdistan in northern Mesopotamia, roughly covering parts of northwestern Iran, northern Iraq, northeastern Syria and southeastern Turkey.
The history of the Jews in Latin America began with conversos who joined the Spanish and Portuguese expeditions to the continents.
The history of the Jews in Lebanon deals with the presence of Jews in Lebanon, which stretches back to Biblical times.
The history of the Jews in Libya stretches back to the 3rd century BCE, when Cyrenaica was under Greek rule.
The history of the Jews in Poland dates back over 800 years.
The vast territories of the Russian Empire at one time hosted the largest population of Jews in the world.
The history of the Jews in South Africa mainly begins with the European settlement in the 19th century.
Most history of the Jews in the Netherlands was generated between the end of the 16th century and World War II.
The history of the Jews in the Soviet Union is primarily the history of Jews in its component states.
For the history of the Jews in the United Kingdom, including the time before the formation of the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707, see.
The history of the Jews in the United States has been part of the American national fabric since colonial times.
Jewish communities have existed in the territory of Ukraine from the time of Kievan Rus' (one of Kiev city gates was called Judaic) and developed many of the most distinctive modern Jewish theological and cultural traditions such as Hasidism.
Human migration is the movement by people from one place to another with the intention of settling temporarily or permanently in the new location.
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The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe and is divided among four states: Spain, Portugal, Andorra, and France; as well as Gibraltar, an overseas territory of the United Kingdom.
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Immigration to the United States is a complex demographic phenomenon that has been a major source of population growth and cultural change throughout much of the history of the United States.
India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia.
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Interfaith marriage, traditionally called mixed marriage, is marriage (either religious or civil) between partners professing different religions.
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Ioudaios (Ἰουδαῖος; pl. Ἰουδαῖοι Ioudaioi). is a Greek ethnonym used in classical and biblical literature which commonly translates to "Jew" or "Judean". In its various meanings, the word has also been translated as "Judahites", "people of the region of Judah/Judea" (Greek: Ἰουδαία) and "leaders of Judea". The choice of translation is the subject of frequent scholarly debate, given its central importance to passages in the Bible (both the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament) as well as works of other writers such as Josephus and Philo. Translating it as Jews is seen to infer connotations as to the religious beliefs of the people, whereas translating it as Judeans confines the identity within the geopolitical boundaries of Judea.James D. G. Dunn Jesus, Paul, and the Gospels 2011 Page 124 "6.6 and 9.17, where for the first time Ioudaios can properly be translated 'Jew'; and in Greco-Roman writers, the first use of Ioudaios as a religious term appears at the end of the first century ce (90- 96, 127, 133-36). 12." A related translation debate refers to the terms ἰουδαΐζειν (verb), literally translated as Judaizing, and Ἰουδαϊσμός (noun), controversially translated as Judaism or Judeanism.
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Iran (or; ایران), historically known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia.
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The Iranian Revolution (also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution;, Iran Chamber., MS Encarta. October 31, 2009., PDF. Persian: انقلاب اسلامی, Enghelābe Eslāmi or انقلاب بیست و دو بهمن) refers to events involving the overthrow of the Pahlavi dynasty under Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, who was supported by the United States and its eventual replacement with an Islamic republic under the Grand Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, the leader of the revolution, supported by various leftist and Islamic organizations and Iranian student movements. Demonstrations against the Shah commenced in October 1977, developing into a campaign of civil resistance that included both secular and religious elements. and which intensified in January 1978. Between August and December 1978 strikes and demonstrations paralyzed the country. The Shah left Iran for exile on January 16, 1979, as the last Persian monarch, leaving his duties to a regency council and an opposition-based prime minister. Ayatollah Khomeini was invited back to Iran by the government, and returned to Tehran to a greeting by several million Iranians. The royal reign collapsed shortly after on February 11 when guerrillas and rebel troops overwhelmed troops loyal to the Shah in armed street fighting, bringing Khomeini to official power. Iran voted by national referendum to become an Islamic Republic on April 1, 1979, and to approve a new theocratic-republican constitution whereby Khomeini became Supreme Leader of the country, in December 1979. The revolution was unusual for the surprise it created throughout the world: it lacked many of the customary causes of revolution (defeat at war, a financial crisis, peasant rebellion, or disgruntled military), occurred in a nation that was enjoying relatively good material wealth and prosperity, produced profound change at great speed, was massively popular, resulted in the exile of many Iranians,Kurzman, The Unthinkable Revolution in Iran, (2004), p.121 and replaced a pro-Western semi-absolute monarchy with an anti-Western authoritarian theocracyInternational Journal of Middle East Studies, 19, 1987, p. 261 based on the concept of Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists (or velayat-e faqih). It was a relatively non-violent revolution, and helped to redefine the meaning and practice of modern revolutions (although there was violence in its aftermath). Its outcome – an Islamic Republic "under the guidance of a religious scholar from Qom" – was, as one scholar put it, "clearly an occurrence that had to be explained".Benard, "The Government of God" (1984), p. 18.
