340 relations: Aaron Burr, Abigail Adams, Abigail Adams Smith, Adams political family, Alexander Hamilton, Alfred Moore, Alien and Sedition Acts, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, American Presidents: Life Portraits, American Revolution, Amsterdam, An Act for the relief of sick and disabled seamen, Anne Robert Jacques Turgot, Anti-Federalism, Arthur Lee (diplomat), Article Two of the United States Constitution, Avalon Project, Bachelor of Arts, Battle of Brandywine, Battle of Camden, Battle of Long Island, Battle of the Nile, Battles of Lexington and Concord, Battles of Saratoga, Benedict Arnold, Benjamin Franklin, Benjamin Franklin Bache, Benjamin Harrison V, Benjamin Rush, Benjamin Stoddert, Benjamin Waterhouse, Bicameralism, Blackstone's formulation, Board of selectmen, Board of War, Boston Gazette, Boston Massacre, Boston Patriot (newspaper), Boston Public Library, Boston Tea Party, Braintree Instructions, Braintree, Essex, Braintree, Massachusetts, Breast cancer, British America, Brookline, Massachusetts, Bureau of Engraving and Printing, Burr–Hamilton duel, Bushrod Washington, C-SPAN, ..., Cape Breton Island, Charles Adams (1770–1800), Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, Charles Gravier, comte de Vergennes, Charles Lee (Attorney General), Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord, Charles W. F. Dumas, Chief Justice of the United States, Civic virtue, Classical republicanism, Clinton Rossiter, CNN, Committee of Five, Common law, Common Sense (pamphlet), Compromise of 1790, Congregational church, Congregationalism in the United States, Congress of the Confederation, Congressional nominating caucus, Constitution of Massachusetts, Constitution of the United Kingdom, Constitution Society, Constitutional Convention (United States), Continental Army, Continental Congress, Convention of 1800, Cordwainer, Coup of 18 Brumaire, Court of St James's, Creole peoples, Dame school, Daniel Leonard, David McCullough, Deacon, Deism, Democratic-Republican Party, Direct tax, Dutch Republic, East India Company, Edmond-Charles Genêt, Edmund Randolph, Elbridge Gerry, Electoral College (United States), Elizabeth II, Embargo Act of 1807, Enumerated powers (United States), Envoy (title), Epistle to the Romans, Excise, Executive (government), Favorite son, Federal government of the United States, Federalist No. 51, Federalist Party, First Continental Congress, First inauguration of Thomas Jefferson, Florida, Founding Fathers of the United States, Francis Dana, Frederick Muhlenberg, Freedom of navigation, French and Indian War, French Revolution, French Revolutionary Wars, Friedrich Wilhelm von Thulemeyer, Frigate, George Clinton (vice president), George III of the United Kingdom, George Washington, Gibraltar, Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette, Harvard College, Heart failure, Henry Adams (Braintree), Henry Knox, Henry Laurens, Hiller B. Zobel, Historical rankings of presidents of the United States, House of Bourbon, House of Stuart, Humanism, Inauguration of John Adams, Intolerable Acts, James Bowdoin, James Duane, James Iredell, James Madison, James McHenry, James Otis Jr., James T. Callender, James Wilson, Jay Treaty, Jean-Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau, Jeremiah Gridley, Jesus, Joan Derk van der Capellen tot den Pol, John Adams (book), John Adams (miniseries), John Adams Birthplace, John Adams Building, John Adams Sr., John Dickinson, John E. Ferling, John Fries, John Henry (Maryland politician), John Jay, John Jebb (reformer), John Locke, John Marshall, John Quincy Adams, Jonathan Mayhew, Jonathan Sewall, Joseph Ellis, Joseph Galloway, Joseph Mayhew, Joy Hakim, Judiciary, Judiciary Act of 1802, Julian calendar, Jury trial, Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, Kingdom of Great Britain, Kingdom of Prussia, Lame-duck session, Land value tax, Latin, Lee Resolution, Legislature, Library of Congress, Life (magazine), List of ambassadors of the United States to the Netherlands, List of ambassadors of the United States to the United Kingdom, List of Presidents of the United States, List of presidents of the United States by age, List of tie-breaking votes cast by vice presidents of the United States, List of Vice Presidents of the United States, Louisiana (New Spain), Louisiana Purchase, Loyalist (American Revolution), Mary Jefferson Eppes, Massachusetts, Massachusetts Constitutional Convention of 1779–1780, Massachusetts Historical Society, Massachusetts National Guard, Massachusetts Superior Court, Master of Arts, Matthew Lyon, Member of Congress, Mercy Otis Warren, Midnight Judges Act, Miller Center of Public Affairs, Mixed government, Model Treaty, Mount Vernon, Mr. President (title), Napoleon, National Archives and Records Administration, Naturalization Act of 1798, Netherlands, New England, New York (state), New York City, Newfoundland and Labrador, Newington Green Unitarian Church, Nicolaas van Staphorst, Nullification (U.S. Constitution), Office of the Federal Register, Old Style and New Style dates, Old Supreme Court Chamber, Olive Branch Petition, Oliver Ellsworth, Oliver Wolcott Jr., Original six frigates of the United States Navy, Partisan (political), Patrick Henry, Patriottentijd, Paul Giamatti, Peacefield, Pen name, Peter Oliver (loyalist), Peter Viereck, Philadelphia, Philadelphia Aurora, Popular sovereignty, Potomac River, Predestination, Presidency of George Washington, President of the United States, Presumption of innocence, Progressive tax, Province of Massachusetts Bay, Quasi-War, Quincy, Massachusetts, Quorum, Ralph Izard, Reading law, Republicanism, Republicanism in the United States, Revelation, Revolution Controversy, Richard Brookhiser, Richard Henry Lee, Richard Howe, 1st Earl Howe, Richard Price, Right to counsel, Robert R. Livingston (chancellor), Roger Sherman, Ron Chernow, Ronald Reagan, Russell Kirk, Russia, Saint Petersburg, Sally Hemings, Samuel Adams, Samuel Dexter, Samuel Holten, Samuel Johnston, Samuel Tucker, Seat of government, Second Continental Congress, Separation of powers, Shays' Rebellion, Siege of Charleston, Siege of Yorktown, Silas Deane, Slavery in the United States, Spanish Florida, Stamp act, Stamp Act 1765, State of the Union, Staten Island Peace Conference, States General of the Netherlands, Suffolk County Courthouse, Suffolk Resolves, Susanna Boylston, Tariffs in United States history, Tea Act, The Age of Reason, The Hague, The New England Primer, Thomas Boylston Adams (1772–1832), Thomas Hutchinson (governor), Thomas Jefferson, Thomas Paine, Thomas Pinckney, Thoughts on Government, Timothy Pickering, Treaty of Alliance (1778), Treaty of Amity and Commerce (Prussia–United States), Treaty of Paris (1783), Twelfth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Typhoid fever, Unitarianism, United First Parish Church, United States Bicentennial, United States Bill of Rights, United States Capitol, United States Congress, United States Constitution, United States Declaration of Independence, United States Navy, United States presidential election, 1788–89, United States presidential election, 1792, United States presidential election, 1796, United States presidential election, 1800, United States presidential election, 1804, United States presidential election, 1824, United States presidential inauguration, United States Senate, USS Boston (1777), USS Constitution, Vice President of the United States, Voir dire, War of 1812, Weymouth, Massachusetts, White House, Willem Willink, William Everdell, William Maclay (Pennsylvania senator), William Stephens Smith, William Vans Murray, Worcester, Massachusetts, Writ of assistance, XYZ Affair, Yellow fever, 1st United States Congress, 29th (Worcestershire) Regiment of Foot, 6th United States Congress, 7th United States Congress. 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Aaron Burr Jr. (February 6, 1756 – September 14, 1836) was an American politician.
