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House, Recitative, Richard Wagner, Robert Franz, Robert Schumann, Routledge, Rowman & Littlefield, Royal Academy of Music Bach Prize, Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, Sangerhausen, Sarabande, Saxe-Eisenach, Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, Saxe-Weimar, Schübler Chorales, Schlage doch, gewünschte Stunde, BWV 53, Schleicht, spielende Wellen, BWV 206, Schweigt stille, plaudert nicht, BWV 211, Schwingt freudig euch empor, BWV 36c, Sinfonia concertante, Sing-Akademie zu Berlin, Singet dem Herrn ein neues Lied, BWV 225, Six Little Preludes (Bach), Six Sonatas for solo violin (Ysaÿe), Sonata, Sonata form, Sonatas and Partitas for Solo Violin (Bach), Spinet, Spitta's Johann Sebastian Bach, St John Passion, St Mark Passion (attributed to Keiser), St Matthew Passion, St. John's Church, Lüneburg, St. Matthew, Leipzig, St. Michaelis, Lüneburg, St. Nicholas Church, Leipzig, St. Peter, Leipzig, St. Thomas Church, Leipzig, St. Thomas School, Leipzig, Stabat Mater (Pergolesi), Steigt freudig in die Luft, BWV 36a, Stile antico, Suite (Bach), Suite (music), Switched-On Bach, Tönet, ihr Pauken! Erschallet, Trompeten! BWV 214, Teldec, The Art of Fugue, The Daily Telegraph, The Diapason (magazine), The Musical Offering, The Swingle Singers, The Well-Tempered Clavier, Thomaskantor, Three Bs, Thuringia, Tilge, Höchster, meine Sünden, BWV 1083, Toccata, Toccata and Fugue in D minor, BWV 565, Tonality, Trinity Sunday, Trio sonata, United States Geological Survey, Uri Caine, Variation (music), Vereinigte Zwietracht der wechselnden Saiten, BWV 207, Vergnügte Pleißenstadt, BWV 216, Verjaget, zerstreuet, zerrüttet, ihr Sterne, BWV 249b, Viol, Viola, Violin, Violin Concerto in A minor (Bach), Violin Concerto in E major (Bach), Voyager Golden Record, Voyager program, W. W. Norton & Company, Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme, BWV 140, Walt Disney, Wanda Landowska, Was mir behagt, ist nur die muntre Jagd, BWV 208, Was mir behagt, ist nur die muntre Jagd, BWV 208a, Weichet nur, betrübte Schatten, BWV 202, Weimar, Weimar cantata (Bach), Weinen, Klagen, Sorgen, Zagen, BWV 12, Wendy Carlos, Wie schön leuchtet der Morgenstern, BWV 1, Wilhelm Friedemann Bach, William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Wolfgang Schmieder, Zerreißet, zersprenget, zertrümmert die Gruft, BWV 205, 24 Preludes and Fugues (Shostakovich). Expand index (424 more) » « Shrink index
Abraham Ernst Mendelssohn Bartholdy (born Abraham Mendelssohn; 10 December 1776 – 19 November 1835) was a German banker and philanthropist.
Friedrich Heinrich Adolf Bernhard Marx (15 March 1795, Halle – 17 May 1866, Berlin) was a German composer, musical theorist and critic.
"Air on the G String" is August Wilhelmj's arrangement of the second movement in Johann Sebastian Bach's Orchestral Suite No. 3 in D major, BWV 1068.
Albert Schweitzer, OM (14 January 1875 – 4 September 1965) was a French-German theologian, organist, writer, humanitarian, philosopher, and physician.
Alberto Basso (born Turin, 21 August 1931) is an Italian musicologist.
Alessandro Ignazio Marcello (1 February 1673 – 19 June 1747 in Venice) was an Italian nobleman and composer.
Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. is a New York publishing house that was founded by Alfred A. Knopf Sr. and Blanche Knopf in 1915.
Alfred Dürr (3 March 1918, Berlin-Charlottenburg – 7 April 2011, Göttingen) was a German musicologist.
An allemande (allemanda, almain(e), or alman(d), French: "German (dance)") is a renaissance and baroque dance, and one of the most popular instrumental dance styles in baroque music, with notable examples by Couperin, Purcell, Bach and Handel.
The American Academy of Arts and Sciences is one of the oldest learned societies in the United States of America.
Amore traditore (Treacherous love), BWV 203, is a secular cantata composed by Johann Sebastian Bach in Weimar between 1718 and 1723.
André Isoir (20 July 1935 – 20 July 2016) was a French organist.
Andreas Staier (born 13 September 1955 in Göttingen) is a German pianist and harpsichordist.
Angenehmes Wiederau (Pleasant Wiederau), BWV 30a, is a secular cantata composed by Johann Sebastian Bach.
Anhalt-Köthen was a principality of the Holy Roman Empire ruled by the House of Ascania.
Anna Magdalena Bach (née Wilcke or Wilcken) (22 September 1701 – 22 February 1760) was an accomplished singer and the second wife of Johann Sebastian Bach.
The Annunciation (from Latin annuntiatio), also referred to as the Annunciation to the Blessed Virgin Mary, the Annunciation of Our Lady, or the Annunciation of the Lord, is the Christian celebration of the announcement by the angel Gabriel to the Virgin Mary that she would conceive and become the mother of Jesus, the Son of God, marking his Incarnation.
Josef Anton Bruckner was an Austrian composer, organist, and music theorist best known for his symphonies, masses, Te Deum and motets.
Antonio Caldara (1670 – 28 December 1736) was an Italian Baroque composer.
Antonio Lucio Vivaldi (4 March 1678 – 28 July 1741) was an Italian Baroque musical composer, virtuoso violinist, teacher and cleric.
Arcangelo Corelli (17 February 1653 – 8 January 1713) was an Italian violinist and composer of the Baroque era.
Aria variata alla maniera italiana in A minor, BWV 989 is a keyboard work by Johann Sebastian Bach from around 1709, recorded in the Andreas Bach Book.
Arnstadt is a town in Ilm-Kreis, Thuringia, Germany, on the river Gera about 20 kilometres south of Erfurt, the capital of Thuringia.
Baron Arthur Grumiaux (21 March 1921 – 16 October 1986) was a Belgian violinist.
Arthur Mendel (June 6, 1905 – October 14, 1979) was an American musicologist.
Auf, schmetternde Töne der muntern Trompeten (Arise, blaring tones of high-spirited trumpets), BWV 207a, is a secular cantata composed by Johann Sebastian Bach and likely premiered in 1735.
Augustus II the Strong (August II.; August II Mocny; Augustas II; 12 May 16701 February 1733) of the Albertine line of the House of Wettin was Elector of Saxony (as Frederick Augustus I), Imperial Vicar and elected King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania.
Augustus III (August III Sas, Augustas III; 17 October 1696 5 October 1763) was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1734 until 1763, as well as Elector of Saxony in the Holy Roman Empire from 1733 until 1763 where he was known as Frederick Augustus II (Friedrich August II).
Ave Maria is a popular and much-recorded setting of the Latin prayer Ave Maria, originally published in 1853 as Méditation sur le Premier Prélude de Piano de S. Bach.
The Bach Aria Group is an ensemble of vocal and instrumental musicians that was created in 1946 by William H. Scheide in New York City to perform the works of J. S. Bach.
The cantatas of Johann Sebastian Bach (German: Bachkantaten) consist of at least 209 surviving works.
Bach Church is the common name of a Protestant church in Arnstadt in Thuringia, Germany.
Bach Collegium Japan (BCJ) is composed of an orchestra and a chorus specializing in Baroque music, playing with period instruments.
The Bach family was of importance in the history of music for nearly two hundred years, with over 50 known musicians and several notable composers, the best-known of whom was Johann Sebastian Bach (1685–1750).
A Bach festival is a music festival held to celebrate the memory of the German composer Johann Sebastian Bach (1685–1750).
The German Bach-Gesellschaft (Bach Society) was a society formed in 1850 for the express purpose of publishing the complete works of Johann Sebastian Bach without editorial additions.
In music, the BACH motif is the motif, a succession of notes important or characteristic to a piece, B flat, A, C, B natural.
Most of Johann Sebastian Bach's extant church music in Latin —settings of (parts of) the Mass ordinary and the Magnificat— dates from his Leipzig period (1723–50).
Johann Sebastian Bach started composing cantatas around 1707, when he was still an organist in Arnstadt.
Bach's first cantata cycle refers to the church cantatas Johann Sebastian Bach composed for the somewhat less than 60 occasions of the liturgical year of his first year as Thomaskantor in Leipzig which required concerted music.
Nekrolog is the name with which Johann Sebastian Bach's obituary, which appeared four years after the composer's death, is usually indicated.
The Bach-Busoni Editions are a series of publications by the Italian pianist-composer Ferruccio Busoni (1866–1924) containing primarily piano transcriptions of keyboard music by Johann Sebastian Bach.
The Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis (BWV; Bach-Works-Catalogue) is a catalogue of compositions by Johann Sebastian Bach.
