278 relations: Abbasid Caliphate, Abd al-Aziz ibn Baz, Abd al-Rahman al-Awza'i, Abdullah Yusuf Azzam, Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, Abu Sayyaf, Abul A'la Maududi, Aceh War, Afghan Civil War (1989–1992), Ahmadiyya, Al-Ghazali, Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi, Al-Mawrid, Al-Mufaddal, Al-Nawawi, Al-Nusra Front, Al-Qaeda, Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula, Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb, Al-Qaeda insurgency in Yemen, Al-Shabaab (militant group), Algerian Civil War, Ali as Caliph, Allah, Ancillaries of the Faith, Anwar Sadat, Apostasy, Arab Mujahideen in Chechnya, Arabian Peninsula, Arabic, Ashura, Ayatollah, Ayman al-Zawahiri, Bahá'í Faith, Basmachi movement, Bedouin, Benjamin Barber, Bernard Lewis, Bid‘ah, Boko Haram, Boko Haram insurgency, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnian mujahideen, Bosnian War, Byzantine Empire, Casus belli, Caucasian War, Central Asia, Chris Stout (psychologist), Crusades, ..., David Cook (historian), Dervish state, Devil, Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic, Edinburgh University Press, Egyptian Islamic Jihad, Eritrea, Factional violence in Libya (2011–14), Fasting in Islam, Fatwa, Fazlur Rahman Malik, Feminism, Fiqh, First Chechen War, First Intifada, Fitna (word), Five Pillars of Islam, Freedom of religion, Fula jihads, Gallup (company), Gaza–Israel conflict, Georgetown University Press, Gibril Haddad, Google Books, Greenwood Publishing Group, Habib Bourguiba, Hadith, Hajj, Hamas, Hamilton Alexander Rosskeen Gibb, Hanafi, Hanbali, Hassan al-Banna, History of Islam, History of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Hizb ut-Tahrir, Husayn ibn Ali, Ibn Hajar al-`Asqalani, Ibn Nuhaas, Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya, Ibn Taymiyyah, Ihsan, Ijtihad, Imamah (Shia), Iman (concept), Indonesia, Insurgency in Balochistan, Insurgency in Egypt (2013–present), Insurgency in Northeast India, Insurgency in the Maghreb (2002–present), Insurgency in the North Caucasus, International propagation of Salafism and Wahhabism, Iran–Iraq War, Iranian Revolution, Iraqi insurgency (2003–11), ISIL insurgency in Tunisia, Islam and war, Islam in Indonesia, Islamic fundamentalism, Islamic Golden Age, Islamic Jihad Movement in Palestine, Islamic Jihad of Yemen, Islamic Jihad Organization, Islamic Military Counter Terrorism Coalition, Islamic military jurisprudence, Islamic Modernism, Islamic revival, Islamic state, Islamic State of Iraq, Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, Islamic terrorism, Islamic terrorism in Europe (2014–present), Islamic Unity of Afghanistan Mujahideen, Islamism, Israel, Italo-Turkish War, Ja'far al-Sadiq, Jabir ibn Abd Allah, Jahannam, Jannah, Java War, Javed Ahmad Ghamidi, Jerusalem, Jihad, Jihad satire, Johannesburg, John Esposito, John Kelsay, Jonathan Berkey, José Padilla (prisoner), Josef W. Meri, Judith Miller, Jundallah (Iran), Jundallah (Pakistan), Just war theory, Karen Armstrong, Kashmir, Kashmir conflict, Khaled Abou El Fadl, Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, Khawarij, Lashkar-e-Taiba, Laskar Jihad, Lawrence Wright, Libyan Civil War (2014–present), List of expeditions of Muhammad, Londonistan: How Britain is Creating a Terror State Within, Mahmoud M. Ayoub, Majid Khadduri, Maktab al-Khidamat, Malik ibn Anas, Masood Ashraf Raja, Maxime Rodinson, Meccan surah, Medinan surah, Milestones (book), Milkhemet Mitzvah, Mizan, Modern Standard Arabic, Mohammad Hashim Kamali, Mohammed Badie, Moro conflict, Moro Rebellion, Muhammad, Muhammad abd-al-Salam Faraj, Muhammad Abdel-Haleem, Muhammad Abduh, Muhammad Ahmad, Muhammad al-Munawi, Muhammad al-Shaybani, Muhammad Fuad Abdul Baqi, Mujahideen, Muslim Brotherhood, Muslim United Liberation Tigers of Assam, Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, Naskh (tafsir), Natana J. DeLong-Bas, Northern Mali conflict, Occultation, Oneworld Publications, Operation Cyclone, Osama bin Laden, Ottoman Empire, Oxford University Press, Padri War, Pakistan, Persecution of Muslims, Persian language, Petro-Islam, Philippines, Post-Soviet states, Prince Ghazi bin Muhammad, Quilliam (think tank), Quran, Quranism, Rashid Rida, Rashidun Caliphate, Religious war, Reuven Firestone, Routledge, Rudolph F. Peters, Rudolph Peters, Ruhollah Khomeini, Sahabah, Sahih al-Bukhari, Sahih Muslim, Salafi jihadism, Salafi movement, Salah, Sasanian Empire, Saudi–Yemeni border conflict (2015–present), Sayyid Qutb, Sebastian Gorka, Secularism, Senussi, September 11 attacks, Sexual jihad, Shahid, Sharia, Shia Islam, Shura Council of Benghazi Revolutionaries, Siege of Baghdad (1258), Sinai insurgency, Sistan and Baluchestan insurgency, Sokoto Caliphate, Somali Civil War, Somalia, South Thailand insurgency, Soviet–Afghan War, Spain, Srđa Trifković, Sudan, Sufism, Sufyan al-Thawri, Sunni Islam, Syrian Civil War, Syrian Civil War spillover in Lebanon, Ta'zieh, Taliban, Terrorism in Bangladesh, The Atlantic, The British Government and Jihad, The Crisis of Islam, The Guardian, The Looming Tower, The National (Abu Dhabi), Tunisia, Turkistan Islamic Party, Twelver, Ulama, Umayyad Caliphate, Understanding Islam through Hadis, United States Department of Justice, University of California Press, University of Chicago Press, Urdu, W. Montgomery Watt, Wahhabism, Walter de Gruyter, War in Afghanistan (1978–present), War in North-West Pakistan, West Africa, Xinjiang conflict, Yasser Arafat, Zaid Shakir, 1983 Beirut barracks bombings, 1983 United States embassy bombing. Expand index (228 more) » « Shrink index
The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Abdul Aziz bin Abdullah bin Baz (عبد العزيز بن عبد الله بن باز) (November 21, 1910 – May 13, 1999), was a Saudi Arabian Islamic scholar and a leading proponent of the Wahhabi form of Islam.
For further information on the Awza'i madhhab see Awza'i. Abu Amr Abd al-Rahman ibn Amr al-Awzai (أبو عمرو عبدُ الرحمٰن بن عمرو الأوزاعي) (707–774) was the chief representative and eponym of the Awzai school of Islamic jurisprudence.