Abigail Adams (née Smith; November 22, [O.S. November 11] 1744 – October 28, 1818) was the closest advisor and wife of John Adams, as well as the mother of John Quincy Adams.
Abigail "Nabby" Amelia Adams Smith (July 14, 1765 – August 15, 1813) was the firstborn of Abigail and John Adams, founding father and second President of the United States.
The Adams family was a prominent political family in the United States from the late 18th through the early 20th centuries.
Alexander Hamilton (January 11, 1755 or 1757July 12, 1804) was a statesman and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.
Alfred Moore (May 21, 1755 – October 15, 1810) was a North Carolina judge who became a justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.
The Alien and Sedition Acts were four bills passed by the Federalist-dominated 5th United States Congress and signed into law by President John Adams in 1798.
The American Academy of Arts and Sciences is one of the oldest learned societies in the United States of America.
American Presidents: Life Portraits is a series produced by C-SPAN in 1999.
The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783.
Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Netherlands.
An Act for the relief of sick and disabled seamen was passed by the 5th Congress.
Anne Robert Jacques Turgot, Baron de l'Aulne (10 May 172718 March 1781), commonly known as Turgot, was a French economist and statesman.
Anti-Federalism refers to a movement that opposed the creation of a stronger U.S. federal government and which later opposed the ratification of the 1787 Constitution.
Arthur Lee (20 December 1740 – 12 December 1792) was a physician and opponent of slavery in colonial Virginia in North America who served as an American diplomat during the American Revolutionary War.
Article Two of the United States Constitution establishes the executive branch of the federal government, which carries out and enforces federal laws.
The Avalon Project is a digital library of documents relating to law, history and diplomacy.
A Bachelor of Arts (BA or AB, from the Latin baccalaureus artium or artium baccalaureus) is a bachelor's degree awarded for an undergraduate course or program in either the liberal arts, sciences, or both.
The Battle of Brandywine, also known as the Battle of Brandywine Creek, was fought between the American army of General George Washington and the British army of General Sir William Howe on September 11, 1777.
The Battle of Camden was a major victory for the British in the Southern theater of the American Revolutionary War (American War of Independence).
The Battle of Long Island is also known as the Battle of Brooklyn and the Battle of Brooklyn Heights.
The Battle of the Nile (also known as the Battle of Aboukir Bay; Bataille d'Aboukir) was a major naval battle fought between the British Royal Navy and the Navy of the French Republic at Aboukir Bay on the Mediterranean coast off the Nile Delta of Egypt from 1 to 3 August 1798.
The Battles of Lexington and Concord were the first military engagements of the American Revolutionary War.
The Battles of Saratoga (September 19 and October 7, 1777) marked the climax of the Saratoga campaign, giving a decisive victory to the Americans over the British in the American Revolutionary War.
Benedict Arnold (Brandt (1994), p. 4June 14, 1801) was a general during the American Revolutionary War who fought heroically for the American Continental Army—then defected to the enemy in 1780.
Benjamin Franklin (April 17, 1790) was an American polymath and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.
Benjamin Franklin Bache (February 7, 1801 – November 1, 1881) was a surgeon in the United States Navy before and during the Civil War.
Benjamin Harrison V (April 5, 1726April 24, 1791), from Charles City County, Virginia, was an American planter and merchant, a revolutionary leader and a Founding Father of the United States.
Benjamin Rush (– April 19, 1813) was a Founding Father of the United States.
Benjamin Stoddert (1744 – December 18, 1813) was the first United States Secretary of the Navy from May 1, 1798 to March 31, 1801.
Benjamin Waterhouse (March 4, 1754, Newport, Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations – October 2, 1846, Cambridge, Massachusetts) was a physician, co-founder and professor of Harvard Medical School.
A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses.
In criminal law, Blackstone's formulation (also known as Blackstone's ratio or the Blackstone ratio) is the principle that: "It is better that ten guilty persons escape than that one innocent suffer",...as expressed by the English jurist William Blackstone in his seminal work, Commentaries on the Laws of England, published in the 1760s.
The board of selectmen is commonly the executive arm of the government of New England towns in the United States.
The Board of War, also known as the Board of War and Ordnance, was created by the Second Continental Congress as a special standing committee to oversee the American Continental Army's administration and to make recommendations regarding the army to Congress.
The Boston Gazette (1719–1798) was a newspaper published in Boston, Massachusetts, in the British North American colonies.
The Boston Massacre, known as the Incident on King Street by the British, was an incident on March 5, 1770, in which British Army soldiers shot and killed several people while under attack by a mob.
