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Johannes Kepler

Index Johannes Kepler

Johannes Kepler (December 27, 1571 – November 15, 1630) was a German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer. [1]

287 relations: Accademia dei Lincei, Age of Enlightenment, Albrecht von Wallenstein, Alchemy, Alexander von Brill, Alexandre Koyré, Alternative medicine, Analogy, Analytical psychology, Apparent retrograde motion, Aristotle, Arthur Koestler, Astrological aspect, Astrological sign, Astrology, Astronomer, Astronomia nova, Astronomy, Astrophysics, Atmospheric refraction, Atomism, Augsburg Confession, Automated Transfer Vehicle, Żagań, Baden-Württemberg, Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Benátky nad Jizerou, Benoît Charest, Bohemia, Calendar of saints, Calendar of saints (Episcopal Church), Calvinism, Cambridge University Press, Carl Sagan, Carnegie Mellon University, Catherine the Great, Cavalieri's principle, Celestial spheres, Charlemagne, Charles Sanders Peirce, Christen Sørensen Longomontanus, Christiaan Huygens, Christopher Wren, Chronology, Chronology of Jesus, Commensurability (philosophy of science), Conic section, Conjunction (astronomy), Copernican heliocentrism, Cornell University Press, ..., Cosmos: A Personal Voyage, Counter-Reformation, Cube, David Fabricius, De Magnete, De revolutionibus orbium coelestium, De Stella Nova, Die Harmonie der Welt, Dodecahedron, Earth, Edmond Halley, Eggenberg Palace, Graz, Eighty Years' War, Electorate of Bavaria, Ellipse, Ephemeris, Epileptic seizure, Epiphany (feeling), Epitome Astronomiae Copernicanae, Equant, Erasmus Reinhold, Ernst Friedrich Apelt, Eucharist, European witchcraft, Evangelical Seminaries of Maulbronn and Blaubeuren, Excommunication, Exegesis, Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor, Focus (geometry), Formula of Concord, Frans Tengnagel, Free imperial city, Galilean moons, Galileo Galilei, Geocentric model, Giovanni Alfonso Borelli, Giovanni Antonio Magini, Giovanni Battista Riccioli, God the Father, Google Books, Graz, Great Comet of 1577, Great conjunction, Gregorian calendar, Hans Ulrich von Eggenberg, Harmonices Mundi, Heliocentrism, Helisaeus Roeslin, Herbalism, Historiography of science, History of astronomy, History of physics, Holy Roman Empire, Holy Spirit, Horoscope, Icosahedron, Inertia, International Space Station, Inverse-square law, Isaac Newton, Isis (journal), Ismaël Bullialdus, Jacob Heerbrand, James R. Newman, Jan Jesenius, Jean Baptiste Joseph Delambre, Jean-Étienne Montucla, Jeremiah Horrocks, Jesus, Johannes Kepler ATV, Johannes Kepler University Linz, John Banville, John Louis Emil Dreyer, John the Evangelist, Jost Bürgi, Journal for the History of Astronomy, Jupiter, Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, Karl Popper, Katharina Kepler, Kepler (lunar crater), Kepler (Martian crater), Kepler (microarchitecture), Kepler (opera), Kepler (spacecraft), Kepler Challenge, Kepler College, Kepler conjecture, Kepler Launch Site, Kepler orbit, Kepler problem, Kepler Track, Kepler triangle, Kepler's laws of planetary motion, Kepler's Supernova, Kepler–Bouwkamp constant, Kepler–Poinsot polyhedron, Latin school, Laurentius Suslyga, Lens (anatomy), Lens (optics), Leonberg, Liberal arts education, Library of Congress, Linda Hall Library, Linz, List of Bohemian monarchs, List of things named after Johannes Kepler, Lunar eclipse, Marcelo Gleiser, Mars, Mars and April, Martin Villeneuve, Mathematician, Mathematics, Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor, Mercenary, Mercury (planet), Metaphysics (Aristotle), Meteorology, Michael Maestlin, Minute and second of arc, Moon, Morris Kline, Musica universalis, Mysterium Cosmographicum, NASA, Natural philosophy, Newton's law of universal gravitation, Nicholas Kollerstrom, Nicolaus Copernicus, Nicolaus Reimers, Norwood Russell Hanson, Numerology, Nvidia, Octahedron, Oliver Lodge, On the Heavens, Optics, Orbital period, Orbital speed, Oval, Owen Gingerich, Oxford University Press, Padua, Parabola, Parallax, Patronage, Paul Hindemith, Perihelion and aphelion, Philip Glass, Philip Melanchthon, Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, Philosophy of science, Photometer, Physics, Pierre Gassendi, Pinhole camera, Platonic solid, Point at infinity, Polyhedron, Pope Gregory XIII, Prague, Princeton University Press, Projective geometry, Prutenic Tables, Ptolemy, Pythagoras, Quadrivium, Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, Real image, Reason, Refracting telescope, Regensburg, Regular polygon, René Descartes, Retina, Richard S. Westfall, Rickettsia, Robert Fludd, Robert Hooke, Roland Bulirsch, Romanticism in science, Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor, Rudolphine Tables, Saturn, Scientific method, Scientific Revolution, Secretary problem, Seminary, Seth Ward (bishop of Salisbury), Sidereus Nuncius, Simon & Schuster, Simon Marius, Smallpox, Snell's law, Solar eclipse, Solar System, Somnium (novel), Sphere packing, Spirituality, Star of Bethlehem, Stephen Toulmin, Stuttgart Region, Styria, Sun, Tübingen, Tübinger Stift, Telescope, Tetrahedron, Thales of Miletus, The Sleepwalkers (Koestler book), Theology, Thirty Years' War, Thomas Kuhn, Transit of Venus, Transit of Venus, 1639, Tycho Brahe, Tychonic system, Ulm, University of Chicago Press, University of Padua, University of Tübingen, Upper Austria, Utraquism, Venus, Vienna U-Bahn, Virtual image, Wacker von Wackenfels, Walther von Dyck, Württemberg, Weil der Stadt, William Gilbert (astronomer), William Whewell, Wolfgang Pauli, Zodiac, 1134 Kepler. 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Accademia dei Lincei

The Accademia dei Lincei (literally the "Academy of the Lynx-Eyed", but anglicised as the Lincean Academy) is an Italian science academy, located at the Palazzo Corsini on the Via della Lungara in Rome, Italy.

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Age of Enlightenment

The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".

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Albrecht von Wallenstein

Albrecht Wenzel Eusebius von Wallenstein (Albrecht Václav Eusebius z Valdštejna; 24 September 158325 February 1634),Schiller, Friedrich.

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Alchemy is a philosophical and protoscientific tradition practiced throughout Europe, Africa, Brazil and Asia.