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Isaac (ISO 259-3 Yiçḥaq, " will laugh"; Ἰσαάκ Isaak إسحاق or إسحٰق() is the traditional Koranic spelling after vocalizing with a super script ʾalif. In Modern Standard Arabic, it is normally written إسحاق.) as described in the Hebrew Bible and the Qur'an, was the second son of Abraham, the only son Abraham had with his wife Sarah, and the father of Jacob and Esau.
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Islamic–Jewish relations started in the 7th century CE with the origin and spread of Islam in the Arabian peninsula.
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ISO 259 is a series of international standards for the romanization of Hebrew, dating to 1984, with updated ISO 259-2 (a simplification, disregarding several vowel signs, 1994) and ISO 259-3 (Phonemic Conversion, 1999).
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Israel, officially the State of Israel (מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל; دولة إِسْرَائِيل), is a country in West Asia, situated at the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Gulf of Aqaba in the Red Sea.
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The Israel Central Bureau of Statistics (הלשכה המרכזית לסטטיסטיקה, HaLishka HaMerkazit LiStatistika), abbreviated CBS, is an Israeli government office established in 1949 to carry out research and publish statistical data on all aspects of Israeli life, including population, society, economy, industry, education, and physical infrastructure.
Israelis (ישראלים Yiśraʾelim, الإسرائيليين al-ʾIsrāʾīliyyin) are citizens or permanent residents of the modern state of Israel, which is a multiethnic society that is home to people of different national backgrounds.
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The Israelites were a Semitic people of the Ancient Near East, who inhabited part of Canaan during the tribal and monarchic periods (15th to 6th centuries BCE), and lived in the region in smaller numbers after the fall of the monarchy.
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Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken mainly in Europe: Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, Vatican City, as a second language in Albania, Malta, Slovenia and Croatia, by minorities in Crimea, Eritrea, France, Libya, Monaco, Montenegro, Romania and Somalia, – Gordon, Raymond G., Jr.
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j., also known as Jweekly, is a weekly print newspaper in Northern California.
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Jacob (later given the name Israel) is considered a patriarch of the Israelites.
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James Carroll (born January 22, 1943, Chicago, Illinois, United States) is an American author, historian, and journalist.
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The Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs (JCPA) is an Israeli research institute and public policy think tank devoted to research and analysis of critical issues facing the Middle East.
The Jewish Agency for Israel (הסוכנות היהודית לארץ ישראל, HaSochnut HaYehudit L'Eretz Yisra'el) is the largest Jewish nonprofit organization in the world.
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Jewish culture is the diverse international culture of the Jews.
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The Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tfoot'za, תפוצה) or Exile (Hebrew: Galut, גלות; Yiddish: Golus) refers to the dispersion of Israelites, Judahites, and later Jews out of what is considered their ancestral homeland (the Land of Israel) and the communities built by them across the world.
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Jewish emancipation was the external and internal process in various nations in Europe of eliminating disabilities to which Jewish people were then subject, and the recognition of Jews as entitled to equality and citizenship rights on a communal not merely individual basis.
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The Jewish Encyclopedia is an English encyclopedia containing over 15,000 articles on the history, culture, and state of Judaism and the Jews up to the early 20th century.
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The Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim countries or Jewish exodus from Arab countries (יציאת יהודים ממדינות ערב, Yetziat yehudim mi-medinot Arav; هجرة اليهود من الدول العربية والإسلامية) was the departure, flight, evacuation and migration, of 850,000 Jews, primarily of Sephardi and Mizrahi background, from Arab and Muslim countries, mainly from 1948 to the early 1970s.
Jewish history (or the history of the Jewish people) is the history of the Jews, and their religion and culture, as it developed and interacted with other peoples, religions and cultures.
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Jewish identity is the objective or subjective state of perceiving oneself as a Jew and as relating to being Jewish.
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Jewish languages are the various languages and dialects that developed in Jewish communities around the world.
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Jewish medicine is medical practice of the Jewish people, including writing in the languages of both Hebrew and Arabic.
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Jewish music is the music and melodies of the Jewish people.
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The Jewish People Policy Institute (JPPI; המכון למדיניות העם היהודי; formerly: The Jewish People Policy Planning (JPPPI)), is a Non-profit organization with the purpose of promoting and securing the Jewish people and Israel.
The world's core Jewish population in early 2014 was estimated at 14.2 million people (around 0.2% of the world population).
In the course of history, Jewish populations have been expelled or ostracized by various local authorities and have sought asylum from antisemitism numerous times.
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Jewish secularism comprises those Jewish people who are secular and the body of work produced by secular Jews.
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The "Jewish state" is a political term used to describe Israel.
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The Jewish Virtual Library (JVL) is an online encyclopedia published by the American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise (AICE), one of whose "principal objectives is to enhance Israel's image by publicizing novel Israeli approaches to problems common to both our nations and illustrating how Americans can learn from these innovations." Launched in 1998, it is a comprehensive website covering topics about US-Israel relations, Israel, the Jewish people, and more.
