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A "V" device is a metal capital letter "V" with serifs which, when worn on certain decorations awarded by the United States Armed Forces, distinguishes an award for heroism or valor in combat instead of for meritorious service or achievement.
Abbottabad (Urdu, ایبٹ آباد) is the capital city of Abbottabad District in the Hazara region of eastern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
Abortion is the ending of pregnancy by removing an embryo or fetus before it can survive outside the uterus.
Sabri Khalil al-Banna (May 1937 – 16 August 2002), known as Abu Nidal, was the founder of Fatah: The Revolutionary Council, a militant Palestinian splinter group more commonly known as the Abu Nidal Organization (ANO).
Acid rain is a rain or any other form of precipitation that is unusually acidic, meaning that it has elevated levels of hydrogen ions (low pH).
In international relations, aid (also known as international aid, overseas aid, foreign aid or foreign assistance) is – from the perspective of governments – a voluntary transfer of resources from one country to another.
AIESEC is the world's largest non-profit youth-run organization.
Albert Arnold Gore Jr. (born March 31, 1948) is an American politician and environmentalist who served as the 45th Vice President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.
Alexandra Forbes Kerry (born September 5, 1973) is an American filmmaker.
An altar server is a lay assistant to a member of the clergy during a Christian liturgy.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as motor neurone disease (MND), and Lou Gehrig's disease, is a specific disease which causes the death of neurons controlling voluntary muscles.
André Thierstein Heinz (born December 9, 1969) is an American environmentalist.
Annulment is a legal procedure within secular and religious legal systems for declaring a marriage null and void.
Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent.
In Christianity, an archbishop (via Latin archiepiscopus, from Greek αρχιεπίσκοπος, from αρχι-, 'chief', and επίσκοπος, 'bishop') is a bishop of higher rank or office.
An architect is a person who plans, designs, and reviews the construction of buildings.
General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani (اشفاق پرویز کیانی; born 20 April 1952),, is a retired four-star rank army general in the Pakistan Army who served as the Chief of Army Staff (COAS), being appointed on 29 November 2007 until 29 November 2013.
An aunt is a person who is the sister, half-sister, step-sister, or sister-in-law of a parent, or the wife of one's uncle, but can also be an affectionate title for an older nurturing woman.
Aurora is a Home Rule Municipality in the U.S. state of Colorado, spanning Arapahoe and Adams counties, with the extreme southeastern portion of the city extending into Douglas County.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
A Bachelor of Arts (BA or AB, from the Latin baccalaureus artium or artium baccalaureus) is a bachelor's degree awarded for an undergraduate course or program in either the liberal arts, sciences, or both.
Ballotpedia is a nonpartisan online political encyclopedia.
The Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI) was an international bank founded in 1972 by Agha Hasan Abedi, a Pakistani financier.
Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from January 20, 2009, to January 20, 2017.
Bashar Hafez al-Assad (بشار حافظ الأسد, Levantine pronunciation:;; born 11 September 1965) is a Syrian politician who has been the 19th and current President of Syria since 17 July 2000.
The Bồ Đề River (Sông Bồ Đề) is a river of Cà Mau Province, Vietnam.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Beaching is the process in which a ship or boat is laid ashore, or grounded deliberately in shallow water.
Beacon Hill is a historic neighborhood in Boston, Massachusetts.
Benjamin "Bibi" Netanyahu (born 21 October 1949) is an Israeli politician serving as the 9th and current Prime Minister of Israel since 2009, previously holding the position from 1996 to 1999.
Berkshire Hathaway Inc. is an American multinational conglomerate holding company headquartered in Omaha, Nebraska, United States.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
William Jefferson Clinton (born August 19, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.
William Floyd Weld (born July 31, 1945) is an American attorney, businessman, and politician who was the 68th Governor of Massachusetts from 1991 to 1997.
Bloomberg News is an international news agency headquartered in New York, United States and a division of Bloomberg L.P. Content produced by Bloomberg News is disseminated through Bloomberg Terminals, Bloomberg Television, Bloomberg Radio, Bloomberg Businessweek, Bloomberg Markets, Bloomberg.com and Bloomberg's mobile platforms.
A boarding school provides education for pupils who live on the premises, as opposed to a day school.
Robert Menendez (born January 1, 1954) is an American politician serving as the senior United States Senator from New Jersey, a seat he has held since 2006.
Robert M. Shrum (born July 21, 1943) is the Director of the Jesse M. Unruh Institute of Politics and the Carmen H. and Louis Warschaw Chair in Practical Politics at the University of Southern California, where he is a Professor of the Practice of Political Science in the Dornsife College of Letters, Arts and Sciences. He is a former American political consultant, who has worked on numerous Democratic campaigns, including as senior advisor to the Kerry-Edwards campaign in 2004 and to the Gore-Lieberman campaign in 2000.
Boston College (also referred to as BC) is a private Jesuit Catholic research university located in the affluent village of Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts, United States, west of downtown Boston.
Boston College Law School (BC Law) is one of the six professional graduate schools at Boston College.
The Boston Herald is an American daily newspaper whose primary market is Boston, Massachusetts and its surrounding area.
Bozeman is a town in and the seat of Gallatin County, Montana, United States.
Brice Lalonde (born 10 February 1946) is a former green party leader in France, who ran for President of France in the Presidential elections, 1981.
The Bronze Star Medal, unofficially the Bronze Star, is a United States decoration awarded to members of the United States Armed Forces for either heroic achievement, heroic service, meritorious achievement, or meritorious service in a combat zone.
Brooklyn is the most populous borough of New York City, with a census-estimated 2,648,771 residents in 2017.
Burglary (also called breaking and entering and sometimes housebreaking) is an unlawful entry into a building or other location for the purposes of committing an offence.
C-SPAN, an acronym for Cable-Satellite Public Affairs Network, is an American cable and satellite television network that was created in 1979 by the cable television industry as a public service.
The 2006 California gubernatorial election occurred on November 7, 2006.
Cam Ranh Bay (Vịnh Cam Ranh) is a deep-water bay in Vietnam in the province of Khánh Hòa Province.
Cameron Forbes Kerry (born September 6, 1950) is an American politician who served as General Counsel of the U.S. Department of Commerce.
Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime.
CARE (Cooperative for Assistance and Relief Everywhere, formerly Cooperative for American Remittances to Europe) is a major international humanitarian agency delivering emergency relief and long-term international development projects.
In the history of the United States, a carpetbagger was any person from the Northern United States who came to the Southern states after the American Civil War and was perceived to be exploiting the local populace for their own purposes.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Cửa Lớn River (Sông Cửa Lớn) is a river of Vietnam.
Cái Nước is a township (Thị trấn) and capital town of Cái Nước District, Cà Mau Province, in Vietnam.
CBS (an initialism of the network's former name, the Columbia Broadcasting System) is an American English language commercial broadcast television network that is a flagship property of CBS Corporation.
The Center for Responsive Politics (CRP) is a non-profit, nonpartisan research group based in Washington, D.C., that tracks the effects of money and lobbying on elections and public policy.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
Challenge riding is a form of cycling where the riders challenge themselves rather than each other.