The Boston Patriot was a semiweekly newspaper based in Boston, Massachusetts.
The Boston Public Library is a municipal public library system in Boston, Massachusetts, United States, founded in 1848.
The Boston Tea Party was a political and mercantile protest by the Sons of Liberty in Boston, Massachusetts, on December 16, 1773.
The Braintree Instructions was a document sent on September 24, 1765 by the town meeting of Braintree, Massachusetts to the town's representative at the Massachusetts General Court, or legislature, which instructed the representative to oppose the Stamp Act, a tax regime which had recently been adopted by the British Parliament in London.
Braintree is a town in Essex, England.
Braintree, officially the Town of Braintree, is a suburban New England city in Norfolk County, Massachusetts, United States.
Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue.
British America refers to English Crown colony territories on the continent of North America and Bermuda, Central America, the Caribbean, and Guyana from 1607 to 1783.
Brookline is a town in Norfolk County, Massachusetts, in the United States, and is a part of Greater Boston.
The Bureau of Engraving and Printing (BEP) is a government agency within the United States Department of the Treasury that designs and produces a variety of security products for the United States government, most notable of which is Federal Reserve Notes (paper money) for the Federal Reserve, the nation's central bank.
The Burr–Hamilton duel was fought between prominent American politicians Aaron Burr, the sitting Vice President of the United States, and Alexander Hamilton, the former Secretary of the Treasury, at Weehawken, New Jersey on July 11, 1804.
Bushrod Washington (June 5, 1762 – November 26, 1829) was an attorney and politician who served as Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1798 to 1829.
C-SPAN, an acronym for Cable-Satellite Public Affairs Network, is an American cable and satellite television network that was created in 1979 by the cable television industry as a public service.
Cape Breton Island (île du Cap-Breton—formerly Île Royale; Ceap Breatainn or Eilean Cheap Breatainn; Unama'kik; or simply Cape Breton, Cape is Latin for "headland" and Breton is Latin for "British") is an island on the Atlantic coast of North America and part of the province of Nova Scotia, Canada.
Charles Adams (May 29, 1770 – November 30, 1800) was the second son of President John Adams and his wife, Abigail Adams (née Smith).
Charles Cotesworth "C.
Charles Gravier, Count of Vergennes (29 December 1719 – 13 February 1787) was a French statesman and diplomat.
Charles Lee (1758 – June 24, 1815) was an American lawyer from Virginia.
Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord (2 February 1754 – 17 May 1838), 1st Prince of Benevento, then 1st Prince of Talleyrand, was a laicized French bishop, politician, and diplomat.
Charles William Frédéric Dumas (1721–1796) was a man of letters living in the Dutch Republic who served as an American diplomat during the American Revolution.
The Chief Justice of the United States is the chief judge of the Supreme Court of the United States and thus the head of the United States federal court system, which functions as the judicial branch of the nation's federal government.
Civic virtue is the cultivation of habits important for the success of the community.
Classical republicanism, also known as civic republicanism or civic humanism, is a form of republicanism developed in the Renaissance inspired by the governmental forms and writings of classical antiquity, especially such classical writers as Aristotle, Polybius, and Cicero.
Clinton Lawrence Rossiter III (September 18, 1917 – July 11, 1970) was an American historian and political scientist who taught at Cornell University from 1947 to 1970.
Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.
The Committee of Five of the Second Continental Congress was a team of five men who drafted and presented to the Congress what would become America's Declaration of Independence of July 4, 1776.
Common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals.
Common Sense is a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine in 1775–76 advocating independence from Great Britain to people in the Thirteen Colonies.
The Compromise of 1790 was a compromise between Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson with James Madison wherein Hamilton won the decision for the national government to take over and pay the state debts, while Jefferson and Madison obtained the national capital (District of Columbia) for the South.
Congregational churches (also Congregationalist churches; Congregationalism) are Protestant churches in the Reformed tradition practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs.
Congregationalism in the United States consists of Protestant churches in the Reformed tradition that have a congregational form of church government and trace their origins mainly to Puritan settlers of colonial New England.
The Congress of the Confederation, or the Confederation Congress, formally referred to as the United States in Congress Assembled, was the governing body of the United States of America that existed from March 1, 1781, to March 4, 1789.
The Congressional nominating caucus is the name for informal meetings in which American congressmen would agree on who to nominate for the Presidency and Vice Presidency from their political party.
The Constitution of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts is the fundamental governing document of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, one of the 50 individual state governments that make up the United States of America.
The United Kingdom does not have one specific constitutional document named as such.
The Constitution Society is a nonprofit educational organization headquartered at San Antonio, Texas, U.S., and founded in 1994 by Jon Roland, an author and computer specialist who has run for public office as a Libertarian Party candidate on a "Constitutionalist Platform".
The Constitutional Convention (also known as the Philadelphia Convention, the Federal Convention, or the Grand Convention at Philadelphia) took place from May 25 to September 17, 1787, in the old Pennsylvania State House (later known as Independence Hall because of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence there eleven years before) in Philadelphia.
The Continental Army was formed by the Second Continental Congress after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War by the colonies that became the United States of America.
The Continental Congress, also known as the Philadelphia Congress, was a convention of delegates called together from the Thirteen Colonies.
The Convention of 1800,, also known as the Treaty of Mortefontaine, was a treaty between the United States of America and France to settle the hostilities that had erupted during the Quasi-War.
A cordwainer is a shoemaker who makes new shoes from new leather.
The Coup of 18 Brumaire brought General Napoleon Bonaparte to power as First Consul of France and in the view of most historians ended the French Revolution.
The Court of St James's is the royal court for the Sovereign of the United Kingdom.
Creole peoples (and its cognates in other languages such as crioulo, criollo, creolo, créole, kriolu, criol, kreyol, kreol, kriol, krio, kriyoyo, etc.) are ethnic groups which originated from creolisation, linguistic, cultural and racial mixing between colonial-era emigrants from Europe with non-European peoples, climates and cuisines.
A dame school was an early form of a private elementary school in English-speaking countries.
Daniel Leonard (May 18, 1740 – June 27, 1829) was a lawyer from colonial Massachusetts and a Loyalist in the American Revolution.
David Gaub McCullough (born July 7, 1933) is an American author, narrator, historian, and lecturer.
