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John Milton

Index John Milton

John Milton (9 December 16088 November 1674) was an English poet, polemicist, man of letters, and civil servant for the Commonwealth of England under its Council of State and later under Oliver Cromwell. [1]

370 relations: A Treatise of Civil Power, A. N. Wilson, Absolute monarchy, Accademia degli Svogliati, Accademia della Crusca, Aesthetics, Aldous Huxley, Alexander Morus, Alexander Pope, Algernon Sidney, Amanuensis, American Revolution, Anabaptism, André Rivet, Andrew Marvell, Andrew Milner, Anglicanism, Animadversions, Anna Beer, Apology for Smectymnuus, Aramaic language, Arcades (Milton), Arcetri, Archbishop of Canterbury, Areopagitica, Arianism, Arminianism, Arthur Koestler, Augustine of Hippo, Austin Herbert Woolrych, Babylon, Barbara Kiefer Lewalski, Bishops' Wars, Blair Worden, Blank verse, Blest Pair of Sirens, Bookbinding, Bread Street, Brief Lives, British Library, Bulstrode Whitelocke, C. S. Lewis, Caesura, Calais, Carnival, Chalfont St Giles, Charles I of England, Charles II of England, Chastity, Cheapside, ..., Cheshire, Christ's College, Cambridge, Christian mortalism, Christopher Hibbert, Christopher Hill (historian), Christopher Ricks, Cicero, Civil service, Claudius Salmasius, Colasterion, Commonplace book, Commonwealth of England, Comus (Milton), Cyril Rootham, Dante Alighieri, Darkness at Noon, Darkness Visible (novel), David Hawkes (professor of English), David Masson, David Pareus, De Doctrina Christiana (Milton), Defensio pro Populo Anglicano, Defensio Secunda, Determinism, Dictionary of National Biography, Dissenter, Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce, Edmund Burke, Edmund Ludlow, Edmund Spenser, Edward King (British poet), Edward Phillips, Edward Sexby, Edward Whalley, Eikon Basilike, Eikonoklastes, Election, Elegy, English Civil War, English College, Rome, English Council of State, English language, Enjambment, Epic poetry, Episcopal polity, Ex nihilo, Exclusion Crisis, Eyeless in Gaza (novel), Ezra Pound, Fall of man, Fifth Monarchists, First Amendment to the United States Constitution, First English Civil War, Foot (prosody), Fore Street, London, Forest Hill, Oxfordshire, Four kingdoms of Daniel, Francesco Barberini (1597–1679), Francis Peck, Frankenstein, Freedom of speech, Freedom of the press, French language, G. K. Chesterton, Galileo Galilei, Gangraena, Garden of Eden, Göran Printz-Påhlson, Geneva, Genoa, George Buchanan, George Eliot, George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle, Gerald Aylmer, German language, Giambattista Marino, Glaucoma, Glorious Revolution, Good Old Cause, Gordon Campbell (scholar), Grand Tour, Great Plague of London, Greek language, Hammersmith, Harold Bloom, Hebrew language, Henry Fuseli, Henry Holden, Henry Lawes, Henry Marten (regicide), Henry Pemberton, Henry Robinson (writer), Henry Vane the Younger, Henry Wotton, Herbert Palmer (Puritan), Heresy, Heroic couplet, Hezekiah Woodward, His Dark Materials, Homer, Horace, Horton, Berkshire, House arrest, House of Stuart, Hubert Parry, Hugo Grotius, Hyperion (poem), Il Penseroso, Immanuel Tremellius, Indemnity and Oblivion Act, Infinity, Intellectual, Interregnum (1649–1660), Isaac Newton, Isaac Watts, Israel, Italian language, J. R. R. Tolkien, James Harrington (author), James II of England, James Thomson (poet, born 1700), Jeremiad, Johann Jakob Bodmer, John Aubrey, John Bacon (sculptor), John Bradshaw (judge), John Calvin, John Donne, John Dryden, John Henry Newman, John