386 relations: A Monetary History of the United States, A Treatise on Money, A Treatise on Probability, Abba P. Lerner, Adam Smith, AD–AS model, Adolf Hitler, Aggregate demand, Aggregate supply, Alan Blinder, Alfred Marshall, Alistair Darling, Allies of World War II, Alvin Hansen, Amartya Sen, Amedeo Modigliani, Angela Merkel, Anglo-America, Anglo-American loan, Animal Spirits (book), Animal spirits (Keynes), Anschluss, Anti-Russian sentiment, Antisemitism, Archibald Hill, Arthur Cecil Pigou, Arthur Hobhouse, Arts Council of Great Britain, Austrian School, Axel Leijonhufvud, Bailout, Balance of trade, Ballet dancer, Ballets Russes, Bancor, Bank of England, Bank run, Banknote, Barack Obama, BBC, Bertrand Russell, Big government, Birth control, Birthday Honours, Bisexuality, Bloomsbury, Bloomsbury Group, Bourgeoisie, Bretton Woods Conference, Bretton Woods system, ..., British Bank of Northern Commerce, Business cycle, Businessperson, C-SPAN, Cambridge, Cambridge Apostles, Cambridge Arts Theatre, Cambridge University (UK Parliament constituency), Cambridge University Liberal Association, Cambridge University Press, Cambridgeshire, Capital control, Capital flight, Capitalism, Carl Melchior, Central bank, Chancellor of the Exchequer, Chatto & Windus, Chicago school of economics, Civil Service (United Kingdom), Classical liberalism, Classics, Clement Attlee, Clive Bell, Communism, Compassion, Confirmation, Conscientious objector, Conscription, Conservative Party (UK), Convertibility, Council of Economic Advisers, Covent Garden, Dan Atkinson, Daniel Yergin, Das Kapital, David Bensusan-Butt, David Lloyd George, David Ricardo, David Vines, Deficit spending, Deflation, Demand shock, Demand-side economics, Depression (economics), Dilly Knox, Don Patinkin, Donald Markwell, Dorothea Lange, Douglas LePan, Duncan Grant, E. M. Forster, East Sussex, Econ Journal Watch, Economic and Political Weekly, Economic interventionism, Economica, Edgar Degas, Effective demand, Embedded liberalism, Empirical evidence, England, Eton College, Eugenics, European Central Bank, Fannie Mae, Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond, Federal Reserve System, Felix Frankfurter, Financial crisis of 2007–2008, Financial Times, Firle, Fiscal multiplier, Fiscal policy, Fitzwilliam Museum, Florence Ada Keynes, Florence Owens Thompson, Foundation for Economic Education, Franco Modigliani, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Freddie Mac, Free market, Friedrich Hayek, Full employment, G. E. Moore, Galton Institute, Gary Becker, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, Geoffrey Crowther, Baron Crowther, Geoffrey Keynes, George Akerlof, George Soros, George VI, Georges Braque, Georges Clemenceau, Georges Seurat, Global financial system, Gnomes of Zürich, Gold standard, Gordon Brown, Government-sponsored enterprise, Great Depression, Great Recession, Gresham's law, H. H. Asquith, Ha-Joon Chang, Hard money (policy), Harold Macmillan, Harry Dexter White, Harry Gordon Johnson, Harry S. Truman, Harvard University Press, Heavenly Twins (Sumner and Cunliffe), Hereditary peer, High Commission of Canada in the United Kingdom, HM Treasury, House of Lords, How to Pay for the War: A Radical Plan for the Chancellor of the Exchequer, Human science, Hyman Minsky, Hyperinflation in the Weimar Republic, Index (economics), India Office, Indonesia, Inflation, Intelligentsia, International Clearing Union, International Monetary Fund, International monetary systems, Interval (mathematics), Invisible hand, Isaac Newton, IS–LM model, J. Bradford DeLong, James Gustave Speth, James K. Galbraith, James Tobin, Jeremy Bentham, Joan Robinson, John Hamilton, 1st Viscount Sumner, John Hicks, John Kenneth Galbraith, John Neville Keynes, Joseph Schumpeter, Joseph Stanislaw, Joseph Stiglitz, Keynes family, Keynesian economics, Keynesian Revolution, King's College, Cambridge, Knut Wicksell, Labour Party (UK), Lanham, Maryland, Larry Elliott, Leon Keyserling, LGBT social movements, Liberal Party (UK), Liberty Fund, Lionel Robbins, Liquidity preference, London Economic Conference, London School of Economics, Lucas critique, Ludwig von Mises, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Lydia Lopokova, Lytton Strachey, Macmillan Publishers, Macroeconomics, Magdalene College, Cambridge, Mainstream economics, Manmohan Singh, Mariana Mazzucato, Marie Stopes International, Marshall Plan, Martin Wolf, Marxism, Masterpiece, Mathematical model, Milo Keynes, Milton Friedman, MIT Press, Mixed economy, Monetarism, Monetary policy, Mont Pelerin Society, Mrs Dalloway, Multiplier (economics), Murray Rothbard, Myocardial infarction, Nazi Germany, Nazism, Neo-Keynesian economics, Neoclassical economics, Neoclassical synthesis, New Keynesian economics, Nicholas Johannsen, Nicholas Kaldor, Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, Nominal rigidity, OECD, Oliver Strachey, Order of Leopold (Belgium), Order of the Bath, Oxford, Oxford University Press, Pablo Picasso, Paul Cézanne, Paul Krugman, Paul Samuelson, PBS, Penguin Books, People's Bank of China, Peter Pugh, Peter Temin, Phillips curve, Philo-Semitism, Picture Post, Piero Sraffa, Pitt Club, Political economy, Political Economy Club (1909), Post-Keynesian economics, Post-war consensus, Post–World War II economic expansion, Pound sterling, Probability, Probability theory, Proletariat, Public works, Quentin Keynes, Rawi Abdelal, Ray Strachey, Real versus nominal value (economics), Reason (magazine), Recession, Reserve Bank of Australia, Richard Keynes, Richard Nixon, Robert Barro, Robert Heilbroner, Robert J. Shiller, Robert Kuttner, Robert Lekachman, Robert Lucas Jr., Robert Reich, Robert Skidelsky, Baron Skidelsky, Robert Solow, Robin Hahnel, Roger Backhouse (economist), Rowman & Littlefield, Royal Commission, Royal Opera House, Ruth Henig, Baroness Henig, Sadler's Wells Theatre, Savannah, Georgia, Say's law, Schools of economic thought, Sergei Diaghilev, Simon & Schuster, Skidelsky, Social liberalism, Spanish peseta, Special drawing rights, St Faith's School, Stagflation, Stephen Perse Foundation, Steve Keen, Stimulus (economics), Stockholm school (economics), Supply creates its own demand, Sussex, T. S. Eliot, The American Economic Review, The American Prospect, The Argus (Brighton), The Cambridge Union, The Economic Consequences of the Peace, The Economic Journal, The Economics of John Maynard Keynes, The Economist, The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money, The Journal of Modern History, The London Gazette, The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, The New School, The New York Times, The Return of Depression Economics and the Crisis of 2008, The Right Honourable, The Road to Serfdom, The Times, The Wealth of Nations, Thomas Piketty, Thomas Robert Malthus, Time (magazine), Time 100: The Most Important People of the Century, Treaty of Versailles, Tripos, Truth value, Unemployment, United Kingdom general election, 1918, United Kingdom general election, 1945, United States Department of the Treasury, University don, Vanessa Bell, Victorian era, Victorian morality, Vietnam War, Virginia Woolf, Vladimir Lenin, W. J. H. Sprott, Wall Street Crash of 1929, Walter Cunliffe, 1st Baron Cunliffe, Warren Buffett, We are all Keynesians now, Weimar Republic, Wholesale price index, Winston Churchill, Wolfgang Stützel, Women's rights, Woodrow Wilson, Working class, World Bank, World economy, World Trade Organization, World War I, World War I reparations, World War II, Yanis Varoufakis, Zhou Xiaochuan, Zionism, 1973 oil crisis, 1997 Asian financial crisis, 2008 G20 Washington summit, 2008–09 Keynesian resurgence, 2009 G20 London summit. Expand index (336 more) » « Shrink index
A Monetary History of the United States, 1867–1960 is a book written in 1963 by Nobel Prize–winning economist Milton Friedman and Anna J. Schwartz.
