201 relations: Abjuration, Agustina de Aragón, André César Vermare, André de Laval-Montmorency, Anglican Communion, Anne of Burgundy, Archangel, Archery, Archives Nationales (France), Armagnac (party), Armour, Arras, Auxerre, Battle, Battle of Agincourt, Battle of Beaugency (1429), Battle of Jargeau, Battle of Meung-sur-Loire, Battle of Patay, Battle of the Herrings, Beatification, Beaugency, Beauvais, Bernard VII, Count of Armagnac, Bertrand de Poulengy, Black Death, Burgundian (party), Canonization, Capital punishment, Catherine of Alexandria, Catholic Church, Catholic Encyclopedia, Catholic League (French), Charles VI of France, Charles VII of France, Charles, Duke of Orléans, Château de Chinon, Chevauchée, Chinon, Christine de Pizan, Compiègne, Congress of Arras, Council of Florence, Council of war, Crossbow bolt, Crucifix, Cultural depictions of Joan of Arc, Dauphin of France, Death by burning, Denis, ..., Djamila Bouhired, Domrémy-la-Pucelle, Dual monarchy of England and France, Duchy of Bar, Duchy of Lorraine, Duke of Burgundy, Duke of Orléans, Ecclesiology, Edward Shepherd Creasy, Egypt, Elizabeth II, English claims to the French throne, English longbow, Epilepsy, Félix Dupanloup, France in the Middle Ages, French cruiser Jeanne d'Arc (R97), French Navy, Garches, George Bernard Shaw, Georges de La Trémoille, Gien, Gilles de Rais, Google Books, Grand Chamberlain of France, Guerlain, Guy XIV de Laval, Henry Beaufort, Henry V of England, Henry VI of England, Heresy, Heresy in Christianity, History of far-right movements in France, Holy Roman Empire, Holy Spirit in Christianity, Hundred Years' War, Hundred Years' War (1415–53), Hussites, Hymen, Indulgence, Isabeau of Bavaria, Isabelle Romée, Jacques d'Arc, Jan Matejko, Jean Bréhal, Jean de Dunois, Jean de Metz, Jean Gerson, Jean II, Duke of Alençon, Jean Patou, Jean V de Bueil, Joan of Arc (Dubois), Joan of Arc by Herself and Her Witnesses, Joan of Arc's Answer Song, Joan of Arc, They Are Calling You, Joan, Countess of Ligny, Joanna of Flanders, John Fastolf, John II of Luxembourg, Count of Ligny, John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford, John the Fearless, Jurisdiction, List of rectors of the University of Paris, Livre tournois, Loire, Loire Campaign (1429), Lord's Prayer, Louis I, Duke of Orléans, Louis IX of France, Macrohistory, Madeleine de Verchères, Maid of Lorraine prophecies, María Pita, March to Reims, Margaret the Virgin, Marie of Anjou, Martin of Tours, Martyr, Medieval demography, Meuse, Michael (archangel), Migraine, Mummy, Napoleon, National Liberation Front (Algeria), National Rally (France), Nature (journal), New France, Normandy, Notre-Dame de Paris, Orléans, Orthodoxy, Panegyric, Paris, Pasteurization, Patron saint, Peasant, Pharmacopoeia, Philip the Good, Pierre Cauchon, Pierronne, Pilgrimage, Poitiers, Pope Benedict XV, Pope Callixtus III, Pope Pius X, Puy du Fou, Radegund, Radiocarbon dating, Regent, Reims, Reims Cathedral, Revelation, Robert de Baudricourt, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Embrun, Rouen, Saint, Saint Joan (play), Saint Joan of Arc (Sackville-West), Saint Petronilla, Saint Remigius, Saint-Jean-de-Braye, Saint-Jean-le-Blanc, Loiret, Schizophrenia, Scorched earth, Secularism, Seine, Siege of Compiègne, Siege of La Charité, Siege of Orléans, Siege of Paris (1429), Siege of Saint-Pierre-le-Moûtier, Sorbonne, Spectroscopy, St. Peter's Basilica, Sword, Thérèse of Lisieux, The Fifteen Decisive Battles of the World, The Guardian, The Outlook (New York City), The Sunday Times, Thomas Aquinas, Timeline of Joan of Arc, Treaty of Troyes, Troyes, Tuberculosis, Vaucouleurs, WAVES, Women's Army Corps, World War I, Yolande of Aragon. Expand index (151 more) » « Shrink index
Abjuration is the solemn repudiation, abandonment, or renunciation by or upon oath, often the renunciation of citizenship or some other right or privilege.