Hutchinson (Roundhead), John Keats, John Knox, John Lambert (general), John Locke, John Milton (composer), John Philipps Kenyon, John Phillips (author), John Scott of Amwell, John Scudamore, 1st Viscount Scudamore, John Streater, Jonathan Richardson, Joost van den Vondel, Joseph Addison, Journal of English and Germanic Philology, Judgement of Martin Bucer Concerning Divorce, Kevin Sharpe (historian), L'Allegro, Latin, Let us with a gladsome mind, Liberty, Lion Hudson, Lives of the Most Eminent English Poets, Livorno, Livy, London, 1802, Long Bennington, Long Parliament, Look Homeward, Angel, Lucas Holstenius, Luke Milbourne, Lycidas, Marchamont Nedham, Martyr, Mary Shelley, Masque, Master of Arts (Oxbridge and Dublin), Masterpiece, Mechanism (philosophy), Mermaid Tavern, Metre (poetry), Millennium, Milton's 1645 Poems, Milton's 1673 Poems, Milton's Cottage, Milton's divorce tracts, Milton: A Poem in Two Books, Mind–body dualism, Modern Language Notes, Monism, Morgan Library & Museum, Moses, Naples, Neoclassicism, Neologism, New York Public Library, Nice, Nonconformist, Ode, Of Education, Of Prelatical Episcopacy, Of Reformation, Of True Religion, Old Testament, Oligarchy, Oliver Cromwell, Oliver Goldsmith, On the Late Massacre in Piedmont, On the Morning of Christ's Nativity, Ovid, Paradise Lost, Paradise Regained, Pastoral, Patrick Cary, Patrick Hume (editor), Paul Fagius, Peter du Moulin, Petrarch, Philip Pullman, Pisa, Plague (disease), Plato, Poet, Polemic, Polygamy, Primary source, Prior restraint, Prose, Puritans, Quakers, Racovian Catechism, Radical Whigs, Regicide, Renaissance, René Descartes, Republicanism, Restoration (England), Retinal detachment, Richard Baxter, Richard Bentley, Richard Cromwell, Robert Filmer, Robert Middlekauff, Robert Overton, Roger Williams, Romanticism, Rufus Wilmot Griswold, Rump Parliament, Rustication (academia), S. Foster Damon, Sallust, Salvation, Samson, Samson Agonistes, Samuel Hartlib, Samuel Johnson, Samuel Simmons, Sandra Gilbert, Scrivener, Second Folio, Separation of church and state, Shilling (English coin), Sicily, Smectymnuus, Social contract, Society of Jesus, Socinianism, Spanish language, St Giles-without-Cripplegate, St Margaret's, Westminster, St Mary Aldermary, St Paul's School, London, Stress (linguistics), Sublime (literary), Sublime (philosophy), Substitution (poetry), Susan Gubar, Syllable, Syriac language, T. S. Eliot, Tacitus, Temperance (virtue), Tetrachordon, The Anxiety of Influence, The Castle of Indolence, The History of Britain (Milton), The Madwoman in the Attic, The Prelude, The Ready and Easy Way to Establish a Free Commonwealth, The Reason of Church-Government Urged against Prelaty, The Seasons (Thomson), The Spectator (1711), The Tenure of Kings and Magistrates, Theodore Haak, Theology, Thomas Edwards (heresiographer), Thomas Erastus, Thomas Gataker, Thomas Gray, Thomas Hardy, Thomas Hobbes, Thomas Hobson, Thomas Newton, Thomas Wolfe, Thomas Young (theologian), Toleration, Torquato Tasso, Tory, Tract (literature), Trinity, Trinity College, Cambridge, Venice, Veronica Wedgwood, Verse (poetry), Virgil, Westminster Assembly, When I Consider How My Light is Spent, Whigs (British political party), William Blake, William Chappell (bishop), William Collins (poet), William Dugard, William Empson, William Golding, William Hayley, William Laud, William Shakespeare, William Wordsworth, Wistaston, Zachary Pearce. Expand index (320 more) »

A Treatise of Civil Power

A Treatise of Civil Power was published by John Milton in February 1659.