A Treatise on Money is a work on economics by English economist John Maynard Keynes.
A Treatise on Probability was published by John Maynard Keynes while at Cambridge University in 1921.
Abraham (Abba) Ptachya Lerner (also Abba Psachia Lerner; 28 October 1903 – 27 October 1982) was a Russian-born British economist.
Adam Smith (16 June 1723 NS (5 June 1723 OS) – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher and author as well as a moral philosopher, a pioneer of political economy and a key figure during the Scottish Enlightenment era.
The AD–AS or aggregate demand–aggregate supply model is a macroeconomic model that explains price level and output through the relationship of aggregate demand and aggregate supply.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
In macroeconomics, aggregate demand (AD) or domestic final demand (DFD) is the total demand for final goods and services in an economy at a given time.
In economics, aggregate supply (AS) or domestic final supply (DFS) is the total supply of goods and services that firms in a national economy plan on selling during a specific time period.
Alan Stuart Blinder (born October 14, 1945) is an American economist.
Alfred Marshall, FBA (26 July 1842 – 13 July 1924) was one of the most influential economists of his time.
Alistair Maclean Darling, Baron Darling of Roulanish, (born 28 November 1953) is a Labour Party politician who served as Chancellor of the Exchequer in the Labour Government from 2007-2010 and as a Member of Parliament (MP) from 1987 until he stepped down in 2015, most recently for Edinburgh South West.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
Alvin Harvey Hansen (August 23, 1887 – June 6, 1975), often referred to as "the American Keynes," was a professor of economics at Harvard, a widely read author on current economic issues, and an influential advisor to the government who helped create the Council of Economic Advisors and the Social Security system.
Amartya Kumar Sen, CH, FBA (born 3 November 1933) is an Indian economist and philosopher, who since 1972 has taught and worked in India, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
Amedeo Clemente Modigliani (12 July 1884 – 24 January 1920) was an Italian-Jewish painter and sculptor who worked mainly in France.
Angela Dorothea Merkel (Kasner, born 17 July 1954) is a German politician serving as Chancellor of Germany since 2005 and leader of the centre-right Christian Democratic Union (CDU) since 2000.
Anglo-America most often refers to a region in the Americas in which English is a main language and British culture and the British Empire have had significant historical, ethnic, linguistic and cultural impact.
The Anglo-American Loan Agreement was a post World War II loan made to the United Kingdom by the United States on 15 July 1946, and paid off in 2006.
Animal Spirits: How Human Psychology Drives the Economy, and Why It Matters for Global Capitalism (2009) is a book written to promote the understanding of the role played by emotions in influencing economic decision making.
Animal spirits is the term John Maynard Keynes used in his 1936 book The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money to describe the instincts, proclivities and emotions that ostensibly influence and guide human behavior, and which can be measured in terms of, for example, consumer confidence.
Anschluss ('joining') refers to the annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany on 12 March 1938.
Anti-Russian sentiment or Russophobia is a diverse spectrum of negative feelings, dislikes, fears, aversion, derision and/or prejudice of Russia, Russians or Russian culture.
Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews.
Archibald Vivian Hill (26 September 1886 – 3 June 1977), known as A. V. Hill, was an English physiologist, one of the founders of the diverse disciplines of biophysics and operations research.
Arthur Cecil Pigou (18 November 1877 – 7 March 1959) was an English economist.
Sir Arthur Lawrence Hobhouse (15 February 1886 – 20 January 1965) was a long-serving English local government Liberal politician, who is best remembered as the architect of the system of National parks of England and Wales.
The Arts Council of Great Britain was a non-departmental public body dedicated to the promotion of the fine arts in Great Britain.
The Austrian School is a school of economic thought that is based on methodological individualism—the concept that social phenomena result from the motivations and actions of individuals.
Axel Leijonhufvud (born 1933) is a Swedish economist, currently professor emeritus at the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) and professor at the University of Trento, Italy.
A bailout is a colloquial term for the provision of financial help to a corporation or country which otherwise would be on the brink of failure or bankruptcy.
The balance of trade, commercial balance, or net exports (sometimes symbolized as NX), is the difference between the monetary value of a nation's exports and imports over a certain period.
A ballet dancer (ballerina fem., ballerino masc.) is a person who practices the art of classical ballet.
The Ballets Russes was an itinerant ballet company based in Paris that performed between 1909 and 1929 throughout Europe and on tours to North and South America.
The bancor was a supranational currency that John Maynard Keynes and E. F. Schumacher conceptualised in the years 1940–1942 and which the United Kingdom proposed to introduce after World War II.
The Bank of England, formally the Governor and Company of the Bank of England, is the central bank of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the model on which most modern central banks have been based.
A bank run (also known as a run on the bank) occurs when a large number of people withdraw their money from a bank, because they believe the bank may cease to function in the near future.
A banknote (often known as a bill, paper money, or simply a note) is a type of negotiable promissory note, made by a bank, payable to the bearer on demand.
Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from January 20, 2009, to January 20, 2017.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, social critic, political activist, and Nobel laureate.
Big government is a term used to describe a government or public sector that is excessively large and unconstitutionally involved in certain areas of public policy or the private sector.
Birth control, also known as contraception and fertility control, is a method or device used to prevent pregnancy.
King's/Queen's Birthday Honours is, in some Commonwealth realms, the marking of the reigning monarch's official birthday by granting various individuals appointment into national or dynastic orders or the award of decorations and medals.
Bisexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction, or sexual behavior toward both males and females, or romantic or sexual attraction to people of any sex or gender identity; this latter aspect is sometimes alternatively termed pansexuality. The term bisexuality is mainly used in the context of human attraction to denote romantic or sexual feelings toward both men and women, and the concept is one of the three main classifications of sexual orientation along with heterosexuality and homosexuality, all of which exist on the heterosexual–homosexual continuum.