Bachchor Stuttgart, also known variously as Stuttgart Bach Choir & Orchestra, Bach Orchestra Stuttgart, Stuttgarter Bach-Chor und Orchester (Choir & Orchestra), Bachchor und Bachorchester Stuttgart, Bachchor und Bach-Orchester Stuttgart, Stuttgart Bach Orchestra, Stuttgarter Chor und Orchester and L'ensemble vocal et instrumental de Stuttgart, is an orchestra and choir based in Stuttgart, Germany.
The Bachianas Brasileiras are a series of nine suites by the Brazilian composer Heitor Villa-Lobos, written for various combinations of instruments and voices between 1930 and 1945.
Baroque music is a style of Western art music composed from approximately 1600 to 1750.
Basic Books is a book publisher founded in 1952 and located in New York, now an imprint of Hachette Books.
A bassline (also known as a bass line or bass part) is the term used in many styles of music, such as jazz, blues, funk, dub and electronic, traditional music, or classical music for the low-pitched instrumental part or line played (in jazz and some forms of popular music) by a rhythm section instrument such as the electric bass, double bass, cello, tuba or keyboard (piano, Hammond organ, electric organ, or synthesizer).
The first major biographies of Johann Sebastian Bach, including those by Johann Nikolaus Forkel and Philipp Spitta, were published in the 19th century.
"" (If you are with me, I go with joy) is an aria from Gottfried Heinrich Stölzel's opera Diomedes.
Blast Lärmen, ihr Feinde (Enemies, blow the alarm), BWV 205a, is a secular cantata composed by Johann Sebastian Bach.
During World War II, Leipzig was repeatedly attacked by British as well as American air raids.
Boydell & Brewer is an academic press based in Woodbridge, Suffolk, England that specializes in publishing historical and critical works.
Johann Sebastian Bach wrote his fifth Brandenburg Concerto, BWV 1050, for harpsichord, flute and violin as soloists, and an orchestral accompaniment consisting of strings and continuo.
The Brandenburg Concertos by Johann Sebastian Bach (BWV 1046–1051, original title: Six Concerts à plusieurs instruments)Johann Sebastian Bach's Werke, vol.
In classical music, a bravura is a style of both music and its performance intended to show off the skill of a performer.
Breitkopf & Härtel is the world's oldest music publishing house.
Brilliant Classics is a classical music label based in the Dutch town of Leeuwarden.
Burgomaster (alternatively spelled burgermeister, literally master of the town, master of the borough, master of the fortress, or master of the citizens) is the English form of various terms in or derived from Germanic languages for the chief magistrate or chairman of the executive council, usually of a sub-national level of administration such as a city or a similar entity.
The Café Zimmermann, or was the coffeehouse of Gottfried Zimmermann in Leipzig which formed the backdrop to the first performances of many of Bach's secular cantatas, e.g. the Coffee Cantata, and instrumental works.
The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organizing a liturgical year by associating each day with one or more saints and referring to the day as the feast day or feast of said saint.
The veneration of saints in the Episcopal Church is a continuation of an ancient tradition from the early Church which honors important and influential people of the Christian faith.
The Lutheran Calendar of Saints is a listing which specifies the primary annual festivals and events that are celebrated liturgically by some Lutheran Churches in the United States.
Calliope is a French classical record label originally based in Compiègne.
Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
In music, a canon is a contrapuntal (counterpoint-based) compositional technique that employs a melody with one or more imitations of the melody played after a given duration (e.g., quarter rest, one measure, etc.). The initial melody is called the leader (or dux), while the imitative melody, which is played in a different voice, is called the follower (or comes).
The Canonic Variations on "Vom Himmel hoch da komm' ich her" ("From Heaven above to Earth I come"), BWV 769, are a set of five variations in canon for organ with two manuals and pedals by Johann Sebastian Bach on the Christmas hymn by Martin Luther of the same name.
A cantata (literally "sung", past participle feminine singular of the Italian verb cantare, "to sing") is a vocal composition with an instrumental accompaniment, typically in several movements, often involving a choir.
In Christianity, the cantor, sometimes called the precentor or the protopsaltes (from) is the chief singer, and usually instructor, employed at a church, a cathedral or monastery with responsibilities for the ecclesiastical choir and the preparation of liturgy.
In music, a cantus firmus ("fixed song") is a pre-existing melody forming the basis of a polyphonic composition.
The Capella Istropolitana is a Slovak chamber orchestra based in Bratislava, Slovakia.
The Capriccio on the departure of a beloved brother (Italian: Capriccio sopra la lontananza del suo fratello dilettissimo), BWV 992, is an early work by Johann Sebastian Bach, possibly modeled on the Biblical Sonatas of Johann Kuhnau.
Carl Friedrich Zelter (11 December 1758 15 May 1832)Grove/Fuller-Maitland, 1910.
Carl Gotthelf Gerlach (31 December 1704 – 9 July 1761) was a German organist, who took over the Leipzig Collegium Musicum from Johann Sebastian Bach between 1737 and 1739.
Carl Heinrich Graun (7 May 1704 – 8 August 1759) was a German composer and tenor singer.
Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach (8 March 1714 – 14 December 1788), also formerly spelled Karl Philipp Emmanuel Bach, was a German Classical period musician and composer, the fifth child and second (surviving) son of Johann Sebastian Bach and Maria Barbara Bach.
This article gives some details of the various catalogues of classical compositions that have come into general use.
The cello (plural cellos or celli) or violoncello is a string instrument.
The six Cello Suites, BWV 1007-1012, are suites for unaccompanied cello by Johann Sebastian Bach.
Chamber music is a form of classical music that is composed for a small group of instruments—traditionally a group that could fit in a palace chamber or a large room.
Charles-François Gounod (17 June 181817 or 18 October 1893) was a French composer, best known for his Ave Maria, based on a work by Bach, as well as his opera Faust.
Charles Sanford Terry (24 October 1864, Newport Pagnell – 5 November 1936, Aberdeen) was an English historian and musicologist who published extensively on Scottish and European history as well as the life and works of J. S. Bach.
A chorale cantata is a church cantata based on a chorale—in this context a Lutheran chorale.
There are 52 chorale cantatas by Johann Sebastian Bach surviving in at least one complete version.
Johann Sebastian Bach's chorale cantata cycle is the year-cycle of church cantatas he started composing in Leipzig from the first Sunday after Trinity in 1724.
In music, a chorale prelude is a short liturgical composition for organ using a chorale tune as its basis.
A chord, in music, is any harmonic set of pitches consisting of two or more (usually three or more) notes (also called "pitches") that are heard as if sounding simultaneously.
Christ lag in Todes Banden (also spelled Todesbanden) ("Christ lay in death's bonds" or "Christ lay in the snares of death"),, is a cantata for Easter by German composer Johann Sebastian Bach, one of his earliest church cantatas.
Christen, ätzet diesen Tag (Christians, engrave this day),, is a church cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach.
The Christmas Oratorio,, is an oratorio by Johann Sebastian Bach intended for performance in church during the Christmas season.
Christoph Wolff (born May 24, 1940) is a German-born musicologist.
A chromatic fantasia is a specific type of fantasia (or fantasy or fancy) originating in sixteenth-century Europe.
The Chromatic Fantasia and Fugue in D minor,, is a work for harpsichord by Johann Sebastian Bach.
Throughout his life as a musician, Johann Sebastian Bach composed cantatas for both secular and sacred use.
On Trinity Sunday 27 May 1725 Johann Sebastian Bach had presented the last cantata of his second cantata cycle, the cycle which coincided with his second year in Leipzig.
Clara Bell, née Poynter (1835–1927), was an English translator fluent in French, German, Danish, Dutch, Italian, Norwegian, Russian, and Spanish,The Illustrated American: 22 November 1890, p.500The Author: A Monthly Magazine for Literary Workers: Vol.2: 15 November 1890, p. 170 noted for her translations of works by Henrik Ibsen, Balzac, Georg Ebers, Huysmans, Maupassant, and others.
The Classical period was an era of classical music between roughly 1730 to 1820, associated with the style of Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven.
The clavichord is a European stringed keyboard instrument that was used largely in the late Medieval, through the Renaissance, Baroque and Classical eras.
Clavier-Übung, in more modern spelling Klavierübung, is German for "keyboard exercise".
The Clavier-Übung III, sometimes referred to as the German Organ Mass, is a collection of compositions for organ by Johann Sebastian Bach, started in 1735–36 and published in 1739.
A coffeehouse, coffee shop or café (sometimes spelt cafe) is an establishment which primarily serves hot coffee, related coffee beverages (café latte, cappuccino, espresso), tea, and other hot beverages.
The Collegium Musicum was one of several types of musical societies that arose in German and German-Swiss cities and towns during the Reformation and thrived into the mid-18th century.
A concerto (plural concertos, or concerti from the Italian plural) is a musical composition usually composed in three movements, in which, usually, one solo instrument (for instance, a piano, violin, cello or flute) is accompanied by an orchestra or concert band.