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A. N. Wilson

Andrew Norman Wilson (born 1950) is an English writer and newspaper columnist known for his critical biographies, novels and works of popular history.

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Absolute monarchy

Absolute monarchy, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs.

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Accademia degli Svogliati

The Accademia degli Svogliati ("Academy of the Will-less" or, erroneously, "Disgusted") was a 17th-century association of Italian men of letters in Florence.

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Accademia della Crusca

The Accademia della Crusca ("Academy of the Bran"), generally abbreviated as La Crusca, is an Italian society for scholars and Italian linguists and philologists established in Florence.

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Aesthetics (also spelled esthetics) is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty.

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Aldous Huxley

Aldous Leonard Huxley (26 July 1894 – 22 November 1963) was an English writer, novelist, philosopher, and prominent member of the Huxley family.

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Alexander Morus

Alexander Morus (or Moir or More) (25 September 1616, Castres - 28 September 1670, Paris) was a Franco-Scottish Calvinist preacher.

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Alexander Pope

Alexander Pope (21 May 1688 – 30 May 1744) was an 18th-century English poet.

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Algernon Sidney

Algernon Sidney or Sydney (14 or 15 January 1623 – 7 December 1683) was an English politician and member of the middle part of the Long Parliament.

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An amanuensis is a person employed to write or type what another dictates or to copy what has been written by another, and also refers to a person who signs a document on behalf of another under the latter's authority.

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American Revolution

The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783.

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Anabaptism (from Neo-Latin anabaptista, from the Greek ἀναβαπτισμός: ἀνά- "re-" and βαπτισμός "baptism", Täufer, earlier also WiedertäuferSince the middle of the 20th century, the German-speaking world no longer uses the term "Wiedertäufer" (translation: "Re-baptizers"), considering it biased. The term Täufer (translation: "Baptizers") is now used, which is considered more impartial. From the perspective of their persecutors, the "Baptizers" baptized for the second time those "who as infants had already been baptized". The denigrative term Anabaptist signifies rebaptizing and is considered a polemical term, so it has been dropped from use in modern German. However, in the English-speaking world, it is still used to distinguish the Baptizers more clearly from the Baptists, a Protestant sect that developed later in England. Cf. their self-designation as "Brethren in Christ" or "Church of God":.) is a Christian movement which traces its origins to the Radical Reformation.

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André Rivet

André Rivet (Andreas Rivetus) (August 1572 – January 7, 1651) was a French Huguenot theologian.

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Andrew Marvell

Andrew Marvell (31 March 1621 – 16 August 1678) was an English metaphysical poet, satirist and politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1659 and 1678.

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Andrew Milner

Andrew John Milner (born 9 September 1950) is a British-Australian cultural theorist and literary critic, Professor Emeritus of English and Comparative Literature at Monash University and Honorary Professor of English and Comparative Literary Studies at the University of Warwick.

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Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition that evolved out of the practices, liturgy and identity of the Church of England following the Protestant Reformation.

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Animadversions is the third of John Milton's antiprelatical tracts, in the form of a response to the works and claims of Bishop Joseph Hall.

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Anna Beer

Anna Beer is a British author and lecturer, primarily known for her work as a biographer.

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Apology for Smectymnuus

Apology for Smectymnuus, or An Apology for a Pamphlet, was published by John Milton in April 1642.

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Aramaic language

Aramaic (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, ܐܪܡܝܐ, آرامية) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family.

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Arcades (Milton)

Arcades is a masque written by John Milton and performed on 4 May 1634.

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Arcetri is a location in Florence, Italy, positioned among the hills south of the city centre.

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Archbishop of Canterbury

The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Canterbury.