A deacon is a member of the diaconate, an office in Christian churches that is generally associated with service of some kind, but which varies among theological and denominational traditions.
Deism (or; derived from Latin "deus" meaning "god") is a philosophical belief that posits that God exists and is ultimately responsible for the creation of the universe, but does not interfere directly with the created world.
The Democratic-Republican Party was an American political party formed by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison around 1792 to oppose the centralizing policies of the new Federalist Party run by Alexander Hamilton, who was secretary of the treasury and chief architect of George Washington's administration.
Though the actual definitions vary between jurisdictions, in general, a direct tax is a tax imposed upon a person or property as distinct from a tax imposed upon a transaction, which is described as an indirect tax.
The Dutch Republic was a republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces (which earlier seceded from the Spanish rule) until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.
Edmond-Charles Genêt (January 8, 1763July 14, 1834), also known as Citizen Genêt, was the French ambassador to the United States during the French Revolution.
Edmund Jennings Randolph (August 10, 1753 September 12, 1813) was an American attorney and politician.
Elbridge Gerry (July 17, 1744 (O.S. July 6, 1744) – November 23, 1814) was an American statesman and diplomat.
The United States Electoral College is the mechanism established by the United States Constitution for the election of the president and vice president of the United States by small groups of appointed representatives, electors, from each state and the District of Columbia.
Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.
The Embargo Act of 1807 was a general embargo enacted by the United States Congress against Great Britain and France during the Napoleonic Wars.
The Enumerated powers (also called Expressed powers, Explicit powers or Delegated powers) of the United States Congress are listed in Article I, Section 8 of the United States Constitution.
In diplomacy, an envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary, in short an envoy, is, under the terms of the Congress of Vienna of 1815, a diplomat of the second class, ranking between an Ambassador and a Minister Resident.
The Epistle to the Romans or Letter to the Romans, often shortened to Romans, is the sixth book in the New Testament.
The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.
A favorite son (or a favorite daughter) is a political term.
The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States, a constitutional republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D.C. (the nation's capital), and several territories.
The Federalist Party, referred to as the Pro-Administration party until the 3rd United States Congress (as opposed to their opponents in the Anti-Administration party), was the first American political party.
The First Continental Congress was a meeting of delegates from twelve of the Thirteen Colonies who met from September 5 to October 26, 1774, at Carpenters' Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, early in the American Revolution.
The first inauguration of Thomas Jefferson as the third President of the United States was held on Wednesday, March 4, 1801.
Florida (Spanish for "land of flowers") is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States.
The Founding Fathers of the United States led the American Revolution against the Kingdom of Great Britain.
Francis Dana (June 13, 1743 – April 25, 1811) was an American lawyer, jurist, and statesman from Massachusetts.
Frederick Augustus Conrad Muhlenberg (January 1, 1750 – June 4, 1801) was a German American minister and politician who was the first Speaker of the United States House of Representatives.
Freedom of navigation (FON) is a principle of customary international law that ships flying the flag of any sovereign state shall not suffer interference from other states, apart from the exceptions provided for in international law.
The French and Indian War (1754–63) comprised the North American theater of the worldwide Seven Years' War of 1756–63.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of sweeping military conflicts lasting from 1792 until 1802 and resulting from the French Revolution.
Friedrich Wilhelm von Thulemeyer or Frederick William von Thulemeier was born or baptized on November 9, 1735.
A frigate is any of several types of warship, the term having been used for ships of various sizes and roles over the last few centuries.
George Clinton (July 26, 1739April 20, 1812) was an American soldier and statesman, considered one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.
George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death in 1820.
George Washington (February 22, 1732 –, 1799), known as the "Father of His Country," was an American soldier and statesman who served from 1789 to 1797 as the first President of the United States.
Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula.
Marie-Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette (6 September 1757 – 20 May 1834), in the United States often known simply as Lafayette, was a French aristocrat and military officer who fought in the American Revolutionary War.
Harvard College is the undergraduate liberal arts college of Harvard University.
Heart failure (HF), often referred to as congestive heart failure (CHF), is when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs.
Henry Adams (1583–1646) was a British colonial farmer.
Henry Knox (July 25, 1750 – October 25, 1806) was a military officer of the Continental Army and later the United States Army, who also served as the first United States Secretary of War from 1789 to 1794.
Henry Laurens (December 8, 1792) was an American merchant, slave trader, and rice planter from South Carolina who became a political leader during the Revolutionary War.
Hiller B. Zobel (born 1932) is an Associate Justice (retired) of the Superior Court of Massachusetts and author or coauthor of several books on various legal topics, including the Boston Massacre and John Adams.
In political studies, surveys have been conducted in order to construct historical rankings of the success of individuals who have served as President of the United States.
The House of Bourbon is a European royal house of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty.
The House of Stuart, originally Stewart, was a European royal house that originated in Scotland.
Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism and empiricism) over acceptance of dogma or superstition.
The inauguration of John Adams as the second President of the United States was held on Saturday, March 4, 1797, in the House of Representatives Chamber of Congress Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
The Intolerable Acts was the term invented by 19th century historians to refer to a series of punitive laws passed by the British Parliament in 1774 after the Boston Tea Party.
James Bowdoin II (August 7, 1726 – November 6, 1790) was an American political and intellectual leader from Boston, Massachusetts, during the American Revolution and the following decade.
James Duane (February 6, 1733 – February 1, 1797) was an American lawyer, jurist, and Revolutionary leader from New York.
James Iredell (October 5, 1751 – October 20, 1799) was one of the first Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States.
James Madison Jr. (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836) was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the fourth President of the United States from 1809 to 1817.
James McHenry (November 16, 1753 – May 3, 1816) was an Irish-American military surgeon and statesman.
James Otis Jr. (February 5, 1725 – May 23, 1783) was a lawyer, political activist, pamphleteer and legislator in Boston, a member of the Massachusetts provincial assembly, and an early advocate of the Patriot views against British policy that led to the American Revolution.
James Thomson Callender (1758 – July 17, 1803) was a political pamphleteer and journalist whose writing was controversial in his native Scotland and the United States.
James Wilson (September 14, 1742 – August 21, 1798) was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States and a signatory of the United States Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution.