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Alexander von Brill

Alexander Wilhelm von Brill (20 September 1842 – 18 June 1935) was a German mathematician.

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Alexandre Koyré

Alexandre Koyré (29 August 1892 – 28 April 1964), also anglicized as Alexandre or Alexander Koyre, was a French philosopher of Russian origin who wrote on the history and philosophy of science.

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Alternative medicine

Alternative medicine, fringe medicine, pseudomedicine or simply questionable medicine is the use and promotion of practices which are unproven, disproven, impossible to prove, or excessively harmful in relation to their effect — in the attempt to achieve the healing effects of medicine.--> --> --> They differ from experimental medicine in that the latter employs responsible investigation, and accepts results that show it to be ineffective. The scientific consensus is that alternative therapies either do not, or cannot, work. In some cases laws of nature are violated by their basic claims; in some the treatment is so much worse that its use is unethical. Alternative practices, products, and therapies range from only ineffective to having known harmful and toxic effects.--> Alternative therapies may be credited for perceived improvement through placebo effects, decreased use or effect of medical treatment (and therefore either decreased side effects; or nocebo effects towards standard treatment),--> or the natural course of the condition or disease. Alternative treatment is not the same as experimental treatment or traditional medicine, although both can be misused in ways that are alternative. Alternative or complementary medicine is dangerous because it may discourage people from getting the best possible treatment, and may lead to a false understanding of the body and of science.-->---> Alternative medicine is used by a significant number of people, though its popularity is often overstated.--> Large amounts of funding go to testing alternative medicine, with more than US$2.5 billion spent by the United States government alone.--> Almost none show any effect beyond that of false treatment,--> and most studies showing any effect have been statistical flukes. Alternative medicine is a highly profitable industry, with a strong lobby. This fact is often overlooked by media or intentionally kept hidden, with alternative practice being portrayed positively when compared to "big pharma". --> The lobby has successfully pushed for alternative therapies to be subject to far less regulation than conventional medicine.--> Alternative therapies may even be allowed to promote use when there is demonstrably no effect, only a tradition of use. Regulation and licensing of alternative medicine and health care providers varies between and within countries. Despite laws making it illegal to market or promote alternative therapies for use in cancer treatment, many practitioners promote them.--> Alternative medicine is criticized for taking advantage of the weakest members of society.--! Terminology has shifted over time, reflecting the preferred branding of practitioners.. Science Based Medicine--> For example, the United States National Institutes of Health department studying alternative medicine, currently named National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, was established as the Office of Alternative Medicine and was renamed the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine before obtaining its current name. Therapies are often framed as "natural" or "holistic", in apparent opposition to conventional medicine which is "artificial" and "narrow in scope", statements which are intentionally misleading. --> When used together with functional medical treatment, alternative therapies do not "complement" (improve the effect of, or mitigate the side effects of) treatment.--> Significant drug interactions caused by alternative therapies may instead negatively impact functional treatment, making it less effective, notably in cancer.--> Alternative diagnoses and treatments are not part of medicine, or of science-based curricula in medical schools, nor are they used in any practice based on scientific knowledge or experience.--> Alternative therapies are often based on religious belief, tradition, superstition, belief in supernatural energies, pseudoscience, errors in reasoning, propaganda, fraud, or lies.--> Alternative medicine is based on misleading statements, quackery, pseudoscience, antiscience, fraud, and poor scientific methodology. Promoting alternative medicine has been called dangerous and unethical.--> Testing alternative medicine that has no scientific basis has been called a waste of scarce research resources.--> Critics state that "there is really no such thing as alternative medicine, just medicine that works and medicine that doesn't",--> that the very idea of "alternative" treatments is paradoxical, as any treatment proven to work is by definition "medicine".-->.

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Analogy (from Greek ἀναλογία, analogia, "proportion", from ana- "upon, according to" + logos "ratio") is a cognitive process of transferring information or meaning from a particular subject (the analog, or source) to another (the target), or a linguistic expression corresponding to such a process.

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Analytical psychology

Analytical psychology (sometimes analytic psychology), also called Jungian psychology, is a school of psychotherapy which originated in the ideas of Carl Jung, a Swiss psychiatrist.

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Apparent retrograde motion

Apparent retrograde motion is the apparent motion of a planet in a direction opposite to that of other bodies within its system, as observed from a particular vantage point.

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Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.

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Arthur Koestler

Arthur Koestler, (Kösztler Artúr; 5 September 1905 – 1 March 1983) was a Hungarian-British author and journalist.

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Astrological aspect

In astrology, an aspect is an angle the planets make to each other in the horoscope, also to the ascendant, midheaven, descendant, lower midheaven, and other points of astrological interest.

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Astrological sign

In Western astrology, astrological signs are the twelve 30° sectors of the ecliptic, starting at the vernal equinox (one of the intersections of the ecliptic with the celestial equator), also known as the First Point of Aries.

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Astrology is the study of the movements and relative positions of celestial objects as a means for divining information about human affairs and terrestrial events.

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An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who concentrates their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of Earth.

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Astronomia nova

Astronomia nova (English: New Astronomy, full title in original Latin: Astronomia Nova ΑΙΤΙΟΛΟΓΗΤΟΣ seu physica coelestis, tradita commentariis de motibus stellae Martis ex observationibus G.V. Tychonis Brahe) is a book, published in 1609, that contains the results of the astronomer Johannes Kepler's ten-year-long investigation of the motion of Mars.

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Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.

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Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that employs the principles of physics and chemistry "to ascertain the nature of the astronomical objects, rather than their positions or motions in space".

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Atmospheric refraction

Atmospheric refraction is the deviation of light or other electromagnetic wave from a straight line as it passes through the atmosphere due to the variation in air density as a function of height.

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Atomism (from Greek ἄτομον, atomon, i.e. "uncuttable", "indivisible") is a natural philosophy that developed in several ancient traditions.

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Augsburg Confession

The Augsburg Confession, also known as the Augustan Confession or the Augustana from its Latin name, Confessio Augustana, is the primary confession of faith of the Lutheran Church and one of the most important documents of the Lutheran Reformation.

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Automated Transfer Vehicle

The Automated Transfer Vehicle, originally Ariane Transfer Vehicle or ATV, was an expendable cargo spacecraft developed by the European Space Agency (ESA).

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Żagań (French and Sagan, Zahań, Zaháň, Saganum) is a town on the Bóbr river in western Poland, with 26,253 inhabitants (2010).

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Baden-Württemberg is a state in southwest Germany, east of the Rhine, which forms the border with France.

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Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities

The Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities (Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften) is an independent public institution, located in Munich.

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Benátky nad Jizerou

Benátky nad Jizerou (Benatek) is a town on the Jizera river which is also known as Kbelačka in the Central Bohemian Region of the Czech Republic, between the cities Stará Boleslav and Mladá Boleslav.