Charlie Rose is an American television interview show, with Charlie Rose as executive producer, executive editor, and host.
Chilmark is a town located on Martha's Vineyard in Dukes County, Massachusetts, United States.
Christianity Today magazine is an evangelical Christian periodical that was founded in 1956 and is based in Carol Stream, Illinois.
Christopher Drake Heinz (born 20 March 1973) is an American businessman and investor.
The civil rights movement (also known as the African-American civil rights movement, American civil rights movement and other terms) was a decades-long movement with the goal of securing legal rights for African Americans that other Americans already held.
Clark McAdams Clifford (December 25, 1906October 10, 1998) was an American lawyer who served as an important political adviser to Democratic Presidents Harry S. Truman, John F. Kennedy, Lyndon B. Johnson, and Jimmy Carter.
The three classes of United States Senators are made up of 33 or 34 Senate seats each.
The Combat Action Ribbon (colloquially "CAR"), is a United States Navy, United States Marine Corps and United States Coast Guard military decoration awarded to those U.S. naval military members "who have actively participated in ground or surface combat." Sailors, marines, and coast guardsmen in clandestine, stealth, or special operations, where their ability to return hostile fire is curtailed, are deemed eligible for consideration of the award.
Concord is a town in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, in the United States.
American conservatism is a broad system of political beliefs in the United States that is characterized by respect for American traditions, republicanism, support for Judeo-Christian values, moral absolutism, free markets and free trade, anti-communism, individualism, advocacy of American exceptionalism, and a defense of Western culture from the perceived threats posed by socialism, authoritarianism, and moral relativism.
The Contras were the various U.S.-backed and funded right-wing rebel groups that were active from 1979 to the early 1990s in opposition to the socialist Sandinista Junta of National Reconstruction government in Nicaragua.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
Cycling, also called bicycling or biking, is the use of bicycles for transport, recreation, exercise or sport.
Dale Leon Bumpers (August 12, 1925 – January 1, 2016) was an American politician who served as the 38th Governor of Arkansas (1971–1975) and in the United States Senate (1975–1999).
James Danforth "Dan" Quayle (born February 4, 1947) is an American politician and lawyer who served as the 44th Vice President of the United States from 1989 to 1993.
José Daniel Ortega Saavedra (born November 11, 1945) is a Nicaraguan politician serving as President of Nicaragua since 2007; previously he was leader of Nicaragua from 1979 to 1990, first as Coordinator of the Junta of National Reconstruction (1979–1985) and then as President (1985–1990).
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party (nicknamed the GOP for Grand Old Party).
The Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee (DSCC) is the Democratic Hill committee for the United States Senate.
John Dennis Hastert (born January 2, 1942) is a former American congressman who served as the 51st Speaker of the United States House of Representatives from 1999 to 2007, representing from 1987 to 2007.
Deval Laurdine Patrick (born July 31, 1956) is an American politician, civil rights lawyer, author and businessman who served as the 71st Governor of Massachusetts from 2007 to 2015.
Richard Bruce Cheney (born January 30, 1941) is an American politician and businessman who served as the 46th Vice President of the United States from 2001 to 2009.
Richard Andrew Gephardt (born January 31, 1941) is an American politician who served as a United States Representative from Missouri from 1977 to 2005.
A diplomat is a person appointed by a state to conduct diplomacy with one or more other states or international organizations.
In the United States, a district attorney (DA) is the chief prosecutor for a local government area, typically a county.
Doctor of Law or Doctor of Laws is a degree in law.
The Dominican Republic–Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) is a free trade agreement (legally a treaty under international law, but not under U.S. law).
Douglas Brinkley (born December 14, 1960) is an American author and a professor of history at Rice University.
The Dudley–Winthrop family is an American political family.
Duty officer is the name of a rotating position assigned to a junior military officer in a duty or watch system.
Earth Day is an annual event celebrated on April 22.
Edward John Markey (born July 11, 1946) is an American politician of the Democratic Party serving as the junior United States Senator from Massachusetts since 2013.
Edward William Brooke III (October 26, 1919 – January 3, 2015) was an American Republican politician.
Edward Joseph "Ed" King (May 11, 1925 – September 18, 2006) was the 66th Governor of the U.S. state of Massachusetts from 1979 to 1983.
The United States Electoral College is the mechanism established by the United States Constitution for the election of the president and vice president of the United States by small groups of appointed representatives, electors, from each state and the District of Columbia.
Elizabeth Ann Warren (née Herring, born June 22, 1949) is an American politician and academic serving as the senior United States Senator from Massachusetts, a seat she was elected to in 2012.
The Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 (Division A of), commonly referred to as a bailout of the U.S. financial system, is a law enacted subsequently to the subprime mortgage crisis authorizing the United States Secretary of the Treasury to spend up to $700 billion to purchase distressed assets, especially mortgage-backed securities, and supply cash directly to banks.
The Episcopal Church is the United States-based member church of the worldwide Anglican Communion.
Birch Evans "Evan" Bayh III (born December 26, 1955) is an American lawyer, lobbyist and politician of the Democratic Party who served as the junior United States Senator from Indiana from 1999 to 2011 and the 46th Governor of Indiana from 1989 to 1997.
Evelyn Murphy (born May 14, 1940) was the 67th Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts from 1987 to 1991, being the first woman in the history of the state to hold a constitutional office.
Executive Order 13769, titled Protecting the Nation from Foreign Terrorist Entry into the United States, often referred to as the Muslim ban, BBC or the travel ban, was an executive order issued by United States President Donald Trump.
Frank Bradford Morse (August 7, 1921 – December 18, 1994) was a member of the United States House of Representatives from Massachusetts.
The Federal Reserve System (also known as the Federal Reserve or simply the Fed) is the central banking system of the United States of America.
The Fessenden School is an independent day (Pre-K – Grade 9) and boarding school (Grades 5 – 9) for boys, founded in 1903 by Frederick J. Fessenden, and located at 250 Waltham Street, West Newton, Massachusetts, United States, on a campus.
First Lady is an unofficial title used for the wife of a non-monarchical head of state or chief executive.
Fitzsimons Army Hospital — known as Fitzsimons Army Medical Center (FAMC) from 1974 — was a U.S. Army facility located on in Aurora, Colorado, USA.
Forbes is an American business magazine.
The Forbes 400 or 400 Richest Americans is a list published by Forbes magazine of the wealthiest 400 American residents, ranked by net worth.
The Forbes family is a wealthy extended American family long prominent in Boston, Massachusetts.
The Forbes family includes a number of related people that founded, and have worked for, Forbes magazine.
A country's foreign policy, also called foreign relations or foreign affairs policy, consists of self-interest strategies chosen by the state to safeguard its national interests and to achieve goals within its international relations milieu.
A frigate is any of several types of warship, the term having been used for ships of various sizes and roles over the last few centuries.
The Fulbright Hearings refers to any of the set of U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee hearings on Vietnam conducted between 1966 and 1971.
George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 41st President of the United States from 1989 to 1993.
George John Mitchell Jr. (born August 20, 1933) is an American lawyer, businessman, author, and politician.
George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009.
Controversy over George W. Bush's military service in the National Guard was an issue that first gained widespread public attention during the 2004 presidential campaign.