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Jizya or jizyah (جزية; Ottoman Turkish: cizye) is a religiously required per capita tax levied by a Muslim state on non-Muslim subjects permanently residing in Muslim lands under Islamic law.
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John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing and markets its products to professionals and consumers, students and instructors in higher education, and researchers and practitioners in scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly fields.
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Joseph (יוֹסֵף, Standard Yosef Tiberian; "may He add"; يوسف Yūsuf or Yūsif; Ἰωσήφ Iōsēph) is an important person in the Hebrew Bible: his life connects the narrative of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob in Canaan to the subsequent narrative of the liberation of the Israelites from slavery in Egypt.
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Judaeo-Georgian (ყივრული ენა) (also known as Kivruli and Gruzinic) is the traditional Georgian dialect spoken by the Georgian Jews, ancient Jewish community of the Caucasus nation of Georgia.
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Judaeo-Spanish (also Judeo-Spanish and Judæo-Spanish: Judeo-Español, Hebrew script: גֿודֿיאו-איספאנייול, Cyrillic: Ђудео-Еспањол), commonly referred to as Ladino, is a Romance language derived from Old Spanish.
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Judah (יְהוּדָה, Standard Yehuda Tiberian) was, according to the Book of Genesis, the fourth son of Jacob and Leah, and the founder of the Israelite of Tribe of Judah, and by extension indirectly eponymous of the Kingdom of Judah, the land of Judea and the Jews.
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Judaism (from Iudaismus, derived from Greek Ἰουδαϊσμός, originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; in Hebrew:, Yahadut, the distinctive characteristics of the Judean ethnos) encompasses the religion, philosophy, culture and way of life of the Jewish people.
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Judaism in Mexico began in 1519 with the arrival of “Marranos” or “Crypto-Jews,” those forcibly converted to Catholicism due to the Spanish Inquisition.
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Judea or Judæa (from יהודה, Standard Yəhuda Tiberian, Ἰουδαία, Ioudaía; IVDÆA, يهودية, Yahudia) is the biblical, Roman, and modern name of the mountainous southern part of Palestine.
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The Judeo-Arabic languages are a continuum of Arabic dialects spoken by Jews living or formerly living in the Arab world; the term also refers more or less to Classical Arabic written in the Hebrew script, particularly in the Middle Ages.
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Judeo-Berber (Tamazight Tudayt) is a term used primarily for the Berber varieties traditionally spoken by the Jewish communities of certain parts of central and southern Morocco.
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Judeo-Malayalam is the traditional language of the Cochin Jews (also called Malabar Jews), from Kerala, in southern India, spoken today by a few dozens of people in Israel and by probably fewer than 25 in India.
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The Kaifeng Jews are members of a small Jewish community in Kaifeng, in the Henan province of China who have assimilated into Chinese society while preserving some Jewish traditions and customs.
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Ketuvim (כְּתוּבִים Kəṯûḇîm, "writings") is the third and final section of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), after Torah (instruction) and Nevi'im (prophets).
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The Kingdom of Egypt (المملكة المصرية; المملكه المصريه, "the Egyptian Kingdom") was the independent Egyptian state established under the Muhammad Ali Dynasty in 1922 following the Unilateral Declaration of Egyptian Independence by the United Kingdom.
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The Kingdom of Iraq (المملكة العراقية) was founded on 23 August 1921 under British administration following the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in the Mesopotamian campaign of WWI.
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The Kingdom of Israel was, according to the Bible, one of two successor states to the former United Monarchy (also often called the 'Kingdom of Israel').
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The United Monarchy is the name given to the Israelite kingdom of Israel and Judah, during the reigns of Saul, David and Solomon, as depicted in the Hebrew Bible.
The Kingdom of Judah (מַמְלֶכֶת יְהוּדָה, Mamlekhet Yehuda) was a state established in the Southern Levant during the Iron Age.
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The Knesset (הַכְּנֶסֶת; lit. the gathering or assembly; الكنيست) is the unicameral national legislature of Israel.
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Kohen or cohen (or kohain; כֹּהֵן, "priest", pl. kohanim) is the Hebrew word for priest.
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The Krymchak language (кърымчах тыльы) is a moribund Turkic language spoken in Crimea by the Krymchak people.
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The Land of Goshen (אֶרֶץ גֹּשֶׁן or Eretz Gošen) is named in the Bible as the place in Egypt given to the Hebrews by the pharaoh of Joseph (-), and the land from which they later left Egypt at the time of the Exodus.
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The Land of Israel (אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל ʼÉreṣ Yiśrāʼēl, Eretz Yisrael) is one of several names for an area of indefinite geographical extension in the Southern Levant.
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Latin America is a region of the Americas that comprises countries where Romance languages are predominant; primarily Spanish and Portuguese, but also French.