The Concerto for Two Violins in D minor, BWV 1043, also known as the Double Violin Concerto, is one of the most famous works by Johann Sebastian Bach and considered among the best examples of the work of the late Baroque period.
The concerto grosso (Italian for big concert(o), plural concerti grossi) is a form of baroque music in which the musical material is passed between a small group of soloists (the concertino) and full orchestra (the ripieno or concerto grosso).
The Cornell University Press is a division of Cornell University housed in Sage House, the former residence of Henry William Sage.
In music, counterpoint is the relationship between voices that are harmonically interdependent (polyphony) yet independent in rhythm and contour.
The courante, corrente, coranto and corant are some of the names given to a family of triple metre dances from the late Renaissance and the Baroque era.
D minor is a minor scale based on D, consisting of the pitches D, E, F, G, A, flat, and C. Its key signature has one flat.
The da capo aria is a musical form for arias that was prevalent in the Baroque era.
Daniel Itzig (also known as Daniel Yoffe 18 March 1723 in Berlin – 17 May 1799 in Potsdam) was a Court Jew of Kings Frederick II the Great and Frederick William II of Prussia.
Der Geist hilft unser Schwachheit auf (The Spirit gives aid to our weakness), BWV 226, is a motet by Johann Sebastian Bach, composed in Leipzig in 1729 for the funeral of Johann Heinrich Ernesti.
Der Himmel dacht auf Anhalts Ruhm und Glück (Since heaven cared for Anhalt's fame and bliss), BWV 66a, is a congratulatory cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach.
Deutsche Bachsolisten (DBS) (The German Bach Soloists) is a German Baroque chamber orchestra dedicated to the works of J.S. Bach.
Dictionary.com is an online dictionary whose domain was first registered on May 14, 1995.
Johann Sebastian Bach composed the church cantata Die Elenden sollen essen (The miserable shall eat),, in Leipzig for the first Sunday after Trinity and first performed it on 30 May 1723.
Die Freude reget sich (Joy awakens), BWV 36b, is a secular cantata composed by Johann Sebastian Bach.
Die Zeit, die Tag und Jahre macht (Time, which day and year doth make),, is a secular cantata or serenata by Johann Sebastian Bach.
Dieterich Buxtehude (Diderich,; c. 1637/39 – 9 May 1707) was a Danish-German organist and composer of the Baroque period.
Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau (28 May 1925 – 18 May 2012) was a German lyric baritone and conductor of classical music, one of the most famous Lieder (art song) performers of the post-war period, best known as a singer of Franz Schubert's Lieder, particularly "Winterreise" of which his recordings with accompanist Gerald Moore and Jörg Demus are still critically acclaimed half a century after their release.
Divi Blasii is a Gothic church in the Thuringian town of Mühlhausen, central Germany.
Dmitri Dmitriyevich Shostakovich (Дми́трий Дми́триевич Шостако́вич|Dmitriy Dmitrievich Shostakovich,; 9 August 1975) was a Russian composer and pianist.
Dorian mode or Doric mode can refer to three very different but interrelated subjects: one of the Ancient Greek harmoniai (characteristic melodic behaviour, or the scale structure associated with it), one of the medieval musical modes, or, most commonly, one of the modern modal diatonic scales, corresponding to the white notes from D to D, or any transposition of this.
Dresden (Upper and Lower Sorbian: Drježdźany, Drážďany, Drezno) is the capital city and, after Leipzig, the second-largest city of the Free State of Saxony in Germany.
Durchlauchtster Leopold (Most illustrious Leopold), BWV 173a, is a secular cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach.
The general discussion of how to perform music from ancient or earlier times did not become an important subject of interest until the 19th century, when Europeans began looking to ancient culture generally, and musicians began to discover the musical riches from earlier centuries.
The Easter Oratorio,, is an oratorio by Johann Sebastian Bach, beginning with Kommt, eilet und laufet ("Come, hasten and run").
Edition Peters is a classical music publisher founded in Leipzig, Germany in 1800.
Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott ("A Mighty Fortress Is Our God"), BWV 80, is a chorale cantata for Reformation Day by Johann Sebastian Bach.
Eisenach is a town in Thuringia, Germany with 42,000 inhabitants, located west of Erfurt, southeast of Kassel and northeast of Frankfurt.
The Electorate of Saxony (Kurfürstentum Sachsen, also Kursachsen) was a state of the Holy Roman Empire established when Emperor Charles IV raised the Ascanian duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg to the status of an Electorate by the Golden Bull of 1356.
Elias Gottlob Haussmann (also Haußmann or Hausmann) (1695 – 11 April 1774) was a German painter in the late Baroque era.
The English Suites, BWV 806–811, are a set of six suites written by the German composer Johann Sebastian Bach for harpsichord (or clavichord) and generally thought to be the earliest of his 19 suites for keyboard, the others being the six French Suites, BWV 812–817, the six Partitas, BWV 825-830 and the Overture in the French style, BWV 831.
In modern musical notation and tuning, an enharmonic equivalent is a note, interval, or key signature that is equivalent to some other note, interval, or key signature but "spelled", or named differently.
Entfernet euch, ihr heitern Sterne (Disperse yourselves, ye stars, serenely!),, is a birthday cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach.
Entfliehet, verschwindet, entweichet, ihr Sorgen (Fly, vanish, flee, o worries), BWV 249a, is a secular cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach.
Erschallet, ihr Lieder, erklinget, ihr Saiten!,, is a church cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach, composed in Weimar in 1714 for Pentecost Sunday.
Erwählte Pleißenstadt ("O chosen Leipzig", literally: "Chosen city on the Pleiße"),, is a secular cantata composed by Johann Sebastian Bach.
Es lebe der König, der Vater im Lande (Long live the King, the father of the country),, is a secular cantata by J. S. Bach to a text by Picander.
Eugène Ysaÿe (16 July 185812 May 1931) was a Belgian violinist, composer and conductor.
Fantasia is a 1940 American animated film produced by Walt Disney and released by Walt Disney Productions.
The fantasia (also English: fantasy, fancy, fantazy, phantasy, Fantasie, Phantasie, fantaisie) is a musical composition with its roots in the art of improvisation.
Fürchte dich nicht (Do not fear),, is a motet for a funeral by Johann Sebastian Bach, set for double chorus.
Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy (3 February 1809 4 November 1847), born and widely known as Felix Mendelssohn, was a German composer, pianist, organist and conductor of the early romantic period.
Ferruccio Busoni (1 April 1866 – 27 July 1924) (given names: Ferruccio Dante Michelangiolo Benvenuto) was an Italian composer, pianist, conductor, editor, writer, and teacher.
Figured bass, or thoroughbass, is a kind of musical notation in which numerals and symbols (often accidentals) indicate intervals, chords, and non-chord tones that a musician playing piano, harpsichord, organ, lute (or other instruments capable of playing chords) play in relation to the bass note that these numbers and symbols appear above or below.
The First Viennese School is a name mostly used to refer to three composers of the Classical period in Western art music in late-18th-century Vienna: Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Ludwig van Beethoven.
A fortepiano is an early piano.
The term "four-part harmony" refers to music written for four voices or for some other musical medium—four musical instruments or a single keyboard instrument, for example—where the various musical parts can give a different note for each chord of the music.
François Couperin (10 November 1668 – 11 September 1733) was a French Baroque composer, organist and harpsichordist.
Francesco Gasparini (19 March 1661 – 22 March 1727) was an Italian Baroque composer and teacher whose works were performed throughout Italy, and also on occasion in Germany and England.
Franz Liszt (Liszt Ferencz, in modern usage Liszt Ferenc;Liszt's Hungarian passport spelt his given name as "Ferencz". An orthographic reform of the Hungarian language in 1922 (which was 36 years after Liszt's death) changed the letter "cz" to simply "c" in all words except surnames; this has led to Liszt's given name being rendered in modern Hungarian usage as "Ferenc". From 1859 to 1867 he was officially Franz Ritter von Liszt; he was created a Ritter (knight) by Emperor Francis Joseph I in 1859, but never used this title of nobility in public. The title was necessary to marry the Princess Carolyne zu Sayn-Wittgenstein without her losing her privileges, but after the marriage fell through, Liszt transferred the title to his uncle Eduard in 1867. Eduard's son was Franz von Liszt. 22 October 181131 July 1886) was a prolific 19th-century Hungarian composer, virtuoso pianist, conductor, music teacher, arranger, organist, philanthropist, author, nationalist and a Franciscan tertiary during the Romantic era.
Frédéric François Chopin (1 March 181017 October 1849) was a Polish composer and virtuoso pianist of the Romantic era who wrote primarily for solo piano.
Frederick II (Friedrich; 24 January 171217 August 1786) was King of Prussia from 1740 until 1786, the longest reign of any Hohenzollern king.
The French overture is a musical form widely used in the Baroque period.
The French Suites, BWV 812–817, are six suites which Johann Sebastian Bach wrote for the clavier (harpsichord or clavichord) between the years of 1722 and 1725.