Bloomsbury is an area of the London Borough of Camden, between Euston Road and Holborn.
The Bloomsbury Group—or Bloomsbury Set—was a group of associated English writers, intellectuals, philosophers and artists, the best known members of which included Virginia Woolf, John Maynard Keynes, E. M. Forster and Lytton Strachey.
The bourgeoisie is a polysemous French term that can mean.
The Bretton Woods Conference, formally known as the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference, was the gathering of 730 delegates from all 44 Allied nations at the Mount Washington Hotel, situated in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, United States, to regulate the international monetary and financial order after the conclusion of World War II.
The Bretton Woods system of monetary management established the rules for commercial and financial relations among the United States, Canada, Western Europe, Australia, and Japan after the 1944 Bretton-Woods Agreement.
The British Bank of Northern Commerce was founded in February 1912 by Knut Agathon Wallenberg of the Stockholms Enskilda Bank and Emil Glückstadt of Landmandsbanken (Copenhagen), together with several other banks including Centralbanken for Norge (Christiania), Banque de Commerce de l`Azoff-Don (Petrograd), and Banque de Paris et des Pays Bas (Paris).
The business cycle, also known as the economic cycle or trade cycle, is the downward and upward movement of gross domestic product (GDP) around its long-term growth trend.
A business person (also businessman or businesswoman) is a person involved in the business sector – in particular someone undertaking activities (commercial or industrial) for the purpose of generating cash flow, sales, and revenue utilizing a combination of human, financial, intellectual and physical capital with a view to fuelling economic development and growth.
C-SPAN, an acronym for Cable-Satellite Public Affairs Network, is an American cable and satellite television network that was created in 1979 by the cable television industry as a public service.
Cambridge is a university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately north of London.
The Cambridge Apostles is an intellectual society at the University of Cambridge founded in 1820 by George Tomlinson, a Cambridge student who went on to become the first Bishop of Gibraltar.
Cambridge Arts Theatre is a 666-seat theatre on Peas Hill and St Edward's Passage in central Cambridge, England.
Cambridge University was a university constituency electing two members to the British House of Commons, from 1603 to 1950.
Cambridge University Liberal Association is the student branch of the Liberal Democrats for students at Cambridge University.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Cambridgeshire (abbreviated Cambs.), is an East Anglian county in England, bordering Lincolnshire to the north, Norfolk to the north-east, Suffolk to the east, Essex and Hertfordshire to the south, and Bedfordshire and Northamptonshire to the west.
Capital controls are residency-based measures such as transaction taxes, other limits, or outright prohibitions that a nation's government can use to regulate flows from capital markets into and out of the country's capital account.
Capital flight, in economics, occurs when assets or money rapidly flow out of a country, due to an event of economic consequence.
Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.
Carl Melchior (October 13, 1871 – December 30, 1933) was born in Hamburg.
A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is an institution that manages a state's currency, money supply, and interest rates.
The Chancellor and Under-Treasurer of Her Majesty's Exchequer, commonly known as the Chancellor of the Exchequer, or simply the Chancellor, is a senior official within the Government of the United Kingdom and head of Her Majesty's Treasury.
Chatto & Windus was an important publisher of books in London, founded in the Victorian era.
The Chicago school of economics is a neoclassical school of economic thought associated with the work of the faculty at the University of Chicago, some of whom have constructed and popularized its principles.
Her Majesty's Home Civil Service, also known as Her Majesty's Civil Service or the Home Civil Service, is the permanent bureaucracy or secretariat of Crown employees that supports Her Majesty's Government, which is composed of a cabinet of ministers chosen by the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, as well as two of the three devolved administrations: the Scottish Government and the Welsh Government, but not the Northern Ireland Executive.
Classical liberalism is a political ideology and a branch of liberalism which advocates civil liberties under the rule of law with an emphasis on economic freedom.
Classics or classical studies is the study of classical antiquity.
Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, (3 January 1883 – 8 October 1967) was a British statesman of the Labour Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1935 to 1955.
Arthur Clive Heward Bell (16 September 1881 – 18 September 1964) was an English art critic, associated with formalism and the Bloomsbury Group.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
Compassion motivates people to go out of their way to help the physical, mental, or emotional pains of another and themselves.
In Christianity, confirmation is seen as the sealing of Christianity created in baptism.
A conscientious objector is an "individual who has claimed the right to refuse to perform military service" on the grounds of freedom of thought, conscience, or religion.
Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.
The Conservative Party, officially the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom.
Convertibility is the quality that allows money or other financial instruments to be converted into other liquid stores of value.
The Council of Economic Advisers (CEA) is a United States agency within the Executive Office of the President established in 1946, which advises the President of the United States on economic policy.
Covent Garden is a district in Greater London, on the eastern fringes of the West End, between Charing Cross Road and Drury Lane.
Dan Atkinson (born 1961 in Brighton) is a British journalist and author.
Daniel Howard Yergin (born February 6, 1947) is an American author, speaker, energy expert, and economic historian.
Das Kapital, also known as Capital.
David Miles Bensusan-Butt (24 July 1914, Colchester—25 March 1994, London) was an English economist who spent much of his career in Australia.
David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman of the Liberal Party and the final Liberal to serve as Prime Minister.
David Ricardo (18 April 1772 – 11 September 1823) was a British political economist, one of the most influential of the classical economists along with Thomas Malthus, Adam Smith and James Mill.
David Anthony Vines (born 8 May 1949), is an Australian economist teaching at Oxford University.
Deficit spending is the amount by which spending exceeds revenue over a particular period of time, also called simply deficit, or budget deficit; the opposite of budget surplus.
In economics, deflation is a decrease in the general price level of goods and services.
In economics, a demand shock is a sudden event that increases or decreases demand for goods or services temporarily.
Demand-side economics is a macroeconomic theory which argues that economic growth is most effectively created by high demand for products and services.
In economics, a depression is a sustained, long-term downturn in economic activity in one or more economies.
Alfred Dillwyn "Dilly" Knox, CMG (23 July 1884 – 27 February 1943) was a British classics scholar and papyrologist at King's College, Cambridge and a codebreaker.
Don Patinkin (Hebrew: דן פטינקין) (January 8, 1922 – August 7, 1995) was an Israeli/American monetary economist, and the president of Hebrew University in Jerusalem.
For the Montgomery, Alabama, talk radio personality, see Don Markwell Donald John "Don" Markwell (born 19 April 1959) is an Australian social scientist, who has been described as a "renowned Australian educational reformer".
Dorothea Lange (May 26, 1895 – October 11, 1965) was an American documentary photographer and photojournalist, best known for her Depression-era work for the Farm Security Administration (FSA).
Douglas Valentine LePan, OC, FRSC (25 May 1914 – 27 November 1998) was a Canadian diplomat, poet, novelist and professor of literature.
