278 relations: Air mass, Air pollution, Akira Iriye, Aquifer, Artesian aquifer, Augsburg, Ürümqi, Baimai Springs, Bangkok, Baotu Spring, Battle of An, Battle of Jinan, Bavaria, Beijing, Beijing–Shanghai high-speed railway, Beijing–Shanghai railway, Bian Que, Big-character poster, Binzhou, Black Tiger Spring, Bourgeoisie, Boxer Rebellion, Brittany (administrative region), Buddhism, Bus rapid transit, Cai Gongshi, Cao Cao, Cao Pi, Cao Wei, Capital city, Central China, Central Plains War, Changqing District, Chen Yi (marshal), Chengziya, China, China Meteorological Administration, China National Heavy Duty Truck Group, China National Highway 104, China National Highway 220, China National Highway 309, China Railway High-speed, Chinese cuisine, Chinese language, Chinese postal romanization, Chinese Super League, Chongqing, Coal, Cotton, Counties of the People's Republic of China, ..., Coventry, Cultural Revolution, Daming Lake, Degree (angle), Dezhou, District (China), District heating, East China, England, Feng Yuxiang, Fine art, Five Dragon Pool, Flower, Four Gates Pagoda, Furong Street, Gang of Four, Grand Canal (China), Great Wall of Qi, Greenwich, Gross domestic product, Gyeonggi Province, Han Chinese, Han dynasty, Han Fuju, Handan, Handan–Jinan railway, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Honshu, Hu Zongnan, Huaiyin District, Jinan, Hui people, Humid continental climate, Humid subtropical climate, Ingot, Inversion (meteorology), Islam in China, ISO 3166-2:CN, Ji River, Jin (Chinese state), Jin dynasty (1115–1234), Jin dynasty (265–420), Jinan dialect, Jinan Foreign Language School, Jinan incident, Jinan Metro, Jinan Military Region, Jinan Olympic Sports Center, Jinan railway station, Jinan West railway station, Jinan Yaoqiang International Airport, Jin–Song Wars, Jining, Jiyang County, Joondalup, Joseph Needham, Jurchen people, Karst, Kazanlak, Köppen climate classification, Kfar Saba, Khagan, Kharkiv, Kublai Khan, Kuomintang, Laiwu, Lanzhou, Latitude, Li Qingzhao, Liang Qichao, Liaocheng, Liaoning, Licheng District, Jinan, Limestone, Lingyan Temple (Jinan), List of Chinese administrative divisions by area, List of ethnic groups in China and Taiwan, List of postal codes in China, List of twin towns and sister cities in China, Liu E, Lixia District, Longshan culture, Lu (state), Maharashtra, Manchu people, Mandarin Chinese, Mango, Mao Zedong, Marco Polo, Marmaris, Mayor, Metropolitan area, Ming dynasty, Minute and second of arc, Mongols, Mount Tai, Muğla Province, Nagpur, Nanjing decade, National Bureau of Statistics of China, Nelumbo, Neolithic, Nizhny Novgorod, North China, Northern Expedition, OECD, Opium, Osaka, Peanut, People's Liberation Army, Pig iron, Pingyin County, Port Moresby, Porto Velho, Praia, Provinces of China, Pukou District, Qi (state), Qi Sheng, Qianlong Emperor, Qilu University of Technology, Qing dynasty, Qingdao, Qingdao–Jinan railway, Qufu, Red Guards, Regina, Saskatchewan, Renminbi, Rennes, Romanization of Chinese, Rondônia, Sacramento, California, Salix matsudana, Santiago, Cape Verde, Second Sino-Japanese War, Seoul, Shandong, Shandong Art Museum, Shandong cuisine, Shandong Experimental High School, Shandong Golden Stars, Shandong Luneng Taishan F.C., Shandong Museum, Shandong Normal University, Shandong Steel, Shandong University, Shandong University of Finance and Economics, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shandong Women's University, Shanghai, Shanghe County, Shijiazhuang, Shizhong District, Jinan, Singapore, Sinology, Sofitel, Song dynasty, Spring (hydrology), Spring and Autumn period, Spring City Square, Stara Zagora Province, Sub-provincial divisions in the People's Republic of China, Subdistrict, Sulfur dioxide, Suwon, Tai'an, Taiwan, Taiyuan, Tang dynasty, Telephone numbers in China, Terrain, Theater commands of the People's Liberation Army, Thousand Buddha Mountain, Thousand-Buddha Cliff, Three Furnaces, Three Kingdoms, Tianjin, Tianjin–Pukou railway, Tianqiao District, Time in China, Tobacco, Tomb of the Jibei King, Towns of the People's Republic of China, Townships of the People's Republic of China, Tree, Trolleybus, Trolleybuses in Jinan, Tsinghua University, United States Congress, University of Jinan, Uusimaa, Vantaa, Vehicle registration plates of China, Vitebsk, Wade–Giles, Wakayama, Wakayama, Wang Yaowu, Warlord Era, Warring States period, Weifang, Western Australia, World War I, Wu Huawen, Wu Xing, Xin Qiji, Xinhua News Agency, Xuanzang, Yamaguchi, Yamaguchi, Yan Xishan, Yao Wenyuan, Yellow River, Yin and yang, Yu Qin, Yuan dynasty, Zaozhuang, Zhang Chunqiao, Zhang Zongchang, Zhangqiu District, Zhao Mengfu, Zhenbao Island, Zhengzhou, Zhou dynasty, Zibo, Zou Yan, 1966 Xingtai earthquake, 2008 Summer Olympics, 2009 National Games of China. Expand index (228 more) » « Shrink index
In meteorology, an air mass is a volume of air defined by its temperature and water vapor content.