Georgetown University is a private research university in the Georgetown neighborhood of Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States.
The Ghouta chemical attack occurred in Ghouta, Syria during the Syrian Civil War, in the early hours of 21 August 2013.
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
The Governor of Massachusetts is the head of the executive branch of the Government of Massachusetts and serves as commander-in-chief of the Commonwealth's military forces.
GovTrack.us is a website developed by then-student Joshua Tauberer.
Grading in education is the process of applying standardized measurements of varying levels of achievement in a course.
The Greater Yellowstone Coalition is a conservation organization protecting the lands, waters and wildlife of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem of Idaho, Montana and Wyoming.
The Gulf of Thailand, formerly the Gulf of Siam, is a shallow inlet in the western part of the South China and Eastern Archipelagic Seas, a marginal body of water in the western Pacific Ocean.
Holt Bradford Westerfield (March 7, 1928 – January 19, 2008) was a Damon Wells Professor of International Studies and professor of political science at Yale University.
George Hanks "Hank" Brown (born February 12, 1940) is a former Republican politician and U.S. Senator from Colorado who served as president of the University of Colorado system from April 2005 to January 2008.
Harold Daniel Donohue (June 18, 1901 – November 4, 1984) was an American politician.
Harold Eugene Ford Jr. (born May 11, 1970) is an American financial managing director, pundit, author, and former U.S. congressman who served from 1997–2007 in the United States House of Representatives as a member of the Democratic Party from, centered in Memphis.
In sailing, heaving to (to heave to and to be hove to) is a way of slowing a sailboat's forward progress, as well as fixing the helm and sail positions so that the boat does not have to be steered.
The H. J. Heinz Company, or Heinz, is an American food processing company with world headquarters in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton (born October 26, 1947) is an American politician and diplomat who served as the First Lady of the United States from 1993 to 2001, U.S. Senator from New York from 2001 to 2009, 67th United States Secretary of State from 2009 to 2013, and the Democratic Party's nominee for President of the United States in the 2016 election.
An honorary degree, in Latin a degree honoris causa ("for the sake of the honor") or ad honorem ("to the honor"), is an academic degree for which a university (or other degree-awarding institution) has waived the usual requirements, such as matriculation, residence, a dissertation and the passing of comprehensive examinations.
The Houthis (الحوثيون al-Ḥūthiyyūn), officially called Ansar Allah (أنصار الله "Supporters of God"), are members of an Islamic religious-political-armed movement that emerged from Sa'dah in northern Yemen in the 1990s.
Howard Brush Dean III (born November 17, 1948) is an American physician, author and retired politician who served as the 79th Governor of Vermont from 1991 to 2003 and Chair of the Democratic National Committee (DNC) from 2005 to 2009 and works as a political consultant and commentator.
The hull is the watertight body of a ship or boat.
IMDb, also known as Internet Movie Database, is an online database of information related to world films, television programs, home videos and video games, and internet streams, including cast, production crew and personnel biographies, plot summaries, trivia, and fan reviews and ratings.
Imperialism is a policy that involves a nation extending its power by the acquisition of lands by purchase, diplomacy or military force.
The inauguration of Donald Trump as the 45th President of the United States marked commencement of the four-year term of Donald Trump as President and Mike Pence as Vice President.
In economics, inflation is a sustained increase in price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.
The integral fast reactor (IFR, originally advanced liquid-metal reactor) is a design for a nuclear reactor using fast neutrons and no neutron moderator (a "fast" reactor).
The Internet Archive is a San Francisco–based nonprofit digital library with the stated mission of "universal access to all knowledge." It provides free public access to collections of digitized materials, including websites, software applications/games, music, movies/videos, moving images, and nearly three million public-domain books.
Iowa is a U.S. state in the Midwestern United States, bordered by the Mississippi River to the east and the Missouri and Big Sioux rivers to the west.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Iran–Contra affair (ماجرای ایران-کنترا, caso Irán-Contra), also referred to as Irangate, Contragate or the Iran–Contra scandal, was a political scandal in the United States that occurred during the second term of the Reagan Administration.
The Iranian Revolution (Enqelāb-e Iran; also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution), Iran Chamber.
The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, and Gulf War II.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Israeli settlements are civilian communities inhabited by Israeli citizens, almost exclusively of Jewish ethnicity, built predominantly on lands within the Palestinian territories, which Israel has militarily occupied since the 1967 Six-Day War, and partly on lands considered Syrian territory also militarily occupied by Israel since the 1967 war.
Jacqueline Lee Kennedy Onassis (born Bouvier; July 28, 1929 – May 19, 1994) was the wife of the 35th President of the United States, John F. Kennedy, and the First Lady of the United States from 1961 until his assassination in 1963.
James Rassmann (born c. 1948) is a former Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department lieutenant who served with the U.S. Army's 5th Special Forces Group in the Vietnam War in 1968 and 1969.
James Michael Shannon (born April 4, 1952), is a Democratic politician from Massachusetts.
Janet Jennings Auchincloss Rutherfurd (June 13, 1945 – March 13, 1985) was an American socialite.
Cynthia Jeanne Shaheen (née Bowers; January 28, 1947) is the senior United States Senator from New Hampshire.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Joseph Robinette Biden Jr. (born November 20, 1942) is an American politician who served as the 47th Vice President of the United States from 2009 to 2017.
Joseph Isadore Lieberman (born February 24, 1942) is an American politician and attorney who was a United States Senator for Connecticut from 1989 to 2013.
John Berlinger Breaux (born March 1, 1944) was a member of the United States Senate from Louisiana from 1987 until 2005.
Johnny Reid "John" Edwards (born June 10, 1953) is an American lawyer and former politician who served as a U.S. Senator from North Carolina.
John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), commonly referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963.
John Gilbert Winant OM (February 23, 1889 – November 3, 1947) was an American politician with the Republican party after a brief career as a teacher in Concord, New Hampshire.
Henry John Heinz III (October 23, 1938 – April 4, 1991) was an American businessman and politician from Pennsylvania.
John Sidney McCain III (born August 29, 1936) is an American politician serving as the senior United States Senator from Arizona, a seat he was first elected to in 1986.
John William Henry II (born September 13, 1949) is an American businessman and investor and the founder of John W. Henry & Company, an investment management firm.
John Winthrop Sears (December 18, 1930 – November 4, 2014) was an American lawyer, historian and politician.
John Winthrop (12 January 1587/88 – 26 March 1649) was an English Puritan lawyer and one of the leading figures in founding the Massachusetts Bay Colony, the second major settlement in New England, following Plymouth Colony.
The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA; barnāmeye jāme‘e eqdāme moshtarak, acronym: برجام BARJAM), known commonly as the Iran nuclear deal or Iran deal, is an agreement on the nuclear program of Iran reached in Vienna on 14 July 2015 between Iran, the P5+1 (the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council—China, France, Russia, United Kingdom, United States—plus Germany), and the European Union.
Jonathan Edwards College (informally JE) is a residential college at Yale University.
Julia Stimson Thorne (September 16, 1944 – April 27, 2006) was an American writer and the first wife of former U.S. Senator and U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry.
