121 relations: Alliance Conducted at Sea, Ancient Chinese coinage, Artillery, Ögedei Khan, Bahai (Jurchen), Bairin Left Banner, Balhae, Battle of Caishi, Battle of Tangdao, Battle of Yehuling, Beijing, Buddhism, Cambridge University Press, Cash (Chinese coin), Chinese classics, Chinese era name, Chinese folk religion, Ci (poetry), Confucianism, Daozang, Datong, Dynasties in Chinese history, East Asia, Eastern Xia, Emperor Aizong of Jin, Emperor Huizong of Song, Emperor Mo of Jin, Emperor Qinzong, Emperor Shizong of Jin, Emperor Shun, Emperor Taizong of Jin, Emperor Taizu of Jin, Emperor Xizong of Jin, Emperor Xuanzong of Jin, Emperor Yao, Emperor Zhangzong of Jin, Epigraphy, Genghis Khan, Great Wall of China, Guaizi Ma, Han Chinese, Han Tuozhou, Hanpu, Harbin, Heilongjiang, Helibo, History of gunpowder, History of the Great Wall of China, Huai River, Huining Prefecture, ..., Imperial examination, Jilin, Jin dynasty (1115–1234), Jin dynasty (265–420), Jin dynasty coinage (1115–1234), Jin–Song Wars, Jingkang incident, Journal of Song-Yuan Studies, Jurchen language, Jurchen people, Kaifeng, Keraites, Khitan language, Khitan people, Korean–Jurchen border conflicts, Kumo Xi, Liao dynasty, Middle Chinese, Mongol conquest of China, Mongol conquest of the Jin dynasty, Mongol Empire, Mongol siege of Kaifeng, Mongolia, Neo-Confucianism, Ningbo, Northeast China, Northern and southern China, Pinyin, Posthumous name, Qara Khitai, Quanzhen School, Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, René Grousset, Runan County, Shi Tianze, Shilu (Jurchen), Siege, Siege of Caizhou, Sinicization, Sixteen Prefectures, Song dynasty, Songhua River, Standard Chinese, Su Shi, Suike, Tang Code, Tangut people, Taoism, Temple name, Timeline of the Jin–Song Wars, Treaty of Shaoxing, Tripiṭaka, University of Washington Press, Wang Chongyang, Wanyan, Wanyan Liang, Wanyan Yongji, Wanyan Zonghan, Western Regions, Western Xia, White Cloud Temple, Wu Xing, Wugunai, Wulu (Emperor De), Wuyashu, Yangtze, Yuan dynasty, Yue Fei, Zhenjiang, Zhongdu, Zhu Xi. Expand index (71 more) » « Shrink index
The Alliance Conducted at Sea (海上之盟) was a political alliance in Chinese history between the Song and Jurchen Jin dynasties in the early 12th century against the Liao dynasty.
Ancient Chinese coinage includes some of the earliest known coins.
Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.
Ögedei (also Ogodei; translit, Mongolian: Ögedei, Ögüdei;; c.1185– 11 December 1241), was the third son of Genghis Khan and second Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, succeeding his father.
Bahai was a chieftain of the Wanyan tribe, the most dominant among the Jurchen tribes which later founded the Jin dynasty (1115–1234).
Baarin Left Banner (Mongolian: Baɣarin Jegün qosiɣu), or Bairin, is a banner of eastern Inner Mongolia, People's Republic of China.
Balhae (698–926), also known as Parhae or Bohai was a multi-ethnic kingdom in Manchuria and the Korean peninsula.
The Battle of Caishi (Battle of Ts'ai-shih) was a major naval engagement of the Jin–Song Wars of China that took place on November 26–27, 1161.
The Battle of Tangdao (唐岛之战) was a naval engagement that took place in 1161 between the Jurchen Jin and the Southern Song Dynasty of China on the East China Sea.
The Battle of Yehuling, literally the Battle of Wild Fox Ridge, was a major decisive battle fought between the Mongol Empire and Jurchen-led Jin dynasty during the first stage of the Mongol conquest of the Jin dynasty.
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Cash was a type of coin of China and East Asia, used from the 4th century BC until the 20th century AD.
Chinese classic texts or canonical texts refers to the Chinese texts which originated before the imperial unification by the Qin dynasty in 221 BC, particularly the "Four Books and Five Classics" of the Neo-Confucian tradition, themselves a customary abridgment of the "Thirteen Classics".
A Chinese era name is the regnal year, reign period, or regnal title used when traditionally numbering years in an emperor's reign and naming certain Chinese rulers.