Air pollution occurs when harmful or excessive quantities of substances including gases, particulates, and biological molecules are introduced into Earth's atmosphere.
(born October 20, 1934) is a historian of American diplomatic history, especially United States–East Asian relations, and international issues.
An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock, rock fractures or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, or silt).
An artesian aquifer is a confined aquifer containing groundwater under positive pressure.
Augsburg (Augschburg) is a city in Swabia, Bavaria, Germany.
Ürümqi (yengi; from Oirat "beautiful pasture") is the capital of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in the far northwest of the People's Republic of China.
The Baimai Springs are a group of artesian karst springs located in the town of Ming Shui, Zhangqiu City, Shandong Province, China about 25 kilometres west from the city centre of the provincial capital Jinan.
Bangkok is the capital and most populous city of the Kingdom of Thailand.
The Baotu Spring (sometimes translated as "Jet Spring" or "Spurting Spring") is a culturally significant artesian karst spring located in the city of Jinan, Shandong, China.
The Battle of An was fought during the Spring and Autumn period in 589 BC at Hua Hill in the area of the present-day city of Jinan, Shandong between the states of Qi and Jin.
The Battle of Jinan was a critical engagement fought between the Kuomintang (KMT or Chinese Nationalist Party) and the Communist Party of China (CPC) from September 16 to September 24, 1948 during the Chinese Civil War.
Bavaria (Bavarian and Bayern), officially the Free State of Bavaria (Freistaat Bayern), is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner.
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.
The Beijing–Shanghai high-speed railway (or Jinghu high-speed railway, from its name in Mandarin) is a high-speed railway long that connects two major economic zones in the People's Republic of China: the Bohai Economic Rim and the Yangtze River Delta.
The Beijing–Shanghai railway or Jinghu railway is a railway line in China between Beijing and Shanghai.
Bian Que (also pronounced Pien Chueh, Wade–Giles: Pien Ch'iao; died 310 BC) was, according to legend, the earliest known Chinese physician.
Big-character posters are handwritten, wall-mounted posters using large-sized Chinese characters, used as a means of protest, propaganda, and popular communication.
Binzhou, formerly Putai, is a prefecture-level city in northern Shandong Province in the People's Republic of China.
The Black Tiger Spring is a culturally significant artesian karst spring located in the city of Jinan, Shandong Province, China.
The bourgeoisie is a polysemous French term that can mean.
The Boxer Rebellion (拳亂), Boxer Uprising or Yihetuan Movement (義和團運動) was a violent anti-foreign, anti-colonial and anti-Christian uprising that took place in China between 1899 and 1901, toward the end of the Qing dynasty.
Brittany (Breizh, Bretagne) is one of the 18 regions of France.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Bus rapid transit (BRT, BRTS, busway, transitway) is a bus-based public transport system designed to improve capacity and reliability relative to a conventional bus system.
Cai Gongshi (before 1921) Cai Gongshi (May 1, 1881 - May 3, 1928) was a Kuomintang emissary killed by Japanese soldiers during the Jinan Incident.
Cao Cao (– 15 March 220), courtesy name Mengde, was a Chinese warlord and the penultimate Chancellor of the Eastern Han dynasty who rose to great power in the final years of the dynasty.
Cao Pi (– 29 June 226), courtesy name Zihuan, was the first emperor of the state of Cao Wei in the Three Kingdoms period of China.
Wei (220–266), also known as Cao Wei, was one of the three major states that competed for supremacy over China in the Three Kingdoms period (220–280).
A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government.
Central China is a geographical and a loosely defined cultural region that covers the central area of China.
The Central Plains War of 1930 was a civil war between the Nationalist Kuomintang government in Nanjing led by Chiang Kai-shek and several regional military commanders that were former allies of Chiang during the Northern Expedition.
Changqing District is one of six districts of Jinan, the capital of Shandong province, People's Republic of China, covering part of the southwestern suburbs.
Chen Yi (August 26, 1901 – January 6, 1972) was a Chinese communist military commander and politician.
Chengziya, also spelled Chengziyai, is a Chinese archaeological site and the location of the first discovery of the neolithic Longshan culture in 1928.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The China Meteorological Administration (CMA), headquartered in Beijing, is the national weather service for the People's Republic of China.
China National Heavy Duty Truck Group Co., Ltd., CNHTC or Sinotruk Group is a Chinese state-owned truck manufacturer headquartered in Jinan, Shandong province.