The Treaty of Amity, Commerce, and Navigation, Between His Britannic Majesty and the United States of America, commonly known as the Jay Treaty, and also as Jay's Treaty, was a 1795 treaty between the United States and Great Britain that averted war, resolved issues remaining since the Treaty of Paris of 1783 (which ended the American Revolutionary War), and facilitated ten years of peaceful trade between the United States and Britain in the midst of the French Revolutionary Wars, which began in 1792.
Marshal Jean-Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau (1 July 1725 – 10 May 1807) was a French nobleman and general who played a major role in helping the Thirteen Colonies win independence during the American Revolution.
Jeremiah Gridley or Jeremy Gridley (1702–1767) was a lawyer, editor, colonial legislator, and attorney general in Boston, Massachusetts, in the 18th century.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
Joan Derk, Baron van der Capellen tot den Pol (2 November 1741, Tiel – 6 June 1784, Zwolle) was a Dutch nobleman who played a prominent role in the revolutionary events that preceded the formation of the Batavian Republic.
John Adams is a 2001 biography of the Founding Father and second U.S. President, John Adams, written by the popular American historian David McCullough, which won the 2002 Pulitzer Prize for Biography or Autobiography.
John Adams is a 2008 American television miniseries chronicling most of U.S. President John Adams's political life and his role in the founding of the United States.
The John Adams Birthplace is a historic house at 133 Franklin Street in Quincy, Massachusetts.
The John Adams Building is one of three library buildings of the Library of Congress in the United States.
John Adams Sr. (February 8, 1691 – May 25, 1761) was a British colonial farmer and minister.
John Dickinson (November 8, 1732 – February 14, 1808), a Founding Father of the United States, was a solicitor and politician from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and Wilmington, Delaware known as the "Penman of the Revolution" for his twelve Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania, published individually in 1767 and 1768.
John E. Ferling (born 1940) is a professor emeritus of history at the University of West Georgia.
John Fries (1750February 1818) was a Pennsylvania auctioneer.
John Henry (November 1750December 16, 1798) was the eighth Governor of Maryland and member of the United States Senate.
John Jay (December 12, 1745 – May 17, 1829) was an American statesman, Patriot, diplomat, one of the Founding Fathers of the United States, negotiator and signatory of the Treaty of Paris of 1783, second Governor of New York, and the first Chief Justice of the United States (1789–1795).
John Jebb (1736–1786) was an English divine, medical doctor, and religious and political reformer.
John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".
John James Marshall (September 24, 1755 – July 6, 1835) was an American politician and the fourth Chief Justice of the United States from 1801 to 1835.
John Quincy Adams (July 11, 1767 – February 23, 1848) was an American statesman who served as a diplomat, minister and ambassador to foreign nations, and treaty negotiator, United States Senator, U.S. Representative (Congressman) from Massachusetts, and the sixth President of the United States from 1825 to 1829.
Jonathan Mayhew (October 8, 1720 – July 9, 1766) was a noted American Congregational minister at Old West Church, Boston, Massachusetts.
Jonathan Sewall (August 24, 1729 – September 27, 1796) was the last British attorney general of Massachusetts.
Joseph John Ellis (born July 18, 1943) is an American historian whose work focuses on the lives and times of the founders of the United States of America.
Joseph Galloway (173110 August 1803) was an American politician.
Joseph Mayhew (1709/10 – 1782), eldest son of Deacon Simon and Ruth Mayhew, graduated from Harvard in 1730.
Joy Hakim (born January 16, 1931) is an American author who has written a ten-volume history of the United States, A History of US, and Freedom: A History of US (a trade book to accompany a 16-part PBS series), all published by Oxford University Press.
The judiciary (also known as the judicial system or court system) is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state.
The United States Judiciary Act of 1802 (2 Stat.) was a Federal statute, enacted on April 29, 1802, to reorganize the federal court system.
The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC (708 AUC), was a reform of the Roman calendar.
A jury trial, or trial by jury, is a lawful proceeding in which a jury makes a decision or findings of fact.
The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions (or Resolves) were political statements drafted in 1798 and 1799, in which the Kentucky and Virginia legislatures took the position that the federal Alien and Sedition Acts were unconstitutional.
The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain,Parliament of the Kingdom of England.
The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.
A lame-duck session of Congress in the United States occurs whenever one Congress meets after its successor is elected, but before the successor's term begins.
A land/location value tax (LVT), also called a site valuation tax, split rate tax, or site-value rating, is an ad valorem levy on the unimproved value of land.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Lee Resolution (also known as "The Resolution for Independence") was the formal assertion passed by the Second Continental Congress on July 2, 1776 which declared the establishment of a new country of United Colonies as independent from the British Empire, creating what became the United States of America.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
Life was an American magazine that ran regularly from 1883 to 1972 and again from 1978 to 2000.
The United States diplomatic mission to the Netherlands consists of the embassy located in The Hague and a consular office located in Amsterdam.
The United States Ambassador to the United Kingdom (known formally in the United Kingdom as Ambassador of the United States to the Court of St James's) is the official representative of the President and the Government of the United States of America to the Queen and Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
The President of the United States is the elected head of state and head of government of the United States.
This is a list of presidents of the United States by age.
The Vice President of the United States is the ex officio President of the Senate, as provided in Article I, Section 3, Clause 4, of the United States Constitution, but may only vote in order to break a tie.
There have been 48 Vice Presidents of the United States since the office came into existence in 1789.
Louisiana (Luisiana, sometimes called Luciana In some Spanish texts of the time the name of Luciana appears instead of Louisiana, as is the case in the Plan of the Internal Provinces of New Spain made in 1817 by the Spanish militar José Caballero.) was the name of an administrative Spanish Governorate belonging to the Captaincy General of Cuba, part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain from 1762 to 1802 that consisted of territory west of the Mississippi River basin, plus New Orleans.
The Louisiana Purchase (Vente de la Louisiane "Sale of Louisiana") was the acquisition of the Louisiana territory (828,000 square miles or 2.14 million km²) by the United States from France in 1803.
Loyalists were American colonists who remained loyal to the British Crown during the American Revolutionary War, often called Tories, Royalists, or King's Men at the time.