Chinese folk religion (Chinese popular religion) or Han folk religion is the religious tradition of the Han people, including veneration of forces of nature and ancestors, exorcism of harmful forces, and a belief in the rational order of nature which can be influenced by human beings and their rulers as well as spirits and gods.
Cí (pronounced) is a type of lyric poetry in the tradition of Classical Chinese poetry.
Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life.
Daozang (Wade-Giles: Tao Tsang), meaning "Taoist Canon", consists of around 1,400 texts that were collected c. 400 (after the Dao De Jing and Zhuang Zi which are the core Taoist texts).
Datong is a prefecture-level city in northern Shanxi Province in the People's Republic of China.
The following is a chronology of the dynasties in Chinese History.
East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.
The Eastern Xia, also known as Dongxia or Dongzhen, was a short-lived kingdom established in Manchuria (today's Northeast China) by Jurchen warlord Puxian Wannu in 1215 during the Mongol conquest of the Jin dynasty.
Emperor Aizong of Jin (25 September 1198 – 9 February 1234), personal name Ningjiasu, sinicised names Wanyan Shouxu and Wanyan Shouli, was the ninth emperor of the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty, which ruled most of northern China between the 12th and 13th centuries.
Emperor Huizong of Song (7 June 1082 – 4 June 1135), personal name Zhao Ji, was the eighth emperor of the Song dynasty in China.
Emperor Mo of Jin (died 9 February 1234), personal name Hudun, sinicised name Wanyan Chenglin, was the last emperor of the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty, which ruled northern China between the 12th and 13th centuries.
Emperor Qinzong of Song (23 May 1100 – 14 June 1161), personal name Zhao Huan, was the ninth emperor of the Song dynasty in China and the last emperor of The Northern Song Dynasty.
Emperor Shizong of Jin (29 March 1123 – 20 January 1189), personal name Wulu, sinicised name Wanyan Yong (originally Wanyan Xiu), was the fifth emperor of the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty, which ruled northern China between the 12th and 13th centuries.
Shun, also known as Emperor Shun and Chonghua, was a legendary leader of ancient China, regarded by some sources as one of the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors.
Emperor Taizong of Jin (25 November 1075 – 9 February 1135), personal name Wuqimai, sinicised name Wanyan Sheng, was the second emperor of the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty, which ruled northern China between the 12th and 13th centuries.
Emperor Taizu of Jin (August 1, 1068 – September 19, 1123), personal name Aguda, sinicised name Min, was the founder and first emperor of the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty, which ruled northern China between the 12th and 13th centuries.
Emperor Xizong of Jin (28 February 1119 – 9 January 1150), personal name Hela, sinicised name Wanyan Dan, was the third emperor of the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty, which ruled northern China between the 12th and 13th centuries.
Emperor Xuanzong of Jin (18 April 1163 – 14 January 1224), personal name Wudubu, sinicised names Wanyan Xun and Wanyan Congjia, was the eighth emperor of the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty, which ruled northern China between the 12th and 13th centuries.
Emperor Yao (traditionally c. 2356 – 2255 BC) was a legendary Chinese ruler, according to various sources, one of the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors.
Emperor Zhangzong of Jin (31 August 1168 – 29 December 1208), personal name Madage, sinicised name Wanyan Jing, was the sixth emperor of the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty, which ruled northern China between the 12th and 13th centuries.
Epigraphy (ἐπιγραφή, "inscription") is the study of inscriptions or epigraphs as writing; it is the science of identifying graphemes, clarifying their meanings, classifying their uses according to dates and cultural contexts, and drawing conclusions about the writing and the writers.
Genghis Khan or Temüjin Borjigin (Чингис хаан, Çingis hán) (also transliterated as Chinggis Khaan; born Temüjin, c. 1162 August 18, 1227) was the founder and first Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death.
The Great Wall of China is a series of fortifications made of stone, brick, tamped earth, wood, and other materials, generally built along an east-to-west line across the historical northern borders of China to protect the Chinese states and empires against the raids and invasions of the various nomadic groups of the Eurasian Steppe with an eye to expansion.
The Guaizi Ma is a military formation that was allegedly used by the Jin army when they invaded Southern China during the Song dynasty period of Chinese history (960-1279).
The Han Chinese,.
Han Tuozhou (1152–1207) was a powerful Chinese statesman of the Southern Song dynasty, chancellor to Emperor Ningzong.
Hanpu or Hambo (함보), later Wanyan Hanpu, was a leader of the Jurchen Wanyan clan in the early tenth century.
Harbin is the capital of Heilongjiang province, and largest city in the northeastern region of the People's Republic of China.