Agustina Raimunda María Zaragoza y Domenech or Agustina of Aragón (March 4, 1786 – May 29, 1857) was a Spanish heroine who defended Spain during the Peninsular War, first as a civilian and later as a professional officer in the Spanish Army.
André-César Vermare was a French sculptor, born in Lyon in 1869.
André de Laval-Montmorency, seigneur de Lohéac (1485) was a Marshal of France.
The Anglican Communion is the third largest Christian communion with 85 million members, founded in 1867 in London, England.
Anne of Burgundy, Duchess of Bedford (Anne de Bourgogne) (30 September 1404 – 14 November 1432) was a daughter of John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy (1371–1419) and his wife Margaret of Bavaria (1363–1423).
An archangel is an angel of high rank.
Archery is the art, sport, practice or skill of using a bow to shoot arrows.
The Archives Nationales (Archives nationales de France), also known as the French Archives or the National Archives, preserve France's official archives apart from the archives of the Ministry of Defence and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, as these two ministries have their own archive services, the Defence Historical Service (Service historique de la défense) and the Diplomatic Archives (Archives diplomatiques) respectively.
The Armagnac Faction was prominent in French politics and warfare during the Hundred Years' War.
Armour (British English or Canadian English) or armor (American English; see spelling differences) is a protective covering that is used to prevent damage from being inflicted to an object, individual or vehicle by direct contact weapons or projectiles, usually during combat, or from damage caused by a potentially dangerous environment or activity (e.g., cycling, construction sites, etc.). Personal armour is used to protect soldiers and war animals.
Arras (Atrecht) is the capital (chef-lieu/préfecture) of the Pas-de-Calais department, which forms part of the region of Hauts-de-France; prior to the reorganization of 2014 it was located in Nord-Pas-de-Calais.
Auxerre is the capital of the Yonne department and the fourth-largest city in Burgundy.
A battle is a combat in warfare between two or more armed forces, or combatants.
The Battle of Agincourt (Azincourt) was a major English victory in the Hundred Years' War.
The Battle of Beaugency took place on 16 and 17 June 1429.
The Battle of Jargeau took place on 11–12 June 1429.
The Battle of Meung-sur-Loire took place on 15 June 1429.
The Battle of Patay (18 June 1429) was the culminating engagement of the Loire Campaign of the Hundred Years' War between the French and English in north-central France.
The Battle of the Herrings was a military action near the town of Rouvray in France, just north of Orléans, which took place on 12 February 1429 during the siege of Orléans.
Beatification (from Latin beatus, "blessed" and facere, "to make") is a recognition accorded by the Catholic Church of a dead person's entrance into Heaven and capacity to intercede on behalf of individuals who pray in his or her name.
Beaugency is a commune in the Loiret department in north-central France.
Beauvais archaic English: Beawayes, Beeway, Boway, is a city and commune in northern France.
Bernard VII, Count of Armagnac (1360 – 12 June 1418) was Count of Armagnac and Constable of France.
Bertrand de Poulengy or Polongy, nicknamed Pollichon, was said to be born in 1392, somewhere in the Champagne region of France.
The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague, the Black Plague, or simply the Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.
The Burgundian party was a political allegiance against France that formed during the latter half of the Hundred Years' War.
Canonization is the act by which a Christian church declares that a person who has died was a saint, upon which declaration the person is included in the "canon", or list, of recognized saints.
Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime.
Saint Catherine of Alexandria, or Saint Catharine of Alexandria, also known as Saint Catherine of the Wheel and The Great Martyr Saint Catherine (Ϯⲁⲅⲓⲁ Ⲕⲁⲧⲧⲣⲓⲛ, ἡ Ἁγία Αἰκατερίνη ἡ Μεγαλομάρτυς – translation: Holy Catherine the Great Martyr) is, according to tradition, a Christian saint and virgin, who was martyred in the early 4th century at the hands of the pagan emperor Maxentius.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Catholic Encyclopedia: An International Work of Reference on the Constitution, Doctrine, Discipline, and History of the Catholic Church, also referred to as the Old Catholic Encyclopedia and the Original Catholic Encyclopedia, is an English-language encyclopedia published in the United States and designed to serve the Roman Catholic Church.