Mary Jefferson Eppes (August 1, 1778 – April 17, 1804), known as Polly in childhood and Maria as an adult, was the younger of Thomas Jefferson's two daughters who survived infancy.
Massachusetts, officially known as the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
The Constitutional Convention of 1779–1780 was the second constitutional convention held in Massachusetts to draft a new state constitution following the state's declaration of independence in 1776.
The Massachusetts Historical Society is a major historical archive specializing in early American, Massachusetts, and New England history.
The Massachusetts National Guard was founded as the Massachusetts Bay Colonial Militia on December 13, 1636, and contains the oldest units in the United States Army.
The Massachusetts Superior Court (also known as the Superior Court Department of the Trial Court) is a trial court department in Massachusetts.
A Master of Arts (Magister Artium; abbreviated MA; also Artium Magister, abbreviated AM) is a person who was admitted to a type of master's degree awarded by universities in many countries, and the degree is also named Master of Arts in colloquial speech.
Matthew Lyon (July 14, 1749 – August 1, 1822) was an Irish-born American printer, farmer, soldier and politician, who served as a United States Representative from both Vermont and Kentucky.
A Member of Congress (MOC) is a person who has been appointed or elected and inducted into an official body called a congress, typically to represent a particular constituency in a legislature.
Mercy Otis Warren (September 14, 1728 – October 19, 1814) was a political writer and propagandist of the American Revolution.
The Midnight Judges Act (also known as the Judiciary Act of 1801;, and officially An act to provide for the more convenient organization of the Courts of the United States) represented an effort to solve an issue in the U.S. Supreme Court during the early 19th century.
The Miller Center is a nonpartisan affiliate of the University of Virginia that specializes in United States presidential scholarship, public policy, and political history and strives to apply the lessons of history to the nation’s most pressing contemporary governance challenges.
Mixed government (or a mixed constitution) is a form of government that combines elements of democracy (polity), aristocracy, and monarchy, making impossible their respective degenerations (conceived as anarchy (mob rule), oligarchy and tyranny).
The Model Treaty, or the Plan of 1776, was created during the American Revolution and was an idealistic guide for foreign relations and future treaties between the new American government and other nations.
Mount Vernon was the plantation house of George Washington, the first President of the United States, and his wife, Martha Dandridge Custis Washington.
The title "Mr.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is an independent agency of the United States government charged with preserving and documenting government and historical records and with increasing public access to those documents, which comprise the National Archives.
The Naturalization Act, passed by the United States Congress on June 18, 1798, increased the period necessary for immigrants to become naturalized citizens in the United States from 5 to 14 years.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
New England is a geographical region comprising six states of the northeastern United States: Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut.
New York is a state in the northeastern United States.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
Newfoundland and Labrador (Terre-Neuve-et-Labrador; Akamassiss; Newfoundland Irish: Talamh an Éisc agus Labradar) is the most easterly province of Canada.
Newington Green Unitarian Church (NGUC) in north London is one of England's oldest Unitarian churches.
Nicolaas van Staphorst (bapt. 14 January 1742, Amsterdam – bur. 14 June 1801, Amsterdam) was a Dutch banker and a conservative republican.
Nullification, in United States constitutional history, is a legal theory that a state has the right to nullify, or invalidate, any federal law which that state has deemed unconstitutional with respect to the United States Constitution (as opposed to the state's own constitution).
The Office of the Federal Register is an office of the United States government within the National Archives and Records Administration.
Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) are terms sometimes used with dates to indicate that the calendar convention used at the time described is different from that in use at the time the document was being written.
The Old Supreme Court Chamber is the room on the ground floor of the North Wing of the United States Capitol.
The Olive Branch Petition was adopted by the Second Continental Congress on July 5, 1775 in a final attempt to avoid a full-on war between Great Britain and the Thirteen Colonies in America.
Oliver Ellsworth (April 29, 1745 – November 26, 1807) was an American lawyer, judge, politician, and diplomat.
Oliver Wolcott Jr. (January 11, 1760 – June 1, 1833) was an American politician.
The United States Congress authorized the original six frigates of the United States Navy with the Naval Act of 1794 on March 27, 1794, at a total cost of $688,888.82.
In politics, a partisan is a committed member of a political party or political coalitions.
Patrick Henry (May 29, 1736June 6, 1799) was an American attorney, planter, and orator well known for his declaration to the Second Virginia Convention (1775): "Give me liberty, or give me death!" A Founding Father, he served as the first and sixth post-colonial Governor of Virginia, from 1776 to 1779 and from 1784 to 1786.
The Patriottentijd (English: Patriot Period) was a period of political instability in the Dutch Republic between approximately 1780 and 1787.
Paul Edward Valentine Giamatti (born June 6, 1967) is an American actor, comedian, and producer.
Peacefield, also called Old House, is a historic home formerly owned by the Adams family of Quincy, Massachusetts.
A pen name (nom de plume, or literary double) is a pseudonym (or, in some cases, a variant form of a real name) adopted by an author and printed on the title page or by-line of their works in place of their "real" name.
Peter Oliver (March 26, 1713 – October 12, 1791) was Chief Justice of the Superior Court (the highest court) of the Province of Massachusetts Bay from 1772–1775.
Peter Robert Edwin Viereck (August 5, 1916 – May 13, 2006) was an American poet, political thinker, and professor of history at Mount Holyoke College.
Philadelphia is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863.
The Philadelphia Aurora was published six days a week in Philadelphia from 1794 to 1824.
Popular sovereignty, or sovereignty of the peoples' rule, is the principle that the authority of a state and its government is created and sustained by the consent of its people, through their elected representatives (Rule by the People), who are the source of all political power.
The Potomac River is located within the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States and flows from the Potomac Highlands into the Chesapeake Bay.
Predestination, in theology, is the doctrine that all events have been willed by God, usually with reference to the eventual fate of the individual soul.
The presidency of George Washington began on April 30, 1789, when Washington was inaugurated as the first President of the United States, and ended on March 4, 1797.
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
The presumption of innocence is the principle that one is considered innocent unless proven guilty.
A progressive tax is a tax in which the tax rate increases as the taxable amount increases.