Heilongjiang (Wade-Giles: Heilungkiang) is a province of the People's Republic of China.
Helibo (1039—1092) was a chieftain of the Wanyan tribe, the most dominant among the Jurchen tribes which later founded the Jin dynasty (1115–1234).
Gunpowder is the first physical explosive.
The history of the Great Wall of China began when fortifications built by various states during the Spring and Autumn (771–476) and Warring States periods (475–221) were connected by the first emperor of China, Qin Shi Huang, to protect his newly founded Qin dynasty (221–206) against incursions by nomads from Inner Asia.
The Huai River, formerly romanized as the Hwai, is a major river in China.
Huining Prefecture, or Shangjing Huiningfu, was a prefecture in the Shangjing region of Northeast China.
The Chinese imperial examinations were a civil service examination system in Imperial China to select candidates for the state bureaucracy.
Jilin, formerly romanized as Kirin is one of the three provinces of Northeast China.
The Jin dynasty, officially known as the Great Jin, lasted from 1115 to 1234 as one of the last dynasties in Chinese history to predate the Mongol invasion of China.
The Jin dynasty or the Jin Empire (sometimes distinguished as the or) was a Chinese dynasty traditionally dated from 266 to 420.
The Jurchen Jin dynasty was an empire that ruled over Northern China and what would later become Manchuria from 1115 until 1234.
Map showing the Song-Jurchen Jin wars The Jin–Song Wars were a series of conflicts between the Jurchen Jin dynasty (1115–1234) and Han Chinese Song dynasty (960–1279).
The Jingkang Incident, also known as the Humiliation of Jingkang and the Disorders of the Jingkang Period took place in 1127 during the Jin–Song Wars when the forces of the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty besieged and sacked Bianjing (present-day Kaifeng), the capital of the Han Chinese-led Song dynasty.
Journal of Song-Yuan Studies, known as Journal of Sung-Yuan Studies from 1990 to 2000, Bulletin of Sung-Yuan Studies from 1978 to 1989, and Sung Studies Newsletter from 1970 to 1977, is an American academic journal on "middle imperial Chinese history" or Chinese history from the 10th to 14th centuries, specifically the Five Dynasties period, Liao dynasty, Song dynasty, Western Xia, Jin dynasty (1115–1234), and Yuan dynasty.
Jurchen language is the Tungusic language of the Jurchen people of eastern Manchuria, the founders of the Jin Empire in northeastern China of the 12th–13th centuries.
The Jurchen (Manchu: Jušen; 女真, Nǚzhēn), also known by many variant names, were a Tungusic people who inhabited the region of Manchuria until around 1630, at which point they were reformed and combined with their neighbors as the Manchu.
Kaifeng, known previously by several names, is a prefecture-level city in east-central Henan province, China.
The Keraites (also Kerait, Kereit, Khereid) were one of the five dominant Turco-Mongol tribal confederations (khanates) in the Altai-Sayan region during the 12th century.
Khitan or Kitan (in large script or in small, Khitai;, Qìdānyǔ), also known as Liao, is a now-extinct language once spoken by the Khitan people (4th to 13th century).
The Khitan people were a nomadic people from Northeast Asia who, from the 4th century, inhabited an area corresponding to parts of modern Mongolia, Northeast China and the Russian Far East.
The Korean-Jurchen conflicts were a series conflicts from the 10th century to the 17th century between the Korean states of Goryeo and Joseon and the Jurchen people.
The Kumo Xi (Xu Elina-Qian, p.296b called the Xi since the Sui dynasty (581-618 AD)), also Tatabi, were a Mongolic steppe people located in current northeast China from 207 AD to 907 AD.
The Liao dynasty (Khitan: Mos Jælud), also known as the Liao Empire, officially the Great Liao, or the Khitan (Qidan) State (Khitan: Mos diau-d kitai huldʒi gur), was an empire in East Asia that ruled from 907 to 1125 over present-day Mongolia and portions of the Russian Far East, northern China, and northeastern Korea.
Middle Chinese (formerly known as Ancient Chinese) or the Qieyun system (QYS) is the historical variety of Chinese recorded in the Qieyun, a rime dictionary first published in 601 and followed by several revised and expanded editions.
The Mongol conquest of China was a series of major military efforts by the Mongol Empire to invade China proper.
The Mongol conquest of the Jin dynasty, also known as the Mongol–Jin War, was fought between the Mongol Empire and the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty in Manchuria and north China.
The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн;; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.
In the Mongol siege of Kaifeng from 1232 to 1233, the Mongol Empire captured Kaifeng, the capital of the Jurchen Jin dynasty.
Mongolia (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia.