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The Law of Return (חֹוק הַשְׁבוּת, ḥok ha-shvūt) is Israeli legislation, passed on 5 July 1950, that gives Jews the right of return and the right to live in Israel and to gain citizenship.
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Léon Poliakov (Лев Поляков; November 25, 1910 in Saint Petersburg – December 8, 1997 in Orsay) was a French historian who wrote extensively on the Holocaust and antisemitism.
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Leah (ISO 259-3 Leˀa; ܠܝܐ La'ya; from 𒀖 𒀖), as described in the Hebrew Bible, is the first of the two concurrent wives of the Hebrew patriarch Jacob and mother of six sons whose descendants became some of the Twelve Tribes of Israel, along with one daughter, Dinah.
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The Lemba, wa-Remba, or MwenyeParfitt, Tudor.
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The Levant (Arabic: المشرق Naim, Samia, Dialects of the Levant, in Weninger, Stefan et al. (eds.), The Semitic Languages: An International Handbook, Berlin/Boston: Walter de Gruyter (2011), p. 921) is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the eastern Mediterranean.
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A lingua franca (plural lingua francas), also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language or vehicular language, is a language or dialect systematically (as opposed to occasionally, or casually) used to make communication possible between persons not sharing a native language or dialect, in particular when it is a third language, distinct from both native languages.
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An ethnonym is the name applied to a given ethnic group.
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The Nobel Prize is an annual, international prize first awarded in 1901 for achievements in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace.
Moshe ben Maimon (משה בן-מימון), or Mūsā ibn Maymūn (موسى بن ميمون), acronymed Rambam (רמב"ם – for "Rabbeinu Moshe Ben Maimon", "Our Rabbi/Teacher Moses Son of Maimon"), and Latinized Moses Maimonides, a preeminent medieval Sephardic Jewish philosopher and astronomer, became one of the most prolific and influential Torah scholars and physicians of the Middle Ages.
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Marc Zakharovich Chagall (28 March 1985) was a Russian-French artist.
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Marranos were originally Jews living in Iberia who converted or were forced to convert to Christianity, some of whom may have continued to practice Judaism in secret.
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Mater semper certa est ("The mother is always certain") is a Roman-law principle which has the power of praesumptio iuris et de iure, meaning that no counter-evidence can be made against this principle (literally: Presumed there is no counter evidence and by the law).
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Matrilineality in Judaism is the view that people born of a Jewish mother are themselves Jewish.
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Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange and as the liturgical language of Chalcedonian Christianity and the Roman Catholic Church, but also as a language of science, literature, law, and administration.
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A mellah (Arabic ملاح, probably from the word ملح, Arabic for "salt" or מלח, Hebrew for "salt", both pronounced "melach") is a walled Jewish quarter of a city in Morocco, analogous to the European ghetto.
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The melting pot is a metaphor for a heterogeneous society becoming more homogeneous, the different elements "melting together" into a harmonious whole with a common culture.
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Mexico (México), officially the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos), is a federal republic in North America.
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In European history, the Middle Ages or Medieval period lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
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The Middle EastArabic: الشرق الأوسط,; Armenian: Միջին Արևելք, Merdzavor Arevelk’; Azerbaijani: Orta Şərq; French: Moyen-Orient; Georgian: ახლო აღმოსავლეთი, akhlo aghmosavleti; Greek: Μέση Ανατολή, Mési Anatolí; Hebrew: המזרח התיכון, Ha'Mizrah Ha'Tihon; Kurdish: Rojhilata Navîn; Persian: خاورمیانه, khāvar-miyāneh; Somali: Bariga Dhexe; Soranî Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, rrojhellatî nayn; Turkish: Orta Doğu; Urdu: مشرق وسطی, hashrq vsty (also called the Mid East) is a eurocentric description of a region centered on Western Asia and Egypt.
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Middle English (ME) refers to the dialects of the English language spoken in parts of the British Isles after the Norman conquest (1066) until the late 15th century.
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A millennium (plural millennia) is a period of time equal to 1000 years.
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Minority group is a term referring to a category of people differentiated from the social majority, i.e. those who hold the majority of positions of social power in a society, and may be defined by law.
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Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
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Mizrahi Jews, Mizrahim or Mashriqiyyun (المشرقيون), also referred to as Edot HaMizrach (עֲדוֹת-הַמִּזְרָח; Communities of the East; Mizrahi Hebrew), ("Sons of the East") or Oriental Jews are Jews descended from local Jewish communities of the Middle East.
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The Moors were Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily, and Malta during the Middle Ages.
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Moroccan Jews (اليهود المغاربة, יהדות מרוקו) are the Jews who live or lived in the area of North Africa known as Morocco.
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Morocco (المغرب; ⵍⵎⴰⵖⵔⵉⴱ or Muṛṛakuc, ⵎⵓⵔⴰⴽⵓⵛ; Maroc), officially the Kingdom of Morocco, is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa.
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Moses (מֹשֶׁה, Modern Tiberian ISO 259-3; ܡܘܫܐ Moushe; موسى; Mωϋσῆς in both the Septuagint and the New Testament) is a prophet in Abrahamic religions.