The Juris Doctor degree (J.D. or JD), also known as the Doctor of Jurisprudence degree (J.D., JD, D.Jur. or DJur), is a graduate-entry professional degree in law and one of several Doctor of Law degrees.
Kabul (کابل) is the capital of Afghanistan and its largest city, located in the eastern section of the country.
The Kennedy family is an American political family that has long been prominent in American politics, public service, and business.
Kenyon College is a private liberal arts college in Gambier, Ohio, United States, founded in 1824 by Philander Chase.
The Kerry Committee report, formally titled Drugs, Law Enforcement and Foreign Policy, was the final report of an investigation by the Senate Foreign Relations Committee's Subcommittee on Terrorism, Narcotics, and International Operations.
Christopher Samuel "Kit" Bond (born March 6, 1939) is an American attorney, politician and former United States Senator from Missouri and a member of the Republican Party.
The Kyoto Protocol is an international treaty which extends the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that commits state parties to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, based on the scientific consensus that (part one) global warming is occurring and (part two) it is extremely likely that human-made CO2 emissions have predominantly caused it.
Larceny is a crime involving the unlawful taking of the personal property of another person or business.
Lawrence Sidney Eagleburger (August 1, 1930 – June 4, 2011) was an American statesman and career diplomat, who served briefly as the Secretary of State under President George H. W. Bush.
Lawrence is a city in Essex County, Massachusetts, United States, on the Merrimack River.
Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism, often in opposition to social hierarchy.
The Legion of Honour, with its full name National Order of the Legion of Honour (Ordre national de la Légion d'honneur), is the highest French order of merit for military and civil merits, established in 1802 by Napoléon Bonaparte and retained by all the divergent governments and regimes later holding power in France, up to the present.
Leon J. Lombardi (born April 16, 1949 in Brockton, Massachusetts) is an American attorney and politician who served as a member of the Massachusetts House of Representatives from 1977–1983 and as the Chairman of the Massachusetts Republican Party from 1990-1992.
Lexington is a town in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States.
Liberalism in the United States is a broad political philosophy centered on what many see as the unalienable rights of the individual.
A lieutenant (abbreviated Lt, LT, Lieut and similar) is a junior commissioned officer in the armed forces, fire services, police and other organizations of many nations.
LieutenantThe pronunciation of lieutenant is generally split between,, generally in the United Kingdom, Ireland, and Commonwealth countries, and,, generally associated with the United States.
In the United States Army, U.S. Marine Corps, and U.S. Air Force, a lieutenant colonel is a field grade military officer rank just above the rank of major and just below the rank of colonel.
Lieutenant commander (also hyphenated lieutenant-commander and abbreviated LCdr, LCdr. or LCDR) is a commissioned officer rank in many navies.
The Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts is the first in the line to discharge the powers and duties of the office of governor following the incapacitation of the Governor of Massachusetts.
This is a list of foreign ministers in 2017.
The Minister of Foreign Affairs of Iran is the head of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Iran and a member of the Cabinet.
This is a list of Secretaries of State of the United States.
Skull and Bones, a secret society at Yale University, was founded in 1832.
This is a list of the candidates for the offices of President of the United States and Vice President of the United States of the modern Democratic Party of the United States.
Below is a chronological listing of the United States Senators from Massachusetts.
This is a complete list of members of the United States Senate during the 111th United States Congress listed by seniority, from January 3, 2009 to January 3, 2011.
Lobbying, persuasion, or interest representation is the act of attempting to influence the actions, policies, or decisions of officials in their daily life, most often legislators or members of regulatory agencies.
Lois Pines is an American politician who served in the Massachusetts General Court and was a candidate for statewide office four times.
The word "longevity" is sometimes used as a synonym for "life expectancy" in demography.
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.
Henry Louis Gehrig, born Heinrich Ludwig Gehrig (June 19, 1903June 2, 1941), nicknamed "the Iron Horse", was an American baseball first baseman who played his entire professional career (17 seasons) in Major League Baseball (MLB) for the New York Yankees, from 1923 until 1939.
Louis R. "Lou" Nickinello (born September 8, 1940 in East Boston) is an American businessman and politician who served in the Massachusetts House of Representatives from 1971 to 1983.
Lowell is a city in the U.S. Commonwealth of Massachusetts.
Lower Merion Township is a township in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania and part of the Philadelphia Main Line.
Lynn is the 9th largest municipality in Massachusetts and the largest city in Essex County.
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.
Martha's Vineyard (Wampanoag: Noepe; often called just the Vineyard) is an island located south of Cape Cod in Massachusetts that is known for being an affluent summer colony.
Mary Loretta Landrieu (born November 23, 1955) is an American politician, entrepreneur, and former U.S. Senator from the state of Louisiana.
Massachusetts, officially known as the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
The Massachusetts Bay Colony (1628–1691) was an English settlement on the east coast of North America in the 17th century around the Massachusetts Bay, the northernmost of the several colonies later reorganized as the Province of Massachusetts Bay.
Massachusetts General Hospital (Mass General or MGH) is the original and largest teaching hospital of Harvard Medical School and a biomedical research facility located in the West End neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts.
The Massachusetts Governor's Council (also known as the Executive Council) is a governmental body that provides advice and consent in certain matterssuch as judicial nominations, pardons, and commutationsto the Governor of Massachusetts.
The 1982 Massachusetts gubernatorial election was held on November 2, 1982.
Massachusetts's 3rd congressional district is located in northeastern and central Massachusetts.
Massachusetts's 4th congressional district is located mostly in southern Massachusetts.
Massachusetts' 5th congressional district is a congressional district in eastern Massachusetts.
The McMurdo Station is a United States Antarctic research center on the south tip of Ross Island, which is in the New Zealand-claimed Ross Dependency on the shore of McMurdo Sound in Antarctica.
Mediation is a dynamic, structured, interactive process where a neutral third party assists disputing parties in resolving conflict through the use of specialized communication and negotiation techniques.
Melvin Robert "Bom" Laird (September 1, 1922 – November 16, 2016) was an American politician, writer and statesman.
The Merrimack River (or Merrimac River, an occasional earlier spelling) is a river in the northeastern United States.
Michael Stanley Dukakis (born November 3, 1933) is a retired American politician who served as the 65th Governor of Massachusetts, from 1975 to 1979 and again from 1983 to 1991.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
Middlesex County is a county in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, in the United States.
The Mobile Strike Force Command, or MIKE Force, was a key component of United States Army Special Forces in the Vietnam War.
A military brat (colloquial or military slang) is the child of a person in the military.
The United States Navy's Military Sealift Command (MSC) is an organization that controls the replenishment and military transport ships of the Navy.
The Miranda warning, which also can be referred to as a person's Miranda rights, is a right to silence warning given by police in the United States to criminal suspects in police custody (or in a custodial interrogation) before they are interrogated to preserve the admissibility of their statements against them in criminal proceedings.
In modern language, a missile is a guided self-propelled system, as opposed to an unguided self-propelled munition, referred to as a rocket (although these too can also be guided).
Willard Mitt Romney (born March 12, 1947) is an American businessman and politician who served as the 70th Governor of Massachusetts from 2003 to 2007 and was the Republican Party's nominee for President of the United States in the 2012 election.