The Catholic League of France (Ligue catholique), sometimes referred to by contemporary (and modern) Catholics as the Holy League (La Sainte Ligue), was a major participant in the French Wars of Religion.
Charles VI (3 December 1368 – 21 October 1422), called the Beloved (le Bien-Aimé) and the Mad (le Fol or le Fou), was King of France for 42 years from 1380 to his death in 1422.
Charles VII (22 February 1403 – 22 July 1461), called the Victorious (le Victorieux)Charles VII, King of France, Encyclopedia of the Hundred Years War, ed.
Charles of Orléans (24 November 1394 – 5 January 1465) was Duke of Orléans from 1407, following the murder of his father, Louis I, Duke of Orléans, on the orders of John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy.
Château de Chinon is a castle located on the bank of the Vienne river in Chinon, France.
A chevauchée ("promenade" or "horse charge", depending on context) was a raiding method of medieval warfare for weakening the enemy, primarily by burning and pillaging enemy territory in order to reduce the productivity of a region, as opposed to siege warfare or wars of conquest.
Chinon is a commune located in the Indre-et-Loire department in the Region Centre, France.
Christine de Pizan (also seen as de Pisan;; 1364 – c. 1430) was an Italian late medieval author.
Compiègne is a commune in the Oise department in northern France.
The Congress of Arras was a diplomatic congregation established in Arras in the summer of 1435 between representatives of England, France, and Burgundy.
The Seventeenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church was convoked as the Council of Basel by Pope Martin V shortly before his death in February 1431 and took place in the context of the Hussite wars in Bohemia and the rise of the Ottoman Empire.
A council of war is a term in military science that describes a meeting held to decide on a course of action, usually in the midst of a battle.
A quarrel or bolt is the arrow used in a crossbow.
A crucifix (from Latin cruci fixus meaning "(one) fixed to a cross") is an image of Jesus on the cross, as distinct from a bare cross.
Joan of Arc (Jeanne d'Arc in French) has inspired artistic and cultural works for nearly six centuries.
The Dauphin of France (Dauphin de France)—strictly The Dauphin of Viennois (Dauphin de Viennois)—was the dynastic title given to the heir apparent to the throne of France from 1350 to 1791 and 1824 to 1830.
Deliberately causing death through the effects of combustion, or effects of exposure to extreme heat, has a long history as a form of capital punishment.
Saint Denis was a legendary 3rd-century Christian martyr and saint.
Djamila Bouhired (جميلة بوحيرد, born c. 1935) is an Algerian militant.
Domrémy-la-Pucelle literally "Domrémy the maiden" in reference to Joan of Arc, is a commune in the Vosges department in Grand Est in northeastern France.
The dual monarchy of England and France existed during the latter phase of the Hundred Years' War when Charles VII of France and Henry VI of England disputed the succession to the throne of France.
The County of Bar, from 1354 the Duchy of Bar, was a principality of the Holy Roman Empire encompassing the pays de Barrois and centred on the city of Bar-le-Duc.
The Duchy of Lorraine (Lorraine; Lothringen), originally Upper Lorraine, was a duchy now included in the larger present-day region of Lorraine in northeastern France.
Duke of Burgundy (duc de Bourgogne) was a title borne by the rulers of the Duchy of Burgundy, a small portion of traditional lands of Burgundians west of river Saône which in 843 was allotted to Charles the Bald's kingdom of West Franks.
Duke of Orléans (Duc d'Orléans) was a title reserved for French royalty, first created in 1344 by Philip VI in favor of his son Philip of Valois.
In Christian theology, ecclesiology is the study of the Christian Church, the origins of Christianity, its relationship to Jesus, its role in salvation, its polity, its discipline, its destiny, and its leadership.
Sir Edward Shepherd Creasy (12 September 1812 – 17 January 1878) was an English historian and jurist.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.