Duncan James Corrowr Grant (21 January 1885 – 8 May 1978) was a British painter and designer of textiles, pottery, theatre sets and costumes.
Edward Morgan Forster (1 January 18797 June 1970) was an English novelist, short story writer, essayist and librettist.
East Sussex is a county in South East England.
Econ Journal Watch is a triannual peer-reviewed electronic journal established in 2004.
The Economic and Political Weekly is a weekly peer-reviewed academic journal covering all social sciences, and is published by the Sameeksha Trust.
Economic interventionism (sometimes state interventionism) is an economic policy perspective favoring government intervention in the market process to correct the market failures and promote the general welfare of the people.
Economica is a peer-reviewed academic journal of generalist economics published on behalf of the London School of Economics by Wiley-Blackwell.
Edgar Degas (or; born Hilaire-Germain-Edgar De Gas,; 19 July 1834 – 27 September 1917) was a French artist famous for his paintings, sculptures, prints, and drawings.
In economics, effective demand (ED) in a market is the demand for a product or service which occurs when purchasers are constrained in a different market.
Embedded liberalism is a term for the global economic system and the associated international political orientation as they existed from the end of World War II to the 1970s.
Empirical evidence, also known as sensory experience, is the information received by means of the senses, particularly by observation and documentation of patterns and behavior through experimentation.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
Eton College is an English independent boarding school for boys in Eton, Berkshire, near Windsor.
Eugenics (from Greek εὐγενής eugenes 'well-born' from εὖ eu, 'good, well' and γένος genos, 'race, stock, kin') is a set of beliefs and practices that aims at improving the genetic quality of a human population.
The European Central Bank (ECB) is the central bank for the euro and administers monetary policy of the euro area, which consists of 19 EU member states and is one of the largest currency areas in the world.
The Federal National Mortgage Association (FNMA), commonly known as Fannie Mae, is a United States government-sponsored enterprise (GSE) and, since 1968, a publicly traded company.
The Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond is the headquarters of the Fifth District of the Federal Reserve located in Richmond, Virginia.
The Federal Reserve System (also known as the Federal Reserve or simply the Fed) is the central banking system of the United States of America.
Felix Frankfurter (November 15, 1882February 22, 1965) was an American lawyer, professor, and jurist who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.
The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.
The Financial Times (FT) is a Japanese-owned (since 2015), English-language international daily newspaper headquartered in London, with a special emphasis on business and economic news.
Firle (Sussex dialect: Furrel) is a village and civil parish in the Lewes District of East Sussex, England.
In economics, the fiscal multiplier (not to be confused with monetary multiplier) is the ratio of a change in national income to the change in government spending that causes it.
In economics and political science, fiscal policy is the use of government revenue collection (mainly taxes) and expenditure (spending) to influence the economy.
The Fitzwilliam Museum is the art and antiquities museum of the University of Cambridge, located on Trumpington Street opposite Fitzwilliam Street in central Cambridge, England.
Florence Ada Keynes (née Brown; 10 March 1861 – 13 February 1958) was a British author, historian and politician.
Florence Owens Thompson (born Florence Leona Christie; September 1, 1903 – September 16, 1983) was the subject of Dorothea Lange's famous photo Migrant Mother (1936), an iconic image of the Great Depression.
The Foundation for Economic Education (FEE) is a libertarian economic think-tank dedicated to the "economic, ethical and legal principles of a free society." FEE publishes books and hosts seminars and lectures.
Franco Modigliani (June 18, 1918 – September 25, 2003) was an Italian-American economist and the recipient of the 1985 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.
The Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (FHLMC), known as Freddie Mac, is a public government-sponsored enterprise (GSE), headquartered in Tysons Corner, Virginia.
In economics, a free market is an idealized system in which the prices for goods and services are determined by the open market and consumers, in which the laws and forces of supply and demand are free from any intervention by a government, price-setting monopoly, or other authority.
Friedrich August von Hayek (8 May 189923 March 1992), often referred to by his initials F. A. Hayek, was an Austrian-British economist and philosopher best known for his defense of classical liberalism.
Full employment means that everyone who wants a job have all the hours of work they need on "fair wages".
George Edward Moore (4 November 1873 – 24 October 1958), usually cited as G. E. Moore, was an English philosopher.
The Galton Institute is a learned society based in the United Kingdom.
Gary Stanley Becker (December 2, 1930 – May 3, 2014) was an American economist and empiricist.
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) was a legal agreement between many countries, whose overall purpose was to promote international trade by reducing or eliminating trade barriers such as tariffs or quotas.
Geoffrey Crowther, Baron Crowther (13 May 1907 – 5 February 1972) was a British economist, journalist, educationalist and businessman.
Sir Geoffrey Langdon Keynes (25 March 1887, Cambridge – 5 July 1982, Cambridge) was an English surgeon and author.
George Arthur Akerlof (born June 17, 1940) is an American economist who is a University Professor at the McCourt School of Public Policy at Georgetown University and Koshland Professor of Economics Emeritus at the University of California, Berkeley.
George Soros, Hon (Soros György,; born György Schwartz; August 12, 1930) is a Hungarian-American investor, business magnate, philanthropist, political activist and author.
George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Commonwealth from 11 December 1936 until his death in 1952.
Georges Braque (13 May 1882 – 31 August 1963) was a major 20th-century French painter, collagist, draughtsman, printmaker and sculptor.
Georges Benjamin Clemenceau (28 September 1841 – 24 November 1929) was a French politician, physician, and journalist who was Prime Minister of France during the First World War.
Georges-Pierre Seurat (2 December 1859 – 29 March 1891) was a French post-Impressionist painter and draftsman.
The global financial system is the worldwide framework of legal agreements, institutions, and both formal and informal economic actors that together facilitate international flows of financial capital for purposes of investment and trade financing.
Gnomes of Zürich is a slang term for Swiss bankers.
A gold standard is a monetary system in which the standard economic unit of account is based on a fixed quantity of gold.
James Gordon Brown (born 20 February 1951) is a British politician who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Labour Party from 2007 to 2010.
A government-sponsored enterprise (GSE) is a type of financial services corporation created by the United States Congress.
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.
The Great Recession was a period of general economic decline observed in world markets during the late 2000s and early 2010s.
In economics, Gresham's law is a monetary principle stating that "bad money drives out good".
Herbert Henry Asquith, 1st Earl of Oxford and Asquith, (12 September 1852 – 15 February 1928), generally known as H. H. Asquith, was a British statesman of the Liberal Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1908 to 1916.
Ha-Joon Chang (born 7 October 1963) is a South Korean institutional economist and socialist specialising in development economics.
Hard money policies (as opposed to fiat currency policies) support a specie standard, usually gold or silver, typically implemented with representative money.
Maurice Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, (10 February 1894 – 29 December 1986) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1957 to 1963.
Harry Dexter White (October 9, 1892 – August 16, 1948) was a Soviet informant while serving as a senior U.S. Treasury department official.
Harry Gordon Johnson (26 May 1923 – 9 May 1977) was a Canadian economist who studied topics such as international trade and international finance.
Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was an American statesman who served as the 33rd President of the United States (1945–1953), taking office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
The Heavenly Twins was the name assigned to two British delegates, the Judge Lord Sumner and the Banker Lord Cunliffe, during the 1919 Treaty of Versailles negotiations that were to set the terms of the peace to be imposed on Germany following the end of World War I. The two lords, together with the Prime Minister of Australia Billy Hughes, were responsible for presenting the British and British Dominions' case concerning the amount of compensatory payments, or war reparations, that were to be extracted from Germany.
The Hereditary peers form part of the peerage in the United Kingdom.
The High Commission of Canada in the United Kingdom (Haut-commissariat du Canada au Royaume-Uni) in London is the diplomatic mission of Canada to the United Kingdom.
Her Majesty's Treasury (HM Treasury), sometimes referred to as the Exchequer, or more informally the Treasury, is the British government department responsible for developing and executing the government's public finance policy and economic policy.
The House of Lords of the United Kingdom, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
How to Pay for the War: A Radical Plan for the Chancellor of the Exchequer is a book by John Maynard Keynes, published in 1940 by Macmillan and Co., Ltd..
Human Science studies the philosophical, biological, social, and cultural aspects of human life.
Hyman Philip Minsky (September 23, 1919 – October 24, 1996) was an American economist, a professor of economics at Washington University in St. Louis, and a distinguished scholar at the Levy Economics Institute of Bard College.
During a period between 1918 and January 1924, the German mark suffered hyperinflation.
In economics and finance, an index is a statistical measure of changes in a representative group of individual data points.
The India Office was a British government department established in London in 1858 to oversee the administration, through a Viceroy and other officials, of the Provinces of British India.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
In economics, inflation is a sustained increase in price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.
The intelligentsia (/ɪnˌtelɪˈdʒentsiə/) (intelligentia, inteligencja, p) is a status class of educated people engaged in the complex mental labours that critique, guide, and lead in shaping the culture and politics of their society.
The International Clearing Union (ICU) was one of the institutions proposed to be set up at the 1944 United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference at Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, in the United States, by British economist John Maynard Keynes.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
International monetary systems are sets of internationally agreed rules, conventions and supporting institutions, that facilitate international trade, cross border investment and generally the reallocation of capital between nation states.
In mathematics, a (real) interval is a set of real numbers with the property that any number that lies between two numbers in the set is also included in the set.
The invisible hand is a term used by Adam Smith to describe the unintended social benefits of an individual's self-interested actions.
Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.
The IS–LM model, or Hicks–Hansen model, is a macroeconomic tool that shows the relationship between interest rates (ordinate) and assets market (also known as real output in goods and services market plus money market, as abscissa).
James Bradford "Brad" DeLong (born June 24, 1960) is an economic historian who is professor of Economics at the University of California, Berkeley.
James Gustave (Gus) Speth (born March 4, 1942 in Orangeburg, South Carolina) is an American environmental lawyer and advocate.
James Kenneth Galbraith (born January 29, 1952) is an American economist who writes frequently for the popular press on economic topics.
James Tobin (March 5, 1918 – March 11, 2002) was an American economist who served on the Council of Economic Advisers and the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, and taught at Harvard and Yale Universities.
Jeremy Bentham (15 February 1748 – 6 June 1832) was an English philosopher, jurist, and social reformer regarded as the founder of modern utilitarianism.
Joan Violet Robinson FBA (31 October 1903 – 5 August 1983), previously Joan Violet Maurice, was a British economist well known for her wide-ranging contributions to economic theory.
John Andrew Hamilton, 1st Viscount Sumner (3 February 1859 – 24 May 1934), was a British lawyer and judge.
Sir John Richard Hicks (8 April 1904 – 20 May 1989) was a British economist.
John Kenneth Galbraith (October 15, 1908 - April 29, 2006), also known as Ken Galbraith, was a Canadian-born economist, public official, and diplomat, and a leading proponent of 20th-century American liberalism.
John Neville Keynes (31 August 1852 – 15 November 1949) was a British economist and father of John Maynard Keynes.
Joseph Alois Schumpeter (8 February 1883 – 8 January 1950) was an Austrian political economist.
Joseph Stanislaw is a financial adviser on international markets and politics.
Joseph Eugene Stiglitz (born February 9, 1943) is an American economist and a professor at Columbia University.
The Keynes family is an English family that has included several notable economists, writers, and actors, perhaps the most famous of which was the economist John Maynard Keynes.
Keynesian economics (sometimes called Keynesianism) are the various macroeconomic theories about how in the short run – and especially during recessions – economic output is strongly influenced by aggregate demand (total demand in the economy).
The Keynesian Revolution was a fundamental reworking of economic theory concerning the factors determining employment levels in the overall economy.
King's College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in Cambridge, England.
Johan Gustaf Knut Wicksell (December 20, 1851 – May 3, 1926) was a leading Swedish economist of the Stockholm school.
The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom.
Lanham is an unincorporated community and census-designated place in Prince George's County, Maryland.
Larry Elliott is an English journalist and author who focuses on economic issues.
Leon Hirsch Keyserling (January 11, 1908 – August 9, 1987) was an American economist and lawyer.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) social movements are social movements that advocate for LGBT+ people in society.
The Liberal Party was one of the two major parties in the United Kingdom – with the opposing Conservative Party – in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
Liberty Fund, Inc. is a nonprofit foundation headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana which promulgates the libertarian views of its founder, Pierre F. Goodrich through publishing, conferences, and educational resources.
Lionel Charles Robbins, Baron Robbins, (22 November 1898 – 15 May 1984) was a British economist, and prominent member of the economics department at the London School of Economics.
In macroeconomic theory, liquidity preference is the demand for money, considered as liquidity.
The London Economic Conference was a meeting of representatives of 66 nations from June 12 to July 27, 1933 at the Geological Museum in London.
The London School of Economics (officially The London School of Economics and Political Science, often referred to as LSE) is a public research university located in London, England and a constituent college of the federal University of London.
The Lucas critique, named for Robert Lucas's work on macroeconomic policymaking, argues that it is naive to try to predict the effects of a change in economic policy entirely on the basis of relationships observed in historical data, especially highly aggregated historical data.
Ludwig Heinrich Edler von Mises (29 September 1881 – 10 October 1973) was an Austrian-American theoretical Austrian School economist.
Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (26 April 1889 – 29 April 1951) was an Austrian-British philosopher who worked primarily in logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of mind, and the philosophy of language.
Lydia Lopokova, Baroness Keynes (born Lidia Vasilyevna Lopukhova, Ли́дия Васи́льевна Лопухо́ва; 21 October 1892 – 8 June 1981) was a Russian ballerina famous during the early 20th century.
Giles Lytton Strachey (1 March 1880 – 21 January 1932) was an English writer and critic.
Macmillan Publishers Ltd (occasionally known as the Macmillan Group) is an international publishing company owned by Holtzbrinck Publishing Group.
Macroeconomics (from the Greek prefix makro- meaning "large" and economics) is a branch of economics dealing with the performance, structure, behavior, and decision-making of an economy as a whole.