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Benoît Charest

Benoît Charest (born in 1964) is a Canadian guitarist and film score composer from Quebec.

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Bohemia (Čechy;; Czechy; Bohême; Bohemia; Boemia) is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic.

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Calendar of saints

The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organizing a liturgical year by associating each day with one or more saints and referring to the day as the feast day or feast of said saint.

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Calendar of saints (Episcopal Church)

The veneration of saints in the Episcopal Church is a continuation of an ancient tradition from the early Church which honors important and influential people of the Christian faith.

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Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Carl Sagan

Carl Edward Sagan (November 9, 1934 – December 20, 1996) was an American astronomer, cosmologist, astrophysicist, astrobiologist, author, science popularizer, and science communicator in astronomy and other natural sciences.

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Carnegie Mellon University

Carnegie Mellon University (commonly known as CMU) is a private research university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

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Catherine the Great

Catherine II (Russian: Екатерина Алексеевна Yekaterina Alekseyevna; –), also known as Catherine the Great (Екатери́на Вели́кая, Yekaterina Velikaya), born Princess Sophie of Anhalt-Zerbst, was Empress of Russia from 1762 until 1796, the country's longest-ruling female leader.

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Cavalieri's principle

In geometry, Cavalieri's principle, a modern implementation of the method of indivisibles, named after Bonaventura Cavalieri, is as follows.

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Celestial spheres

The celestial spheres, or celestial orbs, were the fundamental entities of the cosmological models developed by Plato, Eudoxus, Aristotle, Ptolemy, Copernicus, and others.

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Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.

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Charles Sanders Peirce

Charles Sanders Peirce ("purse"; 10 September 1839 – 19 April 1914) was an American philosopher, logician, mathematician, and scientist who is sometimes known as "the father of pragmatism".

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Christen Sørensen Longomontanus

Christen Sørensen Longomontanus (or Longberg) (4 October 1562 – 8 October 1647) was a Danish astronomer.

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Christiaan Huygens

Christiaan Huygens (Hugenius; 14 April 1629 – 8 July 1695) was a Dutch physicist, mathematician, astronomer and inventor, who is widely regarded as one of the greatest scientists of all time and a major figure in the scientific revolution.

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Christopher Wren

Sir Christopher Wren PRS FRS (–) was an English anatomist, astronomer, geometer, and mathematician-physicist, as well as one of the most highly acclaimed English architects in history.

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Chronology (from Latin chronologia, from Ancient Greek χρόνος, chrónos, "time"; and -λογία, -logia) is the science of arranging events in their order of occurrence in time.

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Chronology of Jesus

A chronology of Jesus aims to establish a timeline for the historical events of the life of Jesus.

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Commensurability (philosophy of science)

Commensurability is a concept in the philosophy of science whereby scientific theories are commensurable if scientists can discuss them using a shared nomenclature that allows direct comparison of theories to determine which theory is more valid or useful.

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Conic section

In mathematics, a conic section (or simply conic) is a curve obtained as the intersection of the surface of a cone with a plane.

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Conjunction (astronomy)

In astronomy, a conjunction occurs when two astronomical objects or spacecraft have either the same right ascension or the same ecliptic longitude, usually as observed from Earth.

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Copernican heliocentrism

Copernican heliocentrism is the name given to the astronomical model developed by Nicolaus Copernicus and published in 1543.

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Cornell University Press

The Cornell University Press is a division of Cornell University housed in Sage House, the former residence of Henry William Sage.

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Cosmos: A Personal Voyage

Cosmos: A Personal Voyage is a thirteen-part television series written by Carl Sagan, Ann Druyan, and Steven Soter, with Sagan as presenter.

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The Counter-Reformation, also called the Catholic Reformation or the Catholic Revival, was the period of Catholic resurgence initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation, beginning with the Council of Trent (1545–1563) and ending at the close of the Thirty Years' War (1648).

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In geometry, a cube is a three-dimensional solid object bounded by six square faces, facets or sides, with three meeting at each vertex.

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David Fabricius

David Fabricius (9 March 1564 – 7 May 1617) was a German pastor who made two major discoveries in the early days of telescopic astronomy, jointly with his eldest son, Johannes Fabricius (1587–1615).

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De Magnete

De Magnete, Magneticisque Corporibus, et de Magno Magnete Tellure (On the Magnet and Magnetic Bodies, and on That Great Magnet the Earth) is a scientific work published in 1600 by the English physician and scientist William Gilbert and his partner Aaron Dowling.

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De revolutionibus orbium coelestium

De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres) is the seminal work on the heliocentric theory of the Renaissance astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus (1473–1543).

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De Stella Nova

De Stella Nova in Pede Serpentarii (On the New Star in the Foot of the Serpent Handler), generally known as De Stella Nova was a book written by Johannes Kepler between 1605 and 1606, when the book was published in Prague.

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Die Harmonie der Welt

Die Harmonie der Welt (The Harmony of the World) is an opera in five acts by Paul Hindemith.

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In geometry, a dodecahedron (Greek δωδεκάεδρον, from δώδεκα dōdeka "twelve" + ἕδρα hédra "base", "seat" or "face") is any polyhedron with twelve flat faces.

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Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.

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Edmond Halley

Edmond (or Edmund) Halley, FRS (–) was an English astronomer, geophysicist, mathematician, meteorologist, and physicist.

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Eggenberg Palace, Graz

Eggenberg Palace (Schloss Eggenberg) in Graz is the most significant Baroque palace complex in Styria.

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Eighty Years' War

The Eighty Years' War (Tachtigjarige Oorlog; Guerra de los Ochenta Años) or Dutch War of Independence (1568–1648) was a revolt of the Seventeen Provinces of what are today the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg against the political and religious hegemony of Philip II of Spain, the sovereign of the Habsburg Netherlands.

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Electorate of Bavaria

The Electorate of Bavaria (Kurfürstentum Bayern) was an independent hereditary electorate of the Holy Roman Empire from 1623 to 1806, when it was succeeded by the Kingdom of Bavaria.

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In mathematics, an ellipse is a curve in a plane surrounding two focal points such that the sum of the distances to the two focal points is constant for every point on the curve.

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In astronomy and celestial navigation, an ephemeris (plural: ephemerides) gives the positions of naturally occurring astronomical objects as well as artificial satellites in the sky at a given time or times.

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Epileptic seizure

An epileptic seizure is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.

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Epiphany (feeling)

An epiphany (from the ancient Greek ἐπιφάνεια, epiphaneia, "manifestation, striking appearance") is an experience of sudden and striking realization.

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Epitome Astronomiae Copernicanae

The Epitome Astronomiae Copernicanae was an astronomy book on the heliocentric system published by Johannes Kepler in the period 1617 to 1621.