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Moshe Davis (January 12, 1916 in Brooklyn, New York – 1996) was a rabbi and a scholar of American Jewish history who taught at the Jewish Theological Seminary of America (JTS) and Hebrew University.
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Mountain Jews or Caucasus Jews also known as Judeo-Tats, Juhuro, Juvuro, Kavkazi Jews or Gorsky Jews are Jews of the eastern and northern slopes of Caucasus, mainly Azerbaijan and Dagestan, with some in Chechnya, Kabardino-Balkaria, Krasnodar Krai and more.
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A Muslim, sometimes spelled Moslem, relates to a person who follows the religion of Islam, a monotheistic and Abrahamic religion based on the Quran.
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The Muslim conquest of Persia, also known as the Arab conquest of Iran led to the end of the Sasanian Empire in 651 and the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Iran.
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The Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen (sometimes spelled Mutawakelite Kingdom of Yemen; المملكة المتوكلية اليمنية), also known as the Kingdom of Yemen or, retrospectively, as North Yemen, was a state that existed between 1918 and 1962 in the northern part of what is now Yemen.
Natalie Portman (born Neta-Lee Hershlag; נטע-לי הרשלג; June 9, 1981) is an Israeli-born American (with dual citizenship) actress, producer, and director.
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Nation (from Latin: natio, "people, tribe, kin, genus, class, flock") is a social concept with no uncontroversial definition, but which is most commonly used to designate larger groups or collectives of people with common characteristics attributed to them - including language, traditions, customs (mores), habits (habitus), and ethnicity.
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The National Institute of Statistics and Geography (INEGI by its name in Spanish, Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía) is an autonomous agency of the Mexican Government dedicated to coordinate the National System of Statistical and Geographical Information of the country.
Nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a state.
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Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, or material world or universe.
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Nazi Germany maintained concentration camps (Konzentrationslager, KZ or KL) throughout the territories it controlled.
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Nazi Germany or the Third Reich (Drittes Reich) are common English names for the period of history in Germany from 1933 to 1945, when it was a dictatorship under the control of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
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Nebuchadnezzar II (ܢܵܒܘܼ ܟܘܼܕܘܼܪܝܼ ܐܘܼܨܘܼܪ; נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר; Ancient Greek: Ναβουχοδονόσωρ; Arabic: نِبُوخَذنِصَّر; c. 634 – 562 BC) was a Chaldean king of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, who reigned c. 605 BC – 562 BC.
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The Neo-Assyrian Empire was an Iron Age Mesopotamian empire, in existence between 911 and 609 BC.
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The Neo-Babylonian Empire was a period of Mesopotamian history which began in 626 BC and ended in 539 BC.
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New Christian (cristiano nuevo; cristão-novo; cristià nou) was a law-effective and social category developed from the 15th century onwards, and used in what is today Spain and Portugal, and their New World colonies, to refer to Sephardim (Iberian Jews) and Moors (Iberian Muslims) who had converted to Roman Catholicism, often by force or coercion.
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The New Testament (Koine Greek: Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē) is the second major part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, which is based on the Hebrew Bible.
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The New World is one of the names used for the Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).
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New Zealand (Aotearoa) is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
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Nimrod (ܢܡܪܘܕ نمرود, Numrood), king of Shinar, was, according to the Book of Genesis and Books of Chronicles, the son of Cush, the great-grandson of Noah.
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The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Norwegian: Nobelprisen) is a set of annual international awards bestowed in a number of categories by Swedish and Norwegian committees in recognition of academic, cultural and/or scientific advances.
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Norman Arthur Stillman, also Noam (נועם, in Hebrew), b. 1945, is the Schusterman-Josey Professor and Chair of Judaic History at the University of Oklahoma.
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North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of Africa.
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Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the sole official language.
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The Nuremberg Laws (Nürnberger Gesetze) were antisemitic laws in Nazi Germany.
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Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French ancien français) was the Gallo-Romance dialect continuum spoken from the 9th century to the 14th century.
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The Old World consists of Africa, Europe, and Asia, regarded collectively as the part of the world known to Europeans before contact with the Americas.
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According to Rabbinic Judaism, the Oral Torah or Oral Law (lit "Torah that is spoken") represents those laws, statutes, and legal interpretations that were not recorded in the Five Books of Moses, the "Written Torah" (lit. "Torah that is written"), but nonetheless are regarded by Orthodox Jews as prescriptive and co-given.
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Orthodox Judaism is the approach to religious Judaism which subscribes to a tradition of mass revelation and adheres to the interpretation and application of the laws and ethics of the Torah as legislated in the Talmudic texts by the Tanaim and Amoraim.
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The Ottoman Empire (دَوْلَتِ عَلِيّهٔ عُثمَانِیّه Devlet-i Aliyye-i Osmâniyye, Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti) which is also known as the Turkish Empire or Turkey, was an empire founded in 1299 by Oghuz Turks under Osman I in northwestern Anatolia.