Magdalene College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge.
Mainstream economics may be used to describe the body of knowledge, theories, and models of economics, as taught across universities, that are generally accepted by economists as a basis for discussion.
Manmohan Singh (born 26 September 1932) is an Indian economist and politician who served as the Prime Minister of India from 2004 to 2014.
Mariana Mazzucato (born June 16, 1968) is an economist, with dual Italian and United States citizenship.
Marie Stopes International is an international non-governmental organisation providing contraception and safe abortion services in 37 countries around the world.
The Marshall Plan (officially the European Recovery Program, ERP) was an American initiative to aid Western Europe, in which the United States gave over $13 billion (nearly $ billion in US dollars) in economic assistance to help rebuild Western European economies after the end of World War II.
Martin Harry Wolf, CBE (born 1946) is a British journalist who focuses on economics.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
Masterpiece, magnum opus (Latin, great work) or chef-d’œuvre (French, master of work, plural chefs-d’œuvre) in modern use is a creation that has been given much critical praise, especially one that is considered the greatest work of a person's career or to a work of outstanding creativity, skill, profundity, or workmanship.
A mathematical model is a description of a system using mathematical concepts and language.
William Milo Keynes, MD, FRCS (9 August 1924 – 18 February 2009) was a British doctor and author.
Milton Friedman (July 31, 1912 – November 16, 2006) was an American economist who received the 1976 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for his research on consumption analysis, monetary history and theory, and the complexity of stabilization policy.
The MIT Press is a university press affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States).
A mixed economy is variously defined as an economic system blending elements of market economies with elements of planned economies, free markets with state interventionism, or private enterprise with public enterprise.
Monetarism is a school of thought in monetary economics that emphasizes the role of governments in controlling the amount of money in circulation.
Monetary policy is the process by which the monetary authority of a country, typically the central bank or currency board, controls either the cost of very short-term borrowing or the monetary base, often targeting an inflation rate or interest rate to ensure price stability and general trust in the currency.
The Mont Pelerin Society (MPS) is an international liberal organization composed of economists, philosophers, historians, intellectuals, business leaders.
Mrs Dalloway (published on 14 May 1925) is a novel by Virginia Woolf that details a day in the life of Clarissa Dalloway, a fictional high-society woman in post–First World War England.
In macroeconomics, a multiplier is a factor of proportionality that measures how much an endogenous variable changes in response to a change in some exogenous variable.
Murray Newton Rothbard (March 2, 1926 – January 7, 1995) was an American heterodox economist of the Austrian School, a historian and a political theorist whose writings and personal influence played a seminal role in the development of modern right-libertarianism.
Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
Neo-Keynesian economics is a school of macroeconomic thought that was developed in the post-war period from the writings of John Maynard Keynes.
Neoclassical economics is an approach to economics focusing on the determination of goods, outputs, and income distributions in markets through supply and demand.
The neoclassical synthesis was a post-World War II academic movement in economics that worked towards absorbing the macroeconomic thought of John Maynard Keynes into neoclassical economics.
New Keynesian economics is a school of contemporary macroeconomics that strives to provide microeconomic foundations for Keynesian economics.
Nicholas August Ludwig Jacob Johansen (1844–1928) was a German-American amateur economist, today best known for his influence on and citation by John Maynard Keynes.
Nicholas Kaldor, Baron Kaldor (12 May 1908 – 30 September 1986), born Káldor Miklós, was a Cambridge economist in the post-war period.
The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences (officially Sveriges riksbanks pris i ekonomisk vetenskap till Alfred Nobels minne, or the Swedish National Bank's Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel), commonly referred to as the Nobel Prize in Economics, is an award for outstanding contributions to the field of economics, and generally regarded as the most prestigious award for that field.
Nominal rigidity, also known as price-stickiness or wage-stickiness, describes a situation in which the nominal price is resistant to change.
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
Oliver Strachey CBE (3 November 1874 – 14 May 1960), a British civil servant in the Foreign Office, was a cryptographer from World War I to World War II.
The Order of Leopold (Leopoldsorde, Ordre de Léopold) is one of the three current Belgian national honorary orders of knighthood.
The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly the Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath) is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725.
Oxford is a city in the South East region of England and the county town of Oxfordshire.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Pablo Ruiz Picasso (25 October 1881 – 8 April 1973) was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, stage designer, poet and playwright who spent most of his adult life in France.
Paul Cézanne (or;; 19 January 1839 – 22 October 1906) was a French artist and Post-Impressionist painter whose work laid the foundations of the transition from the 19th-century conception of artistic endeavor to a new and radically different world of art in the 20th century.
Paul Robin Krugman (born February 28, 1953) is an American economist who is currently Distinguished Professor of Economics at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York, and a columnist for The New York Times.
Paul Anthony Samuelson (15 May 1915 – 13 December 2009) was an American economist and the first American to win the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences.
The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.
Penguin Books is a British publishing house.
The People's Bank of China (PBC or PBOC) is the central bank of the People's Republic of China responsible for carrying out monetary policy and regulation of financial institutions in mainland China, as determined by Bank Law.
Peter Pugh is a British author.
Peter Temin (born 17 December 1937) is an economist and economic historian, currently Gray Professor Emeritus of Economics, MIT and former head of the Economics Department.
The Phillips curve is a single-equation empirical model, named after William Phillips, describing a historical inverse relationship between rates of unemployment and corresponding rates of rises in wages that result within an economy.
Philo-Semitism (also spelled philosemitism) or Judeophilia is an interest in, respect for and an appreciation of Jewish people, their history and the influence of Judaism, particularly on the part of a gentile.
Picture Post was a photojournalistic magazine published in the United Kingdom from 1938 to 1957.
Piero Sraffa (5 August 1898 – 3 September 1983) was an influential Italian economist, who served as lecturer of economics at the University of Cambridge.
The University Pitt Club, popularly referred to as the Pitt Club, the UPC, or merely as Club, is a private members’ club of the University of Cambridge open to men and women.
Political economy is the study of production and trade and their relations with law, custom and government; and with the distribution of national income and wealth.
The Political Economy Club was founded in 1909 by John Maynard Keynes.
Post-Keynesian economics is a school of economic thought with its origins in The General Theory of John Maynard Keynes, with subsequent development influenced to a large degree by Michał Kalecki, Joan Robinson, Nicholas Kaldor, Sidney Weintraub, Paul Davidson, Piero Sraffa and Jan Kregel.
The post-war consensus is a historian's model of political co-operation in post-war British political history, from the end of World War II in 1945 to the late-1970s, and its repudiation by Conservative Party leader Margaret Thatcher.
The post–World War II economic expansion, also known as the postwar economic boom, the long boom, and the Golden Age of Capitalism, was a period of strong economic growth beginning after World War II and ending with the 1973–75 recession.
The pound sterling (symbol: £; ISO code: GBP), commonly known as the pound and less commonly referred to as Sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, and Tristan da Cunha.