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Equant (or punctum aequans) is a mathematical concept developed by Claudius Ptolemy in the 2nd century AD to account for the observed motion of the planets.

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Erasmus Reinhold

Erasmus Reinhold (October 22, 1511 – February 19, 1553) was a German astronomer and mathematician, considered to be the most influential astronomical pedagogue of his generation.

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Ernst Friedrich Apelt

Ernst Friedrich Apelt (3 March 1812 in Reichenau, Saxony – 27 October 1859 in Oppelsdorf, Upper Lusatia, Saxony) was a German philosopher and entrepreneur.

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The Eucharist (also called Holy Communion or the Lord's Supper, among other names) is a Christian rite that is considered a sacrament in most churches and an ordinance in others.

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European witchcraft

Belief in and practice of witchcraft in Europe can be traced to classical antiquity and has continuous history during the Middle Ages, culminating in the Early Modern witch hunts and giving rise to the fairy tale and popular culture "witch" stock character of modern times, as well as to the concept of the "modern witch" in Wicca and related movements of contemporary witchcraft.

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Evangelical Seminaries of Maulbronn and Blaubeuren

The Protestant (Evangelische, Gr.) Seminaries of Maulbronn and Blaubeuren (Evangelische Seminare Maulbronn und Blaubeuren) in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, are two Gymnasien (high schools) and Protestant boarding schools in the Württemberg tradition.

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Excommunication is an institutional act of religious censure used to deprive, suspend, or limit membership in a religious community or to restrict certain rights within it, in particular receiving of the sacraments.

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Exegesis (from the Greek ἐξήγησις from ἐξηγεῖσθαι, "to lead out") is a critical explanation or interpretation of a text, particularly a religious text.

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Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor

Ferdinand II (9 July 1578 – 15 February 1637), a member of the House of Habsburg, was Holy Roman Emperor (1619–1637), King of Bohemia (1617–1619, 1620–1637), and King of Hungary (1618–1637).

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Focus (geometry)

In geometry, focuses or foci, singular focus, are special points with reference to which any of a variety of curves is constructed.

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Formula of Concord

Formula of Concord (1577) (German, Konkordienformel; Latin, Formula concordiae; also the "Bergic Book" or the "Bergen Book") is an authoritative Lutheran statement of faith (called a confession, creed, or "symbol") that, in its two parts (Epitome and Solid Declaration), makes up the final section of the Lutheran Corpus Doctrinae or Body of Doctrine, known as the Book of Concord (most references to these texts are to the original edition of 1580).

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Frans Tengnagel

Frans Gansneb genaamd Tengnagel van de Camp (1576 in Neede – 1 December 1622 in Vienna) was a Dutch nobleman.

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Free imperial city

In the Holy Roman Empire, the collective term free and imperial cities (Freie und Reichsstädte), briefly worded free imperial city (Freie Reichsstadt, urbs imperialis libera), was used from the fifteenth century to denote a self-ruling city that had a certain amount of autonomy and was represented in the Imperial Diet.

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Galilean moons

The Galilean moons are the four largest moons of Jupiter—Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto.

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Galileo Galilei

Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564Drake (1978, p. 1). The date of Galileo's birth is given according to the Julian calendar, which was then in force throughout Christendom. In 1582 it was replaced in Italy and several other Catholic countries with the Gregorian calendar. Unless otherwise indicated, dates in this article are given according to the Gregorian calendar. – 8 January 1642) was an Italian polymath.

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Geocentric model

In astronomy, the geocentric model (also known as geocentrism, or the Ptolemaic system) is a superseded description of the universe with Earth at the center.

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Giovanni Alfonso Borelli

Giovanni Alfonso Borelli (28 January 1608 – 31 December 1679) was a Renaissance Italian physiologist, physicist, and mathematician.

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Giovanni Antonio Magini

Giovanni Antonio Magini (in Latin, Maginus) (13 June 1555 – 11 February 1617) was an Italian astronomer, astrologer, cartographer, and mathematician.

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Giovanni Battista Riccioli

Giovanni Battista Riccioli (17 April 1598 – 25 June 1671) was an Italian astronomer and a Catholic priest in the Jesuit order.

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God the Father

God the Father is a title given to God in various religions, most prominently in Christianity.

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Google Books

Google Books (previously known as Google Book Search and Google Print and by its codename Project Ocean) is a service from Google Inc. that searches the full text of books and magazines that Google has scanned, converted to text using optical character recognition (OCR), and stored in its digital database.

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Graz is the capital of Styria and the second-largest city in Austria after Vienna.

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Great Comet of 1577

The Great Comet of 1577 (official designation: C/1577 V1) is a non-periodic comet that passed close to Earth during the year 1577 AD.

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Great conjunction

A great conjunction is a conjunction of the planets Jupiter and Saturn.

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Gregorian calendar

The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used civil calendar in the world.

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Hans Ulrich von Eggenberg

Prince Hans Ulrich von Eggenberg (1568 – 18 October 1634) was an Austrian statesman, a son of Seyfried von Eggenberg, Lord of Erbersdorf (1526-1594), and great-grandson of Balthasar Eggenberger (died 1493).

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Harmonices Mundi

Harmonices MundiThe full title is Ioannis Keppleri Harmonices mundi libri V (The Five Books of Johannes Kepler's The Harmony of the World).

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Heliocentrism is the astronomical model in which the Earth and planets revolve around the Sun at the center of the Solar System.

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Helisaeus Roeslin

Helisaeus Roeslin or Helisäus Röslin (17 January 1545, Plieningen (now part of Stuttgart) – 14 August 1616, Buchsweiler was a German physician and astrologer who adopted a geoheliocentric model of the universe. He was one of five observers who concluded that the Great Comet of 1577 was located beyond the moon. His representation of the comet, described as "an interesting, though crude, attempt," was among the earliest and was highly complex.

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Herbalism (also herbal medicine or phytotherapy) is the study of botany and use of plants intended for medicinal purposes or for supplementing a diet.

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Historiography of science

The historiography of science is the study of the history and methodology of the sub-discipline of history, known as the history of science, including its disciplinary aspects and practices (methods, theories, schools) and to the study of its own historical development ("History of History of Science", i.e., the history of the discipline called History of Science).

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History of astronomy

Astronomy is the oldest of the natural sciences, dating back to antiquity, with its origins in the religious, mythological, cosmological, calendrical, and astrological beliefs and practices of prehistory: vestiges of these are still found in astrology, a discipline long interwoven with public and governmental astronomy, and not completely disentangled from it until a few centuries ago in the Western World (see astrology and astronomy).

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History of physics

Physics (from the Ancient Greek φύσις physis meaning "nature") is the fundamental branch of science.

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Holy Roman Empire

The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.