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Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second-oldest, after Cambridge University Press.
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The Pahlavi dynasty (دودمان پهلوی) was the ruling house of Iran from 1925 until 1979, when the monarchy was overthrown and abolished as a result of the Iranian Revolution.
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The Papal States were territories in the Italian Peninsula under the sovereign direct rule of the pope, from the 700s until 1870.
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A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state in which the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from, and is held accountable to, the legislature (parliament); the executive and legislative branches are thus interconnected.
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The Patriarchs (אבות. Avot or Abot, singular אב. Ab or Aramaic: אבא Abba) of the Bible, when narrowly defined, are Abraham, his son Isaac, and Isaac's son Jacob, also named Israel, the ancestor of the Israelites.
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Persecution is the systematic mistreatment of an individual or group by another individual or group.
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Persecution of Jews has occurred on many occasions and at widely different geographical locations.
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Persian Jews or Iranian Jews (یهودیان ایرانی) (יהודים פרסים) are Jews historically associated with Iran, traditionally known as Persia in Western sources.
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Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi or Parsi (English:; Persian: فارسی), is the predominant modern descendant of Old Persian, a southwestern Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages.
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The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan American think tank based in Washington, D.C., that provides information on social issues, public opinion, and demographic trends shaping the United States and the world.
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Pharaoh (Dictionary Reference: or) is the common title of the kings of Ancient Egypt until the Macedonian conquest.
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The Tanakh or Old Testament of the Bible makes reference to various pharaohs (kings of Egypt).
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The plural, in many languages, is one of the values of the grammatical category of number.
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A pogrom is a violent riot aimed at massacre or persecution of an ethnic or religious group, particularly one aimed at Jews.
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Politics (from πολιτικός politikos, definition "of, for, or relating to citizens") is the practice and theory of influencing other people.
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Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format used to present documents in a manner independent of application software, hardware and operating systems.
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The Portuguese Inquisition (Portuguese: Inquisição Portuguesa) was formally established in Portugal in 1536 at the request of its king, John III.
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Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Romance language and the sole official language of Portugal, Brazil, Mozambique, Angola, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau and São Tomé and Príncipe.
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The Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
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Quebec (or; Québec)According to the Canadian government, Québec (with the acute accent) is the official name in French and Quebec (without the accent) is the province's official name in English; the name is.
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The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qurʾan or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (الله, Allah).
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Rachel was the favorite of Biblical patriarch Jacob's two wives as well as the mother of Joseph and Benjamin, two of the twelve progenitors of the tribes of Israel.
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Raphael Alexandrovich Falk (1856 – 1913) was a Russian chess master.
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Rebecca (also spelled Rebekah) (ISO 259-3 Ribqa,(AssyrianːܪܲܦܩܵܐːRapqa) from the Hebrew ribhqeh (lit., "connection"), from Semitic root r-b-q, "to tie, couple or join", "to secure", or "to snare") appears in the Hebrew Bible as the wife of Isaac and the mother of Jacob and Esau.
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The Reconquista ("reconquest") is a historical period of approximately 770 years in the history of the Iberian Peninsula, beginning after the Islamic conquest 711-718, to the fall of Granada, the last Islamic state on the peninsula, in 1492.
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Refusenik (отказник, otkaznik, from "отказ", otkaz "refusal") was an unofficial term for individuals, typically but not exclusively Soviet Jews, who were denied permission to emigrate by the authorities of the former Soviet Union and other countries of the Eastern bloc.
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A religion is an organized collection of beliefs, cultural systems, and world views that relate humanity to an order of existence.
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The Rhine Valley (German) is a glacial alpine valley, formed by the Alpine Rhine (German), i.e. the section of the Rhine River between the confluence of the Anterior Rhine and Posterior Rhine at Reichenau and its mouth at Lake Constance.
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Rita Levi-Montalcini (22 April 1909 – 30 December 2012) was an Italian Nobel Laureate honored for her work in neurobiology.
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The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum; Ancient and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων Basileia tōn Rhōmaiōn) was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
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The Romani (also spelled Romany), or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group living mostly in Europe and the Americas, who originate from the northwestern regions of the Indian subcontinent.
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Russian (ру́сский язы́к, russkiy yazyk, pronounced) is an East Slavic language and an official language in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan.
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A sacred language, "holy language" (in religious context) or liturgical language is a language that is cultivated for religious reasons by people who speak another language in their daily life.
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Salo Wittmayer Baron (May 26, 1895 – November 25, 1989) was an American historian, described as "the greatest Jewish historian of the 20th century".
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The Samaritans (Samaritan Hebrew: שוֹמְרִים Samerim "Guardians/Keepers/Watchers ", Jewish שומרונים Shomronim, السامريون Sāmeriyyūn) are an ethnoreligious group of the Levant, descended from ancient Semitic inhabitants of the region.