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Areopagitica; A speech of Mr.

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Arianism is a nontrinitarian Christological doctrine which asserts the belief that Jesus Christ is the Son of God who was begotten by God the Father at a point in time, a creature distinct from the Father and is therefore subordinate to him, but the Son is also God (i.e. God the Son).

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Arminianism is based on theological ideas of the Dutch Reformed theologian Jacobus Arminius (1560–1609) and his historic supporters known as Remonstrants.

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Arthur Koestler

Arthur Koestler, (Kösztler Artúr; 5 September 1905 – 1 March 1983) was a Hungarian-British author and journalist.

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Augustine of Hippo

Saint Augustine of Hippo (13 November 354 – 28 August 430) was a Roman African, early Christian theologian and philosopher from Numidia whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy.

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Austin Herbert Woolrych

Austin Herbert Woolrych (18 May 1918 – 15 September 2004) was an English historian, a specialist in the period of the English Civil War.

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Babylon (KA2.DIĜIR.RAKI Bābili(m); Aramaic: בבל, Babel; بَابِل, Bābil; בָּבֶל, Bavel; ܒܒܠ, Bāwēl) was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC.

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Barbara Kiefer Lewalski

Barbara Josephine Lewalski (née Kiefer; February 22, 1931 – March 2, 2018)Roberts, Sam (March 29, 2018).

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Bishops' Wars

The Bishops' Wars (Bellum Episcopale) were conflicts, both political and military, which occurred in 1639 and 1640 centred on the nature of the governance of the Church of Scotland, and the rights and powers of the Crown.

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Blair Worden

Alastair Blair Worden, FBA (born 12 January 1945), usually known by his middle name Blair, is a historian, among the leading authorities on the period of the English Civil War and on relations between literature and history more generally in the early modern period.

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Blank verse

Blank verse is poetry written with regular metrical but unrhymed lines, almost always in iambic pentameter.

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Blest Pair of Sirens

Blest Pair of Sirens is a short work for choir and orchestra by the English composer Hubert Parry, setting John Milton's ode At a solemn Musick.

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Bookbinding is the process of physically assembling a book of codex format from an ordered stack of paper sheets that are folded together into sections or sometimes left as a stack of individual sheets.

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Bread Street

Bread Street is one of the 25 wards of the City of London the name deriving from its principal street, which was anciently the City's bread market; for by the records it appears as that in 1302: "the bakers of London were ordered to sell no bread at their houses but in the open market at Bread Street".

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Brief Lives

Brief Lives is a collection of short biographies written by John Aubrey (1626–1697) in the last decades of the 17th century.

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British Library

The British Library is the national library of the United Kingdom and the largest national library in the world by number of items catalogued.

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Bulstrode Whitelocke

Sir Bulstrode Whitelocke (6 August 1605 – 28 July 1675) was an English lawyer, writer, parliamentarian and Lord Keeper of the Great Seal of England.

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C. S. Lewis

Clive Staples Lewis (29 November 1898 – 22 November 1963) was a British novelist, poet, academic, medievalist, literary critic, essayist, lay theologian, broadcaster, lecturer, and Christian apologist.

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An example of a caesura in modern western music notation. A caesura (. caesuras or caesurae; Latin for "cutting"), also written cæsura and cesura, is a break in a verse where one phrase ends and the following phrase begins.

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Calais (Calés; Kales) is a city and major ferry port in northern France in the department of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sub-prefecture.

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Carnival (see other spellings and names) is a Western Christian and Greek Orthodox festive season that occurs before the liturgical season of Lent.

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Chalfont St Giles

Chalfont St Giles is a village and civil parish within the Chiltern district in south east Buckinghamshire, England, on the edge of the Chilterns, from London, and near Seer Green, Jordans, Chalfont St Peter, Little Chalfont and Amersham.

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Charles I of England

Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649.

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Charles II of England

Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was king of England, Scotland and Ireland.