Froher Tag, verlangte Stunden (Happy day, long hoped-for hours),, is a cantata by J.S. Bach.
In music, a fugue is a contrapuntal compositional technique in two or more voices, built on a subject (a musical theme) that is introduced at the beginning in imitation (repetition at different pitches) and which recurs frequently in the course of the composition.
In music, galant refers to the style which was fashionable from the 1720s to the 1770s.
Gödel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid, also known as GEB, is a 1979 book by Douglas Hofstadter.
Georg Böhm (2 September 1661 – 18 May 1733) was a German Baroque organist and composer.
Georg Philipp Telemann (– 25 June 1767) was a German Baroque composer and multi-instrumentalist.
George Frideric (or Frederick) Handel (born italic; 23 February 1685 (O.S.) – 14 April 1759) was a German, later British, Baroque composer who spent the bulk of his career in London, becoming well-known for his operas, oratorios, anthems, and organ concertos.
Geschwinde, ihr wirbelnden Winde (Swift, you swirling winds), BWV 201, is a secular cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach, with a libretto by Christian Friedrich Henrici, who published the cantata's libretto under his pen name Picander as Der Streit zwischen Phoebus und Pan (The Dispute between Phoebus and Pan).
The gigue or giga is a lively baroque dance originating from the Ireland jig.
Gilles Cantagrel (born 20 November 1937) is a French musicologist, writer, lecturer and music educator.
Giovanni Battista Bassani (c. 1650 – 1 October 1716) was an Italian composer, violinist, and organist.
Giovanni Battista Draghi (4 January 1710 – 16 or 17 March 1736), often referred to as Giovanni Battista Pergolesi, was an Italian composer, violinist and organist.
Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (1525 – 2 February 1594) was an Italian Renaissance composer of sacred music and the best-known 16th-century representative of the Roman School of musical composition.
Girolamo Alessandro Frescobaldi (also Gerolamo, Girolimo, and Geronimo Alissandro; September, 15831 March 1643) was a musician from Ferrara, one of the most important composers of keyboard music in the late Renaissance and early Baroque periods.
Giuseppe Torelli (22 April 1658, Verona – 8 February 1709, Bologna) was an Italian violist, violinist, teacher, and composer.
Glenn Herbert Gould (September 25, 1932October 4, 1982) was a Canadian pianist who became one of the best-known and celebrated classical pianists of the 20th century.
This is a list of musical terms that are likely to be encountered in printed scores, music reviews, and program notes.
The Goldberg Variations, BWV 988, are a work written for harpsichord by Johann Sebastian Bach, consisting of an aria and a set of 30 variations.
Gott ist mein König (God is my King),, is a cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach written in Mühlhausen when the composer was 23 years old.
Gottes Zeit ist die allerbeste Zeit (God's time is the very best time),, also known as Actus tragicus, is an early sacred cantata composed by Johann Sebastian Bach in Mühlhausen, intended for a funeral.
Gottfried Heinrich Bach (26 February 1724 – 12 February 1763) was the firstborn son of Johann Sebastian Bach by his second wife Anna Magdalena Wilcke.
Gottfried Heinrich Stölzel (13 January 1690 in – 27 November 1749 in Gotha) was a prolific German baroque composer.
Gottfried, Freiherr van Swieten (October 29, 1733 – March 29, 1803) was a Dutch-born Austrian diplomat, librarian, and government official who served the Austrian Empire during the 18th century.
The Great Eighteen Chorale Preludes, BWV 651–668, are a set of chorale preludes for organ prepared by Johann Sebastian Bach in Leipzig in his final decade (1740–1750), from earlier works composed in Weimar, where he was court organist.
A gymnasium is a type of school with a strong emphasis on academic learning, and providing advanced secondary education in some parts of Europe comparable to British grammar schools, sixth form colleges and US preparatory high schools.
Halle (Saale) is a city in the southern part of the German state Saxony-Anhalt.
Hamburg (locally), Hamborg, officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg),Constitution of Hamburg), is the second-largest city of Germany as well as one of the country's 16 constituent states, with a population of roughly 1.8 million people. The city lies at the core of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than five million people. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919 it formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. The city has repeatedly been beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, exceptional coastal flooding and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids. Historians remark that the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Situated on the river Elbe, Hamburg is home to Europe's second-largest port and a broad corporate base. In media, the major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm italic and the newspapers italic and italic are based in the city. Hamburg remains an important financial center, the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, italic, italic, italic, and Unilever. The city is a forum for and has specialists in world economics and international law with such consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. In recent years, the city has played host to multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Former German Chancellor italic, who governed Germany for eight years, and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg. The city is a major international and domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016. The Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the italic and italic concert halls. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's italic is among the best-known European entertainment districts.
Hans Georg Nägeli (26 May 1773 – 26 December 1836) was a composer and music publisher.
Harcourt was a United States publishing firm with a long history of publishing fiction and nonfiction for adults and children.
In music, harmony considers the process by which the composition of individual sounds, or superpositions of sounds, is analysed by hearing.
HarperCollins Publishers L.L.C. is one of the world's largest publishing companies and is one of the Big Five English-language publishing companies, alongside Hachette, Macmillan, Penguin Random House, and Simon & Schuster.
A harpsichord is a musical instrument played by means of a keyboard which activates a row of levers that in turn trigger a mechanism that plucks one or more strings with a small plectrum.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
Hänssler-Verlag is a German music publishing house founded in 1919 as Musikverlag Hänssler by Friedrich Hänssler Senior (died 1972) to publish church music.
Heinrich Schütz (– 6 November 1672) was a German composer and organist, generally regarded as the most important German composer before Johann Sebastian Bach and often considered to be one of the most important composers of the 17th century.
Heinrich, count von Brühl (Henryk Brühl, 13 August 170028 October 1763), was a Polish-Saxon statesman at the court of Saxony and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and a member of the powerful German von Brühl family.
Heitor Villa-Lobos (March 5, 1887November 17, 1959) was a Brazilian composer, described as "the single most significant creative figure in 20th-century Brazilian art music".
Helmut Walcha (October 27, 1907 – August 11, 1991) was a blind German organist who specialized in the works of the Dutch and German baroque masters and is known for his recordings of the complete organ works of Johann Sebastian Bach.
Henry Purcell (or; c. 10 September 1659According to Holman and Thompson (Grove Music Online, see References) there is uncertainty regarding the year and day of birth. No record of baptism has been found. The year 1659 is based on Purcell's memorial tablet in Westminster Abbey and the frontispiece of his Sonnata's of III. Parts (London, 1683). The day 10 September is based on vague inscriptions in the manuscript GB-Cfm 88. It may also be relevant that he was appointed to his first salaried post on 10 September 1677, which would have been his eighteenth birthday. – 21 November 1695) was an English composer.
Herbert von Karajan (born Heribert Ritter von Karajan; 5 April 1908 – 16 July 1989) was an Austrian conductor.
Count Hermann Karl von Keyserling (1697–1764) was a Russian diplomat from the Keyserlingk family of Baltic German nobility based in the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia.
Johann Sebastian Bach composed the church cantata Herz und Mund und Tat und Leben (Heart and mouth and deed and life),, in 1723 during his first year as Thomaskantor, the director of church music in Leipzig.
Himmelskönig, sei willkommen (King of Heaven, welcome),, is a church cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach.
Historically informed performance (also referred to as period performance, authentic performance, or HIP) is an approach to the performance of classical music, which aims to be faithful to the approach, manner and style of the musical era in which a work was originally conceived.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature.
In music, homophony (Greek: ὁμόφωνος, homóphōnos, from ὁμός, homós, "same" and φωνή, phōnē, "sound, tone") is a texture in which a primary part is supported by one or more additional strands that flesh out the harmony and often provide rhythmic contrast.
I Musici (pronounced), also known as I Musici di Roma, is an Italian chamber orchestra from Rome formed in 1951.
Ian Scott Anderson (born 10 August 1947) is a British musician, singer, songwriter and multi-instrumentalist best known for his work as the lead vocalist, flautist and acoustic guitarist of British rock band Jethro Tull.
Ich bin in mir vergnügt (I am content in myself), BWV 204, is a secular cantata composed by Johann Sebastian Bach in Leipzig between 1726 and 1727.
Johann Sebastian Bach composed the church cantata Ich hatte viel Bekümmernis (I had much grief),, in Weimar, possibly in 1713, partly even earlier.
Ihr Häuser des Himmels, ihr scheinenden Lichter (Ye houses of heaven, ye radiant lights), BWV 193a, is a secular cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach composed in 1727.
Indiana University Press, also known as IU Press, is an academic publisher founded in 1950 at Indiana University that specializes in the humanities and social sciences.
The International Johann Sebastian Bach Competition (Internationaler Johann-Sebastian-Bach-Wettbewerb) is a music competition in Leipzig, Germany, held by the Bach-Archiv Leipzig.
The International Music Score Library Project (IMSLP), also known as the Petrucci Music Library after publisher Ottaviano Petrucci, is a subscription-based project for the creation of a virtual library of public-domain music scores.