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Sarah or Sara (ISO 259-not,r3 Śarra; Sara; Arabic: سارا or سارة Sāra) was the wife and half-sister of Abraham and the mother of Isaac as described in the Hebrew Bible and the Quran.
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Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and is one of the world's top scientific journals.
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The Second Temple was an important Jewish Holy Temple (בֵּית־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי, Bet HaMikdash HaSheni; بيت القدس: Beit al-Quds) which stood on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem during the Second Temple period, between 516 BCE and 70 CE.
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Sephardi Jews, also known as Sephardic Jews or simply Sephardim (סְפָרַדִּי, Modern Hebrew: Sfaraddi, Tiberian: Səp̄āraddî, lit. "The Jews of Spain"), are a Jewish ethnic division whose ethnogenesis and emergence as a distinct community of Jews coalesced in the Iberian Peninsula around the start of the 2nd millennium (i.e., about the year 1000).
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Sergio DellaPergola (born Trieste, Italy, September 7, 1942) is an Italian-born Israeli demographer and statistician.
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Shabbat (שַׁבָּת, "rest" or "cessation") or Shabbos (r) (English: Sabbath) is Judaism's day of rest and seventh day of the week, on which religious Jews remember the Biblical creation of the heavens and the earth in six days and the Exodus of the Hebrews, and look forward to a future Messianic Age.
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Shaye J. D. Cohen (born October 21, 1948) is the Littauer Professor of Hebrew Literature and Philosophy in the Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations of Harvard University.
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Solomon Naumovich Rabinovich, better known under his pen name Sholem Aleichem (Yiddish and שלום־עליכם; Russian and Шоло́м-Але́йхем) (– May 13, 1916), was a leading Yiddish author and playwright.
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In 589 BC, Nebuchadnezzar II laid siege to Jerusalem, culminating in the destruction of the city and its temple in the summer of 587 BC.
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The Siege of Jerusalem in AD 70 was the decisive event of the First Jewish–Roman War.
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Simon Michael Schama, CBE (born 13 February 1945) is an English historian specialising in art history, Dutch history, and French history.
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The Society of Biblical Literature (SBL), founded in 1880 as the "Society of Biblical Literature and Exegesis," is a constituent society of the American Council of Learned Societies (since 1929), with the stated mission to "Foster Biblical Scholarship".
According to the Bible, Solomon's Temple, also known as the First Temple, was the Holy Temple (בֵּית־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ: Bet HaMikdash) in ancient Jerusalem, on the Temple Mount (also known as Mount Zion), before its destruction by Nebuchadnezzar II after the Siege of Jerusalem of 587 BCE.
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Most definitions of Southern Europe include the countries of the Iberian peninsula (Spain and Portugal), the Italian peninsula, France (only Southern France) and Greece.
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The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (a) abbreviated to USSR (r) or shortened to the Soviet Union (p), was a Marxist–Leninist state on the Eurasian continent that existed between 1922 and 1991.
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Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state located on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe.
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The Tribunal of the Holy Office of the Inquisition (Tribunal del Santo Oficio de la Inquisición), commonly known as the Spanish Inquisition (Inquisición española), was established in 1478 by Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile.
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Spanish (español), also called Castilian, is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native-speakers.
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The Statute of Jewry was a statute issued by Henry III of England in 1253.
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Storrs is a village and census-designated place (CDP) in the town of Mansfield within eastern Tolland County, Connecticut, United States.
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SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".
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The Supreme Court of Israel (בית המשפט העליון, Beit HaMishpat HaElyon) is the highest court in Israel.
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Syrian Jews (יהודי סוריה, اليهود السوريون) are Jews who lived in the region of the modern state of Syria, and their descendants born outside Syria.
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Tajik may refer to.
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Tajikistan (or; Тоҷикистон), officially the Republic of Tajikistan (Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон, Çumhuriji Toçikiston/Jumhuriyi Tojikiston; جمهوری تاجیکستان; Респу́блика Таджикистан, Respublika Tadzhikistan), is a mountainous landlocked sovereign country in Central Asia.
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The Talmud (Hebrew: talmūd "instruction, learning", from a root lmd "teach, study") is a central text of Rabbinic Judaism.
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The Tanakh (תַּנַ"ךְ, or; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach) or Mikra is the canon of the Hebrew Bible.
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The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (AHD) is an American dictionary of English published by Boston publisher Houghton Mifflin, the first edition of which appeared in 1969.
The Exodus (from Greek ἔξοδος exodos, "going out") is the founding myth of Israel; its message is that the Israelites were delivered from slavery by Yahweh and therefore belong to him through the Mosaic covenant.
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The Forward (פֿאָרווערטס; Forverts), also called The Jewish Daily Forward, is an American newspaper published in New York City for a Jewish-American audience.
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The Holocaust (from the Greek ὁλόκαυστος holókaustos: hólos, "whole" and kaustós, "burnt"), also known as the Shoah (Hebrew: השואה, HaShoah, "the catastrophe"), was a genocide in which approximately six million Jews were killed by Adolf Hitler's Nazi regime and its collaborators.