William Maurice "Mo" Cowan (born April 4, 1969) is an American politician and lawyer who served as a United States Senator from Massachusetts in 2013.
Mohammad Javad Zarif Khonsari (محمدجواد ظریف خونساری;; born 7 January 1960) is an Iranian career diplomat, academic and current Minister of Foreign Affairs.
Money laundering is the act of concealing the transformation of profits from illegal activities and corruption into ostensibly "legitimate" assets.
The Monroe Doctrine was a United States policy of opposing European colonialism in the Americas beginning in 1823.
In international economic relations and international politics, "most favoured nation" (MFN) is a status or level of treatment accorded by one state to another in international trade.
MSNBC is an American news cable and satellite television network that provides news coverage and political commentary from NBC News on current events.
Nantucket is an island about by ferry south from Cape Cod, in the U.S. state of Massachusetts.
National Journal is a research and advisory services company based in Washington, D.C. offering services in government affairs, advocacy communications and policy brands research for government and business leaders.
NBC News is the news division of the American broadcast television network NBC, formerly known as the National Broadcasting Company when it was founded on radio.
Net worth is the value of all the non-financial and financial assets owned by an institutional unit or sector minus the value of all its outstanding liabilities.
The term New Frontier was used by liberal Democratic presidential candidate John F. Kennedy in his acceptance speech in the 1960 United States presidential election to the Democratic National Convention at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum as the Democratic slogan to inspire America to support him.
New Hampshire is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
The New York County District Attorney is the elected district attorney for New York County (Manhattan), New York.
Newport is a seaside city on Aquidneck Island in Newport County, Rhode Island, United States.
Newton is a suburban city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States.
Nicaragua, officially the Republic of Nicaragua, is the largest country in the Central American isthmus, bordered by Honduras to the north, the Caribbean to the east, Costa Rica to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
The Notable Names Database (NNDB) is an online database of biographical details of over 40,000 people of note.
The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA; Spanish: Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte, TLCAN; French: Accord de libre-échange nord-américain, ALÉNA) is an agreement signed by Canada, Mexico, and the United States, creating a trilateral trade bloc in North America.
North Vietnam, officially the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) (Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cộng Hòa), was a country in Southeast Asia from 1945 to 1976, although it did not achieve widespread recognition until 1954.
Northeastern University (NU, formerly NEU) is a private research university in Boston, Massachusetts, established in 1898.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
Officer Candidate School or Officer Cadet School (OCS) are institutions which train civilians and enlisted personnel in order for them to gain a commission as officers in the armed forces of a country.
Oliver Laurence North (born October 7, 1943) is an American political commentator, television host, military historian, author, and retired United States Marine Corps Lieutenant Colonel.
Olympia Jean Snowe (née Bouchles; born February 21, 1947) is an American businesswoman and politician who was a United States Senator from Maine from 1995 to 2013.
On the Issues or OnTheIssues is an American non-partisan, non-profit organization providing information to voters about candidates, primarily via their web site.
Open Secret is a 1948 American film noir directed by John Reinhardt, starring John Ireland and Jane Randolph.
Operation Sealords was a military operation that took place during the Vietnam War.
Opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War began with demonstrations in 1964 against the escalating role of the U.S. military in the Vietnam War and grew into a broad social movement over the ensuing several years.
An orator, or oratist, is a public speaker, especially one who is eloquent or skilled.
The Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany (German: Verdienstorden der Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is the only federal decoration of Germany.
The Organization of American States (Organización de los Estados Americanos, Organização dos Estados Americanos, Organisation des États américains), or the OAS or OEA, is a continental organization that was founded on 30 April 1948, for the purposes of regional solidarity and cooperation among its member states.
Usama ibn Mohammed ibn Awad ibn Ladin (أسامة بن محمد بن عوض بن لادن), often anglicized as Osama bin Laden (March 10, 1957 – May 2, 2011), was a founder of, the organization responsible for the September 11 attacks in the United States and many other mass-casualty attacks worldwide.
Oslo (rarely) is the capital and most populous city of Norway.
The Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC) is the United States government's development finance institution.
The P5+1 refers to the UN Security Council's five permanent members (the P5); namely China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States; plus Germany.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
The Paris Agreement (Accord de Paris) is an agreement within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) dealing with greenhouse gas emissions mitigation, adaptation, and finance starting in the year 2020.
The Participatory Politics Foundation (PPF) is a United States non-profit organization which jointly operates the OpenCongress.org website, which is intended to encourage transparency in lawmaking and to make it easier to engage with government.
Pasadena City College (PCC) is a community college located in Pasadena, California.
Pasadena is a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States, located 10 miles (16 kilometers) northeast of Downtown Los Angeles.
Patrol Boat, Riverine or PBR, is the United States Navy designation for a small rigid-hulled patrol boat used in the Vietnam War from March 1966 until the end of 1971.
Patrol Craft Fast (PCF), also known as Swift Boats, were all-aluminum, long, shallow-draft vessels operated by the United States Navy, initially to patrol the coastal areas and later for work in the interior waterways as part of the brown-water navy to interdict Vietcong movement of arms and munitions, transport Vietnamese forces and insert SEAL teams for counterinsurgency (COIN) operations during the Vietnam War.
Paul Grattan Kirk Jr. (born January 18, 1938) is an American lawyer and politician who served as a United States Senator from Massachusetts from 2009 to 2010, having been appointed to fill the vacancy created by the death of Ted Kennedy.
Paul Joseph Sheehy (November 1, 1934 – March 10, 2014) was an American politician who served in the Massachusetts House of Representatives, Massachusetts Senate and was City Manager of Lowell, Massachusetts.
Paul the Apostle (Paulus; translit, ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; c. 5 – c. 64 or 67), commonly known as Saint Paul and also known by his Jewish name Saul of Tarsus (translit; Saũlos Tarseús), was an apostle (though not one of the Twelve Apostles) who taught the gospel of the Christ to the first century world.
Paul Efthemios Tsongas (February 14, 1941January 18, 1997) was an American politician.
Paul William Cronin (March 14, 1938 – April 5, 1997) was a one-term congressman of the U.S. House of Representatives from Massachusetts.
The Pauline epistles, Epistles of Paul, or Letters of Paul, are the 13 New Testament books which have the name Paul (Παῦλος) as the first word, hence claiming authorship by Paul the Apostle.
The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.
The Penguin Group is a trade book publisher and part of Penguin Random House.
Phillip Nicholas Angelides (born June 12, 1953) is an American politician who was California State Treasurer and the unsuccessful Democratic nominee for Governor of California in the 2006 elections.
Philip Joseph Philbin (May 29, 1898 – June 14, 1972) was a Democratic U.S. Congressman from Massachusetts.
Pietro Parolin (born 17 January 1955) is an Italian prelate of the Catholic Church.
In the United States and Canada, a political action committee (PAC) is an organization that pools campaign contributions from members and donates those funds to campaign for or against candidates, ballot initiatives, or legislation.
Political science is a social science which deals with systems of governance, and the analysis of political activities, political thoughts, and political behavior.
Politics (from Politiká, meaning "affairs of the cities") is the process of making decisions that apply to members of a group.