China National Highway 104 (G104) runs from Beijing to Fuzhou via Jinan, Xuzhou, Nanjing, Hangzhou and Taizhou.
China National Highway 220 (G220) runs from Binzhou, Shandong to Zhengzhou, Henan.
China National Highway 309 (G309) runs west from Rongcheng, Shandong towards Hebei Province, Shanxi Province, Shaanxi Province, Ningxia Autonomous Region, and ends in Lanzhou, Gansu.
China Railway High-speed (CRH) is a high-speed rail service operated by China Railway.
Chinese cuisine is an important part of Chinese culture, which includes cuisine originating from the diverse regions of China, as well as from Chinese people in other parts of the world.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
Postal romanization was a system of transliterating Chinese place names developed by the Imperial Post Office in the early 1900s.
The Chinese Football Association Super League, commonly known as Chinese Super League or CSL, currently known as the China Ping An Chinese Football Association Super League for sponsorship reasons, is the highest tier of professional football in China, operating under the auspices of the Chinese Football Association (CFA).
Chongqing, formerly romanized as Chungking, is a major city in southwest China.
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.
Counties, formally county-level divisions, are found in the third level of the administrative hierarchy in Provinces and Autonomous regions, and the second level in municipalities and Hainan, a level that is known as "county level" and also contains autonomous counties, county-level cities, banners, autonomous banner, and City districts.
Coventry is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England.
The Cultural Revolution, formally the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, was a sociopolitical movement in China from 1966 until 1976.
Daming Lake is the largest lake in the city of Jinan, Shandong, China and one of city's main natural and cultural landmarks.
A degree (in full, a degree of arc, arc degree, or arcdegree), usually denoted by ° (the degree symbol), is a measurement of a plane angle, defined so that a full rotation is 360 degrees.
Dezhou is a prefecture-level city in northwestern Shandong province, People's Republic of China.
The term district, in the context of China, is used to refer to several unrelated political divisions in both ancient and modern China.
District heating (also known as heat networks or teleheating) is a system for distributing heat generated in a centralized location for residential and commercial heating requirements such as space heating and water heating.
East China or Eastern China is a geographical and a loosely defined cultural region that covers the eastern coastal area of China.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
Feng Yuxiang (6 November 1882 – 1 September 1948) was a warlord and leader in Republican China from Chaohu, Anhui.
In European academic traditions, fine art is art developed primarily for aesthetics or beauty, distinguishing it from applied art, which also has to serve some practical function, such as pottery or most metalwork.
The Five Dragon Pool is a culturally significant pond fed by artesian karst springs in the city of Jinan, Shandong Province, China.
A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms).
The Four Gates Pagoda is a Sui dynasty (581-618 AD) stone Chinese pagoda located in central Shandong Province, China.
The Furong or Water Lily Street is a historical business street located in the central area of the old city of Jinan, Shandong, China.
The Gang of Four was a political faction composed of four Chinese Communist Party officials.
The Grand Canal, known to the Chinese as the Beijing–Hangzhou Grand Canal (Jīng-Háng Dà Yùnhé), a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is the longest as well as one of the oldest canal or artificial river in the world and a famous tourist destination.
The Great Wall of Qi is the oldest existing Great Wall in China.
Greenwich is an area of south east London, England, located east-southeast of Charing Cross.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
Gyeonggi-do (Hangul: 경기도) is the most populous province in South Korea.
The Han Chinese,.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
Han Fuju or Han Fu-chü (1890 – 24 January 1938) was a Kuomintang general in the early 20th century.
Handan is a prefecture-level city located in the southwestern part of Hebei province, China.
The Handan–Jinan railway or Hanji railway is a railway between Handan in Hebei and Jinan in Shandong Province in northern China.
Hebei (postal: Hopeh) is a province of China in the North China region.
Heilongjiang (Wade-Giles: Heilungkiang) is a province of the People's Republic of China.
Honshu is the largest and most populous island of Japan, located south of Hokkaido across the Tsugaru Strait, north of Shikoku across the Inland Sea, and northeast of Kyushu across the Kanmon Straits.
Hu Zongnan (16 May 1896 – 14 February 1962), courtesy name Shoushan (壽山), native of Zhenhai, Ningbo.
Huaiyin District is one of six districts of Jinan, the capital of Shandong province, People's Republic of China, forming part of the city's urban core.
The Hui people (Xiao'erjing: خُوِذُو; Dungan: Хуэйзў, Xuejzw) are an East Asian ethnoreligious group predominantly composed of Han Chinese adherents of the Muslim faith found throughout China, mainly in the northwestern provinces of the country and the Zhongyuan region.
A humid continental climate (Köppen prefix D and a third letter of a or b) is a climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, which is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold in the northern areas) winters.
A humid subtropical climate is a zone of climate characterized by hot and humid summers, and mild to cool winters.
An ingot is a piece of relatively pure material, usually metal, that is cast into a shape suitable for further processing.
In meteorology, an inversion is a deviation from the normal change of an atmospheric property with altitude.