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Holy Spirit

Holy Spirit (also called Holy Ghost) is a term found in English translations of the Bible that is understood differently among the Abrahamic religions.

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A horoscope is an astrological chart or diagram representing the positions of the Sun, Moon, planets, astrological aspects and sensitive angles at the time of an event, such as the moment of a person's birth.

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In geometry, an icosahedron is a polyhedron with 20 faces.

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Inertia is the resistance of any physical object to any change in its position and state of motion.

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International Space Station

The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit.

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Inverse-square law

The inverse-square law, in physics, is any physical law stating that a specified physical quantity or intensity is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the source of that physical quantity.

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Isaac Newton

Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.

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Isis (journal)

Isis is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by the University of Chicago Press.

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Ismaël Bullialdus

Ismaël Bullialdus (born Ismaël Boulliau,; 28 September 1605 – 25 November 1694) was a 17th-century French astronomer and mathematician who was also interested in history, theology, classical studies, and philology.

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Jacob Heerbrand

Jacob Heerbrand (12 August 1521 – 22 May 1600) was a German Protestant theologian, reformer and controversialist.

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James R. Newman

James Roy Newman (1907–1966) was an American mathematician and mathematical historian.

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Jan Jesenius

Jan Jesenius (also written as Jessenius, Johannes Jessenius, Jeszenszky János, Ján Jesenský; December 27, 1566 – June 21, 1621) was a Bohemian physician, politician and philosopher.

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Jean Baptiste Joseph Delambre

Jean Baptiste Joseph, chevalier Delambre (19 September 1749 – 19 August 1822) was a French mathematician and astronomer.

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Jean-Étienne Montucla

Jean-Étienne Montucla (5 September 1725 – 18 December 1799) was a French mathematician and historian.

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Jeremiah Horrocks

Jeremiah Horrocks (1618 – 3 January 1641), sometimes given as Jeremiah Horrox (the Latinised version that he used on the Emmanuel College register and in his Latin manuscripts), – See footnote 1 was an English astronomer.

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Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.

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Johannes Kepler ATV

The Johannes Kepler ATV, or Automated Transfer Vehicle 002 (ATV-002), was an unmanned cargo spacecraft built to resupply the International Space Station (ISS).

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Johannes Kepler University Linz

The Johannes Kepler University Linz (German: Johannes Kepler Universität Linz, short: JKU) is a public institution of higher education in Austria.

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John Banville

William John Banville (born 8 December 1945), who sometimes writes as Benjamin Black, is an Irish novelist, adapter of dramas, and screenwriter.

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John Louis Emil Dreyer

John Louis Emil Dreyer (February 13, 1852 – September 14, 1926) was a Danish-Irish astronomer.

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John the Evangelist

John the Evangelist (Εὐαγγελιστής Ἰωάννης, ⲓⲱⲁⲛⲛⲏⲥ or ⲓⲱ̅ⲁ) is the name traditionally given to the author of the Gospel of John.

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Jost Bürgi

Jost Bürgi (also Joost, Jobst; Latinized surname Burgius or Byrgius; 28 February 1552 – 31 January 1632), active primarily at the courts in Kassel and Prague, was a Swiss clockmaker, a maker of astronomical instruments and a mathematician.

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Journal for the History of Astronomy

Journal for the History of Astronomy (JHA) is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes papers in the History of Astronomy from earliest times to the present, and in history in the service of astronomy.

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Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.

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Kapteyn Astronomical Institute

The Kapteyn Astronomical Institute is the department of astronomy of the University of Groningen in the Netherlands.

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Karl Popper

Sir Karl Raimund Popper (28 July 1902 – 17 September 1994) was an Austrian-British philosopher and professor.

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Katharina Kepler

Katharina Kepler (née: Guldenmann; 1546 – 13 April 1622) was an alleged German witch from Stuttgart, Württemberg, and the mother of the famous astronomer Johannes Kepler.

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Kepler (lunar crater)

Kepler (Latin Keplerus) is a lunar impact crater that lies between the Oceanus Procellarum to the west and Mare Insularum in the east.

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Kepler (Martian crater)

Kepler is a crater on Mars, located in the Eridania quadrangle at 46.8° S, 140.9° E. It measures approximately and was named in 1973, by the International Astronomical Union, in honor of the astronomer Johannes Kepler.

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Kepler (microarchitecture)

Kepler is the codename for a GPU microarchitecture developed by Nvidia, first introduced at retail in April 2012, as the successor to the Fermi microarchitecture.

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Kepler (opera)

Kepler is an opera by Philip Glass set to a libretto in German and Latin by Martina Winkel.

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Kepler (spacecraft)

Kepler is a space observatory launched by NASA to discover Earth-size planets orbiting other stars.

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Kepler Challenge

The Kepler Challenge Mountain Run is the premier mountain running event in New Zealand and follows the 60 km Kepler Track through the Fiordland National Park.

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Kepler College

Kepler College (formerly Kepler College of Astrological Arts and Sciences) is an online certificate program for the pseudoscientific study of astrology.

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Kepler conjecture

The Kepler conjecture, named after the 17th-century mathematician and astronomer Johannes Kepler, is a mathematical theorem about sphere packing in three-dimensional Euclidean space.

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Kepler Launch Site

Kepler Launch Site is a site for the launch of low and medium power model rockets south of Weil der Stadt in Germany at.

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Kepler orbit

In celestial mechanics, a Kepler orbit (or Keplerian orbit) is the motion of one body relative to another, as an ellipse, parabola, or hyperbola, which forms a two-dimensional orbital plane in three-dimensional space.

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Kepler problem

In classical mechanics, the Kepler problem is a special case of the two-body problem, in which the two bodies interact by a central force F that varies in strength as the inverse square of the distance r between them.

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Kepler Track

The Kepler Track is a circular tramping track which travels through the landscape of the South Island of New Zealand and is situated near the town of Te Anau.

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Kepler triangle

A Kepler triangle is a right triangle with edge lengths in geometric progression.

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Kepler's laws of planetary motion

In astronomy, Kepler's laws of planetary motion are three scientific laws describing the motion of planets around the Sun.

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Kepler's Supernova

SN 1604, also known as Kepler's Supernova, Kepler's Nova or Kepler's Star, was a supernova of Type Ia that occurred in the Milky Way, in the constellation Ophiuchus.

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Kepler–Bouwkamp constant

In plane geometry, the Kepler–Bouwkamp constant (or polygon inscribing constant) is obtained as a limit of the following sequence.

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Kepler–Poinsot polyhedron

In geometry, a Kepler–Poinsot polyhedron is any of four regular star polyhedra.

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Latin school

The Latin school was the grammar school of 14th to 19th-century Europe, though the latter term was much more common in England.