PolitiFact.com is a blog operated by the editorial board of theTampa Bay Times, in which reporters and editors from the Times and affiliated media seek to fact-check statements by members of Congress, the White House, lobbyists, and interest groups.
Portsmouth is a town in Newport County, Rhode Island, USA.
Portuguese Mozambique (Moçambique) or Portuguese East Africa (África Oriental Portuguesa) are the common terms by which Mozambique is designated when referring to the historic period when it was a Portuguese overseas territory.
A prayer book is a book containing prayers and perhaps devotional readings, for private or communal use, or in some cases, outlining the liturgy of religious services.
A prenuptial agreement, antenuptial agreement, or premarital agreement, commonly abbreviated to prenup or prenupt, is a contract entered into prior to marriage, civil union or any agreement prior to the main agreement by the people intending to marry or contract with each other.
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
The President-elect of the United States is the person who has won the quadrennial presidential election in the United States, but who has not yet been inaugurated as President of the United States.
A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.
Propaganda is information that is not objective and is used primarily to influence an audience and further an agenda, often by presenting facts selectively to encourage a particular synthesis or perception, or using loaded language to produce an emotional rather than a rational response to the information that is presented.
Prostate cancer is the development of cancer in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system.
Public speaking (also called oratory or oration) is the process or act of performing a speech to a live audience.
The Purple Heart is a United States military decoration awarded in the name of the president to those wounded or killed while serving, on or after April 5, 1917, with the U.S. military.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
Raymond Shamie (1921–1999) was an American politician from Massachusetts.
Regnery Publishing is a conservative book publisher based in Washington, D.C. An imprint of Salem Media Group, it is led by president Marji Ross.
The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP (abbreviation for Grand Old Party), is one of the two major political parties in the United States, the other being its historic rival, the Democratic Party.
A member of the United States Senate can resign by writing a letter of resignation to the governor of the state that the senator represents.
Rex Wayne Tillerson (born March 23, 1952) is an American former government official and former energy executive who served as the 69th United States Secretary of State from February 1, 2017 to March 31, 2018, under President Donald Trump.
Richard John Kerry (July 28, 1915 – July 29, 2000) was an American Foreign Service officer and lawyer.
Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was an American politician who served as the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 until 1974, when he resigned from office, the only U.S. president to do so.
Right-wing politics hold that certain social orders and hierarchies are inevitable, natural, normal or desirable, typically supporting this position on the basis of natural law, economics or tradition.
Robert B. Kennedy (February 6, 1940 – May 1, 2018) was an American politician from Lowell, Massachusetts.
Robert Charles Winthrop (May 12, 1809 – November 16, 1894) was an American lawyer and philanthropist and one time Speaker of the United States House of Representatives.
Robert Frederick Drinan, S.J. (November 15, 1920 – January 28, 2007) was a Roman Catholic Jesuit priest, lawyer, human rights activist, and Democratic U.S. Representative from Massachusetts.
Roll Call is a newspaper and website published in Washington, D.C., United States, when the United States Congress is in session.
Rollin G. Osterweis (1907 - 1982) was an American historian.
Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician and actor who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.
The Holy Rosary (rosarium, in the sense of "crown of roses" or "garland of roses"), also known as the Dominican Rosary, refers to a form of prayer used in the Catholic Church and to the string of knots or beads used to count the component prayers.
Rosemary Isabel Forbes (October 27, 1913 – November 14, 2002) was an American nurse, social activist, and the mother of John Forbes Kerry, the 68th United States Secretary of State and the 2004 Democratic nominee for President of the United States.
The RPG-2 (Russian: РПГ-2, Ручной противотанковый гранатомёт, Ruchnoy Protivotankovy Granatomyot; English: "hand-held antitank grenade launcher") was a man-portable, shoulder-fired anti-tank weapon designed in the Soviet Union.
Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (Arabic: صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي; 28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was President of Iraq from 16 July 1979 until 9 April 2003.
Saint Christopher (Ἅγιος Χριστόφορος, Ágios Christóforos) is venerated by several Christian denominations as a martyr killed in the reign of the 3rd-century Roman Emperor Decius (reigned 249–251) or alternatively under the Roman Emperor Maximinus II Dacian (reigned 308–313).
Salon is an American news and opinion website, created by David Talbot in 1995 and currently owned by the Salon Media Group.
Same-sex marriage (also known as gay marriage) is the marriage of a same-sex couple, entered into in a civil or religious ceremony.
A sampan is a relatively flat bottomed Chinese wooden boat.
Samuel Rotondi (born April 22, 1946 in Stoneham, Massachusetts) is an American attorney and politician who represented the Fourth Middlesex District in the Massachusetts Senate from 1977 to 1983.
The San Francisco Chronicle is a newspaper serving primarily the San Francisco Bay Area of the U.S. state of California.
The Sandinista National Liberation Front (Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional, FSLN) is a democratic socialist political party in Nicaragua.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
Scott Philip Brown (born September 12, 1959) is an American attorney, diplomat, and politician serving as the United States Ambassador to New Zealand and Samoa, since 2017.
The Senate Oceans Caucus is a bipartisan caucus working to increase awareness and find common ground in responding to issues facing the oceans and coasts.
Seniority in the United States Senate is valuable as it confers a number of benefits and is based on length of continuous service, with ties broken by a series of factors.
Sergey Viktorovich Lavrov (Серге́й Ви́кторович Лавро́в,; born 21 March 1950) is a Russian diplomat and politician; he is currently the Foreign Minister of Russia, in office since 2004.
Shrapnel shells were anti-personnel artillery munitions which carried a large number of individual bullets close to the target and then ejected them to allow them to continue along the shell's trajectory and strike the target individually.
The Silver Star Medal, unofficially the Silver Star, is the United States Armed Forces's third-highest personal decoration for valor in combat.
Skull and Bones is an undergraduate senior secret student society at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut.
Snopes.com, formally known as the Urban Legends Reference Pages, is one of the first online fact-checking websites.
In the United States, Social Security is the commonly used term for the federal Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) program and is administered by the Social Security Administration.
In the United States, a sophomore is a student in the second year of study at high school or college.
South Vietnam, officially the Republic of Vietnam (RVN, Việt Nam Cộng Hòa), was a country that existed from 1955 to 1975 and comprised the southern half of what is now the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Speaker of the House is the presiding officer of the United States House of Representatives.
The United States Army Special Forces, colloquially known as the Green Berets due to their distinctive service headgear, are a special operations force tasked with five primary missions: unconventional warfare (the original and most important mission of Special Forces), foreign internal defense, special reconnaissance, direct action, and counter-terrorism.
A spider hole is military parlance for a type of camouflaged one-man foxhole, used for observation.
Sports Illustrated is an American sports magazine owned by Meredith Corporation.
Palestine (فلسطين), officially the State of Palestine (دولة فلسطين), is a ''de jure'' sovereign state in the Middle East claiming the West Bank (bordering Israel and Jordan) and Gaza Strip (bordering Israel and Egypt) with East Jerusalem as the designated capital, although its administrative center is currently located in Ramallah.
Surgical suture is a medical device used to hold body tissues together after an injury or surgery.