Islam in China has existed through 1,400 years of continuous interaction with Chinese society.
ISO 3166-2:CN is the entry for China in ISO 3166-2, part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), which defines codes for the names of the principal subdivisions (e.g. provinces or states) of all countries coded in ISO 3166-1.
The Ji River was a former river in north-eastern China which gave its name to the towns of Jiyuan and Jinan.
Jin (Old Chinese: *), originally known as Tang (唐), was a major state during the middle part of the Zhou dynasty, based near the centre of what was then China, on the lands attributed to the legendary Xia dynasty: the southern part of modern Shanxi.
The Jin dynasty, officially known as the Great Jin, lasted from 1115 to 1234 as one of the last dynasties in Chinese history to predate the Mongol invasion of China.
The Jin dynasty or the Jin Empire (sometimes distinguished as the or) was a Chinese dynasty traditionally dated from 266 to 420.
Jinan dialect is a Mandarin Chinese dialect spoken in Jinan in Shandong province.
Jinan Foreign Language School (JFLS, or JNFLS) is a foreign language school located in Jinan, China, and is divided into three branches/levels: the junior, senior, and primary branches.
The Jinan (Tsinan) incident (済南事件) or May 3 Tragedy was an armed conflict between the Imperial Japanese Army and the Kuomintang's Northern Expedition army in Jinan (then romanized as Tsinan), the capital of East China's Shandong province in May 1928.
Jinan Metro (Chinese: 济南轨道交通) is a rapid transit system in Jinan (China) currently under construction.
The Jinan Military Region was a PLA Military Region located in the east of the People's Republic of China, covering the Shandong and Henan Provinces, which also form military districts.
Jinan Olympic Sports Center is a sports venue in Jinan, China.
The Jinan railway station is a railway station in Jinan, Shandong, China.
The Jinan West railway station is a high-speed railway station in Jinan, Shandong, People's Republic of China.
Jinan Yaoqiang International Airport is the airport serving Jinan, the capital of Shandong Province, China.
Map showing the Song-Jurchen Jin wars The Jin–Song Wars were a series of conflicts between the Jurchen Jin dynasty (1115–1234) and Han Chinese Song dynasty (960–1279).
Jining is a prefecture-level city in southwestern Shandong province.
Jiyang County is under the administration of Jinan, the capital of Shandong province, People's Republic of China.
Joondalup is a regional metropolitan city within Perth, Western Australia, approximately north of Perth's central business district (CBD).
Noel Joseph Terence Montgomery Needham (9 December 1900 – 24 March 1995) was a British biochemist, historian and sinologist known for his scientific research and writing on the history of Chinese science and technology.
The Jurchen (Manchu: Jušen; 女真, Nǚzhēn), also known by many variant names, were a Tungusic people who inhabited the region of Manchuria until around 1630, at which point they were reformed and combined with their neighbors as the Manchu.
Karst is a topography formed from the dissolution of soluble rocks such as limestone, dolomite, and gypsum.
Kazanlak (Казанлъ̀к, Kazanlǎk, Thracian and Greek Σευθόπολις (Seuthopolis) is a Bulgarian town in Stara Zagora Province, located in the middle of the plain of the same name, at the foot of the Balkan mountain range, at the eastern end of the Rose Valley. It is the administrative centre of the homonymous Kazanlak Municipality. The town is among the 15 biggest industrial centres in Bulgaria, with a population of 47,325 people as of Feb 2011. It is the center of rose oil extraction in Bulgaria and the oil-producing rose of Kazanlak is one of the most widely recognizable national symbols.
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
Kfar Saba (כְּפַר סָבָא), officially Kefar Sava, is a city in the Sharon region, of the Central District of Israel.
Khagan or Qaghan (Old Turkic: kaɣan; хаан, khaan) is a title of imperial rank in the Turkic and Mongolian languages equal to the status of emperor and someone who rules a khaganate (empire).
Kharkiv (Ха́рків), also known as Kharkov (Ха́рьков) from Russian, is the second-largest city in Ukraine.
Kublai (Хубилай, Hubilai; Simplified Chinese: 忽必烈) was the fifth Khagan (Great Khan) of the Mongol Empire (Ikh Mongol Uls), reigning from 1260 to 1294 (although due to the division of the empire this was a nominal position).
The Kuomintang of China (KMT; often translated as the Nationalist Party of China) is a major political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, based in Taipei and is currently the opposition political party in the Legislative Yuan.
Laiwu is a prefecture-level city in central Shandong Province, China.
Lanzhou is the capital and largest city of Gansu Province in Northwest China.
In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface.
Li Qingzhao (1084 – ca 1155/1156, alternatively 1081 – c. 1141), pseudonym Householder of Yi'an (易安居士), was a Chinese writer and poet in the Song dynasty.
Liang Qichao (Cantonese: Lèuhng Kái-chīu; 23 February 1873 – 19 January 1929), courtesy name Zhuoru, art name Rengong, was a Chinese scholar, journalist, philosopher, and reformist who lived during the late Qing dynasty and the early Republic of China.