The Inventions and Sinfonias, BWV 772–801, also known as the Two- and Three-Part Inventions, are a collection of thirty short keyboard compositions by Johann Sebastian Bach (1685–1750): 15 inventions, which are two-part contrapuntal pieces, and 15 sinfonias, which are three-part contrapuntal pieces.
The Italian Concerto, BWV 971, originally titled Concerto nach Italienischen Gusto (Concerto in the Italian taste), is a three-movement concerto for two-manual harpsichord solo composed by Johann Sebastian Bach and published in 1735 as the first half of Clavier-Übung II (the second half being the French Overture).
Jacques Loussier (born 26 October 1934) is a French pianist and composer.
James Kibbie (born March 13, 1949) is an American concert organist, recording artist and pedagogue.
Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck (April or May, 1562 – 16 October 1621) was a Dutch composer, organist, and pedagogue whose work straddled the end of the Renaissance and beginning of the Baroque eras.
Jauchzet dem Herrn alle Welt is a three-movement pasticcio motet for double SATB choir.
Jean-Baptiste Lully (born Giovanni Battista Lulli,; 28 November 1632 – 22 March 1687) was an Italian-born French composer, instrumentalist, and dancer who spent most of his life working in the court of Louis XIV of France.
Jesu, meine Freude, BWV 227, is a motet composed by Johann Sebastian Bach.
Johann Adam Reincken (also Jan Adams, Jean Adam, Reinken, Reinkinck, Reincke, Reinicke, Reinike; baptized 10 December 1643 – 24 November 1722) was a Dutch/German organist and composer.
Johann Adolph Scheibe (5 May 1708 – 22 April 1776) was a German-Danish composer and significant critic and theorist of music.
Johann Ambrosius Bach (22 February 1645 &ndash) was a German musician, father to Johann Sebastian Bach.
Johann Caspar Kerll (9 April 1627 – 13 February 1693) was a German baroque composer and organist.
Johann Christian Bach (September 5, 1735 – January 1, 1782) was a composer of the Classical era, the eleventh surviving child and youngest son of Johann Sebastian Bach.
Johann Christoph Altnickol, or Altnikol, (1 January 1720 – 25 July 1759; dates of baptism and burial) was a German organist, bass singer, and composer.
Johann Christoph Bach (22 February 1645 in Erfurt – in Arnstadt) was a German musician of the Baroque period.
Johann Christoph Bach (16 June 1671 – 22 February 1721) was a musician of the Bach family.
Johann Christoph Friedrich Bach (21 June 1732 – 26 January 1795) was a harpsichordist and composer, the fifth son of Johann Sebastian Bach, sometimes referred to as the "Bückeburg Bach".
Johann Ernst III, Duke of Saxe-Weimar (Weimar, 22 June 1664 – Weimar, 10 May 1707), was a duke of Saxe-Weimar.
Johann Friedrich Agricola (4 January 1720 – 2 December 1774) was a German composer, organist, singer, pedagogue, and writer on music.
Johann Friedrich Doles (23 April 1715 – 8 February 1797) was a German composer and pupil of J.S. Bach.
Johann Gottfried Bernhard Bach (May 11, 1715 – May 27, 1739) was a German musician.
Johann Gottlieb Goldberg (baptized 14 March 1727 – 13 April 1756) was a German virtuoso harpsichordist, organist, and composer of the late Baroque and early Classical period.
(Johann) Gottlob Harrer (8 May 1703 – 9 July 1755) was a German composer and choir leader.
Johann Jakob Froberger (baptized 19 May 1616 – 7 May 1667) was a German Baroque composer, keyboard virtuoso, and organist.
Johann Philipp Kirnberger (also Kernberg; 24 April 1721, Saalfeld – 27 July 1783, Berlin) was a musician, composer (primarily of fugues), and music theorist.
Johann Kuhnau (6 April 16605 June 1722) was a German polymath: known primarily as composer today, he was also active as novelist, translator, lawyer, and music theorist, being able late in life to combine these activities with the duties of his official post of Thomaskantor in Leipzig, which he occupied for 21 years.
Johann Ludwig Bach (– 1 May 1731) was a composer and violinist.
Johann Ludwig Krebs (baptized 12 October 1713 – 1 January 1780) was a German Baroque musician and composer for the pipe organ, harpsichord, other instruments and orchestras.
Johann Mattheson (28 September 1681 – 17 April 1764) was a German composer, singer, writer, lexicographer, diplomat and music theorist.
Johann Nikolaus Forkel (22 February 1749 – 20 March 1818) was a German musician, musicologist and music theorist.
Johann Pachelbel (baptised 1 September 1653 – buried 9 March 1706) was a German composer, organist, and teacher who brought the south German organ tradition to its peak.
Johann Sebastian Bach: His Life, Art, and Work is an early 19th-century biography of Johann Sebastian Bach, written in German by Johann Nikolaus Forkel, and later translated by, among others, Charles Sanford Terry.
Johannes Brahms (7 May 1833 – 3 April 1897) was a German composer and pianist of the Romantic period.
John Butt, OBE, FRSE, FBA (born 17 November 1960, Solihull, England) is an orchestral and choral conductor, organist, harpsichordist and scholar.
John Dowland (1563 – buried 20 February 1626) was an English Renaissance composer, lutenist, and singer.
Sir John Eliot Gardiner, CBE HonFBA (born 20 April 1943) is an English conductor, particularly known for his performances of the works of Johann Sebastian Bach and of other baroque music.
"Chevalier" John Taylor (1703–1772) was an early British eye surgeon, self-promoter, and medical charlatan of 18th century Europe, noted by Samuel Johnson, and associated with the surgical mistreatment of Handel, Bach, and perhaps hundreds of others.
(Franz) Joseph HaydnSee Haydn's name.
Titus Flavius Josephus (Φλάβιος Ἰώσηπος; 37 – 100), born Yosef ben Matityahu (יוסף בן מתתיהו, Yosef ben Matityahu; Ἰώσηπος Ματθίου παῖς), was a first-century Romano-Jewish scholar, historian and hagiographer, who was born in Jerusalem—then part of Roman Judea—to a father of priestly descent and a mother who claimed royal ancestry.
Jubilate Sunday is the third Sunday after Easter.
Kapellmeister is a German word designating a person in charge of music-making.
Karl Richter (15 October 1926 – 15 February 1981) was a German conductor, choirmaster, organist and harpsichordist.
Karlovy Vary or Carlsbad (Karlsbad) is a spa town situated in western Bohemia, Czech Republic, on the confluence of the rivers Ohře and Teplá, approximately west of Prague (Praha).
Köthen (Anhalt) is a city in Germany.
Kevin MacLeod (born September 28, 1972) is an American composer and musician.
In music theory, the key of a piece is the group of pitches, or scale, that forms the basis of a music composition in classical, Western art, and Western pop music.
The harpsichord concertos, BWV 1052–1065, are concertos for harpsichord, strings and continuo by Johann Sebastian Bach.
A keyboard instrument is a musical instrument played using a keyboard, a row of levers which are pressed by the fingers.
Klavierbüchlein für Wilhelm Friedemann Bach (Bach's original spelling: Clavier-Büchlein vor Wilhelm Friedemann Bach) is a collection of keyboard music compiled by the German Baroque composer Johann Sebastian Bach for his eldest son Wilhelm Friedemann.
Komm, Jesu, komm (Come, Jesus, come),, is a motet by Johann Sebastian Bach, with a text by Paul Thymich.
Kunstreligion is a term used around the turn of the nineteenth century to refer to Art-as-religion, specifically music, but also used to refer to any art that was sacralized.
Apart from the 1733 Mass for the Dresden court (later incorporated in the Mass in B minor), Johann Sebastian Bach wrote four further Kyrie–Gloria Masses, BWV 233–236.
Laß, Fürstin, laß noch einen Strahl (Let, Princess, let still one more glance) is a secular cantata composed as a funeral ode by Johann Sebastian Bach, first performed on 17 October 1727.
Laßt uns sorgen, laßt uns wachen (Let us take care, let us watch over), BWV 213, is a secular cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach.
The lautenwerck (also spelled lautenwerk), or lute-harpsichord (lute-clavier), is a European keyboard instrument of the Baroque period.
Lübeck is a city in Schleswig-Holstein, northern Germany, and one of the major ports of Germany.
Lüneburg (officially the Hanseatic City of Lüneburg, German: Hansestadt Lüneburg,, Low German Lümborg, Latin Luneburgum or Lunaburgum, Old High German Luneburc, Old Saxon Hliuni, Polabian Glain), also called Lunenburg in English, is a town in the German state of Lower Saxony.
A lectionary (Lectionarium) is a book or listing that contains a collection of scripture readings appointed for Christian or Judaic worship on a given day or occasion.
Leipzig is the most populous city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany.
Leipzig University (Universität Leipzig), in Leipzig in the Free State of Saxony, Germany, is one of the world's oldest universities and the second-oldest university (by consecutive years of existence) in Germany.