Probability is the measure of the likelihood that an event will occur.
Probability theory is the branch of mathematics concerned with probability.
The proletariat (from Latin proletarius "producing offspring") is the class of wage-earners in a capitalist society whose only possession of significant material value is their labour-power (their ability to work).
Public works (or internal improvements historically in the United States)Carter Goodrich, (Greenwood Press, 1960)Stephen Minicucci,, Studies in American Political Development (2004), 18:2:160-185 Cambridge University Press.
Quentin George Keynes (17 June 1921 – 26 February 2003) was an explorer, writer, filmmaker, and bibliophile.
Rawi E. Abdelal is the Joseph C. Wilson Professor of Business Administration at Harvard Business School in the Business, Government, and International Economy Unit.
Ray Strachey, born Rachel Pearsall Conn Costelloe (4 June 1887 London – 16 July 1940), was a British feminist politician, artist and writer.
In economics, a real value of a good or other entity has been adjusted for inflation, enabling comparison of quantities as if prices had not changed.
Reason is an American libertarian monthly magazine published by the Reason Foundation.
In economics, a recession is a business cycle contraction which results in a general slowdown in economic activity.
The Reserve Bank of Australia (RBA), on 14 January 1960, became the Australian central bank and banknote issuing authority, when the Reserve Bank Act 1959 (23 April 1959) removed the central banking functions from the Commonwealth Bank.
Richard Darwin Keynes, CBE, FRS (14 August 1919 – 12 June 2010) was a British physiologist.
Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was an American politician who served as the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 until 1974, when he resigned from office, the only U.S. president to do so.
Robert Joseph Barro (born September 28, 1944) is an American macroeconomist and the Paul M. Warburg Professor of Economics at Harvard University.
Robert L. Heilbroner (March 24, 1919 – January 4, 2005) was an American economist and historian of economic thought.
Robert James Shiller (born March 29, 1946) is an American Nobel Laureate, economist, academic, and best-selling author.
Robert Kuttner (born April 17, 1943) is an American journalist and writer whose works present a liberal / progressive point of view.
Robert Lekachman (May 12, 1920 – January 14, 1989) was an economist known for his extensive advocacy of state intervention, and for a debating style characterized by slow, sing-song speech and circumlocution.
Robert Emerson Lucas Jr. (born September 15, 1937) is an American economist at the University of Chicago.
Robert Bernard Reich (born June 24, 1946) is an American political commentator, professor, and author.
Robert Jacob Alexander, Baron Skidelsky, FBA (born 25 April 1939) is a British economic historian of Russian origin and the author of a major, award-winning, three-volume biography of British economist John Maynard Keynes (1883–1946).
Robert Merton Solow, GCIH (born August 23, 1924), is an American economist, particularly known for his work on the theory of economic growth that culminated in the exogenous growth model named after him.
Robin Eric Hahnel (born March 25, 1946) is an American economist and professor of economics at Portland State University.
Roger E. Backhouse, FBA (born 1951) is a British economist and Professor of the History and Philosophy of Economics at the University of Birmingham.
Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group is an independent publishing house founded in 1949.
A Royal Commission is a major ad-hoc formal public inquiry into a defined issue in some monarchies.
The Royal Opera House (ROH) is an opera house and major performing arts venue in Covent Garden, central London.
Ruth Beatrice Henig, Baroness Henig CBE, DL (born Ruth Beatrice Munzer on 10 November 1943) is a British academic historian and Labour Party politician.
Sadler's Wells Theatre is a performing arts venue in Clerkenwell, London, England located on Rosebery Avenue.
Savannah is the oldest city in the U.S. state of Georgia and is the county seat of Chatham County.
In classical economics, Say's law, or the law of markets, states that aggregate production necessarily creates an equal quantity of aggregate demand.
In the history of economic thought, a school of economic thought is a group of economic thinkers who share or shared a common perspective on the way economies work.
Sergei Pavlovich Diaghilev (sʲɪˈrɡʲej ˈpavɫovʲɪtɕ ˈdʲæɡʲɪlʲɪf; 19 August 1929), usually referred to outside Russia as Serge Diaghilev, was a Russian art critic, patron, ballet impresario and founder of the Ballets Russes, from which many famous dancers and choreographers would arise.
Simon & Schuster, Inc., a subsidiary of CBS Corporation, is an American publishing company founded in New York City in 1924 by Richard Simon and Max Schuster.
Skidelsky is a surname.
Social liberalism (also known as modern liberalism or egalitarian liberalism) is a political ideology and a variety of liberalism that endorses a market economy and the expansion of civil and political rights while also believing that the legitimate role of the government includes addressing economic and social issues such as poverty, health care and education.
The peseta was the currency of Spain between 1869 and 2002.
Special drawing rights (ISO 4217 currency code XDR, also abbreviated SDR) are supplementary foreign-exchange reserve assets defined and maintained by the International Monetary Fund (IMF).
St Faith's School is an independent preparatory day school on Trumpington Road, Cambridge, England, for girls and boys aged four to thirteen.
In economics, stagflation, a portmanteau of stagnation and inflation, is a situation in which the inflation rate is high, the economic growth rate slows, and unemployment remains steadily high.
The Stephen Perse Foundation is a family of six independent schools in Cambridge and Saffron Walden for students aged 3 to 18.
Steve Keen (born 28 March 1953) is an Australian economist and author.
In economics, stimulus refers to attempts to use monetary or fiscal policy (or stabilization policy in general) to stimulate the economy.
The Stockholm School (Stockholmsskolan), is a school of economic thought.
"Supply creates its own demand" is the formulation of Say's law.
Sussex, from the Old English Sūþsēaxe (South Saxons), is a historic county in South East England corresponding roughly in area to the ancient Kingdom of Sussex.
Thomas Stearns Eliot, (26 September 1888 – 4 January 1965), was an essayist, publisher, playwright, literary and social critic, and "one of the twentieth century's major poets".
The American Economic Review is a peer-reviewed academic journal of economics.
The American Prospect is a daily online and quarterly print American political and public policy magazine dedicated to American liberalism and progressivism.
The Argus is a local newspaper based in Brighton and Hove in East Sussex, with editions serving the city of Brighton and Hove and the other parts of both East and West Sussex.
The Cambridge Union Society, commonly referred to as "The Cambridge Union", is a debating and free speech society in Cambridge, England, and the largest society at the University of Cambridge.
The Economic Consequences of the Peace (1919) is a book written and published by the British economist John Maynard Keynes.
The Economic Journal (EJ) is a peer-reviewed academic journal of economics published on behalf of the Royal Economic Society (RES) by Wiley-Blackwell.
The Economics of John Maynard Keynes: The Theory of Monetary Economy is a non-fiction work by Dudley Dillard which seeks to make The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money by John Maynard Keynes understandable to both the economist and to the non-economist.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money of 1936 is the last and most important book by the English economist John Maynard Keynes.
The Journal of Modern History is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering European intellectual, political, and cultural history, published by the University of Chicago Press in cooperation with the Modern European History Section of the American Historical Association.