Liaocheng, also known as the Water City, is a prefecture-level city in western Shandong province, China.
Liaoning is a province of China, located in the northeast of the country.
Licheng District is one of six districts of Jinan, the capital of Shandong province, People's Republic of China, covering part of the eastern suburbs.
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.
Lingyan Temple is a Buddhist temple located in Changqing District, Jinan, Shandong Province, China, about north of the city of Tai'an.
This is a list of the first-level administrative divisions of the People's Republic of China (PRC), including all provinces (except the claimed Taiwan Province), autonomous regions, special administrative regions, and municipalities, in order of their total land area as reported by the national or provincial-level government.
Multiple ethnic groups populate China, where "China" is taken to mean areas controlled by either of the two states using "China" in their formal names, the People's Republic of China (China) and the Republic of China (Taiwan).
Postal codes in the People's Republic of China are postal codes used by China Post for the delivery of letters and goods within mainland China.
This is a list of places in the People's Republic of China having standing links to local communities in other countries.
Liu E (also spelled Liu O; 18 October 1857 – 23 August 1909), courtesy name Tieyun, was a Chinese writer, archaeologist and politician of the late Qing Dynasty.
Lixia District is one of six districts of Jinan, the capital of Shandong province, People's Republic of China, forming part of the city's urban core.
The Longshan (or Lung-shan) culture, also sometimes referred to as the Black Pottery Culture, was a late Neolithic culture in the middle and lower Yellow River valley areas of northern China from about 3000 to 1900 BC.
Lu (c. 1042–249 BC) was a vassal state during the Zhou dynasty of ancient China.
Maharashtra (abbr. MH) is a state in the western region of India and is India's second-most populous state and third-largest state by area.
The Manchu are an ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria derives its name.
Mandarin is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China.
Mangoes are juicy stone fruit (drupe) from numerous species of tropical trees belonging to the flowering plant genus Mangifera, cultivated mostly for their edible fruit.
Mao Zedong (December 26, 1893September 9, 1976), commonly known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who became the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he ruled as the Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976.
Marco Polo (1254January 8–9, 1324) was an Italian merchant, explorer, and writer, born in the Republic of Venice.
Marmaris is a port city and tourist resort on the Mediterranean coast, located in Muğla Province, southwest Turkey, along the shoreline of the Turkish Riviera.
In many countries, a mayor (from the Latin maior, meaning "bigger") is the highest-ranking official in a municipal government such as that of a city or a town.
A metropolitan area, sometimes referred to as a metro area or commuter belt, is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing.
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
A minute of arc, arcminute (arcmin), arc minute, or minute arc is a unit of angular measurement equal to of one degree.
The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
Mount Tai is a mountain of historical and cultural significance located north of the city of Tai'an, in Shandong province, China.
Muğla Province (Muğla ili) is a province of Turkey, at the country's south-western corner, on the Aegean Sea. Its seat is Muğla, about inland, while some of Turkey's largest holiday resorts, such as Bodrum, Ölüdeniz, Marmaris and Fethiye, are on the coast in Muğla.
Nagpur is the winter capital, a sprawling metropolis, and the third largest city of the Indian state of Maharashtra after Mumbai and Pune.
The Nanjing decade (also Nanking decade, Nánjīng shí nián, or The Golden decade, Huángjīn shí nián) is an informal name for the decade from 1927 (or 1928) to 1937 in the Republic of China.
The National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China or NBS is an agency directly under the State Council of the People's Republic of China charged with the collection and publication of statistics related to the economy, population and society of the People's Republic of China at the national and local levels.
Nelumbo is a genus of aquatic plants with large, showy flowers.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
Nizhny Novgorod (p), colloquially shortened to Nizhny, is a city in Russia and the administrative center (capital) of Volga Federal District and Nizhny Novgorod Oblast.
North China (literally "China's north") is a geographical region of China, lying North of the Qinling Huaihe Line.
The Northern Expedition was a military campaign launched by the National Revolutionary Army of the Kuomintang (KMT), also known as the Nationalists, against the Beiyang government and other regional warlords in 1926.
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
Opium (poppy tears, with the scientific name: Lachryma papaveris) is the dried latex obtained from the opium poppy (scientific name: Papaver somniferum).
() is a designated city in the Kansai region of Japan.
The peanut, also known as the groundnut or the goober and taxonomically classified as Arachis hypogaea, is a legume crop grown mainly for its edible seeds.
The Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) is the armed forces of the People's Republic of China (PRC) and Communist Party of China (CPC).
Pig iron is an intermediate product of the iron industry.
Pingyin County is under the administration of Jinan, the capital of Shandong province, People's Republic of China.
(Tok Pisin: Pot Mosbi), also referred to as Pom City or simply Moresby, is the capital and largest city of Papua New Guinea and the largest city in the South Pacific outside of Australia and New Zealand.
Porto Velho (Old Port) is the capital of the Brazilian state of Rondônia, in the upper Amazon River basin, and a Catholic Metropolitan Archbishopric.