Abdullah Yusuf Azzam (عبد الله يوسف عزام, ‘Abdu’llāh Yūsuf ‘Azzām; 194124 November 1989) also known as Father of Global Jihad was a Palestinian Sunni Islamic scholar and theologian and founding member of Al-Qaeda.
Abu Musab al-Zarqawi (أبو مصعب الزرقاوي,, Abu Musab from Zarqa;; October 20, 1966 – June 7, 2006), born Ahmad Fadeel al-Nazal al-Khalayleh (أحمد فضيل النزال الخلايلة), was a Jordanian jihadist who ran a paramilitary training camp in Afghanistan.
Abu Sayyaf (جماعة أبو سياف;, ASG; Grupong Abu Sayyaf), unofficially known as the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant – Philippines Province, is a Jihadist militant and pirate group that follows the Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam based in and around Jolo and Basilan islands in the southwestern part of the Philippines, where for more than four decades, Moro groups have been engaged in an insurgency for an independent province in the country.
Syed Abul A'la Maududi Chishti (ابو الاعلی مودودی – alternative spellings of last name Maudoodi, Mawdudi, also known as Abul Ala Maududi; –) was a Muslim philosopher, jurist, journalist and imam.
The Aceh War, also known as the Dutch War or the Infidel War (1873–1904), was an armed military conflict between the Sultanate of Aceh and the Kingdom of the Netherlands which was triggered by discussions between representatives of Aceh and the United States in Singapore during early 1873.
This article covers the Afghan history from the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan on 15 February 1989 until 27 April 1992, the day after the proclamation of the Peshawar Accords proclaiming a new interim Afghan government which was supposed to start serving on 28 April 1992.
Ahmadiyya (officially, the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community or the Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama'at; الجماعة الإسلامية الأحمدية, transliterated: al-Jamā'ah al-Islāmiyyah al-Aḥmadiyyah; احمدیہ مسلم جماعت) is an Islamic religious movement founded in Punjab, British India, in the late 19th century.
Al-Ghazali (full name Abū Ḥāmid Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad al-Ghazālī أبو حامد محمد بن محمد الغزالي; latinized Algazelus or Algazel, – 19 December 1111) was one of the most prominent and influential philosophers, theologians, jurists, and mysticsLudwig W. Adamec (2009), Historical Dictionary of Islam, p.109.
Abu Bakr Ahmad ibn `Ali ibn Thabit ibn Ahmad ibn Mahdi al-Shafi`i, commonly known as al-Khatib al-Baghdadi (الخطيب البغدادي) or "the lecturer from Baghdad" (10 May 1002 – 5 September 1071; 392 AH-463 AH), was a Sunni Muslim scholar and historian.
Al-Mawrid is an Islamic research institute in Lahore, Pakistan founded in 1983 and then re-established in 1991.
Al-Mufaddal bin Muhammad bin Ya'la bin 'Amir bin Salim bin ar-Rammal ad-Dabbi, commonly known as Al-Mufaḍḍal al-Ḍabbī (المُفَضَّل الضَّبِي), was an Arabic philologist of the Kufan school.
Abu Zakaria Yahya Ibn Sharaf al-Nawawī (أبو زكريا يحيى بن شرف النووي;‎ 1233–1277), popularly known as al-Nawawī or Imam Nawawī (631–676 A.H./1234–1277), was an influential Sunni Shafi'ite jurist and hadith scholar.
Al-Nusra Front or Jabhat al-Nusra (جبهة النصرة.), known as Jabhat Fateh al-Sham (جبهة فتح الشام, transliteration: Jabhat Fataḥ al-Šām) after July 2016, and also described as al-Qaeda in Syria or al-Qaeda in the Levant, was a Salafist jihadist organization fighting against Syrian government forces in the Syrian Civil War.
Al-Qaeda (القاعدة,, translation: "The Base", "The Foundation" or "The Fundament" and alternatively spelled al-Qaida, al-Qæda and sometimes al-Qa'ida) is a militant Sunni Islamist multi-national organization founded in 1988.
Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (lit or, Tanẓīm Qā‘idat al-Jihād fī Jazīrat al-‘Arab, "Organization of Jihad's Base in the Arabian Peninsula"), or AQAP, also known as Ansar al-Sharia in Yemen (جماعة أنصار الشريعة, Jamā‘at Anṣār ash-Sharī‘ah, "Group of the Helpers of the Sharia"), is a militant Islamist organization, primarily active in Yemen and Saudi Arabia.
Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (Tanẓīm al-Qā‘idah fī Bilād al-Maghrib al-Islāmī), or AQIM, is an Islamist militant organization (of al-Qaeda) which aims to overthrow the Algerian government and institute an Islamic state.
The al-Qaeda insurgency in Yemen refers to the armed conflict between the Yemeni government with United States assistance, and al-Qaeda-affiliated cells.
Harakat al-Shabaab al-Mujahideen (HSM; حركة الشباب المجاهدين,; Xarakada Mujaahidiinta Alshabaab, lit. "Mujahideen Youth Movement" or "Movement of Striving Youth"), more commonly known as al-Shabaab (lit), is a jihadist fundamentalist group based in East Africa.
The Algerian Civil War was an armed conflict between the Algerian Government and various Islamic rebel groups which began in 1991 following a coup negating an Islamist electoral victory.
Ali was the caliph between 656 and 661 CE, one of the hardest periods in Muslim history, coinciding with the first Muslim civil war.
Allah (translit) is the Arabic word for God in Abrahamic religions.
In Twelver Shia Islam, the ten Ancillaries of the Faith (Arabic: فروع الدين / furūʿ ad-dīn) are the ten practices that Shia Muslims must perform.
Muhammad Anwar el-Sadat (محمد أنور السادات, Egyptian muħæmmæd ˈʔɑnwɑɾ essæˈdæːt; 25 December 1918 – 6 October 1981) was the third President of Egypt, serving from 15 October 1970 until his assassination by fundamentalist army officers on 6 October 1981.
Apostasy (ἀποστασία apostasia, "a defection or revolt") is the formal disaffiliation from, or abandonment or renunciation of a religion by a person.
The Arab Mujahideen in Chechnya (المجاهدين العرب في الشيشان, Al-Mujahidin Al-'Arab fi Al-Shishan; Арабские моджахеды в Чечне, Arabskiye Muzhakhady v Chechnye) was an international unit of terrorist Islamist Mujahideen that fought in Chechnya and other parts of the North Caucasus.
The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Ashura (عاشوراء, colloquially:; عاشورا; عاشورا; Azerbaijani and Turkish: Aşura Günü or Day of Remembrance), and in Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago 'Hussay' or Hosay, is the tenth day of Muharram in the Islamic calendar.
Ayatullah (or; āyatullāh from llāh "Sign of God") is a high-ranking title given to Usuli Twelver Shī‘ah clerics.
Ayman Mohammed Rabie al-Zawahiri (أيمن محمد ربيع الظواهري, born June 19, 1951) is the current leader of Al-Qaeda and a current or former member and senior official of Islamist organizations which have orchestrated and carried out attacks in North America, Asia, Africa, and the Middle East.
The Bahá'í Faith (بهائی) is a religion teaching the essential worth of all religions, and the unity and equality of all people.