Leopold of Anhalt-Köthen (29 November 1694 – 19 November 1728) was a German prince of the House of Ascania and ruler of the principality of Anhalt-Köthen.
A libretto is the text used in, or intended for, an extended musical work such as an opera, operetta, masque, oratorio, cantata or musical.
This is a sortable list of the Bach cantatas, the cantatas of Johann Sebastian Bach.
Chamber music by Johann Sebastian Bach refers to the compositions in the tenth chapter of the Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis (BWV, catalogue of Bach's compositions), or, in the New Bach Edition, the compositions in Series VI.
Johann Sebastian Bach's chorale harmonisations, alternatively named four-part chorales, are Lutheran hymn settings that characteristically conform to the following.
Johann Sebastian Bach composed cantatas, motets, masses, Magnificats, Passions, oratorios, four-part chorales, songs and arias.
Compositions by Johann Sebastian Bach printed during his lifetime (1685-1750) include works for keyboard instruments, such as his ''Clavier-Übung'' volumes for harpsichord and for organ, and to a lesser extent ensemble music, such as the trio sonata of The Musical Offering, and vocal music, such as a cantata published early in his career.
Johann Sebastian Bach's Violin Concertos, BWV 1041–1043, and his six Brandenburg Concertos survive in their original instrumentation.
This page lists the fugal works of Johann Sebastian Bach, defined here as the fugues, fughettas, and canons, as well as other works containing fugal expositions but not denoted as fugues, such as some choral sections of the Mass in B minor, the St Matthew Passion, the St John Passion, and the cantatas.
Keyboard and Lute Works is the topic of the fifth series of the New Bach Edition.
Masses, Passions, Oratorios is the subject of the second series of the Neue Bach-Ausgabe (NBA, New Bach Edition), a publication of Johann Sebastian Bach's music from 1954 to 2007.
It is uncertain how many motets Johann Sebastian Bach composed, because some have been lost, and there are some doubtful attributions among the surviving ones associated with him.
This is a list of students of music, organized by teacher.
Orchestral works by Johann Sebastian Bach refers to the compositions in the eleventh chapter of the Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis (BWV, catalogue of Bach's compositions), or, in the New Bach Edition, the compositions in Series VII.
Organ compositions by Johann Sebastian Bach refers to the compositions in the seventh chapter of the Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis (BWV, catalogue of Bach's compositions), or, in the New Bach Edition, the compositions in Series IV.
Poland was ruled at various times either by dukes (the 10th–14th century) or by kings (the 11th-18th century).
Apart from his hundreds of church cantatas Johann Sebastian Bach wrote secular cantatas in Weimar, Köthen and Leipzig, for instance for members of the Royal-Polish and Prince-electoral Saxonian family (e.g. Trauer-Ode), or other public or private occasions (e.g. Hunting Cantata).
Songs and arias by Johann Sebastian Bach are compositions listed in Chapter 6 of the Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis (BWV 439–524), which also includes the Quodlibet.
This list of states which were part of the Holy Roman Empire includes any territory ruled by an authority that had been granted imperial immediacy, as well as many other feudal entities such as lordship, sous-fiefs and allodial fiefs.
Johann Sebastian Bach's music has often been transcribed for other instruments.
The liturgical year, also known as the church year or Christian year, as well as the kalendar, consists of the cycle of liturgical seasons in Christian churches that determines when feast days, including celebrations of saints, are to be observed, and which portions of Scripture are to be read either in an annual cycle or in a cycle of several years.
Lobet den Herrn, alle Heiden (Praise the Lord, all ye nations), BWV 230, is a motet by Johann Sebastian Bach.
Lobet Gott in seinen Reichen (Laud to God in all his kingdoms),, known as the Ascension Oratorio (Himmelfahrtsoratorium), is an oratorio by Johann Sebastian Bach, marked by him as Oratorium In Festo Ascensionis Xsti (Oratorio for the feast of the Ascension of Christ), probably composed in 1735 for the service for Ascension and first performed on 19 May 1735.
Lorenz Christoph Mizler von Kolof (also known as Wawrzyniec Mitzler de Kolof and Mitzler de Koloff; 26 July 1711 – 8 May 1778) was a German physician, historian, printer, mathematician, Baroque music composer, and precursor of the Polish Enlightenment.
Louis Marchand (2 February 1669 – 17 February 1732) was a French Baroque organist, harpsichordist, and composer.
Ludwig van Beethoven (baptised 17 December 1770Beethoven was baptised on 17 December. His date of birth was often given as 16 December and his family and associates celebrated his birthday on that date, and most scholars accept that he was born on 16 December; however there is no documentary record of his birth.26 March 1827) was a German composer and pianist.
A lute is any plucked string instrument with a neck (either fretted or unfretted) and a deep round back enclosing a hollow cavity, usually with a sound hole or opening in the body.
Luther's Small Catechism (Der Kleine Katechismus) is a catechism written by Martin Luther and published in 1529 for the training of children.
A Lutheran chorale is a musical setting of a Lutheran hymn, intended to be sung by a congregation in a German Protestant Church service.
Martin Luther was a great enthusiast for music, and this is why it forms a large part of Lutheran services; in particular, Luther admired the composers Josquin des Prez and Ludwig Senfl and wanted singing in the church to move away from the ars perfecta (Catholic Sacred Music of the late Renaissance) and towards singing as a Gemeinschaft (community).
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
Macmillan Publishers Ltd (occasionally known as the Macmillan Group) is an international publishing company owned by Holtzbrinck Publishing Group.
Johann Sebastian Bach's Magnificat is a musical setting of the biblical canticle Magnificat.
The italic in E-flat major, BWV 243a, by Johann Sebastian Bach is a musical setting of the Latin text of the Magnificat, Mary's canticle from the Gospel of Luke.
The major scale (or Ionian scale) is one of the most commonly used musical scales, especially in Western music.
Christian Ludwig (24 May 1677 – 3 September 1734), a member of the House of Hohenzollern, was a Margrave of Brandenburg-Schwedt and a military officer of the Prussian Army.
Maria Barbara Bach (– buried 7 July 1720) was the first wife of composer Johann Sebastian Bach.
Maria Elisabeth Lämmerhirt (February 24, 1644, Erfurt – May 1, 1694, Eisenach) was the mother of Johann Sebastian Bach.
Marin Marais (31 May 1656, Paris – 15 August 1728, Paris) was a French composer and viol player.
The Marktkirche Unser Lieben Frauen ("Market Church of Our Dear Lady") is a church in the centre of the city of Halle, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.
Martin Luther, (10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German professor of theology, composer, priest, monk, and a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation.
The Mass (italic), a form of sacred musical composition, is a choral composition that sets the invariable portions of the Eucharistic liturgy (principally that of the Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion, and Lutheranism) to music.
The Mass for the Dresden court is a Kyrie–Gloria Mass in B minor composed in 1733 by Johann Sebastian Bach.
The Mass in B minor (BWV 232) by Johann Sebastian Bach is a musical setting of the complete Ordinary of the Latin Mass.
The Mass in B minor is Johann Sebastian Bach's only setting of the complete Latin text of the Ordinarium missae.
Mühlhausen is a city in the north-west of Thuringia, Germany, north of Niederdorla, the country's geographical centre, north-west of Erfurt, east of Kassel and south-east of Göttingen.
McGraw-Hill Education (MHE) is a learning science company and one of the "big three" educational publishers that provides customized educational content, software, and services for pre-K through postgraduate education.
Georg Melchior Hoffmann (c. 1679 – 6 October 1715) was a Baroque composer who was influential as the leader at the Collegium Musicum in Leipzig.
Mer hahn en neue Oberkeet (We have a new governor), BWV 212, is a secular cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach.
The Michaeliskirche or St.
In music theory, the term minor scale refers to three scale formations – the natural minor scale (or Aeolian mode), the harmonic minor scale, and the melodic minor scale (ascending or descending) – rather than just one as with the major scale.
In the theory of Western music, a mode is a type of musical scale coupled with a set of characteristic melodic behaviors.
The Modern Jazz Quartet (MJQ) was a jazz combo established in 1952 that played music influenced by classical, cool jazz, blues and bebop.
In music, modulation is most commonly the act or process of changing from one key (tonic, or tonal center) to another.
Moog synthesizer (pronounced; often anglicized to, though Robert Moog preferred the former) may refer to any number of analog synthesizers designed by Robert Moog or manufactured by Moog Music, and is commonly used as a generic term for older-generation analog music synthesizers.
In western music, a motet is a mainly vocal musical composition, of highly diverse form and style, from the late medieval era to the present.
In music, a motif (also motive) is a short musical idea, a salient recurring figure, musical fragment or succession of notes that has some special importance in or is characteristic of a composition: "The motive is the smallest structural unit possessing thematic identity".
A movement is a self-contained part of a musical composition or musical form.
Music Sales Group is a global music publisher, with headquarters in Berners Street, London.