Praia (lit. "beach", in both Portuguese and Cape Verdean Creole), is the capital and largest city of Cape Verde, an island nation in the Atlantic Ocean west of Senegal.
Provincial-level administrative divisions or first-level administrative divisions, are the highest-level Chinese administrative divisions.
Pukou District, is one of 11 districts of Nanjing, the capital of Jiangsu province, China, lying northwest across the Yangtze River from downtown Nanjing.
Qi was a state of the Zhou dynasty-era in ancient China, variously reckoned as a march, duchy, and independent kingdom.
Qi Sheng is a Chinese gazetteer written by Yu Qin during the era of the Yuan.
The Qianlong Emperor (25 September 1711 – 7 February 1799) was the sixth emperor of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty, and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China proper.
Qilu University of Technology is a public university in Jinan, Shandong province, China.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
Qingdao (also spelled Tsingtao) is a city in eastern Shandong Province on the east coast of China.
The Qingdao–Jinan railway or Jiaoji railway (formerly the Shantung railway) is a railway in Shandong Province, China.
Qufu is a city in southwestern Shandong Province, China.
Red Guards were a student mass paramilitary social movement mobilized by Mao Zedong in 1966 and 1967, during the Cultural Revolution.
Regina is the capital city of the Canadian province of Saskatchewan.
The renminbi (Ab.: RMB;; sign: 元; code: CNY) is the official currency of the People's Republic of China.
Rennes (Roazhon,; Gallo: Resnn) is a city in the east of Brittany in northwestern France at the confluence of the Ille and the Vilaine.
The Romanization of Chinese is the use of the Latin alphabet to write Chinese.
Rondônia is a state in Brazil, located in the north part of the country.
Sacramento is the capital city of the U.S. state of California and the seat of Sacramento County.
Salix matsudana, the Chinese willow, is a species of willow native to northeastern China.
Santiago (Portuguese for “Saint James”), or Santiagu in Cape Verdean Creole, is the largest island of Cape Verde, its most important agricultural centre and home to half the nation’s population.
The Second Sino-Japanese War was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from July 7, 1937, to September 2, 1945.
Seoul (like soul; 서울), officially the Seoul Special Metropolitan City – is the capital, Constitutional Court of Korea and largest metropolis of South Korea.
Shandong (formerly romanized as Shantung) is a coastal province of the People's Republic of China, and is part of the East China region.
The Shandong Art Museum (山东省美术馆) is an art museum in the Lixia District of Jinan, China.
Shandong cuisine (山東菜), more commonly known in Chinese as Lu cuisine, is one of the Eight Culinary Traditions of Chinese cuisine and one of the Four Great Traditions.
Shandong Experimental High School is a provincial key high school, the first experimental high school, founded in October 1948 in Shandong Province.
The Shandong Hi-Speed Golden Stars or Shandong Hi-Speed or Shandong Golden Stars are a Chinese professional basketball team based in Jinan, Shandong, which plays in the Northern Division of the Chinese Basketball Association.
Shandong Luneng Taishan is a professional football club that currently participates in the Chinese Super League under licence from the Chinese Football Association (CFA).
The Shandong Museum is the principal museum of Shandong Province.
Shandong Normal University (English acronym SDNU) is a university located in Jinan City, Shandong Province, China.
Shandong Iron and Steel Group Co Ltd, commonly known as Shandong Steel, is a Chinese steel company based in Jinan.
Shandong University (abbreviated as Shanda,, English acronym SDU) is a public comprehensive university in Shandong, China.
Shandong University of Finance and Economics is a post-secondary institution of education in Jinan, Shandong province, China.
Shandong University of Science and Technology (abbreviated SDUST) established in 1951 is a university in Shandong province, China.
Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine (SDUTCM) is a university based in Jinan City, Shandong Province, China.
Shandong Women's University is a women's university in Jinan, Shandong.
Shanghai (Wu Chinese) is one of the four direct-controlled municipalities of China and the most populous city proper in the world, with a population of more than 24 million.
Shanghe County is under the administration of Jinan, the capital of Shandong province, People's Republic of China.
Shijiazhuang is the capital and largest city of North China's Hebei Province.
Shizhong District is one of six districts of Jinan, the capital of Shandong province, People's Republic of China, forming part of the city's urban core.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
Sinology or Chinese studies is the academic study of China primarily through Chinese language, literature, Chinese culture and history, and often refers to Western scholarship.
Sofitel Hotels & Resorts is a chain of luxury hotels based in Paris, France, and owned by AccorHotels since 1980.
The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.
A spring is any natural situation where water flows from an aquifer to the Earth's surface.
The Spring and Autumn period was a period in Chinese history from approximately 771 to 476 BC (or according to some authorities until 403 BC) which corresponds roughly to the first half of the Eastern Zhou Period.
The Quancheng (Spring City) Square (泉城广场) is a square in central Jinan, the capital of China's Shandong Province which is known as the "Spring City".
Stara Zagora (Област Стара Загора oblast Stara Zagora, former name Stara Zagora okrug) is a province of south central Bulgaria.