Neo-Confucianism (often shortened to lixue 理學) is a moral, ethical, and metaphysical Chinese philosophy influenced by Confucianism, and originated with Han Yu and Li Ao (772–841) in the Tang Dynasty, and became prominent during the Song and Ming dynasties.
Ningbo, formerly written Ningpo, is a sub-provincial city in northeast Zhejiang province in China. It comprises the urban districts of Ningbo proper, three satellite cities, and a number of rural counties including islands in Hangzhou Bay and the East China Sea. Its port, spread across several locations, is among the busiest in the world and the municipality possesses a separate state-planning status. As of the 2010 census, the entire administrated area had a population of 7.6 million, with 3.5 million in the six urban districts of Ningbo proper. To the north, Hangzhou Bay separates Ningbo from Shanghai; to the east lies Zhoushan in the East China Sea; on the west and south, Ningbo borders Shaoxing and Taizhou respectively.
Northeast China or Dongbei is a geographical region of China.
Northern China and southern China are two approximate regions within China. The exact boundary between these two regions are not precisely defined. Nevertheless, the self-perception of Chinese people, especially regional stereotypes, has often been dominated by these two concepts, given that regional differences in culture and language have historically fostered strong regional identities of the Chinese people.
Hanyu Pinyin Romanization, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan.
A posthumous name is an honorary name given to royalty, nobles, and sometimes others, in East Asia after the person's death, and is used almost exclusively instead of one's personal name or other official titles during his life.
The Qara Khitai (alternatively spelled Kara Khitai; Хар Хятан; 1124–1218), also known as the Kara Khitan Khanate or Western Liao, officially the Great Liao, was a sinicized Khitan empire in Central Asia.
The Quanzhen School is a branch of Taoism that originated in Northern China under the Jin dynasty (1115–1234).
Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary is a large American dictionary, first published in 1966 as The Random House Dictionary of the English Language: The Unabridged Edition.
René Grousset (5 September 1885 – 12 September 1952) was a French historian, curator of both the Cernuschi and Guimet Museums in Paris, and a member of the prestigious Académie française.
Runan County (Traditional: 汝南縣; Simplified: 汝南县; Pinyin: Rǔnán Xiàn) is a county in Zhumadian, Henan, China.
Shi Tianze (1202 – 5 March 1275) was a general in the early period of the Yuan dynasty of China.
Shilu was a chieftain of the Wanyan tribe, the most dominant among the Jurchen tribes which later founded the Jin dynasty (1115–1234).
A siege is a military blockade of a city, or fortress, with the intent of conquering by attrition, or a well-prepared assault.
The siege of Caizhou between 1233 and 1234 was fought between the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty and the allied forces of the Mongol Empire and Southern Song dynasty.
Sinicization, sinicisation, sinofication, or sinification is a process whereby non-Chinese societies come under the influence of Chinese culture, particularly Han Chinese culture and societal norms.
The Sixteen Prefectures, more specifically the Sixteen Prefectures of Yan and Yun or the Sixteen Prefectures of You and Ji, comprise a historical region in northern China along the Great Wall in present-day Beijing and Tianjin Municipalities and northern Hebei and Shanxi Province, that were ceded by the Shatuo Turk Emperor Shi Jingtang of the Later Jin to the Khitan Liao dynasty in 938.
The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.
The Songhua River (also Haixi or Xingal, formerly Sunggari) is one of the primary rivers of China, and the largest tributary of the Amur River.
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China and Taiwan (de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.
Su Shi (8January103724August1101), also known as Su Dongpo, was a Chinese writer, poet, painter, calligrapher, pharmacologist, gastronome, and a statesman of the Song dynasty.
Suike was a chieftain of the Wanyan tribe, the most dominant among the Jurchen tribes which later founded the Jin dynasty (1115–1234).
The Tang Code was a penal code that was established and used during the Tang Dynasty in China.
The Tangut first appeared as a tribal union living under Tuyuhun authority and moved to Northwest China sometime before the 10th century to found the Western Xia or Tangut Empire (1038–1227).
Taoism, also known as Daoism, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (also romanized as ''Dao'').
Temple names are commonly used when naming most Chinese, Korean (Goryeo and Joseon periods), and Vietnamese (such dynasties as Trần, Lý, and Lê) royalty.
The Jin–Song Wars were a series of armed conflicts conducted by the Jurchen Jin dynasty and the Song dynasty in the 12th and 13th centuries.
The Treaty of Shaoxing was the agreement that ended the military conflicts between the Jin dynasty and the Southern Song dynasty.