The Basmachi movement (Басмачество, Basmachestvo) or Basmachi Revolt was an uprising against Russian Imperial and Soviet rule by the Muslim peoples of Central Asia.
The Bedouin (badawī) are a grouping of nomadic Arab peoples who have historically inhabited the desert regions in North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq and the Levant.
Benjamin R. Barber (August 2, 1939 – April 24, 2017) was an American political theorist and author, perhaps best known for his 1995 bestseller, Jihad vs. McWorld, and for 2013's If Mayors Ruled the World as well as the classic of democratic theory, 1984's Strong Democracy (revised in 2004).
Bernard Lewis, FBA (31 May 1916 – 19 May 2018) was a British American historian specializing in oriental studies.
In Islam, bid‘ah (بدعة; innovation) refers to innovation in religious matters.
The Islamic State in West Africa (abbreviated as ISWA or ISWAP), formerly known as Jamā'at Ahl as-Sunnah lid-Da'wah wa'l-Jihād (جماعة أهل السنة للدعوة والجهاد, "Group of the People of Sunnah for Preaching and Jihad") and commonly known as Boko Haram until March 2015, is a jihadist militant organization based in northeastern Nigeria, also active in Chad, Niger and northern Cameroon.
The Boko Haram insurgency began in 2009, when the jihadist rebel group Boko Haram started an armed rebellion against the government of Nigeria.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.
Bosnian mujahideen (Bosanski mudžahedini), also called El Mudžahid (from مجاهد, mujāhid), were foreign Muslim volunteers who fought on the Bosniak (Bosnian Muslim) side during the 1992–95 Bosnian War.
The Bosnian War was an international armed conflict that took place in Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1992 and 1995.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Casus belli is a Latin expression meaning "an act or event that provokes or is used to justify war" (literally, "a case of war").
The Caucasian War (Кавказская война; Kavkazskaya vojna) of 1817–1864 was an invasion of the Caucasus by the Russian Empire which resulted in Russia's annexation of the areas of the North Caucasus, and the ethnic cleansing of Circassians.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
Dr Chris E Stout is a licensed clinical psychologist who has a varied background in multiple domains.
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
David Cook is an American historian and Professor of the history of Islam at Rice University.
The Dervish state (Dawlada Daraawiish, دولة الدراويش Dawlat ad-Darāwīsh) was an early 20th-century Somali Muslim kingdom.
A devil (from Greek: διάβολος diábolos "slanderer, accuser") is the personification and archetype of evil in various cultures.
The Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic is an Arabic-English dictionary compiled by Hans Wehr and edited by J Milton Cowan.
Edinburgh University Press is a scholarly publisher of academic books and journals, based in Edinburgh, Scotland.
The Egyptian Islamic Jihad (الجهاد الإسلامي المصري) (EIJ), formerly called simply Islamic Jihad (الجهاد الإسلامي and "Liberation Army for Holy Sites"), originally referred to as al-Jihad, and then the Jihad Group, or the Jihad Organization, is an Egyptian Islamist terrorist group active since the late 1970s.
Eritrea (ኤርትራ), officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in the Horn of Africa, with its capital at Asmara.
Since the end of the 2011 Libyan Civil War, which overthrew Muammar Gaddafi, there has been violence involving various militias and the new state security forces.
Fasting in Islam, known as Sawm (صَوْم) or Siyām (صِيَام), the Arabic words for fasting, also commonly known as Rūzeh or Rōzah (روزه) in some Muslim countries, is the practice of abstaining, usually from food and drink.
A fatwā (فتوى; plural fatāwā فتاوى.) in the Islamic faith is a nonbinding but authoritative legal opinion or learned interpretation that the Sheikhul Islam, a qualified jurist or mufti, can give on issues pertaining to the Islamic law.
Fazlur Rahman Malik (فضل الرحمان ملک) (September 21, 1919 – July 26, 1988), generally known as Fazlur Rahman, was a modernist scholar and philosopher of Islam from today's Pakistan.
Feminism is a range of political movements, ideologies, and social movements that share a common goal: to define, establish, and achieve political, economic, personal, and social equality of sexes.
Fiqh (فقه) is Islamic jurisprudence.
The First Chechen War (Пе́рвая чече́нская война́), also known as the First Chechen Сampaign (Пе́рвая чече́нская кампа́ния) or First Russian-Chechen war, was a rebellion by the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria against the Russian Federation, fought from December 1994 to August 1996.
The First Intifada or First Palestinian Intifada (also known simply as the intifada or intifadah) was a Palestinian uprising against the Israeli occupation of the West Bank and Gaza.
Fitna (or, pl.; فتنة, فتن: "temptation, trial; sedition, civil strife"Wehr (1976), p. 696.) is an Arabic word with extensive connotations of trial, affliction, or distress.
The Five Pillars of Islam (أركان الإسلام; also أركان الدين "pillars of the religion") are five basic acts in Islam, considered mandatory by believers and are the foundation of Muslim life.
Freedom of religion is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, to manifest religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance without government influence or intervention.
The Fula or Fulani jihads, were a series of independent but loosely connected events across Africa between the late 18th century and European colonisation, in which Muslim Fulas took control of various parts of the region.
Gallup, Inc. is an American research-based, global performance-management consulting company.
The Gaza–Israel conflict is a part of the wider Israeli–Palestinian conflict.
Georgetown University Press is a university press affiliated with Georgetown University that publishes about forty new books a year.
Gibril Fouad Haddad (born 1960) (جبريل فؤاد حداد) is a Lebanese-born Islamic scholar, hadith expert (muhaddith), author, and translator of classical Islamic texts.
Google Books (previously known as Google Book Search and Google Print and by its codename Project Ocean) is a service from Google Inc. that searches the full text of books and magazines that Google has scanned, converted to text using optical character recognition (OCR), and stored in its digital database.
ABC-CLIO/Greenwood is an educational and academic publisher (middle school through university level) which is today part of ABC-CLIO.
Habib Ben Ali Bourguiba (الحبيب بورقيبة al-Ḥabīb Būrqībah; 3 August 1903 – 6 April 2000) was a Tunisian lawyer, nationalist leader and statesman who served as the country's leader from independence in 1956 to 1987.
Ḥadīth (or; حديث, pl. Aḥādīth, أحاديث,, also "Traditions") in Islam refers to the record of the words, actions, and the silent approval, of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
The Hajj (حَجّ "pilgrimage") is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, the holiest city for Muslims, and a mandatory religious duty for Muslims that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by all adult Muslims who are physically and financially capable of undertaking the journey, and can support their family during their absence.
Hamas (Arabic: حماس Ḥamās, an acronym of حركة المقاومة الاسلامية Ḥarakat al-Muqāwamah al-ʾIslāmiyyah Islamic Resistance Movement) is a Palestinian Sunni-Islamist fundamentalist organization.
Sir Hamilton Alexander Rosskeen Gibb, FBA (2 January 1895 – 22 October 1971), known as H. A. R. Gibb, was a Scottish historian on Orientalism.
The Hanafi (حنفي) school is one of the four religious Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence (fiqh).
The Hanbali school (المذهب الحنبلي) is one of the four traditional Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence (fiqh).