A sub-provincial division (or deputy-provincial divisions) in the People's Republic of China is like a prefecture-level city that is governed by a province, but is administered independently in regard to economy and law.
Subdistrict is a low-level administrative division of a district.
Sulfur dioxide (also sulphur dioxide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula.
Suwon (Hangul: 수원, Hanja: 水原) is the capital and largest metropolis of Gyeonggi-do, South Korea's most populous province which surrounds Seoul, the national capital. Suwon lies about south of Seoul. It is traditionally known as "The City of Filial Piety". With a population close to 1.2 million, it is larger than Ulsan, although it is not governed as a metropolitan city. Suwon has existed in various forms throughout Korea's history, growing from a small settlement to become a major industrial and cultural center. It is the only remaining completely walled city in South Korea. The city walls are one of the more popular tourist destinations in Gyeonggi Province. Samsung Electronics R&D center and headquarters are in Suwon. The city is served by two motorways, the national railway network, and the Seoul Metropolitan Subway. Suwon is a major educational center, home to 11 universities. Suwon is home to football club Suwon Samsung Bluewings, which have won the K League on four occasions and AFC Champions League twice. The KT Wiz of the Korea Baseball Organization also plays in Suwon.
Tai'an is a prefecture-level city in western Shandong province of the People's Republic of China.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
Taiyuan (also known as Bīng (并), Jìnyáng (晋阳)) is the capital and largest city of Shanxi province in North China.
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
Telephone numbers in China are organized and assigned according to the Chinese Telephone Code Plan of mainland China.
Terrain or relief (also topographical relief) involves the vertical and horizontal dimensions of land surface.
The People's Liberation Army uses a system of theater commands, of which there are now five.
The Thousand Buddha Mountain is a hill located southeast of the city of Jinan, the capital of Shandong Province, China.
The Thousand-Buddha Cliff is a historical site of mostly Tang Dynasty rock carvings in central Shandong Province, China.
The term Three Furnaces refers to the especially hot and oppressively humid summer weather in several major cities in the Yangtze River Valley, within China.
The Three Kingdoms (220–280) was the tripartite division of China between the states of Wei (魏), Shu (蜀), and Wu (吳).
Tianjin, formerly romanized as Tientsin, is a coastal metropolis in northern China and one of the four national central cities of the People's Republic of China (PRC), with a total population of 15,469,500, and is also the world's 11th-most populous city proper.
The Tianjin–Pukou or Jinpu railway runs from Tianjin to Pukou outside Nanjing in Jiangsu province.
Tianqiao District is one of six districts of Jinan, the capital of Shandong province, People's Republic of China, forming part of the city's urban core.
The time in China follows a single standard time offset of UTC+08:00 (eight hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time), despite China spanning five geographical time zones.
Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them.
The Tomb of the Jibei King is a tomb from the time of the Western Han Dynasty in Changqing District of Jinan, Shandong Province, China.
When referring to political divisions of China, town is the standard English translation of the Chinese 镇 (traditional: 鎮). The Constitution of the People’s Republic of China currently classifies towns as third-level administrative units, along with townships and ethnic minority townships (The State Council, 2014).
Townships, formally township-level divisions, are the basic level (fourth-level administrative units) of political divisions in China.
In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated stem, or trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species.
A trolleybus (also known as trolley bus, trolley coach, trackless trolley, trackless tram Joyce, J.; King, J. S.; and Newman, A. G. (1986). British Trolleybus Systems, pp. 9, 12. London: Ian Allan Publishing.. or trolleyDunbar, Charles S. (1967). Buses, Trolleys & Trams. Paul Hamlyn Ltd. (UK). Republished 2004 with or 9780753709702.) is an electric bus that draws power from overhead wires (generally suspended from roadside posts) using spring-loaded trolley poles.
The Jinan Public Trolleybus System serves the city of Jinan, in the province of Shandong, China.
Tsinghua University (abbreviated THU;; also romanized as Qinghua) is a major research university in Beijing, China and a member of the elite C9 League of Chinese universities.
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.
The University of Jinan (UJN;; colloquially 济大, pinyin: Jǐdà), located in Jinan City, Shandong Province, China, is a key and comprehensive provincial university.
Uusimaa (Nyland,;; both lit. “new land”) is a region of Finland.
Vantaa (Vanda) is a city and municipality in Finland.
Vehicle registration plates in China are mandatory metal or plastic plates attached to motor vehicles in mainland China for official identification purposes.
Vitebsk, or Vitsebsk (Ві́цебск, Łacinka: Viciebsk,; Витебск,, Vitebskas), is a city in Belarus.
Wade–Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization system for Mandarin Chinese.
is the capital city of Wakayama Prefecture in the Kansai region of Japan.
Wang Yaowu (1904–1968) was a high-ranking KMT general and the Governor of Shandong Province who successfully fought against both the Imperial Japanese Army and the Chinese Communists.