From the 1340s to the 19th century, excluding two brief intervals in the 1360s and the 1420s, the kings and queens of England (and, later, of Great Britain) also claimed the throne of France.
The English longbow was a powerful medieval type of longbow (a tall bow for archery) about long used by the English and Welsh for hunting and as a weapon in medieval warfare.
Epilepsy is a group of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures.
Mgr. Félix Antoine Philibert Dupanloup (3 January 180211 October 1878) was a French ecclesiastic.
The Kingdom of France in the Middle Ages (roughly, from the 9th century to the middle of the 15th century) was marked by the fragmentation of the Carolingian Empire and West Francia (843–987); the expansion of royal control by the House of Capet (987–1328), including their struggles with the virtually independent principalities (duchies and counties, such as the Norman and Angevin regions) that had developed following the Viking invasions and through the piecemeal dismantling of the Carolingian Empire and the creation and extension of administrative/state control (notably under Philip II Augustus and Louis IX) in the 13th century; and the rise of the House of Valois (1328–1589), including the protracted dynastic crisis of the Hundred Years' War with the Kingdom of England (1337–1453) compounded by the catastrophic Black Death epidemic (1348), which laid the seeds for a more centralized and expanded state in the early modern period and the creation of a sense of French identity.
Jeanne d'Arc was a helicopter cruiser of the French Navy.
The French Navy (Marine Nationale), informally "La Royale", is the maritime arm of the French Armed Forces.
Garches is a commune in the western suburbs of Paris, France.
George Bernard Shaw (26 July 1856 – 2 November 1950), known at his insistence simply as Bernard Shaw, was an Irish playwright, critic, polemicist, and political activist.
Georges de la Trémoille (c.1382 –6 May 1446) was Count de Guînes from 1398 to 1446 and Grand Chamberlain of France to King Charles VII of France.
Gien is a commune in the Loiret department in north-central France.
Gilles de Montmorency-Laval (prob. c. September 1405 – 26 October 1440), Baron de Rais, was a knight and lord from Brittany, Anjou and Poitou, a leader in the French army, and a companion-in-arms of Joan of Arc.
Google Books (previously known as Google Book Search and Google Print and by its codename Project Ocean) is a service from Google Inc. that searches the full text of books and magazines that Google has scanned, converted to text using optical character recognition (OCR), and stored in its digital database.
The Grand Chamberlain of France (French: Grand Chambellan de France) was one of the Great Officers of the Crown of France, a member of the Maison du Roi ("King's Household"), and one of the Great Offices of the Maison du Roi during the Ancien Régime.
Guerlain is a French perfume, cosmetics and skincare house, which is among the oldest in the world.
Guy XIV de Laval, François de Montfort-Laval, (28 January 1406 – 2 September 1486, Châteaubriant), comte de Laval, baron de Vitré and of La Roche-Bernard, seigneur of Gâvre, of Acquigny, of Tinténiac, of Montfort and Gaël, of Bécherel, was a French nobleman, known for his account of Joan of Arc.
Henry Beaufort (c. 1375 – 11 April 1447) was a medieval English clergyman, Bishop of Lincoln (1398) and then Winchester (1404) and from 1426 a Cardinal.
Henry V (9 August 1386 – 31 August 1422) was King of England from 1413 until his death at the age of 36 in 1422.
Henry VI (6 December 1421 – 21 May 1471) was King of England from 1422 to 1461 and again from 1470 to 1471, and disputed King of France from 1422 to 1453.
Heresy is any belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs, in particular the accepted beliefs of a church or religious organization.
When heresy is used today with reference to Christianity, it denotes the formal denial or doubt of a core doctrine of the Christian faithJ.D Douglas (ed).
The far-right tradition in France finds its origins in the Third Republic with Boulangism and the Dreyfus Affair.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
For the majority of Christian denominations, the Holy Spirit or Holy Ghost is the third person (hypostasis) of the Trinity: the Triune God manifested as God the Father, God the Son, and the Holy Spirit; each person itself being God.
The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflicts waged from 1337 to 1453 by the House of Plantagenet, rulers of the Kingdom of England, against the House of Valois, over the right to rule the Kingdom of France.
The Lancastrian War was the third phase of the Anglo-French Hundred Years' War.