The Tripiṭaka (Sanskrit) or Tipiṭaka (Pali), is the traditional term for the Buddhist scriptures.
The University of Washington Press is an American academic publishing house.
Wang Chongyang (11 January 1113 – 22 January 1170; Chinese calendar: 22nd day, 12th month, 2nd year, Zhenghe era in the reign of Emperor Huizong of Song - 4th day, 1st month, 10th year, Dading era in the reign of Emperor Shizong of Jin) was a Chinese Taoist and one of the founders of the Quanzhen School in the 12th century during the Jin dynasty (1115–1234).
The Wanyan (Manchu: Wanggiya; Jurchen script) clan was among of the clans of the Heishui Mohe tribe living in the drainage region of the Heilong River during the time of the Liao dynasty, which was ruled by the Khitan.
Digunai (24 February 1122 – 15 December 1161), also known by his sinicised name Wanyan Liang and his formal title Prince of Hailing (or Hailing Wang), was the fourth emperor of the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty, which ruled northern China between the 12th and 13th centuries.
Wanyan Yongji (died 11 September 1213), courtesy name Xingsheng, was the seventh emperor of the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty, which ruled northern China between the 12th and 13th centuries.
Nianhan (1080–1136), also known by his sinicised name Wanyan Zonghan, was a Jurchen noble and military general who lived in the founding and early years of the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty (1115-1234), which ruled northern China between the 12th and 13th centuries.
The Western Regions or Xiyu (Hsi-yu) was a historical name specified in the Chinese chronicles between the 3rd century BC to the 8th century AD that referred to the regions west of Yumen Pass, most often Central Asia or sometimes more specifically the easternmost portion of it (e.g. Altishahr or the Tarim Basin in southern Xinjiang), though it was sometimes used more generally to refer to other regions to the west of China as well, such as the Indian subcontinent (as in the novel Journey to the West).
The Western Xia, also known as the Xi Xia Empire, to the Mongols as the Tangut Empire and to the Tangut people themselves and to the Tibetans as Mi-nyak,Stein (1972), pp.
The White Cloud Temple or the Monastery of the White Clouds is a Daoist temple located in Beijing, China.
The Wu Xing, also known as the Five Elements, Five Phases, the Five Agents, the Five Movements, Five Processes, the Five Steps/Stages and the Five Planets of significant gravity: Jupiter-木, Saturn-土, Mercury-水, Venus-金, Mars-火Dr Zai, J..
Wugunai (1021–1074) was a chieftain of the Wanyan tribe, the most dominant among the Jurchen tribes which later founded the Jin dynasty (1115–1234).
Wulu was a chieftain of the Wanyan tribe, the most dominant among the Jurchen tribes which later founded the Jin dynasty (1115–1234).
Wuyashu (1061–1113) was a chieftain of the Wanyan tribe, the most dominant among the Jurchen tribes which later founded the Jin dynasty (1115–1234).
The Yangtze, which is 6,380 km (3,964 miles) long, is the longest river in Asia and the third-longest in the world.
The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan (Yehe Yuan Ulus), was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan.
Yue Fei (24 March 1103 – 27 January 1142), courtesy name Pengju, was a Han Chinese military general who lived during the Southern Song dynasty.
Zhenjiang, formerly romanized as Chenkiang, is a prefecture-level city in Jiangsu Province, China.
Zhongdu (中都, lit. "Central Capital") was the capital of the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty in medieval China.
Zhu Xi (October 18, 1130 – April 23, 1200), also known by his courtesy name Yuanhui (or Zhonghui), and self-titled Hui'an, was a Chinese philosopher, politician, and writer of the Song dynasty.
Anchu, Jin (1115-1234), Jin Dynasty (1115-1234), Jin Dynasty (1115–1234), Jin Dynasty (Jin 1115-1234), Jin Dynasty (Jurchen), Jin Dynasty, 1115--1234, Jin Dynasty, 1115-1234, Jin Dynasty, 1115–1234, Jin Dynasty, 1115—1234, Jin dynasty (1115-1234), Jin dynasty (Jurchen), Jin dynasty (金), Jin dynasty, 1115-1234, Jin dynasty, 1115–1234, Jinn Dynasty, Jinn dynasty, Juchen dynasty, Jur'chen Jin Dynasty (1115-1234), Jur'chen Jin Dynasty (1115–1234), Jurchen Chin, Jurchen Dynasty, Jurchen Empire, Jurchen Jin, Jurchen Jin Dynasty, Jurchen Jin dynasty, Jurchen dynasty, Jīn Dynasty, Jīn Dynasty (金 1115-1234), Jīn dynasty, List of Jurchen emperors.