The Warlord Era (19161928) was a period in the history of the Republic of China when the control of the country was divided among former military cliques of the Beiyang Army and other regional factions, which was spread across in the mainland regions of Sichuan, Shanxi, Qinghai, Ningxia, Guangdong, Guangxi, Gansu, Yunnan, and Xinjiang.
The Warring States period was an era in ancient Chinese history of warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation, following the Spring and Autumn period and concluding with the Qin wars of conquest that saw the annexation of all other contender states, which ultimately led to the Qin state's victory in 221 BC as the first unified Chinese empire known as the Qin dynasty.
Weifang is a prefecture-level city in central Shandong province, People's Republic of China.
Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a state occupying the entire western third of Australia.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
Wu Huawen (1904–1962) was a military commander during the Second Sino-Japanese War and the Chinese Civil War.
The Wu Xing, also known as the Five Elements, Five Phases, the Five Agents, the Five Movements, Five Processes, the Five Steps/Stages and the Five Planets of significant gravity: Jupiter-木, Saturn-土, Mercury-水, Venus-金, Mars-火Dr Zai, J..
Xin Qiji (28 May 1140 – 1207) was a Chinese poet and military leader during the Southern Song dynasty.
Xinhua News Agency (English pronunciation: J. C. Wells: Longman Pronunciation Dictionary, 3rd ed., for both British and American English) or New China News Agency is the official state-run press agency of the People's Republic of China.
Xuanzang (fl. c. 602 – 664) was a Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveller, and translator who travelled to India in the seventh century and described the interaction between Chinese Buddhism and Indian Buddhism during the early Tang dynasty.
is the capital city of Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan.
Yan Xishan; 8 October 1883 – 22 July 1960) was a Chinese warlord who served in the government of the Republic of China. He effectively controlled the province of Shanxi from the 1911 Xinhai Revolution to the 1949 Communist victory in the Chinese Civil War. As the leader of a relatively small, poor, remote province, he survived the machinations of Yuan Shikai, the Warlord Era, the Nationalist Era, the Japanese invasion of China and the subsequent civil war, being forced from office only when the Nationalist armies with which he was aligned had completely lost control of the Chinese mainland, isolating Shanxi from any source of economic or military supply. He has been viewed by Western biographers as a transitional figure who advocated using Western technology to protect Chinese traditions, while at the same time reforming older political, social and economic conditions in a way that paved the way for the radical changes that would occur after his rule.Gillin The Journal of Asian Studies 289.
Yao Wenyuan (January 12, 1931 – December 23, 2005) was a Chinese literary critic, a politician, and a member of the Gang of Four during China's Cultural Revolution.
The Yellow River or Huang He is the second longest river in Asia, after the Yangtze River, and the sixth longest river system in the world at the estimated length of.
In Chinese philosophy, yin and yang (and; 陽 yīnyáng, lit. "dark-bright", "negative-positive") describes how seemingly opposite or contrary forces may actually be complementary, interconnected, and interdependent in the natural world, and how they may give rise to each other as they interrelate to one another.
Yu Qin (1284–1333) was a well-known Chinese geographer living in the Mongol Yuan Dynasty.
The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan (Yehe Yuan Ulus), was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan.
Zaozhuang is a prefecture-level city in the south of Shandong province, People's Republic of China.
Zhang Chunqiao (1 February 1917 – 21 April 2005) was a prominent Chinese political theorist, writer, and politician.
Zhang Zongchang (13 February 1881 – 3 September 1932), nicknamed the "Dogmeat General" and "72-Cannon Chang", was a Chinese warlord in Shandong in the early 20th century.
Zhangqiu is a district under the jurisdiction of Jinan, the capital of Shandong province, People's Republic of China.
Zhao Mengfu (courtesy name Zi'ang (子昂); pseudonyms Songxue (松雪, "Pine Snow"), Oubo (鸥波, "Gull Waves"), and Shuijing-gong Dao-ren (水精宫道人, "Master of the Crystal Palace"); 1254–1322), was a descendant of the Song Dynasty's imperial family, and a Chinese scholar, painter and calligrapher during the Yuan Dynasty.
Zhenbao Island or Damansky Island (о́стров Дама́нский, ostrov Damanskiy) is a small island measuring.
Zhengzhou is the capital of Henan Province in the central part of the People's Republic of China.
The Zhou dynasty or the Zhou Kingdom was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang dynasty and preceded the Qin dynasty.
Zibo (pronounced) is a prefecture-level city in central Shandong province, China.
Zou Yan (305240 BC) was an ancient Chinese philosopher best known as the representative thinker of the Yin and Yang School (or School of Naturalists) during the Hundred Schools of Thought era in Chinese philosophy.
The Xingtai earthquake was a sequence of major earthquakes that took place between March 8 and March 29, 1966, in the area administered by the prefecture-level city of Xingtai in southern Hebei province, People's Republic of China.
The 2008 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad and commonly known as Beijing 2008, was an international multi-sport event that was held from 8 to 24 August 2008 in Beijing, China.
The 11th National Games of China were held in various cities in Shandong from October 16 to October 28, 2009.
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