Sheikh Hassan Ahmed Abdel Rahman Muhammed al-Banna (حسن أحمد عبد الرحمن محمد البنا; 14 October 1906 – 12 February 1949), known as Hassan al-Banna, was an Egyptian schoolteacher and imam, best known for founding the Muslim Brotherhood, one of the largest and most influential Islamic revivalist organizations.
The history of Islam concerns the political, social,economic and cultural developments of the Islamic civilization.
One of the most dramatic changes in government in Iran's history was seen with the 1979 Iranian Revolution where Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi was overthrown and replaced by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini.
Hizb ut-Tahrir (حزب التحرير Ḥizb at-Taḥrīr; Party of Liberation) is an international, pan-Islamist political organization, which describes its ideology as Islam, and its aim as the re-establishment of the Islamic Khilafah (Caliphate) or Islamic state to resume the Islamic way of life.
Al-Ḥusayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (الحسين ابن علي ابن أبي طالب; 10 October 625 – 10 October 680) (3 Sha'aban AH 4 (in the ancient (intercalated) Arabic calendar) – 10 Muharram AH 61) (his name is also transliterated as Husayn ibn 'Alī, Husain, Hussain and Hussein), was a grandson of the Islamic ''Nabi'' (نَـبِي, Prophet) Muhammad, and son of Ali ibn Abi Talib (the first Shia Imam and the fourth Rashid caliph of Sunni Islam), and Muhammad's daughter, Fatimah.
Ibn Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī or Ibn Ḥajar (ابن حجر العسقلاني, full name: Shihāb al-Dīn Abu ’l-Faḍl Aḥmad b. Nūr al-Dīn ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī) (18 February 1372 – 2 February 1449), was a medieval Shafiite Sunni Muslim scholar of Islam "whose life work constitutes the final summation of the science of hadith." represents the entire realm of the Sunni world in the field of Hadith, also known as Shaykh al Islam.
Ahmad Ibrahim Muhammad al Dimashqi al Dumyati, commonly known as ibn Nuhaas, (-1411) was an Islamic scholar and a mujahid who was killed fighting the Roman army.
Shams al-Dīn Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad ibn Abī Bakr ibn Ayyūb al-Zurʿī l-Dimashqī l-Ḥanbalī (1292–1350 CE / 691 AH–751 AH), commonly known as Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya ("The son of the principal of Jawziyyah") or Ibn al-Qayyim ("Son of the principal"; ابن قيم الجوزية) for short, or reverentially as Imam Ibn al-Qayyim in Sunni tradition, was an important medieval Islamic jurisconsult, theologian, and spiritual writer.
Taqī ad-Dīn Ahmad ibn Taymiyyah (Arabic: تقي الدين أحمد ابن تيمية, January 22, 1263 - September 26, 1328), known as Ibn Taymiyyah for short, was a controversial medieval Sunni Muslim theologian, jurisconsult, logician, and reformer.
Ihsan (إحسان ʾiḥsān, also Romanized ehsan), is an Arabic term meaning "perfection" or "excellence" (Ara. husn).
Ijtihad (اجتهاد, lit. effort, physical or mental, expended in a particular activity) is an Islamic legal term referring to independent reasoning or the thorough exertion of a jurist's mental faculty in finding a solution to a legal question.
In Shia Islam, the imamah (إمامة) is the doctrine that the figures known as imams are rightfully the central figures of the ummah; the entire Shi'ite system of doctrine focuses on the imamah.
Iman (إِيمَان ʾīmān, lit. faith or belief) in Islamic theology denotes a believer's faith in the metaphysical aspects of Islam.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
The insurgency in Balochistan is a guerrilla war waged by Baloch nationalists against the governments of Pakistan and Iran in the Balochistan region, which covers Balochistan Province in southwestern Pakistan, Sistan and Baluchestan Province in southeastern Iran, and the Balochistan region of southern Afghanistan.
In July 2013, at the same time as mass protests began against the 3 July coup d'état which deposed Mohamed Morsi, and in parallel with the escalation of the already ongoing jihadist insurgency in the Sinai Peninsula, pro-Muslim Brotherhood militants started violent attacks against policemen and soldiers in Central and Western Egypt.
Insurgency in Northeast India involves multiple armed factions operating in India's northeastern states, which are connected to the rest of India by the Siliguri Corridor, a strip of land as narrow as wide.
The Insurgency in the Maghreb refers to Islamist militant and terrorist activity in the Maghreb and Sahel regions of North Africa since 2002.
The insurgency in the North Caucasus is a currently low-level armed conflict between Russia and militants associated with the Caucasus Emirate and, since June 2015, Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) groups.
Starting in the mid-1970s and 1980s, conservative/strict/puritanical interpretations of Sunni Islam favored by the conservative oil-exporting Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, (and to a lesser extent by other Gulf monarchies) have achieved what political scientist Gilles Kepel calls a "preeminent position of strength in the global expression of Islam." The interpretations included not only "Wahhabi" Islam of Saudi Arabia, but Islamist/revivalist Islam, and a "hybrid" of the two interpretations.
The Iran–Iraq War was an armed conflict between Iran and Iraq, beginning on 22 September 1980, when Iraq invaded Iran, and ending on 20 August 1988, when Iran accepted the UN-brokered ceasefire.
The Iranian Revolution (Enqelāb-e Iran; also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution), Iran Chamber.
An insurgency began in Iraq after the 2003 US-led invasion, and lasted throughout the ensuing Iraq War (2003–2011).
The ISIL insurgency in Tunisia refers to the ongoing militant and terror activity of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant branch in Tunisia.
From the time of the Muhammad, the final prophet of Islam, many Muslim states and empires have been involved in warfare.
Islam is the most adhered to religion in Indonesia, with 87.2% of Indonesian population identifying themselves as Muslim in 2010 estimate.
Islamic fundamentalism has been defined as a movement of Muslims who think back to earlier times and seek to return to the fundamentals of the religion and live similarly to how the prophet Muhammad and his companions lived.
The Islamic Golden Age is the era in the history of Islam, traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 14th century, during which much of the historically Islamic world was ruled by various caliphates, and science, economic development and cultural works flourished.
The Islamic Jihad Movement in Palestine (حركة الجهاد الإسلامي في فلسطين, Harakat al-Jihād al-Islāmi fi Filastīn) known in the West as simply Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ), is a Palestinian Islamist terrorist organization formed in 1981 whose objective is the destruction of the State of Israel and the establishment of a sovereign, Islamic Palestinian state.
The Islamic Jihad of Yemen (الجهاد الإسلامي في اليمن) was an al-Qaeda terrorist affiliate that claimed responsibility for the 2008 American Embassy attack in Yemen.
The Islamic Jihad Organization – IJO (حركة الجهاد الإسلامي., Harakat al-Jihad al-Islami) or Organisation du Jihad Islamique (OJI) in French, but best known as "Islamic Jihad" (Arabic: Jihad al-Islami) for short, was a Shia militia known for its activities in the 1980s during the Lebanese Civil War.
The Islamic Military Counter Terrorism Coalition (IMCTC), and also formerly referred to as the Islamic Military Alliance to Fight Terrorism (IMAFT), is an intergovernmental counter-terrorist alliance of countries in the Muslim world, united around military intervention against ISIL and other counter-terrorist activities.