Susan Elizabeth Rice (born November 17, 1964) is an American public official who served as the 24th United States National Security Advisor from 2013 to 2017.
Swift Vets and POWs for Truth, formerly known as the Swift Boat Veterans for Truth (SBVT), was a political group (527 group) of United States Swift boat veterans and former prisoners of war of the Vietnam War, formed during the 2004 presidential election campaign for the purpose of opposing John Kerry's candidacy for the presidency.
The term swiftboating (also swift-boating or swift boating) is a pejorative American neologism used to describe an unfair or untrue political attack.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
The Taliban (طالبان "students"), alternatively spelled Taleban, which refers to itself as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (IEA), is a Sunni Islamic fundamentalist political movement in Afghanistan currently waging war (an insurgency, or jihad) within that country.
Edward Moore "Ted" Kennedy (February 22, 1932 – August 25, 2009) was an American politician who served in the United States Senate from Massachusetts for almost 47 years, from 1962 until his death in 2009.
Teresa Heinz Kerry (born Maria Teresa Thierstein Simões-Ferreira on October 5, 1938), also known as Teresa Heinz, is a Mozambican (at the time, part of Portuguese East Africa) born American businesswoman and philanthropist.
Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to create terror among masses of people; or fear to achieve a financial, political, religious or ideological aim.
The Texas Air National Guard (TX ANG) is the air force militia of the State of Texas, United States of America.
The Boston Globe (sometimes abbreviated as The Globe) is an American daily newspaper founded and based in Boston, Massachusetts, since its creation by Charles H. Taylor in 1872.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The New York Sun was an American daily newspaper published in Manhattan from 2002 to 2008.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Sun is a daily newspaper based in Lowell, Massachusetts, United States, serving towns in Massachusetts and New Hampshire in the Greater Lowell area and beyond.
The Village Voice is an American news and culture paper, known for being the country's first alternative newsweekly.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
The Washington Times is an American daily newspaper that covers general interest topics with a particular emphasis on American politics.
Theresa Mary May (Brasier; born 1 October 1956) is a British politician serving as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Conservative Party since 2016.
Thomas Dudley (12 October 157631 July 1653) was a colonial magistrate who served several terms as governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
Thomas Lindall Winthrop (March 6, 1760 – February 22, 1841) was a Massachusetts politician who served as the 13th Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts from 1826 to 1833.
Thomas Phillip O'Neill III (born September 20, 1944) leads a public relations and government affairs firm called O'Neill and Associates in Boston.
Tikona Infinet Limited (TIL), referred to simply as Tikona, is an Indian Internet service provider based in Mumbai.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Thomas Phillip "Tip" O'Neill Jr.
Thomas Richard Harkin (born November 19, 1939) is an American politician, attorney and author who served as a United States Senator from Iowa from 1985 to 2015.
Antony John Blinken (born April 16, 1962) is a retired American government official who served as United States Deputy Secretary of State from 2015 to 2017 and Deputy National Security Advisor from 2013 to 2015 under President Barack Obama.
Torah (תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings.
The Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP) is a program of the United States government to purchase toxic assets and equity from financial institutions to strengthen its financial sector that was signed into law by President George W. Bush on October 3, 2008.
An Under-Secretary-General of the United Nations (USG) is a senior official within the United Nations System, normally appointed by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Secretary-General for a renewable term of four years.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 2334 was adopted on 23 December 2016.
The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Army Air Corps (USAAC) was the aerial warfare service of the United States of America between 1926 and 1941.
The United States Capitol, often called the Capitol Building, is the home of the United States Congress, and the seat of the legislative branch of the U.S. federal government.
The Joint Select Committee on Deficit Reduction,Budget Control Act of 2011,, Title IV colloquially referred to as the Supercommittee, was a joint select committee of the United States Congress, created by the Budget Control Act of 2011 on August 2, 2011.
The U.S. Congressional International Conservation Caucus, founded in September 2003, is a bipartisan congressional organization with the conviction that “the United States of America has the opportunity, the obligation and the interests to advance the conservation of natural resources for this and future generations,” and a commitment to promote U.S. leadership in public/private conservation partnerships worldwide.
The United States Customs Service was an agency of the U.S. federal government that collected import tariffs and performed other selected border security duties.
The United States Department of Justice (DOJ), also known as the Justice Department, is a federal executive department of the U.S. government, responsible for the enforcement of the law and administration of justice in the United States, equivalent to the justice or interior ministries of other countries. The department was formed in 1870 during the Ulysses S. Grant administration. The Department of Justice administers several federal law enforcement agencies including the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). The department is responsible for investigating instances of financial fraud, representing the United States government in legal matters (such as in cases before the Supreme Court), and running the federal prison system. The department is also responsible for reviewing the conduct of local law enforcement as directed by the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. The department is headed by the United States Attorney General, who is nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate and is a member of the Cabinet. The current Attorney General is Jeff Sessions.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The United States Department of the Navy (DoN) was established by an Act of Congress on April 30, 1798 (initiated by the recommendation of James McHenry),Bernard C. Steiner and James McHenry, (Cleveland: Burrows Brothers Co., 1907).
The Department of the Treasury (USDT) is an executive department and the treasury of the United States federal government.
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber.
The United States Marine Corps (USMC), also referred to as the United States Marines, is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting amphibious operations with the United States Navy.
The White House National Security Council (NSC) is the principal forum used by the President of the United States for consideration of national security, military matters, and foreign policy matters with senior national security advisors and Cabinet officials and is part of the executive office of the president of the United States.
The United States Navy Reserve (USNR), known as the United States Naval Reserve from 1915 to 2005, is the Reserve Component (RC) of the United States Navy.
The United States presidential election of 2000 was the 54th quadrennial presidential election.
The United States presidential election of 2004, the 55th quadrennial presidential election, was held on Tuesday, November 2, 2004.
The presidential primary elections and caucuses held in the various states, the District of Columbia, and territories of the United States form part of the nominating process of candidates for United States presidential elections.
The United States Secret Service (also USSS or Secret Service) is a federal law enforcement agency under the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, charged with conducting criminal investigations and protecting the nation's leaders.
The Secretary of Defense (SecDef) is the leader and chief executive officer of the Department of Defense, the executive department of the Armed Forces of the United States of America.
The Secretary of State is a senior official of the federal government of the United States of America, and as head of the U.S. Department of State, is principally concerned with foreign policy and is considered to be the U.S. government's equivalent of a Minister for Foreign Affairs.
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprise the legislature of the United States.
The Senate Commerce Subcommittee on Aviation Operations, Safety, and Security is one of the seven subcommittees within the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation.
United States Senate Commerce Subcommittee on Communications, Technology, Innovation, and the Internet
The Senate Commerce Subcommittee on Communications Technology, Innovation, and the Internet is one of the seven subcommittees within the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation.
The Senate Commerce Subcommittee on Competitiveness, Innovation, and Export Promotion was a subcommittee within the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation.
The Senate Commerce Subcommittee on Oceans, Atmosphere, Fisheries, and Coast Guard is one of the seven subcommittees within the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation.