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Laurentius Suslyga

Laurentius Suslyga or Laurence Suslyga (Polish: Wawrzyniec Suslyga) (1570–1640), was a Polish Jesuit historian, chronologist, and an author of Baroque visual poetry.

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Lens (anatomy)

The lens is a transparent, biconvex structure in the eye that, along with the cornea, helps to refract light to be focused on the retina.

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Lens (optics)

A lens is a transmissive optical device that focuses or disperses a light beam by means of refraction.

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Leonberg is a town in the German federal state of Baden-Württemberg about to the west of Stuttgart, the state capital.

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Liberal arts education

Liberal arts education (from Latin "free" and "art or principled practice") can claim to be the oldest programme of higher education in Western history.

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Library of Congress

The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.

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Linda Hall Library

The Linda Hall Library is a privately endowed American library of science, engineering and technology located in Kansas City, Missouri, sitting "majestically on a urban arboretum." It is the "largest independently funded public library of science, engineering and technology in North America" and "among the largest science libraries in the world.".

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Linz (Linec) is the third-largest city of Austria and capital of the state of Upper Austria (Oberösterreich).

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List of Bohemian monarchs

This is a list of Bohemian monarchs now also referred to as list of Czech monarchs who ruled as Dukes and Kings of Bohemia.

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List of things named after Johannes Kepler

This is a list of things named after German mathematician and astronomer Johannes Kepler (1571 – 1630).

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Lunar eclipse

A lunar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes directly behind Earth and into its shadow.

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Marcelo Gleiser

Marcelo Gleiser (born 19 March 1959) is a Brazilian physicist and astronomer.

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Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.

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Mars and April

Mars et Avril (aka Mars & Avril or Mars and April, — "Mars" here referring to planet Mars, and "Avril/April" to the lead female character), review from Variety, July 16, 2012 is a Canadian science fiction film starring Jacques Languirand, Caroline Dhavernas, Paul Ahmarani and Robert Lepage.

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Martin Villeneuve

Martin Villeneuve (born March 13, 1978) is a French Canadian screenwriter, producer, director, actor, and art director.

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A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics in his or her work, typically to solve mathematical problems.

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Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.

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Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor

Matthias (24 February 1557 – 20 March 1619) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1612, King of Hungary and Croatia from 1608 (as Matthias II) and King of Bohemia from 1611.

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A mercenary is an individual who is hired to take part in an armed conflict but is not part of a regular army or other governmental military force.

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Mercury (planet)

Mercury is the smallest and innermost planet in the Solar System.

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Metaphysics (Aristotle)

Metaphysics (Greek: τὰ μετὰ τὰ φυσικά; Latin: Metaphysica) is one of the principal works of Aristotle and the first major work of the branch of philosophy with the same name.

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Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with a major focus on weather forecasting.

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Michael Maestlin

Michael Maestlin (also Mästlin, Möstlin, or Moestlin) (30 September 1550, Göppingen – 20 October 1631, Tübingen) was a German astronomer and mathematician, known for being the mentor of Johannes Kepler.

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Minute and second of arc

A minute of arc, arcminute (arcmin), arc minute, or minute arc is a unit of angular measurement equal to of one degree.

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The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.

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Morris Kline

Morris Kline (May 1, 1908 – June 10, 1992) was a Professor of Mathematics, a writer on the history, philosophy, and teaching of mathematics, and also a popularizer of mathematical subjects.

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Musica universalis

Musica universalis (literally universal music), also called Music of the spheres or Harmony of the Spheres, is an ancient philosophical concept that regards proportions in the movements of celestial bodies—the Sun, Moon, and planets—as a form of musica (the Medieval Latin term for music).

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Mysterium Cosmographicum

Mysterium Cosmographicum (lit. The Cosmographic Mystery, alternately translated as Cosmic Mystery, The Secret of the World, or some variation) is an astronomy book by the German astronomer Johannes Kepler, published at Tübingen in 1596 and in a second edition in 1621.

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The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.

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Natural philosophy

Natural philosophy or philosophy of nature (from Latin philosophia naturalis) was the philosophical study of nature and the physical universe that was dominant before the development of modern science.

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Newton's law of universal gravitation

Newton's law of universal gravitation states that a particle attracts every other particle in the universe with a force which is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centers.

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Nicholas Kollerstrom

Nicholas Kollerstrom (born 1946) is an English author who is known for Holocaust denial and the promotion of conspiracy theories.

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Nicolaus Copernicus

Nicolaus Copernicus (Mikołaj Kopernik; Nikolaus Kopernikus; Niklas Koppernigk; 19 February 1473 – 24 May 1543) was a Renaissance-era mathematician and astronomer who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at the center of the universe, likely independently of Aristarchus of Samos, who had formulated such a model some eighteen centuries earlier.

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Nicolaus Reimers

Nicolaus Reimers Baer (2 February 1551 – 16 October 1600), also Reimarus Ursus, Nicolaus Reimers Bär or Nicolaus Reymers Baer, was an astronomer and imperial mathematician to Emperor Rudolf II.

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Norwood Russell Hanson

Norwood Russell Hanson (August 17, 1924 – April 18, 1967) was an American philosopher of science.

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Numerology is any belief in the divine or mystical relationship between a number and one or more coinciding events.

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Nvidia Corporation (most commonly referred to as Nvidia, stylized as NVIDIA, or (due to their logo) nVIDIA) is an American technology company incorporated in Delaware and based in Santa Clara, California.

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In geometry, an octahedron (plural: octahedra) is a polyhedron with eight faces, twelve edges, and six vertices.

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Oliver Lodge

Sir Oliver Joseph Lodge, (12 June 1851 – 22 August 1940) was a British physicist and writer involved in the development of, and holder of key patents for, radio.

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On the Heavens

On the Heavens (Greek: Περὶ οὐρανοῦ, Latin: De Caelo or De Caelo et Mundo) is Aristotle's chief cosmological treatise: written in 350 BC it contains his astronomical theory and his ideas on the concrete workings of the terrestrial world.

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Optics is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.

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Orbital period

The orbital period is the time a given astronomical object takes to complete one orbit around another object, and applies in astronomy usually to planets or asteroids orbiting the Sun, moons orbiting planets, exoplanets orbiting other stars, or binary stars.

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Orbital speed

In gravitationally bound systems, the orbital speed of an astronomical body or object (e.g. planet, moon, artificial satellite, spacecraft, or star) is the speed at which it orbits around either the barycenter or, if the object is much less massive than the largest body in the system, its speed relative to that largest body.

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An oval (from Latin ovum, "egg") is a closed curve in a plane which "loosely" resembles the outline of an egg.

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Owen Gingerich

Owen Jay Gingerich (born 1930) is professor emeritus of astronomy and of the history of science at Harvard University and a senior astronomer emeritus at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Padua (Padova; Pàdova) is a city and comune in Veneto, northern Italy.