The Hussites (Husité or Kališníci; "Chalice People") were a pre-Protestant Christian movement that followed the teachings of Czech reformer Jan Hus, who became the best known representative of the Bohemian Reformation.
The hymen is a membrane that surrounds or partially covers the external vaginal opening.
In the teaching of the Roman Catholic Church, an indulgence (from *dulgeō, "persist") is "a way to reduce the amount of punishment one has to undergo for sins." It may reduce the "temporal punishment for sin" after death (as opposed to the eternal punishment merited by mortal sin), in the state or process of purification called Purgatory.
Isabeau of Bavaria (or Isabelle; also Elisabeth of Bavaria-Ingolstadt; c. 1370 – 24 September 1435) was born into the House of Wittelsbach as the eldest daughter of Duke Stephen III of Bavaria-Ingolstadt and Taddea Visconti of Milan.
Isabelle Romée, also known as Isabelle de Vouthon and Isabelle d'Arc (1377–1458) and Ysabeau Romee, was the mother of Joan of Arc.
Jacques d'Arc or Darc (1380–1440) was a farmer in the village of Domrémy in Lorraine, and the father of the French heroine and Roman Catholic sainte Jeanne d'Arc, better known in English as Joan of Arc.
Jan Alojzy Matejko (also known as Jan Mateyko; June 24, 1838 – November 1, 1893) was a Polish painter known for paintings of notable historical Polish political and military events.
Jean Bréhal OP was the inquisitor-general of France who led the effort to rehabilitate Joan of Arc.
Jean de Dunois (23 November 1402 – 24 November 1468), also called John of Orléans and Jean de Duno (Jean d'Orléans), was the illegitimate son of Louis I, Duke of Orléans, by Mariette d'Enghien.
Jean de Metz (also Jean de Nouillonpont) (born c. 1398) was a French nobleman who is known primarily for his role in the exploits of Joan of Arc.
Jean Charlier de Gerson (13 December 1363 – 12 July 1429) was a French scholar, educator, reformer, and poet, Chancellor of the University of Paris, a guiding light of the conciliar movement and one of the most prominent theologians at the Council of Constance.
John II of Alençon (2 March 1409, Château d'Argentan – 8 September 1476, Paris) was the son of John I of Alençon and his wife Marie of Brittany, Lady of La Guerche (1391–1446), daughter of John V, Duke of Brittany and Joan of Navarre.
Jean Patou (19 August 1880 - 8 March 1936) was a French fashion designer and founder of the Jean Patou brand.
Jean V de Bueil (1406–1477), called le Fléau des Anglais "plague of the English", count of Sancerre, viscount of Carentan, lord of Montrésor, Château-la-Vallière, Saint-Calais, Vaujours, Ussé and Vailly, son of Jean IV de Bueil and Margarete Dauphine of Auvergne.
Joan of Arc is a public artwork by Paul Dubois, located at Meridian Hill Park in Washington, D.C., United States of America.
Joan of Arc By Herself and Her Witnesses is a translation of a 1962 book about Joan of Arc by Régine Pernoud.
Joan of Arc's Answer Song is a World War I song released in 1918.
"Joan of Arc, They Are Calling You" is a 1917 song composed by Jack Wells, and with lyrics written by Al Bryan and Willie Weston.
Joan, Countess of Saint-Pol and Ligny (d. 18 September 1430, Avignon), called the Demoiselle de Luxembourg, was the daughter of Guy of Luxembourg, Count of Ligny and Mahaut of Châtillon, Countess of Saint-Pol.
Joanna of Flanders (c. 1295 – September 1374) was Duchess of Brittany by her marriage to John of Montfort.
Sir John Fastolf KG (1380 – 5 November 1459) was a medieval English warrior, knight, and landowner, who was active during the Hundred Years' War in France.
John II of Luxembourg, Count of Ligny (1392 – 5 January 1441, Guise) was a French nobleman and soldier, a younger son of John of Luxembourg, Lord of Beauvoir and Marguerite of Enghien.
John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford, KG (20 June 138914 September 1435), was a medieval English nobleman, soldier, and statesman.
John (28 May 1371 – 10 September 1419), called John "the Fearless" (Jean sans Peur; Jan zonder Vrees), was Duke of Burgundy as John I from 1404 until his death, succeeding his father Philip.