The Senate Commerce Subcommittee on Space, Science, and Competitiveness is one of the seven subcommittees within the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation.
United States Senate Commerce Subcommittee on Surface Transportation and Merchant Marine Infrastructure, Safety, and Security
The Senate Commerce Subcommittee on Surface Transportation and Merchant Marine Infrastructure, Safety, and Security is one of the seven subcommittees within the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation.
The United States Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation is a standing committee of the United States Senate.
The United States Senate Committee on Finance (or, less formally, Senate Finance Committee) is a standing committee of the United States Senate.
The United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations is a standing committee of the United States Senate.
The U.S. Senate Committee on Small Business and Entrepreneurship is a standing committee of the United States Senate.
The Massachusetts Senate election of 1984 was held in November 1984.
The 1990 United States Senate election in Massachusetts was held on November 6, 1990.
The 1996 United States Senate election in Massachusetts took place on November 5, 1996.
The 2002 United States Senate election in Massachusetts took place on November 5, 2002.
The 2008 United States Senate election in Massachusetts took place on November 4, 2008.
The United States Senate elections, 1990 were held on Tuesday, November 6, 1990.
The United States Senate elections, 1996 coincided with the presidential election, in which Democrat Bill Clinton was re-elected President.
The United States Senate elections, 2002 featured a series of fiercely contested elections that resulted in a victory for the Republican Party, which gained two seats and thus a narrow majority from the Democratic Party in the United States Senate.
Elections to the United States Senate were held November 4, 2008 with 35 of the 100 seats in the Senate being contested.
The Senate Finance Subcommittee on Energy, Natural Resources, and Infrastructure is one of the six subcommittees within the Senate Committee on Finance.
The Senate Finance Subcommittee on Health Care is one of the six subcommittees within the Senate Committee on Finance.
United States Senate Finance Subcommittee on International Trade, Customs, and Global Competitiveness
The Senate Finance Subcommittee on International Trade, Customs, and Global Competitiveness is one of the six subcommittees within the Senate Committee on Finance.
The Senate Select Committee on POW/MIA Affairs was a special committee convened by the United States Senate during the George H. W. Bush administration (1989 to 1993) to investigate the Vietnam War POW/MIA issue, that is, the fate of United States service personnel listed as missing in action during the Vietnam War.
The University of Massachusetts Boston, also known as UMass Boston, is an urban public research university and the third-largest campus in the five-campus University of Massachusetts system.
In sociology, the upper middle class is the social group constituted by higher status members of the middle class.
USA Today is an internationally distributed American daily, middle-market newspaper that serves as the flagship publication of its owner, the Gannett Company.
Vanessa Bradford Kerry (born December 31, 1976) is an American physician and health care administrator.
The Vice President of the United States (informally referred to as VPOTUS, or Veep) is a constitutional officer in the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States as the President of the Senate under Article I, Section 3, Clause 4, of the United States Constitution, as well as the second highest executive branch officer, after the President of the United States.
The National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (Mặt trận Dân tộc Giải phóng miền Nam Việt Nam) also known as the Việt Cộng was a mass political organization in South Vietnam and Cambodia with its own army – the People's Liberation Armed Forces of South Vietnam (PLAF) – that fought against the United States and South Vietnamese governments during the Vietnam War, eventually emerging on the winning side.
Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW) is an American tax-exempt non-profit organization and corporation founded in 1967 to oppose the United States policy and participation in the Vietnam War.
The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.
Vineyard Sound is the stretch of the Atlantic Ocean which separates the Elizabeth Islands and the southwestern part of Cape Cod from the island of Martha's Vineyard, located offshore from the state of Massachusetts in the United States.
A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the laws of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
WBZ (1030 kHz) is a Class A clear channel AM radio station licensed in Boston, Massachusetts.
WCVB-TV, channel 5, is an ABC-affiliated television station located in Boston, Massachusetts, United States.
A weapon of mass destruction (WMD) is a nuclear, radiological, chemical, biological or other weapon that can kill and bring significant harm to a large number of humans or cause great damage to human-made structures (e.g., buildings), natural structures (e.g., mountains), or the biosphere.
A weir or low head dam is a barrier across the horizontal width of a river that alters the flow characteristics of water and usually results in a change in the height of the river level.
Wendy Ruth Sherman (born 1949) is Senior Counselor at Albright Stonebridge Group and also Senior Fellow at Harvard Kennedy School's Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs.
Wesley Kanne Clark, Sr. (born December 23, 1944) is a retired General of the United States Army.
The White House is the official residence and workplace of the President of the United States.
William Joseph Burns (born April 11, 1956) is a former career Foreign Service Officer, and President of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace since February 2015.
The "Winter Soldier Investigation" was a media event sponsored by the Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW) from January 31, 1971, to February 2, 1971.
Worcester is a city and the county seat of Worcester County, Massachusetts, United States.
WorldCat is a union catalog that itemizes the collections of 72,000 libraries in 170 countries and territories that participate in the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) global cooperative.
The Yale Bulldogs are the athletic teams of Yale University.
The Yale Bulldogs men's ice hockey team represents Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut and is the oldest collegiate ice hockey team in the United States.
The Yale Bulldogs men's lacrosse team represents Yale University in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I men's lacrosse.
The Yale Political Union (YPU) is a debate society at Yale University, founded in 1934 by Professor Alfred Whitney Griswold.
Yale University is an American private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut.
1,000,000,000 (one billion, short scale; one thousand million or milliard, yard, long scale) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001.
The One Hundred Thirteenth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, from January 3, 2013, to January 3, 2015, during the fifth and sixth years of Barack Obama's presidency.
The 1996 National Convention of the U.S. Democratic Party was held at the United Center in Chicago, Illinois, from August 26 to August 29, 1996.
The 2003 invasion of Iraq was the first stage of the Iraq War (also called Operation Iraqi Freedom).
The 2012 Benghazi attack was a coordinated attack against two United States government facilities in Benghazi, Libya by members of the Islamic militant group Ansar al-Sharia.
Direct negotiations between Israel and the Palestinians began on 29 July 2013 following an attempt by United States Secretary of State John Kerry to restart the peace process.
The 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict also known as Operation Protective Edge (מִבְצָע צוּק אֵיתָן, Miv'tza Tzuk Eitan, lit. "Operation Strong Cliff") and sometimes referred to as the 2014 Gaza war, was a military operation launched by Israel on 8 July 2014 in the Hamas-ruled Gaza Strip.
The Women's March was a worldwide protest on January 21, 2017, to advocate legislation and policies regarding human rights and other issues, including women's rights, immigration reform, healthcare reform, reproductive rights, the natural environment, LGBTQ rights, racial equality, freedom of religion, and workers' rights.
Frederick Kerry, Frederick and Ida Kerry, Fritz Kerry, John F Kerry, John F. Kerry, John Forbes Kerry, John Karry, John Kerrey, John Kerry (politician), John Kerry's tenure as Secretary of State, John Kerry/Family background, John kerry, Johnkerry.com, Jon Kerry, Kids for Kerry, Peggy Kerry, Secretary John Kerry, Secretary of State John Kerry, Secretary of State Kerry, Sen. John Kerry, Senator John Kerry, The Electras.