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In mathematics, a parabola is a plane curve which is mirror-symmetrical and is approximately U-shaped.

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Parallax is a displacement or difference in the apparent position of an object viewed along two different lines of sight, and is measured by the angle or semi-angle of inclination between those two lines.

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Patronage is the support, encouragement, privilege, or financial aid that an organization or individual bestows to another.

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Paul Hindemith

Paul Hindemith (16 November 1895 – 28 December 1963) was a prolific German composer, violist, violinist, teacher and conductor.

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Perihelion and aphelion

The perihelion of any orbit of a celestial body about the Sun is the point where the body comes nearest to the Sun.

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Philip Glass

Philip Glass (born January 31, 1937) is an American composer.

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Philip Melanchthon

Philip Melanchthon (born Philipp Schwartzerdt; 16 February 1497 – 19 April 1560) was a German Lutheran reformer, collaborator with Martin Luther, the first systematic theologian of the Protestant Reformation, intellectual leader of the Lutheran Reformation, and an influential designer of educational systems.

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Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica

Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Latin for Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy), often referred to as simply the Principia, is a work in three books by Isaac Newton, in Latin, first published 5 July 1687.

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Philosophy of science

Philosophy of science is a sub-field of philosophy concerned with the foundations, methods, and implications of science.

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A photometer, generally, is an instrument that measures light intensity or the optical properties of solutions or surfaces.

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Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

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Pierre Gassendi

Pierre Gassendi (also Pierre Gassend, Petrus Gassendi; 22 January 1592 – 24 October 1655) was a French philosopher, priest, astronomer, and mathematician.

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Pinhole camera

A pinhole camera is a simple camera without a lens but with a tiny aperture, a pinhole – effectively a light-proof box with a small hole in one side.

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Platonic solid

In three-dimensional space, a Platonic solid is a regular, convex polyhedron.

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Point at infinity

In geometry, a point at infinity or ideal point is an idealized limiting point at the "end" of each line.

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In geometry, a polyhedron (plural polyhedra or polyhedrons) is a solid in three dimensions with flat polygonal faces, straight edges and sharp corners or vertices.

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Pope Gregory XIII

Pope Gregory XIII (Gregorius XIII; 7 January 1502 – 10 April 1585), born Ugo Boncompagni, was Pope of the Catholic Church from 13 May 1572 to his death in 1585.

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Prague (Praha, Prag) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and also the historical capital of Bohemia.

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Princeton University Press

Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.

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Projective geometry

Projective geometry is a topic in mathematics.

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Prutenic Tables

The Prutenic Tables (Tabulae prutenicae from Prutenia meaning "Prussia", Prutenische oder Preußische Tafeln), were an ephemeris (astronomical tables) by the astronomer Erasmus Reinhold published in 1551.

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Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.

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Pythagoras of Samos was an Ionian Greek philosopher and the eponymous founder of the Pythagoreanism movement.

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The quadrivium (plural: quadrivia) is the four subjects, or arts, taught after teaching the trivium.

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Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary

Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary is a large American dictionary, first published in 1966 as The Random House Dictionary of the English Language: The Unabridged Edition.

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Real image

In optics, a real image is an image which is located in the plane of convergence for the light rays that originate from a given object.

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Reason is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, establishing and verifying facts, applying logic, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information.

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Refracting telescope

A refracting telescope (also called a refractor) is a type of optical telescope that uses a lens as its objective to form an image (also referred to a dioptric telescope).

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Regensburg (Castra-Regina;; Řezno; Ratisbonne; older English: Ratisbon; Bavarian: Rengschburg or Rengschburch) is a city in south-east Germany, at the confluence of the Danube, Naab and Regen rivers.

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Regular polygon

In Euclidean geometry, a regular polygon is a polygon that is equiangular (all angles are equal in measure) and equilateral (all sides have the same length).

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René Descartes

René Descartes (Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.

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The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.

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Richard S. Westfall

Richard S. Westfall (April 22, 1924 – August 21, 1996) was an American academic, biographer and historian of science.

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Rickettsia is a genus of nonmotile, Gram-negative, nonspore-forming, highly pleomorphic bacteria that can be present as cocci (0.1 μm in diameter), rods (1–4 μm long), or thread-like (10 μm long).

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Robert Fludd

Robert Fludd, also known as Robertus de Fluctibus (17 January 1574 – 8 September 1637), was a prominent English Paracelsian physician with both scientific and occult interests.

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Robert Hooke

Robert Hooke FRS (– 3 March 1703) was an English natural philosopher, architect and polymath.

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Roland Bulirsch

Roland Zdeněk Bulirsch (born November 10, 1932, Liberec) is a German mathematician specializing in numerical analysis.

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Romanticism in science

Romanticism (or the Age of Reflection, 1800–40) was an intellectual movement that originated in Western Europe as a counter-movement to the late-18th-century Enlightenment.

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Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor

Rudolf II (18 July 1552 – 20 January 1612) was Holy Roman Emperor (1576–1612), King of Hungary and Croatia (as Rudolf I, 1572–1608), King of Bohemia (1575–1608/1611) and Archduke of Austria (1576–1608).

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Rudolphine Tables

The Rudolphine Tables (Tabulae Rudolphinae) consist of a star catalogue and planetary tables published by Johannes Kepler in 1627, using some observational data collected by Tycho Brahe (1546–1601).

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Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter.

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Scientific method

Scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition, which has characterized the development of natural science since at least the 17th century, involving careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what one observes, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept; formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental testing and measurement of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.

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Scientific Revolution

The Scientific Revolution was a series of events that marked the emergence of modern science during the early modern period, when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology (including human anatomy) and chemistry transformed the views of society about nature.

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Secretary problem

The secretary problem is a famous problem that demonstrates a scenario involving the optimal stopping theory.

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Seminary, school of theology, theological seminary, Early-Morning Seminary, and divinity school are educational institutions for educating students (sometimes called seminarians) in scripture, theology, generally to prepare them for ordination as clergy, academia, or ministry.

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Seth Ward (bishop of Salisbury)

Seth Ward (1617 – 6 January 1689) was an English mathematician, astronomer, and bishop.

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Sidereus Nuncius

Sidereus Nuncius (usually Sidereal Messenger, also Starry Messenger or Sidereal Message) is a short astronomical treatise (or pamphlet) published in New Latin by Galileo Galilei on March 13, 1610.

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Simon & Schuster

Simon & Schuster, Inc., a subsidiary of CBS Corporation, is an American publishing company founded in New York City in 1924 by Richard Simon and Max Schuster.

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Simon Marius

Simon Marius (Latinized from German Simon Mayr; January 20, 1573 – January 5, 1625) was a German astronomer.

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Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.