Islamic military jurisprudence refers to what has been accepted in Sharia (Islamic law) and Fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence) by Ulama (Islamic scholars) as the correct Islamic manner which is expected to be obeyed by Muslims in times of war.
Islamic Modernism, also sometimes referred to as Modernist Salafism, is a movement that has been described as "the first Muslim ideological response" attempting to reconcile Islamic faith with modern Western values such as nationalism, democracy, civil rights, rationality, equality, and progress.
Islamic revival (تجديد, lit. "regeneration, renewal"; also الصحوة الإسلامية, "Islamic awakening") refers to a revival of the Islamic religion.
An Islamic state (دولة إسلامية, dawlah islāmiyyah) is a type of government primarily based on the application of shari'a (Islamic law), dispensation of justice, maintenance of law and order.
The Islamic State of Iraq (ISI; دولة العراق الإسلامية) (commonly referred to as al-Qaeda in Iraq) was a militant Salafist jihadist group that aimed to establish an Islamic state in Sunni, Arab-majority areas of Iraq during the Iraq War and later in Syria during the Syrian Civil War.
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria or Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS), Islamic State (IS) and by its Arabic language acronym Daesh (داعش dāʿish), is a Salafi jihadist terrorist organisation and former unrecognised proto-state that follows a fundamentalist, Salafi/Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam.
Islamic terrorism, Islamist terrorism or radical Islamic terrorism is defined as any terrorist act, set of acts or campaign committed by groups or individuals who profess Islamic or Islamist motivations or goals.
Since 2014, Islamic terrorist attacks in Europe have variously been carried out by ISIL operatives, operatives of Al-Qaeda, and lone wolves.
The Islamic Unity of Afghanistan Mujahideen, also known as the Seven Party Mujahideen Alliance or Peshawar Seven, was an Afghan alliance formed in either 1981 or 1985 (see Alliance Formation below) by the seven Afghan mujahideen parties fighting against the Soviet-backed Democratic Republic of Afghanistan forces in the Soviet-Afghan War.
Islamism is a concept whose meaning has been debated in both public and academic contexts.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
The Italo-Turkish or Turco-Italian War (Trablusgarp Savaşı, "Tripolitanian War"; also known in Italy as Guerra di Libia, "Libyan War") was fought between the Kingdom of Italy and the Ottoman Empire from September 29, 1911, to October 18, 1912.
Jaʿfar ibn Muḥammad al-Ṣādiq (جعفر بن محمد الصادق; 700 or 702–765 C.E.), commonly known as Jaʿfar al-Sadiq or simply al-Sadiq (The Truthful), was the sixth Shia Imam and a major figure in the Hanafi and Maliki schools of Sunni jurisprudence.
Jabir ibn ʿAbdullah ibn ʾAmr ibn Haram al-Ansari (جابر بن عبدالله بن عمرو بن حرام الأنصاري, died 697 CE/78 AH) was a prominent companion of Muhammad.
Jahannam (جهنم (etymologically related to Hebrew גיהנום. Gehennom and Greek: γέεννα) refers to an afterlife place of punishment for evildoers. The punishments are carried in accordance with the degree of evil one has done during his life. In Quran, Jahannam is also referred as al-Nar ("The Fire"), Jaheem ("Blazing Fire"), Hatamah ("That which Breaks to Pieces"), Haawiyah ("The Abyss"), Ladthaa, Sa’eer ("The Blaze"), Saqar. and also the names of different gates to hell. Suffering in hell is both physical and spiritual, and varies according to the sins of the condemned. As described in the Quran, Hell has seven levels (each one more severe than the one above it); seven gates (each for a specific group of sinners); a blazing fire, boiling water, and the Tree of Zaqqum. Not all Muslims and scholars agree whether hell is an eternal destination or whether some or even all of the condemned will eventually be forgiven and allowed to enter paradise.
Jannah (جنّة; plural: Jannat), lit.
The Java War or Diponegoro War was fought in central Java from 1825 to 1830, between the colonial Dutch Empire and native Javanese rebels.
Javed Ahmad Ghamidi (جاوید احمد غامدی) (born 1952) is a Pakistani Islamic modernist theologist Quran scholar and exegete, and educationist.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
Jihad (جهاد) is an Arabic word which literally means striving or struggling, especially with a praiseworthy aim.
A Jihad satire is a political satire that satirizes the idea of violent jihad.
Johannesburg (also known as Jozi, Joburg and Egoli) is the largest city in South Africa and is one of the 50 largest urban areas in the world.
John Louis Esposito (born May 19, 1940) is University Professor, Professor of Religion & International Affairs and Islamic Studies at Georgetown University in Washington, D.C. He was also the Founding Director of the Prince Alwaleed Center for Muslim–Christian Understanding at Georgetown.
John Kelsay is an author and a Research Professor and Richard L. Rubenstein Professor of Religion at Florida State University.
Jonathan Porter Berkey is a historian specializing in Islam and the Middle East.
José Padilla (born October 18, 1970), also known as Abdullah al-Muhajir or Muhajir Abdullah, is a United States citizen from Brooklyn, New York, who was convicted in federal court of aiding terrorists.
Josef (Yousef) Waleed Meri (يوسف وليد مرعي Yūsuf Walīd Marʿī) is an academic who specializes in the history of interfaith relations in the Middle East in past and present, medieval Islamic history and civilization, social history, and the history of the Jewish communities of the Middle East.
Judith Miller (born January 2, 1948) is an American journalist and commentator.
Jundallah (lit), also known as People's Resistance Movement of Iran (PRMI), is a Sunni militant organization based in Sistan and Baluchestan, a southeastern region of Iran, that claims to be fighting for "equal rights of Sunni Muslims in Iran".
Jundallah (جندالله, lit. "Soldiers of God") is a militant group associated with the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (TTP).
Just war theory (Latin: jus bellum iustum) is a doctrine, also referred to as a tradition, of military ethics studied by military leaders, theologians, ethicists and policy makers.
Karen Armstrong, (born 14 November 1944) is a British author and commentator of Irish Catholic descent known for her books on comparative religion.
Kashmir is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent.
The Kashmir conflict is a territorial conflict primarily between India and Pakistan, having started just after the partition of India in 1947.
Khaled Abou el Fadl (خالد أبو الفضل) (born 1963 in Kuwait) is the Omar and Azmeralda Alfi Distinguished Professor of Law at the UCLA School of Law where he has taught courses on International Human Rights, Islamic jurisprudence, National Security Law, Law and Terrorism, Islam and Human Rights, Political Asylum, and Political Crimes and Legal Systems.
Khalid Sheikh Mohammed (sometimes also spelled Khalid Shaikh Mohammed; among at least fifty pseudonyms; born April 14, 1965) is a Pakistani Islamist militant held by the United States at the Guantanamo Bay detention camp under terrorism-related charges.
The Khawarij (الخوارج, al-Khawārij, singular خارجي, khāriji), Kharijites, or the ash-Shurah (ash-Shurāh "the Exchangers") are members of a school of thought, that appeared in the first century of Islam during the First Fitna, the crisis of leadership after the death of Muhammad.
Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT, لشکر طیبہ; literally Army of the Good, translated as Army of the Righteous, or Army of the Pure and alternatively spelled as Lashkar-e-Tayyiba, Lashkar-e-Toiba; Lashkar-e-Taiba; Lashkar-i-Tayyeba) is one of the largest and most active Islamic terrorism militant organizations in South Asia, operating mainly from Pakistan.
Laskar Jihad (Indonesian: Warriors of Jihad), was an Islamist and anti-Christian Indonesian militia, which was founded and led by Jafar Umar Thalib.
Lawrence Wright (born August 2, 1947) is an American author, screenwriter, staff writer for The New Yorker magazine, and fellow at the Center for Law and Security at the New York University School of Law.
The second Libyan Civil War is an ongoing conflict among rival factions seeking control of the territory and oil of Libya.
The list of expeditions of Muhammad includes the expeditions undertaken by the Muslim community during the lifetime of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Londonistan: How Britain is Creating a Terror State Within is a 2006 best-selling book by the British journalist Melanie Phillips about the spread of Islamism in the United Kingdom over the previous twenty years.
Mahmoud M. Ayoub is a Lebanese scholar and professor of religious and inter-faith studies.
Majid Khadduri (Arabic: مجيد خدوري) (September 27, 1909 – January 25, 2007) was an Iraqi–born academic.
The Maktab al-Khidamat, also Maktab Khadamāt al-Mujāhidīn al-'Arab (Arabic: مكتب الخدمات or مكتب خدمات المجاهدين العرب, MAK), also known as the Afghan Services Bureau, was founded in 1984 by Abdullah Azzam, Osama bin Laden and Ayman al-Zawahiri to raise funds and recruit foreign mujahidin for the war against the Soviets in Afghanistan.
Mālik b. Anas b. Mālik b. Abī ʿĀmir b. ʿAmr b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲ b. G̲h̲aymān b. K̲h̲ut̲h̲ayn b. ʿAmr b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲ al-Aṣbaḥī, often referred to as Mālik ibn Anas (Arabic: مالك بن أنس‎; 711–795 CE / 93–179 AH) for short, or reverently as Imam Mālik by Sunni Muslims, was an Arab Muslim jurist, theologian, and hadith traditionist.
Masood Ashraf Raja (Urdu: مسعود اشرف راجہ) is an associate professor of postcolonial literature and theory at the University of North Texas.
Maxime Rodinson (26 January 1915, Paris – 23 May 2004, Marseilles) was a French Marxist historian, sociologist and orientalist.
The Meccan surahs are the chronologically earlier chapters (surahs) of the Qur'an that were, according to Islamic tradition, revealed anytime before the migration of the Islamic prophet Muhammed and his followers from Mecca to Medina (Hijra).
The Madaniy Surahs (Surah Madaniyyah) or Madaniy chapters of the Quran are the latest 24 Surahs that, according to Islamic tradition, were revealed at Medina after Muhammad's hijra from Mecca.
Ma'alim fi al-Tariq, also Ma'alim fi'l-tareeq, (ma‘ālim fī t-tarīq) or Milestones, first published in 1964, is a short book by Egyptian Islamist author Sayyid Qutb in which he lays out a plan and makes a call to action to re-create the Muslim world on strictly Quranic grounds, casting off what Qutb calls Jahiliyyah.
Milḥemet Mitzvah or in Biblical Hebrew Milḥemeth Miṣwah (Hebrew: מלחמת מצווה, "War by commandment") is the term for a war during the times of the Tanakh when a king (of the Kingdom of Israel) would go to war in order to fulfill something based on, and required by, the Torah without needing approval from a Sanhedrin, such as war against Amalek.
Mizan (balance; scale, ميزان) is a comprehensive treatise on the contents of Islam, written by Javed Ahmad Ghamidi, a Pakistani Islamic scholar.
Modern Standard Arabic (MSA; اللغة العربية الفصحى 'the most eloquent Arabic language'), Standard Arabic, or Literary Arabic is the standardized and literary variety of Arabic used in writing and in most formal speech throughout the Arab world to facilitate communication.
Mohammad Hashim Kamali (born February 7, 1944, Nangarhar Province, Afghanistan) is an Afghan Islamic scholar and former professor of law at the International Islamic University of Malaysia.
Mohammed Badie (محمد بديع,; born 7 August 1943) is the eighth Supreme Guide of the Muslim Brotherhood.
The Moro conflict is an insurgency in the Mindanao region of the Philippines.
The Moro Rebellion (1899–1913) was an armed conflict between the Moro people and the United States military during the Philippine-American War.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
Muhammad abd-al-Salam Faraj (1954-1982) was an Egyptian radical Islamist and theorist.
Muhammad A. S. Abdel Haleem,, is Professor of Islamic Studies at SOAS, University of LondonSOAS Staff: in London, England, and editor of the Journal of Qur'anic Studies.
Muḥammad 'Abduh (1849 – 11 July 1905) (also spelled Mohammed Abduh, محمد عبده) was an Egyptian Islamic jurist, religious scholar and liberal reformer, regarded as one of the key founding figures of Islamic Modernism, sometimes called Neo-Mu’tazilism after the medieval Islamic school of theology based on rationalism, Muʿtazila.
Muhammad Ahmad bin Abd Allah (محمد أحمد ابن عبد الله; 12 August 1844 – 22 June 1885) was a religious leader of the Samaniyya order in Sudan who, on 29 June 1881, proclaimed himself the Mahdi, the messianic redeemer of the Islamic faith.
ʿAbd al-Ra’ūf ibn Tāj al-ʿArifīn al-Munāwī (also al-Manawī; b. AH 952 / AD 1545; d. AH 1031 / AD 1621) was an Ottoman period Islamic scholar of Cairo, known for his works on the early history of Islam and the history of Sufism in Egypt.
Muḥammad ibn al-Ḥasan al-Shaybānī (محمد بن الحسن الشيباني; 749/50 – 805), the father of Muslim international law, was an Islamic jurist and a disciple of Abu Hanifa (later being the eponym of the Hanafi school of Islamic jurisprudence), Malik ibn Anas and Abu Yusuf.
Muḥammad Fu'ād ʿAbd al-Baqī (Mit Helfa, Qalyub, 1882 – Cairo, 1968) was a prolific Egyptian scholar of Islam, a poet and a translator from French and English.
Mujahideen (مجاهدين) is the plural form of mujahid (مجاهد), the term for one engaged in Jihad (literally, "holy war").
The Society of the Muslim Brothers (جماعة الإخوان المسلمين), better known as the Muslim Brotherhood (الإخوان المسلمون), is a transnational Sunni Islamist organization founded in Egypt by Islamic scholar and schoolteacher Hassan al-Banna in 1928.
Muslim United Liberation Tigers of Assam (MULTA) is an Islamist extremist organization founded around 1996 in the eastern Indian state of Assam.
Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal is a collection of Hadith collected by the Islamic scholar Ahmad ibn Hanbal, to whom the Hanbali fiqh (legislation) is attributed.