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The Jewish Mind is a non-fiction cultural psychology book by cultural anthropologist Raphael Patai.
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The New York Times (NYT) is an American daily newspaper, founded and continuously published in New York City since September 18, 1851, by the New York Times Company.
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Tomás de Torquemada (Thomas of Torquemada), O.P. (1420 – September 16, 1498) was a Spanish Dominican friar and the first Grand Inquisitor in Spain's movement to force Roman Catholicism upon its populace in the late 15th century, otherwise known as "The Spanish Inquisition".
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Torah (תּוֹרָה, "Instruction, Teaching"), or the Pentateuch, is the central reference of the religious Judaic tradition.
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According to the Torah the Tribe of Benjamin (in the Samaritan Pentateuch the name appears as "Binyamīm") was one of the Tribes of Israel.
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According to the Hebrew Bible, the Tribe of Judah was one of the twelve Tribes of Israel.
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The Tribe of Levi was one of the tribes of Israel, traditionally descended from Levi, son of Jacob, the patriarch of the Israelites.
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According to the Hebrew Bible, the Tribe of Simeon was one of the Tribes of Israel.
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Tsar (Old Church Slavonic: ц︢рь (usually written thus with a tilde) or цар, цaрь; also Czar or Tzar in Latin alphabet languages) is a title used to designate certain European Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers.
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Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Turkish), is a parliamentary republic in Eurasia, largely located in Western Asia, with the smaller portion of Eastern Thrace in Southeast Europe.
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Ukraine (Україна, tr. Ukraina) is a country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast, Belarus to the northwest, Poland and Slovakia to the west, Hungary, Romania, and Moldova to the southwest, and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
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The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a sovereign state in Europe.
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The United States of America (USA), commonly referred to as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major territories and various possessions.
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Ur (Sumerian: Urim; Sumerian Cuneiform: KI or URIM5KI; Akkadian: Uru; أور) was an important Sumerian city-state in ancient Mesopotamia, located at the site of modern Tell el-Muqayyar (تل المقير) in south Iraq's Dhi Qar Governorate.
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Ur Kaśdim (’Ūr Ḵaśdîm), commonly translated as Ur of the Chaldees, is a city mentioned in the Book of Genesis as the birthplace of the Patriarch Abraham.
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Uruguay, officially the Eastern Republic of Uruguay (República Oriental del Uruguay), is a country in the southeastern region of South America.
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Venezuela, officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela), is a federal republic located on the northern coast of South America.
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A vernacular or vernacular language is the native language or native dialect of a specific population, especially as distinguished from a literary, national or standard language, or a lingua franca used in the region or state inhabited by that population.
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In the study of language and literary style, a vulgarism is an expression or usage considered non-standard or characteristic of uneducated speech or writing.
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The Welfare Party (Refah Partisi, RP) was an Islamist political party in Turkey.
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Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
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"Who is a Jew?" (מיהו יהודי) is a basic question about Jewish identity and considerations of Jewish self-identification.
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The World Jewish Congress (WJC) was founded in Geneva, Switzerland, in August 1936 as an international federation of Jewish communities and organizations.
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World War II (WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, though related conflicts began earlier.
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The Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes (allosomes) in mammals, including humans, and many other animals.
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Yehud Medinata (Aramaic for "the province of Judah"), Yahud Medin'ta/Yahud Medinsa, or simply Yehud, was an autonomous province of the Persian Achaemenid Empire, roughly equivalent to the older kingdom of Judah but covering a smaller area, within the satrapy of Eber-Nari.
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The yellow badge (or yellow patch), also referred to as a Jewish badge (Judenstern, lit. Jews' star), was a cloth patch that Jews were ordered to sew on their outer garments to mark them as Jews in public at certain times in certain countries.
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Yemen (اليَمَن), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (الجمهورية اليمنية), is an Arab country in Southwest Asia, occupying the southwestern to southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
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Yemenite Jews (Yehudei teiman; اليهود اليمنيين) are those Jews who live, or once lived, in Yemen.
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Yerida (ירידה yerida, "descent") is a Hebrew term referring to emigration by Israeli Jews from the State of Israel.
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Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, literally "Jewish"; in older sources also "Yiddish-Taitsh" (Judaeo-German)) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.
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Ynetnews is the online English-language Israeli news website of Yedioth Ahronoth, Israel’s most-read newspaper, and the Hebrew news portal, Ynet.
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Zionism (צִיּוֹנוּת,, translit., after Zion) is a nationalist and political movement of Jews and Jewish culture that supports the re-establishment of a Jewish homeland in the territory defined as the historic Land of Israel (roughly corresponding to Palestine, Canaan or the Holy Land).
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JEWS, Jew, Jewes, Jewesses, Jewish, Jewish People, Jewish Race, Jewish ancestry, Jewish ethnicity, Jewish people, Jewish race, Jewry, Jews', Jews/infobox, Juden, Juifs, Juive, Juives, The Jewish Race, The jews, Yahood, Yehudim.