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Snell's law

Snell's law (also known as Snell–Descartes law and the law of refraction) is a formula used to describe the relationship between the angles of incidence and refraction, when referring to light or other waves passing through a boundary between two different isotropic media, such as water, glass, or air.

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Solar eclipse

A solar eclipse (as seen from the planet Earth) is a type of eclipse that occurs when the Moon passes between the Sun and Earth, and when the Moon fully or partially blocks ("occults") the Sun.

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Solar System

The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.

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Somnium (novel)

Somnium (Latin for "The Dream") is a novel written in 1608, in Latin, by Johannes Kepler.

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Sphere packing

In geometry, a sphere packing is an arrangement of non-overlapping spheres within a containing space.

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Traditionally, spirituality refers to a religious process of re-formation which "aims to recover the original shape of man," oriented at "the image of God" as exemplified by the founders and sacred texts of the religions of the world.

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Star of Bethlehem

The Star of Bethlehem, or Christmas Star, appears only in the nativity story of the Gospel of Matthew, where "wise men from the East" (Magi) are inspired by the star to travel to Jerusalem.

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Stephen Toulmin

Stephen Edelston Toulmin (25 March 1922 – 4 December 2009) was a British philosopher, author, and educator.

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Stuttgart Region

Stuttgart Region (Baden-Württemberg, Germany) is an urban agglomeration at the heart of the Stuttgart Metropolitan Region.

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Styria (Steiermark,, Štajerska, Stájerország, Štýrsko) is a state or Bundesland, located in the southeast of Austria.

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The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.

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Tübingen is a traditional university town in central Baden-Württemberg, Germany.

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Tübinger Stift

The Tübinger Stift is a hall of residence and teaching; it is owned and supported by the Evangelical-Lutheran Church in Württemberg, and located in the university city of Tübingen, in South West Germany.

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A telescope is an optical instrument that aids in the observation of remote objects by collecting electromagnetic radiation (such as visible light).

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In geometry, a tetrahedron (plural: tetrahedra or tetrahedrons), also known as a triangular pyramid, is a polyhedron composed of four triangular faces, six straight edges, and four vertex corners.

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Thales of Miletus

Thales of Miletus (Θαλῆς (ὁ Μιλήσιος), Thalēs; 624 – c. 546 BC) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, mathematician, and astronomer from Miletus in Asia Minor (present-day Milet in Turkey).

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The Sleepwalkers (Koestler book)

The Sleepwalkers: A History of Man's Changing Vision of the Universe is a 1959 book by Arthur Koestler.

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Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine.

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Thirty Years' War

The Thirty Years' War was a war fought primarily in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648.

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Thomas Kuhn

Thomas Samuel Kuhn (July 18, 1922 – June 17, 1996) was an American physicist, historian and philosopher of science whose controversial 1962 book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions was influential in both academic and popular circles, introducing the term paradigm shift, which has since become an English-language idiom.

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Transit of Venus

A transit of Venus across the Sun takes place when the planet Venus passes directly between the Sun and a superior planet, becoming visible against (and hence obscuring a small portion of) the solar disk.

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Transit of Venus, 1639

The first known observations and recording of a transit of Venus were made in 1639 by the English astronomers Jeremiah Horrocks and his friend and correspondent William Crabtree.

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Tycho Brahe

Tycho Brahe (born Tyge Ottesen Brahe;. He adopted the Latinized form "Tycho Brahe" (sometimes written Tÿcho) at around age fifteen. The name Tycho comes from Tyche (Τύχη, meaning "luck" in Greek, Roman equivalent: Fortuna), a tutelary deity of fortune and prosperity of ancient Greek city cults. He is now generally referred to as "Tycho," as was common in Scandinavia in his time, rather than by his surname "Brahe" (a spurious appellative form of his name, Tycho de Brahe, only appears much later). 14 December 154624 October 1601) was a Danish nobleman, astronomer, and writer known for his accurate and comprehensive astronomical and planetary observations.

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Tychonic system

The Tychonic system (or Tychonian system) is a model of the Solar system published by Tycho Brahe in the late 16th century which combines what he saw as the mathematical benefits of the Copernican system with the philosophical and "physical" benefits of the Ptolemaic system.

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Ulm is a city in the federal German state of Baden-Württemberg, situated on the River Danube.

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University of Chicago Press

The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.

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University of Padua

The University of Padua (Università degli Studi di Padova, UNIPD) is a premier Italian university located in the city of Padua, Italy.

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University of Tübingen

The University of Tübingen, officially the Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen (Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen; Universitas Eberhardina Carolina), is a German public research university located in the city of Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg.

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Upper Austria

Upper Austria (Oberösterreich; Austro-Bavarian: Obaöstarreich; Horní Rakousy) is one of the nine states or Bundesländer of Austria.

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Utraquism (from the Latin sub utraque specie, meaning "in both kinds") or Calixtinism (from chalice; Latin: calix, mug, borrowed from Greek kalyx, shell, husk; Czech: kališníci) was a principal dogma of the Hussites and one of the Four Articles of Prague.

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Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.

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Vienna U-Bahn

The Vienna U-Bahn (U-Bahn Wien), where U-Bahn is an abbreviation of the German term Untergrundbahn (underground railway), is one of the two rapid transit (metro) systems for Vienna, Austria.

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Virtual image

In optics, a virtual image is an image formed when the outgoing rays from a point on an object always diverge.

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Wacker von Wackenfels

Johannes Matthaeus Wacker von Wackenfels (1550–1619) was an active diplomat, scholar and author, with an avid interest in history and philosophy.

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Walther von Dyck

Walther Franz Anton von Dyck (6 December 1856 in Munich – 5 November 1934 in Munich), born Dyck and later ennobled, was a German mathematician.

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Württemberg is a historical German territory.

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Weil der Stadt

Weil der Stadt is a small town of about 19,000 inhabitants, located in the Stuttgart Region of the German state of Baden-Württemberg.

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William Gilbert (astronomer)

William Gilbert (24 May 1544 – 30 November 1603), also known as Gilberd, was an English physician, physicist and natural philosopher.

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William Whewell

William Whewell (24 May 1794 – 6 March 1866) was an English polymath, scientist, Anglican priest, philosopher, theologian, and historian of science.

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Wolfgang Pauli

Wolfgang Ernst Pauli (25 April 1900 – 15 December 1958) was an Austrian-born Swiss and American theoretical physicist and one of the pioneers of quantum physics.

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The zodiac is an area of the sky that extends approximately 8° north or south (as measured in celestial latitude) of the ecliptic, the apparent path of the Sun across the celestial sphere over the course of the year.

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1134 Kepler

1134 Kepler, provisional designation, is a stony asteroid and eccentric Mars-crosser from the asteroid belt, approximately 4 kilometers in diameter.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johannes_Kepler

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