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (19 May 1881 (conventional) – 10 November 1938) was a Turkish army officer, revolutionary, and founder of the Republic of Turkey, serving as its first President from 1923 until his death in 1938.
Naskh (نسخ) is an Arabic word usually translated as "abrogation"; It is a term used in Islamic legal exegesis for seemingly contradictory material within, or between, the two primary sources of Islamic law: the Quran and the Sunna.
Natana J. DeLong-Bas is an American scholar and the author of a number of books on Islam, as well as "numerous book chapters and encyclopedia articles" on the subject of "Saudi Arabia, Wahhabism, Islamic thought and history, Islam and politics, and contemporary jihadism".
The Northern Mali Conflict, Mali Civil War, or Mali War refers to armed conflicts that started from January 2012 between the northern and southern parts of Mali in Africa.
An occultation is an event that occurs when one object is hidden by another object that passes between it and the observer.
Oneworld Publications is a British independent publishing firm founded in 1986 by Novin Doostdar and Juliet Mabey originally to publish accessible non-fiction by experts and academics for the general market.
Operation Cyclone was the code name for the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) program to arm and finance the mujahideen, in Afghanistan from 1979 to 1989, prior to and during the military intervention by the USSR in support of its client, the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan.
Usama ibn Mohammed ibn Awad ibn Ladin (أسامة بن محمد بن عوض بن لادن), often anglicized as Osama bin Laden (March 10, 1957 – May 2, 2011), was a founder of, the organization responsible for the September 11 attacks in the United States and many other mass-casualty attacks worldwide.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
The Padri War (also called the Minangkabau War) was fought from 1803 until 1837 in West Sumatra, Indonesia between the Padris and the Adats.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
Persecution of Muslims is the religious persecution inflicted upon followers of Islamic faith.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Petro-Islam usually refers to the extremist and fundamentalist interpretation of Sunni Islam—sometimes called "Wahhabism"—favored by the conservative oil-exporting Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
The post-Soviet states, also collectively known as the former Soviet Union (FSU) or former Soviet Republics, are the states that emerged and re-emerged from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in its breakup in 1991, with Russia internationally recognised as the successor state to the Soviet Union after the Cold War.
Prince Ghazi bin Muhammad (born 15 October 1966) is a Jordanian prince, professor of philosophy, and a direct descendant of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Quilliam is a London-based left-of-centre think tank that focuses on counter-extremism, specifically against Islamism, which it argues represents a desire to impose a given interpretation of Islam on society.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
Quranism (القرآنية; al-Qur'āniyya) describes any form of Islam that accepts the Qur'an as the only sacred text through which Allah revealed himself to mankind, but rejects the religious authority, reliability, and/or authenticity of the Hadith collections.
Muhammad Rashid Rida (محمد رشيد رضا; transliteration, Muḥammad Rashīd Riḍā; Ottoman Syria, 23 September 1865 or 18 October 1865 –Egypt, 22 August 1935) was an early Islamic reformer, whose ideas would later influence 20th-century Islamist thinkers in developing a political philosophy of an "Islamic state".
The Rashidun Caliphate (اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلرَّاشِدَةُ) (632–661) was the first of the four major caliphates established after the death of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad.
A religious war or holy war (bellum sacrum) is a war primarily caused or justified by differences in religion.
Reuven Firestone is the Regenstein Professor in Medieval Judaism and Islam at the Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
Rudolph "Ruud" F. Peters (born 16 September 1943, The Hague) is a scholar of Islam at the University of Amsterdam.
Sir Rudolph Albert Peters MC MID FRS HFRSE FRCP LLD (13 April 1889 – 29 January 1982) was a British biochemist.
Sayyid Ruhollah Mūsavi Khomeini (سید روحالله موسوی خمینی; 24 September 1902 – 3 June 1989), known in the Western world as Ayatollah Khomeini, was an Iranian Shia Islam religious leader and politician.
The term (الصحابة meaning "the companions", from the verb صَحِبَ meaning "accompany", "keep company with", "associate with") refers to the companions, disciples, scribes and family of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī (صحيح البخاري.), also known as Bukhari Sharif (بخاري شريف), is one of the Kutub al-Sittah (six major hadith collections) of Sunni Islam.
Sahih Muslim (صحيح مسلم, Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim; full title: Al-Musnadu Al-Sahihu bi Naklil Adli) is one of the Kutub al-Sittah (six major hadith collections) in Sunni Islam.
Salafi jihadism or jihadist-Salafism is a transnational religious-political ideology based on a belief in "physical" jihadism and the Salafi movement of returning to what adherents believe to be true Sunni Islam.
The Salafi movement or Salafist movement or Salafism is a reform branch or revivalist movement within Sunni Islam that developed in Egypt in the late 19th century as a response to European imperialism.
Salah ("worship",; pl.; also salat), or namāz (نَماز) in some languages, is one of the Five Pillars in the faith of Islam and an obligatory religious duty for every Muslim.
The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.
An armed conflict between troops of Saudi Arabia and Houthi insurgents is taking place at the Saudi–Yemeni border, at the southern edge of the regions of Najran, Jizan, and Asir.
Sayyid Qutb (or;,; سيد قطب Sayyid Quṭb; also spelled Said, Syed, Seyyid, Sayid, Sayed; Koteb, Qutub, Kotb, Kutb; 9 October 1906 – 29 August 1966) was an Egyptian author, educator, Islamic theorist, poet, and the leading member of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood in the 1950s and 1960s.
Sebastian Lukács Gorka (Gorka Sebestyén Lukács) (born 1970) is a British-born Hungarian-American military and intelligence analyst, who was a deputy assistant to US President Donald Trump in 2017.
Secularism is the principle of the separation of government institutions and persons mandated to represent the state from religious institution and religious dignitaries (the attainment of such is termed secularity).
The Senussi, or Sanussi (السنوسية), are a Muslim political-religious tariqa (Sufi order) and clan in colonial Libya and the Sudan region founded in Mecca in 1837 by the Grand Senussi (السنوسي الكبير), the Algerian Muhammad ibn Ali as-Senussi.
The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.
Sexual jihad (جهاد النكاح, jihad al-nikah) refers to the purported practice in which Sunni women sympathetic to Salafi jihadism travel to warzones such as Syria and voluntarily offer themselves to be "married" to jihadist militants, often repeatedly and in temporary marriages, serving sexual comfort roles to help boost the fighters' morale.
Shahid and Shaheed (شهيد, plural: شُهَدَاء; female) originates from the Quranic Arabic word meaning "witness" and is also used to denote a martyr.
Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
The Shura Council of Benghazi Revolutionaries (مجلس شورى ثوار بنغازي, Majlis Shura Thuwar Benghazi) is a military coalition in Benghazi composed of Islamist and jihadist militias, including Ansar al-Sharia, Libya Shield 1, and several other groups.
The Siege of Baghdad, which lasted from January 29 until February 10, 1258, entailed the investment, capture, and sack of Baghdad, the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate, by Ilkhanate Mongol forces and allied troops.
The Sinai insurgency is an ongoing conflict in the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt, between Islamist militants and Egyptian security forces, which has included attacks on civilians.