The Province of Massachusetts Bay was a crown colony in British North America and one of the thirteen original states of the United States from 1776.
The Quasi-War (Quasi-guerre) was an undeclared war fought almost entirely at sea between the United States and France from 1798 to 1800.
Quincy is the largest city in Norfolk County, Massachusetts, United States.
A quorum is the minimum number of members of a deliberative assembly (a body that uses parliamentary procedure, such as a legislature) necessary to conduct the business of that group.
Ralph Izard (January 23, 1741/1742May 30, 1804) was a U.S. politician.
Reading law is the method by which persons in common law countries, particularly the United States, entered the legal profession before the advent of law schools.
Republicanism is an ideology centered on citizenship in a state organized as a republic under which the people hold popular sovereignty.
Modern republicanism is a guiding political philosophy of the United States that has been a major part of American civic thought since its founding.
In religion and theology, revelation is the revealing or disclosing of some form of truth or knowledge through communication with a deity or other supernatural entity or entities.
The Revolution Controversy was a British debate over the French Revolution, lasting from 1789 through 1795.
Richard Brookhiser (born February 23, 1955) is an American journalist, biographer and historian.
Richard Henry Lee (January 20, 1732June 19, 1794) was an American statesman from Virginia best known for the Lee Resolution, the motion in the Second Continental Congress calling for the colonies' independence from Great Britain.
Admiral of the Fleet Richard Howe, 1st Earl Howe, (8 March 1726 – 5 August 1799) was a British naval officer.
Richard Price (23 February 1723 – 19 April 1791) was a British moral philosopher, nonconformist preacher and mathematician.
Right to counsel means a defendant has a right to have the assistance of counsel (i.e., lawyers), and if the defendant cannot afford a lawyer, requires that the government appoint one or pay the defendant's legal expenses.
Robert Robert Livingston (November 27, 1746 (Old Style November 16) – February 26, 1813) was an American lawyer, politician, diplomat from New York, and a Founding Father of the United States.
Roger Sherman (April 19, 1721 – July 23, 1793) was an early American statesman and lawyer, as well as a Founding Father of the United States.
Ronald "Ron" Chernow (born March 3, 1949) is an American writer, journalist, historian, and biographer.
Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician and actor who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.
Russell Amos Kirk (October 19, 1918 – April 29, 1994) was an American political theorist, moralist, historian, social critic, and literary critic, known for his influence on 20th-century American conservatism.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
Sarah "Sally" Hemings (1773 – 1835) was an enslaved woman of mixed race owned by President Thomas Jefferson of the United States.
Samuel Adams (– October 2, 1803) was an American statesman, political philosopher, and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.
Samuel Dexter (May 14, 1761May 4, 1816) was an early American statesman who served both in Congress and in the Presidential Cabinets of John Adams and Thomas Jefferson.
Samuel Holten (June 9, 1738 – January 2, 1816) was an American physician and statesman from Danvers, Massachusetts.
Samuel Johnston (December 15, 1733August 17, 1816) was an American planter, lawyer, and statesman from Chowan County, North Carolina.
Samuel Tucker (1 November 1747 – 10 March 1833) was an officer in the Continental Navy and the United States Navy.
The seat of government is (as defined by Brewer's Politics) "the building, complex of buildings or the city from which a government exercises its authority".
The Second Continental Congress was a convention of delegates from the Thirteen Colonies that started meeting in the spring of 1775 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
The separation of powers is a model for the governance of a state.
Shays Rebellion (sometimes spelled "Shays's") was an armed uprising in Massachusetts (mostly in and around Springfield) during 1786 and 1787.
The Siege of Charleston was a major engagement fought between March 29 to May 12, 1780 during the American Revolutionary War.
The Siege of Yorktown, also known as the Battle of Yorktown, the Surrender at Yorktown, German Battle or the Siege of Little York, ending on October 19, 1781, at Yorktown, Virginia, was a decisive victory by a combined force of American Continental Army troops led by General George Washington and French Army troops led by the Comte de Rochambeau over a British Army commanded by British peer and Lieutenant General Charles Cornwallis.
Silas Deane (September 23, 1789) was an American merchant, politician, and diplomat, and a supporter of American independence.
Slavery in the United States was the legal institution of human chattel enslavement, primarily of Africans and African Americans, that existed in the United States of America in the 18th and 19th centuries.
Spanish Florida refers to the Spanish territory of La Florida, which was the first major European land claim and attempted settlement in North America during the European Age of Discovery.
A stamp act is any legislation that requires a tax to be paid on the transfer of certain documents.
The Stamp Act of 1765 (short title Duties in American Colonies Act 1765; 5 George III, c. 12) was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain that imposed a direct tax on the colonies of British America and required that many printed materials in the colonies be produced on stamped paper produced in London, carrying an embossed revenue stamp.
The State of the Union Address is an annual message presented by the President of the United States to a joint session of the United States Congress, except in the first year of a new president's term.
The Staten Island Peace Conference was a brief meeting held in the hope of bringing an end to the American Revolutionary War.
The States General of the Netherlands (Staten-Generaal) is the bicameral legislature of the Netherlands consisting of the Senate (Eerste Kamer) and the House of Representatives (Tweede Kamer).
The Suffolk County Courthouse, now formally the John Adams Courthouse, is a historic courthouse building at 3 Pemberton Square in Boston, Massachusetts.
The Suffolk Resolves was a declaration made on September 9, 1774 by the leaders of Suffolk County, Massachusetts, of which Boston is the major city.
Susanna Boylston Adams Hall (March 5, 1708 – April 17, 1797) was a prominent early-American socialite, mother of the second U.S. President, John Adams and grandmother of the sixth President, John Quincy Adams.
The tariff history of the United States spans from colonial times to present.
Tea Act 1773 (13 Geo 3 c 44) was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain.
The Age of Reason; Being an Investigation of True and Fabulous Theology is a work by English and American political activist Thomas Paine, arguing for the philosophical position of Deism.
The Hague (Den Haag,, short for 's-Gravenhage) is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands and the capital of the province of South Holland.
The New England Primer was the first reading primer designed for the American Colonies.
Thomas Boylston Adams (September 15, 1772 – March 13, 1832) was the third and youngest son of John and Abigail (Smith) Adams.