Jurisdiction (from the Latin ius, iuris meaning "law" and dicere meaning "to speak") is the practical authority granted to a legal body to administer justice within a defined field of responsibility, e.g., Michigan tax law.
This is a list of rectors of the University of Paris (the Sorbonne), a foundation of the middle of the twelfth century with a charter from 1200.
The livre tournois (Tours pound) was.
The Loire (Léger; Liger) is the longest river in France and the 171st longest in the world.
The Loire Campaign was a campaign launched by Joan of Arc during the Hundred Years' War.
The Lord's Prayer (also called the Our Father, Pater Noster, or the Model Prayer) is a venerated Christian prayer which, according to the New Testament, Jesus taught as the way to pray: Two versions of this prayer are recorded in the gospels: a longer form within the Sermon on the Mount in the Gospel of Matthew, and a shorter form in the Gospel of Luke when "one of his disciples said to him, 'Lord, teach us to pray, as John taught his disciples.'" Lutheran theologian Harold Buls suggested that both were original, the Matthaen version spoken by Jesus early in his ministry in Galilee, and the Lucan version one year later, "very likely in Judea".
Louis I of Orléans (13 March 1372 – 23 November 1407) was Duke of Orléans from 1392 to his death.
Louis IX (25 April 1214 – 25 August 1270), commonly known as Saint Louis, was King of France and is a canonized Catholic and Anglican saint.
Macrohistory seeks out large, long-term trends in world history, searching for ultimate patterns through a comparison of proximate details.
Marie-Madeleine Jarret, known as Madeleine de Verchères ((); 3 March 1678 – 8 August 1747) was a woman of New France (modern Quebec) credited with thwarting a raid on Fort Verchères when she was 14 years old.
For some years before and around the time of activity of Joan of Arc, a number of vague prophecies concerning a young Maid who would save France were circulating.
María Mayor Fernández de Cámara y Pita (Sigrás, 1565–1643), known as María Pita, was a Galician heroine in the defense of Coruña, northern Spain, against an English attack upon the Spanish mainland in 1589.
After the lifting of the siege of Orléans and the decisive French victory at the Battle of Patay, the Anglo-Burgundian noose was loosened.
Margaret, known as Margaret of Antioch in the West, and as (Ἁγία Μαρίνα) in the East, is celebrated as a saint on July 20 in the Western Rite Orthodox, Roman Catholic and Anglican Churches, on July 17 (Julian calendar) by the Eastern-Rite Orthodox Church and on Epip 23 and Hathor 23 in the Coptic Churchs.
Marie of Anjou (14 October 1404 – 29 November 1463) was Queen of France as the spouse of King Charles VII from 1422 to 1461.
Saint Martin of Tours (Sanctus Martinus Turonensis; 316 or 336 – 8 November 397) was Bishop of Tours, whose shrine in France became a famous stopping-point for pilgrims on the road to Santiago de Compostela in Spain.
A martyr (Greek: μάρτυς, mártys, "witness"; stem μάρτυρ-, mártyr-) is someone who suffers persecution and death for advocating, renouncing, refusing to renounce, or refusing to advocate a belief or cause as demanded by an external party.
Medieval demography is the study of human demography in Europe and the Mediterranean during the Middle Ages.
The Meuse (la Meuse; Walloon: Moûze) or Maas (Maas; Maos or Maas) is a major European river, rising in France and flowing through Belgium and the Netherlands before draining into the North Sea.
Michael (translit; translit; Michahel;ⲙⲓⲭⲁⲏⲗ, translit) is an archangel in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.
A migraine is a primary headache disorder characterized by recurrent headaches that are moderate to severe.
A mummy is a deceased human or an animal whose skin and organs have been preserved by either intentional or accidental exposure to chemicals, extreme cold, very low humidity, or lack of air, so that the recovered body does not decay further if kept in cool and dry conditions.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The National Liberation Front (جبهة التحرير الوطني Jabhatu l-Taḥrīru l-Waṭanī; Front de libération nationale, FLN) is a socialist political party in Algeria.