In musical tuning, a temperament is a tuning system that slightly compromises the pure intervals of just intonation to meet other requirements.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
The natural horn is a musical instrument that is the ancestor of the modern-day horn, and is differentiated by its lack of valves.
A natural trumpet is a valveless brass instrument that is able to play the notes of the harmonic series.
Naxos Records is a record label specializing in classical music.
The Netherlands Bach Society (De Nederlandse Bachvereniging) is the oldest ensemble for Baroque music in the Netherlands, and possibly in the world.
The Neue Bachgesellschaft, or New Bach Society, is an organisation based in Leipzig, Germany, devoted to the music of the composer Johann Sebastian Bach.
Nikolaus Harnoncourt (Johann Nikolaus Graf de la Fontaine und d’Harnoncourt-Unverzagt; 6 December 1929 – 5 March 2016) was an Austrian conductor, particularly known for his historically informed performances of music from the Classical era and earlier.
Non sa che sia dolore (He knows not what sorrow is), BWV 209, is a secular cantata composed by Johann Sebastian Bach and first performed in Leipzig in 1747.
Johann Sebastian Bach composed the church cantata Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland (Now come, Savior of the heathens),, in Leipzig for the first Sunday in Advent and first performed it on 3 December 1724.
O angenehme Melodei (O pleasing melody),, is a secular cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach.
Johann Sebastian Bach composed the church cantata O Ewigkeit, du Donnerwort (O eternity, you word of thunder),, in Leipzig for the first Sunday after Trinity and first performed it on 11 June 1724.
O holder Tag, erwünschte Zeit (O lovely day, o hoped-for time),, is a secular cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach.
The Oboe Concerto in D minor, S D935, is an early 18th-century concerto for oboe, strings and continuo attributed to the Venetian composer Alessandro Marcello.
Ogg is a free, open container format maintained by the Xiph.Org Foundation.
Ohrdruf is a small town in the district of Gotha in the German state of Thuringia.
Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) are terms sometimes used with dates to indicate that the calendar convention used at the time described is different from that in use at the time the document was being written.
Oliver von Dohnányi (born 2 March 1955) is a Slovak conductor.
Opera buffa ("comic opera", plural: opere buffe) is a genre of opera.
The four orchestral suites (called ouvertures by their author), BWV 1066–1069 are four suites by Johann Sebastian Bach.
Organ tablature is a form of musical notation used by the north German Baroque organ school, although there are also forms of organ tablature from other countries such as Italy, Spain, Poland, and England.
An organist is a musician who plays any type of organ.
The Orgelbüchlein ("Little Organ Book") BWV 599−644 is a collection of 46 chorale preludes for organ written by Johann Sebastian Bach.
In music, ornaments or embellishments are musical flourishes—typically, added notes—that are not essential to carry the overall line of the melody (or harmony), but serve instead to decorate or "ornament" that line (or harmony), provide added interest and variety, and give the performer the opportunity to add expressiveness to a song or piece.
The Overture in the French style, BWV 831, original title Ouvertüre nach Französischer Art, also known as the French Overture and published as the second half of Clavier-Übung II in 1735 (paired with the Italian Concerto), is a suite in B minor for two-manual harpsichord written by Johann Sebastian Bach.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Pau Casals i Defilló (Catalan:; 29 December 187622 October 1973), usually known in English as Pablo Casals,, The New York Times, 1911-04-09, retrieved 2009-08-01 was a cellist, composer, and conductor from Catalonia, Spain.
Palm Sunday is a Christian moveable feast that falls on the Sunday before Easter.
The Partita in D minor for solo violin (BWV 1004) by Johann Sebastian Bach was written between 1717 and 1720.
The Partitas, BWV 825–830, are a set of six harpsichord suites written by Johann Sebastian Bach, published from 1726 to 1730 as Clavier-Übung I, and the first of his works to be published under his direction.
In Christianity, the Passion (from Late Latin: passionem "suffering, enduring") is the short final period in the life of Jesus covering his entrance visit to Jerusalem and leading to his crucifixion on Mount Calvary, defining the climactic event central to Christian doctrine of salvation history.
As Thomaskantor Johann Sebastian Bach provided Passion music for Good Friday services in Leipzig.
The Paulinerkirche was a church on the Augustusplatz in Leipzig, named after the "Pauliner", its original Dominican friars.
Penguin Books is a British publishing house.
The Christian feast day of Pentecost is seven weeks after Easter Sunday: that is to say, the fiftieth day after Easter inclusive of Easter Sunday.
Julius August Philipp Spitta (27 December 1841 – 13 April 1894) was a German music historian and musicologist best known for his 1873 biography of Johann Sebastian Bach.
Christian Friedrich Henrici (January 14, 1700 – May 10, 1764), writing under the pen name Picander, was a German poet and librettist for many of the cantatas which Johann Sebastian Bach composed in Leipzig.
Picander's cycle of 1728–29 is a year cycle of church cantata librettos, published for the first time in 1728 as Cantaten auf die Sonn- und Fest-Tage durch das gantze Jahr (Cantatas for the Sun- and feastdays throughout the year).
Pietro Torri (ca. 1650 in Peschiera del Garda – 6 July 1737) was an Italian Baroque composer.
The pipe organ is a musical instrument that produces sound by driving pressurized air (called wind) through organ pipes selected via a keyboard.
In music, polyphony is one type of musical texture, where a texture is, generally speaking, the way that melodic, rhythmic, and harmonic aspects of a musical composition are combined to shape the overall sound and quality of the work.
Potsdam is the capital and largest city of the German federal state of Brandenburg.
Preise dein Glücke, gesegnetes Sachsen (Praise your good fortune, blessed Saxony), BWV 215, is a secular cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach.
A prelude (Präludium or Vorspiel; praeludium; prélude; preludio) is a short piece of music, the form of which may vary from piece to piece.
Prelude and Fugue in A minor, BWV 543 is a piece of organ music written by Johann Sebastian Bach sometime around his years as court organist to the Duke of Saxe-Weimar (1708–1717).
Frédéric Chopin wrote a number of preludes for piano solo.
Prentice Hall is a major educational publisher owned by Pearson plc.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
A quodlibet (Latin for "whatever you wish" from quod, "what" and libet, "pleases") is a musical composition that combines several different melodies—usually popular tunes—in counterpoint, and often in a light-hearted, humorous manner.
Random House is an American book publisher and the largest general-interest paperback publisher in the world.
Recitative (also known by its Italian name "recitativo") is a style of delivery (much used in operas, oratorios, and cantatas) in which a singer is allowed to adopt the rhythms of ordinary speech.
Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 181313 February 1883) was a German composer, theatre director, polemicist, and conductor who is chiefly known for his operas (or, as some of his later works were later known, "music dramas").
Robert Franz (28 June 1815 – 24 October 1892) was a German composer, mainly of lieder.
Robert Schumann (8 June 181029 July 1856) was a German composer and an influential music critic.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group is an independent publishing house founded in 1949.
The Royal Academy of Music Bach Prize is an award given by the Royal Academy of Music in London.
The Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, abbreviated: KNAW) is an organization dedicated to the advancement of science and literature in the Netherlands.
Sangerhausen is a town in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany, capital of the district of Mansfeld-Südharz, without being part of it.
The sarabande (from Spanish zarabanda) is a dance in triple metre.
Saxe-Eisenach (Sachsen-Eisenach) was an Ernestine duchy ruled by the Saxon House of Wettin.
Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg was a duchy ruled by the Ernestine branch of the House of Wettin in today's Thuringia, Germany.
Saxe-Weimar (Sachsen-Weimar) was one of the Saxon duchies held by the Ernestine branch of the Wettin dynasty in present-day Thuringia.
Sechs Chorale von verschiedener Art: auf einer Orgel mit 2 Clavieren und Pedal vorzuspielen ('six chorales of diverse kinds, to be played on an organ with two manuals and pedal'), commonly known as the Schübler Chorales (Schübler-Choräle), BWV 645–650, is a set of chorale preludes composed by Johann Sebastian Bach.
Schlage doch, gewünschte Stunde (Haste to strike, oh longed for hour), BWV 53, is an aria for alto, probably for a funeral.
Schleicht, spielende Wellen (Glide, O sparkling waves and murmur softly), BWV 206, is a secular cantata composed by Johann Sebastian Bach in Leipzig and first performed on 7 October 1736.
Schweigt stille, plaudert nicht (Be still, stop chattering), BWV 211, also known as the Coffee Cantata, is a secular cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach.
Schwingt freudig euch empor (Soar joyfully aloft), BWV 36c, is a secular cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach.
Sinfonia concertante (also called symphonie concertante) is an orchestral work, normally in several movements, in which there are parts of solo instruments, generally two or more, contrasting of a group of soloists with the full orchestra.
The Sing-Akademie zu Berlin, also known as the Berliner Singakademie, is a musical (originally choral) society founded in Berlin in 1791 by Carl Friedrich Christian Fasch, harpsichordist to the court of Prussia, on the model of the 18th-century London Academy of Ancient Music.
Singet dem Herrn ein neues Lied (Sing unto the Lord a new song), BWV 225 is a motet by Johann Sebastian Bach.