Thomas Hutchinson (9 September 1711 – 3 June 1780) was a businessman, historian, and a prominent Loyalist politician of the Province of Massachusetts Bay in the years before the American Revolution.
Thomas Jefferson (April 13, [O.S. April 2] 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American Founding Father who was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence and later served as the third president of the United States from 1801 to 1809.
Thomas Paine (born Thomas Pain; – In the contemporary record as noted by Conway, Paine's birth date is given as January 29, 1736–37. Common practice was to use a dash or a slash to separate the old-style year from the new-style year. In the old calendar, the new year began on March 25, not January 1. Paine's birth date, therefore, would have been before New Year, 1737. In the new style, his birth date advances by eleven days and his year increases by one to February 9, 1737. The O.S. link gives more detail if needed. – June 8, 1809) was an English-born American political activist, philosopher, political theorist and revolutionary.
Thomas Pinckney (October 23, 1750 – November 2, 1828) was an early American statesman, diplomat, and soldier in both the American Revolutionary War and the War of 1812, achieving the rank of major general.
Thoughts on Government, or in full Thoughts on Government, Applicable to the Present State of the American Colonies, was written by John Adams during the spring of 1776 in response to a resolution of the North Carolina Provincial Congress which requested Adams' suggestions on the establishment of a new government and the drafting of a constitution.
Timothy Pickering (July 17, 1745January 29, 1829) was a politician from Massachusetts who served in a variety of roles, most notably as the third United States Secretary of State under Presidents George Washington and John Adams.
The Treaty of Alliance with France or Franco-American Treaty was a defensive alliance between France and the United States of America, formed in the midst of the American Revolutionary War, which promised mutual military support in case fighting should break out between French and British forces, as the result signing the previously concluded Treaty of Amity and Commerce.
The Treaty of Amity and Commerce between the Kingdom of Prussia and the United States of America (September 10, 1785) was a treaty negotiated by Count Karl-Wilhelm Finck von Finckenstein, Prussian Prime Minister, and Thomas Jefferson, United States Ambassador to France, and signed by Frederick the Great and George Washington.
The Treaty of Paris, signed in Paris by representatives of King George III of Great Britain and representatives of the United States of America on September 3, 1783, ended the American Revolutionary War.
The Twelfth Amendment (Amendment XII) to the United States Constitution provides the procedure for electing the President and Vice President.
Typhoid fever, also known simply as typhoid, is a bacterial infection due to ''Salmonella'' typhi that causes symptoms.
Unitarianism (from Latin unitas "unity, oneness", from unus "one") is historically a Christian theological movement named for its belief that the God in Christianity is one entity, as opposed to the Trinity (tri- from Latin tres "three") which defines God as three persons in one being; the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.
United First Parish Church is a Unitarian Universalist congregation in Quincy, Massachusetts, established as the parish church of Quincy in 1639.
The United States Bicentennial was a series of celebrations and observances during the mid-1970s that paid tribute to historical events leading up to the creation of the United States of America as an independent republic.
The Bill of Rights is the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution.
The United States Capitol, often called the Capitol Building, is the home of the United States Congress, and the seat of the legislative branch of the U.S. federal government.
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.
The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States.
The United States Declaration of Independence is the statement adopted by the Second Continental Congress meeting at the Pennsylvania State House (now known as Independence Hall) in Philadelphia on July 4, 1776.
The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.
The United States presidential election of was the first quadrennial presidential election.
The United States presidential election of 1792 was the second quadrennial presidential election.
The United States presidential election of 1796 was the third quadrennial presidential election.
The United States presidential election of 1800 was the fourth United States presidential election.
The United States presidential election of 1804 was the fifth quadrennial presidential election, held from Friday, November 2, to Wednesday, December 5, 1804.
The United States presidential election of 1824 was the tenth quadrennial presidential election, held from Tuesday, October 26, to Thursday, December 2, 1824.
The inauguration of the President of the United States is a ceremony to mark the commencement of a new four-year term of the President of the United States.
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprise the legislature of the United States.
The second USS Boston was a 24-gun frigate, launched 3 June 1776 by Stephen and Ralph Cross, Newburyport, Massachusetts, and completed the following year.
USS Constitution is a wooden-hulled, three-masted heavy frigate of the United States Navy named by President George Washington after the United States Constitution.
The Vice President of the United States (informally referred to as VPOTUS, or Veep) is a constitutional officer in the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States as the President of the Senate under Article I, Section 3, Clause 4, of the United States Constitution, as well as the second highest executive branch officer, after the President of the United States.
Voir dire is a legal phrase for a variety of procedures connected with jury trials.
The War of 1812 was a conflict fought between the United States, the United Kingdom, and their respective allies from June 1812 to February 1815.
Weymouth is a city in Norfolk County, Massachusetts.
The White House is the official residence and workplace of the President of the United States.
Wilhelm Willink (sometimes Willem, Wilheim or Wilhem) (1750 – 1841) was a wealthy Amsterdam merchant, and one of the investors in the Holland Land Company,Kirby, C.D. (1976).
William Romeyn Everdell is an American teacher and author.
William Maclay (July 20, 1737April 16, 1804) was a politician from Pennsylvania during the eighteenth century.
William Stephens Smith (November 8, 1755 – June 10, 1816) was a United States Representative from New York.
William Vans Murray (February 9, 1760 – December 11, 1803) was an American lawyer, politician, and statesman.
Worcester is a city and the county seat of Worcester County, Massachusetts, United States.
A writ of assistance is a written order (a writ) issued by a court instructing a law enforcement official, such as a sheriff or a tax collector, to perform a certain task.
The XYZ Affair was a political and diplomatic episode in 1797 and 1798, early in the administration of John Adams, involving a confrontation between the United States and Republican France that led to an undeclared war called the Quasi-War.
Yellow fever is a viral disease of typically short duration.
The First United States Congress, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives, met from March 4, 1789, to March 4, 1791, during the first two years of George Washington's presidency, first at Federal Hall in New York City and later at Congress Hall in Philadelphia.
The 29th (Worcestershire) Regiment of Foot was an infantry regiment of the British Army, raised in 1694.
The Sixth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives.
The Seventh United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives.
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