The National Rally (Rassemblement national, RN), formerly known as the National Front (Front national,; FN) until 2018, is a right-wing populist and nationalist political party in France.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
New France (Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France in North America during a period beginning with the exploration of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Great Britain and Spain in 1763.
Normandy (Normandie,, Norman: Normaundie, from Old French Normanz, plural of Normant, originally from the word for "northman" in several Scandinavian languages) is one of the 18 regions of France, roughly referring to the historical Duchy of Normandy.
Notre-Dame de Paris (meaning "Our Lady of Paris"), also known as Notre-Dame Cathedral or simply Notre-Dame, is a medieval Catholic cathedral on the Île de la Cité in the fourth arrondissement of Paris, France.
Orléans is a prefecture and commune in north-central France, about 111 kilometres (69 miles) southwest of Paris.
Orthodoxy (from Greek ὀρθοδοξία orthodoxía "right opinion") is adherence to correct or accepted creeds, especially in religion.
A panegyric is a formal public speech, or (in later use) written verse, delivered in high praise of a person or thing, a generally highly studied and undiscriminating eulogy, not expected to be critical.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
Pasteurization or pasteurisation is a process in which packaged and non-packaged foods (such as milk and fruit juice) are treated with mild heat (Today, pasteurization is used widely in the dairy industry and other food processing industries to achieve food preservation and food safety. This process was named after the French scientist Louis Pasteur, whose research in the 1880s demonstrated that thermal processing would inactivate unwanted microorganisms in wine. Spoilage enzymes are also inactivated during pasteurization. Most liquid products are heat treated in a continuous system where heat can be applied using plate heat exchanger and/or direct or indirect use of steam and hot water. Due to the mild heat there are minor changes to the nutritional quality of foods as well as the sensory characteristics. Pascalization or high pressure processing (HPP) and Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) are non-thermal processes that are also used to pasteurize foods.
A patron saint, patroness saint, patron hallow or heavenly protector is a saint who in Roman Catholicism, Anglicanism, Eastern Orthodoxy, or particular branches of Islam, is regarded as the heavenly advocate of a nation, place, craft, activity, class, clan, family or person.
A peasant is a pre-industrial agricultural laborer or farmer, especially one living in the Middle Ages under feudalism and paying rent, tax, fees or services to a landlord.
A pharmacopoeia, pharmacopeia, or pharmacopoea (literally, “drug-making”), in its modern technical sense, is a book containing directions for the identification of compound medicines, and published by the authority of a government or a medical or pharmaceutical society.
Philip the Good (Philippe le Bon, Filips de Goede; 31 July 1396 – 15 June 1467) was Duke of Burgundy as Philip III from 1419 until his death.
Pierre Cauchon (1371 – 18 December 1442) was Bishop of Beauvais from 1420 to 1432.
Pierronne, also known as Pierrone, Pierronne la Bretonne and Perrinaïc, was a 15th-century Breton woman who said she saw visions of "God dressed in a long white robe with a red tunic underneath".
A pilgrimage is a journey or search of moral or spiritual significance.
Poitiers is a city on the Clain river in west-central France.
Pope Benedict XV (Latin: Benedictus; Benedetto), born Giacomo Paolo Giovanni Battista della Chiesa (21 November 1854 – 22 January 1922), was head of the Catholic Church from 3 September 1914 until his death in 1922.
Pope Callixtus III (31 December 1378 – 6 August 1458), born Alfons de Borja, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 8 April 1455 to his death in 1458.
Pope Saint Pius X (Pio), born Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto, (2 June 1835 – 20 August 1914) was head of the Catholic Church from August 1903 to his death in 1914.
Puy du Fou is a historical theme park in Les Epesses (between Cholet and La Roche-sur-Yon) in the heart of the Vendée region of Western France.
Radegund (Radegunda; also spelled Rhadegund, Radegonde, or Radigund; 520 — 13 August 587) was a Thuringian princess and Frankish queen, who founded the Abbey of the Holy Cross at Poitiers.
Radiocarbon dating (also referred to as carbon dating or carbon-14 dating) is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon, a radioactive isotope of carbon.
A regent (from the Latin regens: ruling, governing) is a person appointed to govern a state because the monarch is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated.
Reims (also spelled Rheims), a city in the Grand Est region of France, lies east-northeast of Paris.