The Six Little Preludes (BWV 933-938) are a group of preludes written by the composer Johann Sebastian Bach for harpsichord.
Eugène Ysaÿe's Six sonatas for solo violin, Op.
Sonata (Italian:, pl. sonate; from Latin and Italian: sonare, "to sound"), in music, literally means a piece played as opposed to a cantata (Latin and Italian cantare, "to sing"), a piece sung.
Sonata form (also sonata-allegro form or first movement form) is a musical structure consisting of three main sections: an exposition, a development, and a recapitulation.
The sonatas and partitas for solo violin (BWV 1001–1006) are a set of six works composed by Johann Sebastian Bach.
A spinet is a smaller type of harpsichord or other keyboard instrument, such as a piano or organ.
Johann Sebastian Bach is a 19th-century biography of Johann Sebastian Bach by Philipp Spitta.
The Passio secundum Joannem or St John Passion (Johannes-Passion), BWV 245, is a Passion or oratorio by Johann Sebastian Bach, the older of the surviving Passions by Bach.
Jesus Christus ist um unsrer Missetat willen verwundet is a St Mark Passion which originated in the early 18th century and is most often attributed to Reinhard Keiser.
The St Matthew Passion (Matthäus-Passion), BWV 244, is a Passion, a sacred oratorio written by Johann Sebastian Bach in 1727 for solo voices, double choir and double orchestra, with libretto by Picander.
The Church of John the Baptist (Germ. St. Johannis or Johanniskirche) is the oldest Lutheran church in Lüneburg, Germany.
Stabat Mater is a musical setting of the Stabat Mater sequence, composed by Giovanni Battista Pergolesi in 1736.
Steigt freudig in die Luft (Soar joyfully in the air), BWV 36a, is a lost secular cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach.
Stile antico (literally "ancient style"), is a term describing a manner of musical composition from the sixteenth century onwards that was historically conscious, as opposed to stile moderno, which adhered to more modern trends.
Johann Sebastian Bach composed suites, partitas and overtures in the baroque dance suite format for solo instruments such as harpsichord, lute, violin, cello and flute, and for orchestra.
A suite, in Western classical music and jazz, is an ordered set of instrumental or orchestral/concert band pieces.
Switched-On Bach is the first studio album by the American musician and composer Wendy Carlos, released under her birth name Walter Carlos in October 1968 by Columbia Records.
Tönet, ihr Pauken! Erschallet, Trompeten! (Resound, ye drums! Ring out, ye trumpets!), BWV 214, is a cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach, composed in 1733 as a congratulatory cantata for the birthday of Maria Josepha, Queen of Poland and Electress of Saxony.
Teldec (Telefunken-Decca Schallplatten GmbH) is a German record label in Hamburg, Germany.
The Art of Fugue (or The Art of the Fugue; Die Kunst der Fuge), BWV 1080, is an incomplete musical work of unspecified instrumentation by Johann Sebastian Bach (1685–1750).
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
The Diapason is a magazine serving those who build and play organs.
The Musical Offering (German title: Musikalisches Opfer or Das Musikalische Opfer), BWV 1079, is a collection of keyboard canons and fugues and other pieces of music by Johann Sebastian Bach, all based on a single musical theme given to him by Frederick the Great (Frederick II of Prussia), to whom they are dedicated.
The Swingles are a vocal group formed in 1962 in Paris, France by Ward Swingle with Anne Germain, Claude Germain, Jeanette Baucomont, Christiane Legrand, Claudine Meunier, Jean-Claude Briodin, and Jean Cussac.
The Well-Tempered Clavier, BWV 846–893, is a collection of two sets of preludes and fugues in all 24 major and minor keys, composed for solo keyboard by Johann Sebastian Bach.
Thomaskantor (Cantor at St. Thomas) is the common name for the musical director of the Thomanerchor, now an internationally known boys' choir founded in Leipzig in 1212.
"The Three Bs" is an English-language phrase derived from an expression coined by Peter Cornelius in 1854, which added Hector Berlioz as the third B to occupy the heights already occupied by Johann Sebastian Bach and Ludwig van Beethoven.
The Free State of Thuringia (Freistaat Thüringen) is a federal state in central Germany.
Tilge, Höchster, meine Sünden, BWV 1083, is an arrangement by Johann Sebastian Bach of Pergolesi's 1736 ''Stabat Mater''.
Toccata (from Italian toccare, literally, "to touch") is a virtuoso piece of music typically for a keyboard or plucked string instrument featuring fast-moving, lightly fingered or otherwise virtuosic passages or sections, with or without imitative or fugal interludes, generally emphasizing the dexterity of the performer's fingers.
The Toccata and Fugue in D minor, BWV 565, is a piece of organ music written, according to its oldest extant sources, by Johann Sebastian Bach.
Tonality is the arrangement of pitches and/or chords of a musical work in a hierarchy of perceived relations, stabilities, attractions and directionality.
Trinity Sunday is the first Sunday after Pentecost in the Western Christian liturgical calendar, and the Sunday of Pentecost in Eastern Christianity. Trinity Sunday celebrates the Christian doctrine of the Trinity, the three Persons of God: the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit.
The trio sonata is a musical form that was found throughout the Baroque era and occurred in two forms in the last decades of the 17th century to the first half of the 18th century: the sonata da camera and the sonata da chiesa.
The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.
Uri Caine (born June 8, 1956, Philadelphia, United States) is an American classical and jazz pianist and composer.
In music, variation is a formal technique where material is repeated in an altered form.
Vereinigte Zwietracht der wechselnden Saiten (United discord of quivering strings), BWV 207, is a secular cantata composed by Johann Sebastian Bach and first performed on 11 December 1726 in Leipzig.
Vergnügte Pleißenstadt (Contented Pleisse-town), BWV 216, is a secular cantata composed by Johann Sebastian Bach, which survives in an incomplete state.
Verjaget, zerstreuet, zerrüttet, ihr Sterne (Dispel them, disperse them, you heavens), BWV 249b, is a lost cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach.
The viol, viola da gamba, or (informally) gamba, is any one of a family of bowed, fretted and stringed instruments with hollow wooden bodies and pegboxes where the tension on the strings can be increased or decreased to adjust the pitch of each of the strings.
The viola is a string instrument that is bowed or played with varying techniques.
The violin, also known informally as a fiddle, is a wooden string instrument in the violin family.
The Violin Concerto in A minor, BWV 1041, was composed by Johann Sebastian Bach.
The Violin Concerto in E major, BWV 1042, by Johann Sebastian Bach is a concerto based on the three-movement Venetian concerto model, albeit with a few unusual features as each movement has "un-Italian characteristics".
The Voyager Golden Records are two phonograph records that were included aboard both Voyager spacecraft launched in 1977.
The Voyager program is an American scientific program that employs two robotic probes, Voyager 1 and Voyager 2, to study the outer Solar System.
Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme (Awake, calls the voice to us),, also known as Sleepers Wake, is a church cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach, regarded as one of his most mature and popular sacred cantatas.
Walter Elias Disney (December 5, 1901December 15, 1966) was an American entrepreneur, animator, voice actor and film producer.
Wanda Aleksandra Landowska (5 July 1879 – 16 August 1959) was a Polish-French harpsichordist whose performances, teaching, recordings and writings played a large role in reviving the popularity of the harpsichord in the early 20th century.
Was mir behagt, ist nur die muntre Jagd (The lively hunt is all my heart's desire), BWV 208, also known as the Hunting Cantata, is a secular cantata composed in 1713 by Johann Sebastian Bach for the 31st birthday of Duke Christian of Saxe-Weissenfels on 23 February 1713.
Was mir behagt, ist nur die muntre Jagd (The merry hunt is all that I love), BWV 208a, is a secular cantata composed by Johann Sebastian Bach.
Weichet nur, betrübte Schatten (Dissipate, you troublesome shadows), BWV202, is a secular cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach.
Weimar (Vimaria or Vinaria) is a city in the federal state of Thuringia, Germany.
Johann Sebastian Bach worked at the ducal court in Weimar from 1708 to 1717.
Weinen, Klagen, Sorgen, Zagen (Weeping, lamenting, worrying, fearing),, is a church cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach.
Wendy Carlos (born Walter Carlos; November 14, 1939) is an American musician and composer best known for her electronic music and film scores.
Wie schön leuchtet der Morgenstern (How beautifully the morning star shines),, is a church cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach.
Wilhelm Friedemann Bach (22 November 1710 – 1 July 1784), the second child and eldest son of Johann Sebastian Bach and Maria Barbara Bach, was a German composer and performer.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (27 January 1756 – 5 December 1791), baptised as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart, was a prolific and influential composer of the classical era.
Wolfgang Schmieder (May 29, 1901 – November 8, 1990) was a German music librarian, and musicologist.
Zerreißet, zersprenget, zertrümmert die Gruft (Destroy, burst, shatter the tomb), is a secular cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach.
24 Preludes and Fugues, Op.
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