The London Gazette is one of the official journals of record of the British government, and the most important among such official journals in the United Kingdom, in which certain statutory notices are required to be published.
The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics (2008), 2nd ed., is an eight-volume reference work on economics, edited by Steven N. Durlauf and Lawrence E. Blume and published by Palgrave Macmillan.
The New School is a private non-profit research university centered in Manhattan, New York City, USA, located mostly in Greenwich Village.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Return of Depression Economics and the Crisis of 2008 is a non-fiction book by American economist and winner of the Nobel Prize in economics Paul Krugman.
The Right Honourable (The Rt Hon. or Rt Hon.) is an honorific style traditionally applied to certain persons and to certain collective bodies in the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Fiji, India, some other Commonwealth realms, the Anglophone Caribbean, Mauritius, and occasionally elsewhere.
The Road to Serfdom (German: Der Weg zur Knechtschaft) is a book written between 1940 and 1943 by Austrian British economist and philosopher Friedrich Hayek, in which the author " of the danger of tyranny that inevitably results from government control of economic decision-making through central planning." He further argues that the abandonment of individualism and classical liberalism inevitably leads to a loss of freedom, the creation of an oppressive society, the tyranny of a dictator, and the serfdom of the individual.
The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.
An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, generally referred to by its shortened title The Wealth of Nations, is the magnum opus of the Scottish economist and moral philosopher Adam Smith.
Thomas Piketty (born 7 May 1971) is a French economist whose work focuses on wealth and income inequality.
Thomas Robert Malthus (13 February 1766 – 23 December 1834) was an English cleric and scholar, influential in the fields of political economy and demography.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Time 100: The Most Important People of the Century is a compilation of the 20th century's 100 most influential people, published in Time magazine in 1999.
The Treaty of Versailles (Traité de Versailles) was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end.
At the University of Cambridge, a Tripos (plural 'Triposes') is any of the undergraduate examinations that qualify an undergraduate for a bachelor's degree or the courses taken by an undergraduate to prepare.
In logic and mathematics, a truth value, sometimes called a logical value, is a value indicating the relation of a proposition to truth.
Unemployment is the situation of actively looking for employment but not being currently employed.
The 1918 United Kingdom general election was called immediately after the Armistice with Germany which ended the First World War, and was held on Saturday 14 December 1918.
The 1945 United Kingdom general election was held on 5 July 1945, with polls in some constituencies delayed until 12 July and in Nelson and Colne until 19 July, because of local wakes weeks.
The Department of the Treasury (USDT) is an executive department and the treasury of the United States federal government.
A don is a fellow or tutor of a college or university, especially traditional collegiate universities such as Oxford and Cambridge and Durham in England, and Trinity College, Dublin, in Ireland.
Vanessa Bell (née Stephen; 30 May 1879 – 7 April 1961) was an English painter and interior designer, a member of the Bloomsbury Group and the sister of Virginia Woolf.
In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era was the period of Queen Victoria's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901.
Victorian morality is a distillation of the moral views of people living during the time of Queen Victoria's reign (1837–1901), the Victorian era, and of the moral climate of Great Britain in the mid-19th century in general.
The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.
Adeline Virginia Woolf (née Stephen; 25 January 188228 March 1941) was an English writer, who is considered one of the most important modernist 20th-century authors and a pioneer in the use of stream of consciousness as a narrative device.
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
Walter John Herbert Sprott, known to friends as ‘Sebastian’ Sprott, and also known as Jack Sprott (1897–1971), was a British psychologist and writer.
The Wall Street Crash of 1929, also known as Black Tuesday (October 29), the Great Crash, or the Stock Market Crash of 1929, began on October 24, 1929 ("Black Thursday"), and was the most devastating stock market crash in the history of the United States, when taking into consideration the full extent and duration of its after effects.
Walter Cunliffe, 1st Baron Cunliffe GBE (3 December 1855 – 6 January 1920) established the merchant banking business of Cunliffe Brothers (after 1920, Goschens and Cunliffe) in London, and who was Governor of the Bank of England from 1913 to 1918, during the critical World War I era.
Warren Edward Buffett (born August 30, 1930) is an American business magnate, investor, and philanthropist who serves as the chairman and CEO of Berkshire Hathaway.
"We are all Keynesians now" is a famous phrase coined by Milton Friedman and attributed to U.S. president Richard Nixon.
The Weimar Republic (Weimarer Republik) is an unofficial, historical designation for the German state during the years 1919 to 1933.
The Wholesale Price Index (WPI) is the price of a representative basket of wholesale goods.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
Wolfgang Stützel (born 23 January 1925 in Aalen, Germany; died 1 March 1987 in Saarbrücken, Germany) was a German economist and professor of economics at the Saarland University, Germany.
Women's rights are the rights and entitlements claimed for women and girls worldwide, and formed the basis for the women's rights movement in the nineteenth century and feminist movement during the 20th century.
Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924) was an American statesman and academic who served as the 28th President of the United States from 1913 to 1921.
The working class (also labouring class) are the people employed for wages, especially in manual-labour occupations and industrial work.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
The world economy or global economy is the economy of the world, considered as the international exchange of goods and services that is expressed in monetary units of account (money).
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War I reparations were compensation imposed during the Paris Peace Conference upon the Central Powers following their defeat in the First World War by the Allied and Associate Powers.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Ioannis Georgiou "Yanis" Varoufakis (Ioánnis Georgíou "Giánis" Varoufákis,; born 24 March 1961) is a Greek economist, academic and politician, who served as the Greek Minister of Finance from January to July 2015, when he resigned.
Zhou Xiaochuan (born January 29, 1948) is a Chinese economist, banker, reformist and bureaucrat.
Zionism (צִיּוֹנוּת Tsiyyonut after Zion) is the national movement of the Jewish people that supports the re-establishment of a Jewish homeland in the territory defined as the historic Land of Israel (roughly corresponding to Canaan, the Holy Land, or the region of Palestine).
The 1973 oil crisis began in October 1973 when the members of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries proclaimed an oil embargo.
The Asian financial crisis was a period of financial crisis that gripped much of East Asia beginning in July 1997 and raised fears of a worldwide economic meltdown due to financial contagion.
The 2008 G20 Washington Summit on Financial Markets and the World Economy took place on November 14–15, 2008, in Washington, D.C., United States.
Following the global financial crisis of 2007–08, there was a worldwide resurgence of interest in Keynesian economics among prominent economists and policy makers.
The 2009 G20 London Summit was the second meeting of the G20 heads of government/heads of state, which was held in London on 2 April 2009 at the ExCeL Exhibition Centre to discuss financial markets and the world economy.
1st Baron Keynes, Baron Keynes, J. M. Keynes, J.M. Keynes, JM Keynes, John Keynes, John M. Keynes, John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes, John Maynard Keynes, Baron Keynes, John Maynard, 1st Baron Keynes of Tilton Keynes, John Meynard Keynes, Keynes, Keynes, John Maynard, 1st Baron Keynes of Tilton, Lord Keynes, Maynard Keynes.