Reims Cathedral (Our Lady of Reims, Notre-Dame de Reims) is a Roman Catholic church in Reims, France, built in the High Gothic style.
In religion and theology, revelation is the revealing or disclosing of some form of truth or knowledge through communication with a deity or other supernatural entity or entities.
Robert de Baudricourt (ca. 1400-1454), Seigneur de Baudricourt, Blaise, Buxy and Sorcy was a minor figure of 15th century French nobility.
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Embrun was located in southwestern France, in the mountains of the Maritime Alps, on a route that led from Gap by way of Briançon to Turin.
Rouen (Frankish: Rodomo; Rotomagus, Rothomagus) is a city on the River Seine in the north of France.
A saint (also historically known as a hallow) is a person who is recognized as having an exceptional degree of holiness or likeness or closeness to God.
Saint Joan is a play by George Bernard Shaw about 15th century French military figure Joan of Arc.
Saint Joan of Arc is a biography of Joan of Arc by Vita Sackville-West first published in New York and London in 1936.
Saint Petronilla (Aurelia Petronilla) is an early Christian saint.
Saint Remigius, Remy or Remi, (Saint Rémi or Saint Rémy; Remigio; Remigio; Romieg; Remigiusz; Remig and Remigijus), was Bishop of Reims and Apostle of the Franks, (437 – January 13, AD 533).
Saint-Jean-de-Braye is a commune in the Loiret department in north-central France.
Saint-Jean-le-Blanc, Loiret is a commune in the Loiret department in north-central France.
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand reality.
A scorched-earth policy is a military strategy that aims to destroy anything that might be useful to the enemy while it is advancing through or withdrawing from a location.
Secularism is the principle of the separation of government institutions and persons mandated to represent the state from religious institution and religious dignitaries (the attainment of such is termed secularity).
The Seine (La Seine) is a river and an important commercial waterway within the Paris Basin in the north of France.
The Siege of Compiègne (1430) was Joan of Arc's final military action.
The Siege of La Charité was incited by the order of Charles VII to Joan of Arc after the warlord Perrinet Gressard seized the town in 1423.
The Siege of Orléans (12 October 1428 – 8 May 1429) was the watershed of the Hundred Years' War between France and England.
The siege of Paris was an assault undertaken in 1429 by the French troops of the recently crowned King Charles VII, with the notable assistance of Joan of Arc, to take the city held by the English and their Burgundian allies.
The Siege of Saint-Pierre-le-Moûtier was a venture of the so-called Lancastrian War.
The Sorbonne is an edifice of the Latin Quarter, in Paris, France, which was the historical house of the former University of Paris.
Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.
The Papal Basilica of St.
A sword is a bladed weapon intended for slashing or thrusting that is longer than a knife or dagger.
Saint Thérèse of Lisieux (Sainte-Thérèse de Lisieux), born Marie Françoise-Thérèse Martin (2 January 1873 – 30 September 1897), also known as Saint Thérèse of the Child Jesus and the Holy Face, O.C.D., was a French Catholic Discalced Carmelite nun who is widely venerated in modern times.
The Fifteen Decisive Battles of the World: from Marathon to Waterloo is a book written by Sir Edward Shepherd Creasy and published in 1851.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Outlook (1870–1935) was a weekly magazine, published in New York City.
The Sunday Times is the largest-selling British national newspaper in the "quality press" market category.
Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225 – 7 March 1274) was an Italian Dominican friar, Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church.
January 6: Joan of Arc is born to Jacques d'Arc and Isabelle Romée at Domrémy, France.
The Treaty of Troyes was an agreement that King Henry V of England and his heirs would inherit the French crown upon the death of King Charles VI of France.
Troyes is a commune and the capital of the department of Aube in north-central France.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
Vaucouleurs is a commune in the Meuse department of France, located approximately from Paris.
The United States Naval Reserve (Women's Reserve), better known as the WAVES for the Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service, was the World War II women's branch of the United States Naval Reserve.
The Women's Army Corps (WAC) was the women's branch of the United States Army.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
Yolande of Aragon (11 August 1384 – 14 November 1442) was a throne claimant and titular queen regnant of Aragon, titular queen consort of Naples, Duchess of Anjou, Countess of Provence, and regent of Provence during the minority of her son.
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