The Sistan and Baluchestan insurgency, part of the Balochistan conflict, began approximately in 2004 and is an ongoing low-intensity asymmetric conflict in Sistan and Baluchestan Province between Iran and several Baloch Sunni militant organizations which are designated as terrorist organizations by Iran.
The Sokoto Caliphate was an independent Islamic Sunni Caliphate, in West Africa.
The Somali Civil War (Dagaalkii Sokeeye ee Soomaaliya, الحرب الأهلية الصومالية) is an ongoing civil war taking place in Somalia.
Somalia (Soomaaliya; aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the.
The South Thailand insurgency (ความไม่สงบในชายแดนภาคใต้ของประเทศไทย; Pemberontakan di Selatan Thailand) is an ongoing conflict centered in southern Thailand.
The Soviet–Afghan War lasted over nine years, from December 1979 to February 1989.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Srđa Trifković (also Srdja Trifković; Срђа Трифковић,, and as author Serge Trifkovic; born 19 July 1954) is a Serbian-American writer on international affairs and foreign affairs editor for the paleoconservative magazine Chronicles. He was director of the Center for International Affairs at the Rockford Institute until his resignation on 31 December 2008.
The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.
Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.
Sufyan ath-Thawri ibn Said (سفيان بن سعيد الثوري) (716–778) was a Tābi‘ al-Tābi‘īn Islamic scholar and jurist, founder of the Thawri madhhab.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
The Syrian Civil War (الحرب الأهلية السورية, Al-ḥarb al-ʼahliyyah as-sūriyyah) is an ongoing multi-sided armed conflict in Syria fought primarily between the Ba'athist Syrian Arab Republic led by President Bashar al-Assad, along with its allies, and various forces opposing both the government and each other in varying combinations.
Between 2011 and 2017, fighting from the Syrian Civil War spilled over into Lebanon as opponents and supporters of the Syrian rebels travelled to Lebanon to fight and attack each other on Lebanese soil.
Ta'zieh or Ta'zïye or Ta'zīya or Tazīa or Ta'ziyeh, (تعزية, تعزیه, تعزیہ) means comfort, condolence or expression of grief.
The Taliban (طالبان "students"), alternatively spelled Taleban, which refers to itself as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (IEA), is a Sunni Islamic fundamentalist political movement in Afghanistan currently waging war (an insurgency, or jihad) within that country.
Bangladesh has experienced significant terrorism conducted by a number of radical local Islamist organizations.
The Atlantic is an American magazine and multi-platform publisher, founded in 1857 as The Atlantic Monthly in Boston, Massachusetts.
The British Government and Jihad (Urdu:Government Angrezi Aur Jihad) is a book written in 1900 by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, the founder of the Ahmadiyya movement in Islam.
The Crisis of Islam: Holy War and Unholy Terror is a book written by Bernard Lewis.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Looming Tower: Al-Qaeda and the Road to 9/11 is a 2006 non-fiction book by Lawrence Wright.
The National is a private English-language daily newspaper published in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.
Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.
The Turkistan Islamic Party (TIP, الحزب الإسلامي التركستاني) or Turkistan Islamic Movement (TIM), formerly known as the East Turkestan Islamic Movement (ETIM) and other names, is an Islamic extremist terrorist organization founded by Uyghur jihadists in western China.
Twelver (translit; شیعه دوازدهامامی) or Imamiyyah (إمامية) is the largest branch of Shia Islam.
The Arabic term ulama (علماء., singular عالِم, "scholar", literally "the learned ones", also spelled ulema; feminine: alimah and uluma), according to the Encyclopedia of Islam (2000), in its original meaning "denotes scholars of almost all disciplines".
The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.
Understanding Islam through Hadis is a book by Ram Swarup, first published in the United States in 1982.
The United States Department of Justice (DOJ), also known as the Justice Department, is a federal executive department of the U.S. government, responsible for the enforcement of the law and administration of justice in the United States, equivalent to the justice or interior ministries of other countries. The department was formed in 1870 during the Ulysses S. Grant administration. The Department of Justice administers several federal law enforcement agencies including the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). The department is responsible for investigating instances of financial fraud, representing the United States government in legal matters (such as in cases before the Supreme Court), and running the federal prison system. The department is also responsible for reviewing the conduct of local law enforcement as directed by the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. The department is headed by the United States Attorney General, who is nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate and is a member of the Cabinet. The current Attorney General is Jeff Sessions.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
William Montgomery Watt (14 March 1909 – 24 October 2006) was a Scottish historian, Orientalist, Anglican priest, and academic.
Wahhabism (الوهابية) is an Islamic doctrine and religious movement founded by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab.
Walter de Gruyter GmbH (or; brand name: De Gruyter) is a scholarly publishing house specializing in academic literature.
This article covers the history of Afghanistan since the communist military coup on 27 April 1978, known as the Saur Revolution, when the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) took power.
The War in North-West Pakistan, also known as the War in Waziristan, is an armed conflict involving Pakistan, and armed militant groups such as the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (TTP), Jundallah, Lashkar-e-Islam (LeI), TNSM, al-Qaeda, and their Central Asian allies such as the ISIL–Khorasan (ISIL), Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan, East Turkistan Movement, Emirate of Caucasus, and elements of organized crime.
West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa.
The Xinjiang conflict is an ongoing separatist conflict in China's far-west province of Xinjiang, whose northern region is known as Dzungaria and whose southern region (the Tarim Basin) is known as East Turkestan.
Mohammed Yasser Abdel Rahman Abdel Raouf Arafat al-Qudwa (محمد ياسر عبد الرحمن عبد الرؤوف عرفات; 24 August 1929 – 11 November 2004), popularly known as Yasser Arafat (ياسر عرفات) or by his kunya Abu Ammar (أبو عمار), was a Palestinian political leader.
Zaid Shakir (born Ricky Daryl Mitchell (زيد شاكر), May 24, 1956) is a Muslim American scholar "Lonny Shavelson, Fred Setterberg", Under the Dragon: California's New Culture, Oakland Museum of California, Heyday Books, p.64, "Edward E. Curtis", The Columbia Sourcebook of Muslims in the United States, Columbia University Press, p.239, and co-founder of Zaytuna College"Edward E. Curtis", The Columbia Sourcebook of Muslims in the United States, Columbia University Press, p. 239, in Berkeley, California.
The 1983 Beirut barracks bombing was a suicide attack that occurred on October 23, 1983, in Beirut, Lebanon, during the Lebanese Civil War.
The April 18, 1983, United States embassy bombing was a suicide bombing in Beirut, Lebanon, that killed 63 people, including 17 Americans.
Combative jihad, Defensive Jihad, Defensive jihad, Djehad, Gihad, Greater Jihad, Greater jihad, Ijthad, Islamic holy war, Jehad, Jihaad, Jihad Verses of Islam, Jihad bil qalam, Jihad bin-saif, Jihad bis saif, Jihad bis saïf, Jihad by the sword, Jihad state, Jihad-ul-akbar, Jihadization, Jihâd, Jihād, Lesser Jihad, Lesser jihad, Military jihad, Mujahada, Muslim strive, Offensive jihad, Opinion of Islamic scholars on Jihad, Opinion of islamic scholars on jihad, Ǧihād, جهاد.