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Chastity is sexual conduct of a person deemed praiseworthy and virtuous according to the moral standards and guidelines of their culture, civilization or religion.

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Cheapside is a street in the City of London, the historic and modern financial centre of London, which forms part of the A40 London to Fishguard road.

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Cheshire (archaically the County Palatine of Chester) is a county in North West England, bordering Merseyside and Greater Manchester to the north, Derbyshire to the east, Staffordshire and Shropshire to the south and Flintshire, Wales and Wrexham county borough to the west.

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Christ's College, Cambridge

Christ's College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge.

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Christian mortalism

Christian mortalism incorporates the belief that the human soul is not naturally immortal;.

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Christopher Hibbert

Christopher Hibbert (born Arthur Raymond Hibbert) MC (5 March 1924 – 21 December 2008), was an English author, historian and biographer.

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Christopher Hill (historian)

John Edward Christopher Hill (6 February 1912 – 23 February 2003) was an English Marxist historian and academic, specialising in 17th-century English history.

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Christopher Ricks

Sir Christopher Bruce Ricks (born 18 September 1933) is a British (although he lives in the US) literary critic and scholar.

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Marcus Tullius Cicero (3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC.

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Civil service

The civil service is independent of government and composed mainly of career bureaucrats hired on professional merit rather than appointed or elected, whose institutional tenure typically survives transitions of political leadership.

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Claudius Salmasius

Claudius Salmasius is the Latin name of Claude Saumaise (15 April 1588 – 3 September 1653), a French classical scholar.

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Colasterion (from the Greek word for "instrument of punishment" or "house of correction") was published by John Milton with his Tetrachordon on 4 March 1645.

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Commonplace book

Commonplace books (or commonplaces) are a way to compile knowledge, usually by writing information into books.

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Commonwealth of England

The Commonwealth was the period from 1649 to 1660 when England and Wales, later along with Ireland and Scotland, was ruled as a republic following the end of the Second English Civil War and the trial and execution of Charles I. The republic's existence was declared through "An Act declaring England to be a Commonwealth", adopted by the Rump Parliament on 19 May 1649.

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Comus (Milton)

Comus (A Masque Presented at Ludlow Castle, 1634) is a masque in honour of chastity, written by John Milton.

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Cyril Rootham

Cyril Bradley Rootham (5 October 1875 – 18 March 1938) was an English composer, educator and organist.

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Dante Alighieri

Durante degli Alighieri, commonly known as Dante Alighieri or simply Dante (c. 1265 – 1321), was a major Italian poet of the Late Middle Ages.

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Darkness at Noon

Darkness at Noon (Sonnenfinsternis) is a novel by Hungarian-born British novelist Arthur Koestler, first published in 1940.

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Darkness Visible (novel)

Darkness Visible is a 1979 novel by British author William Golding.

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David Hawkes (professor of English)

David Hawkes (b 1964; Wales) is a Professor of English at Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona.

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David Masson

Prof David Mather Masson LLD DLitt (2 December 18226 October 1907), was a Scottish academic, literary critic and historian.

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David Pareus

David Pareus (30 December 1548 – 15 June 1622) was a German Reformed Protestant theologian and reformer.

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De Doctrina Christiana (Milton)

De Doctrina Christiana (Christian Doctrine) is a Latin manuscript found in 1823 and attributed to John Milton, who died 148 years prior.

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Defensio pro Populo Anglicano

Defensio pro Populo Anglicano is a Latin polemic by John Milton, published in 1651.

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Defensio Secunda

Defension Secunda was a 1654 political tract by John Milton, a sequel to his Defensio pro Populo Anglicano.

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Determinism is the philosophical theory that all events, including moral choices, are completely determined by previously existing causes.

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Dictionary of National Biography

The Dictionary of National Biography (DNB) is a standard work of reference on notable figures from British history, published from 1885.

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A dissenter (from the Latin dissentire, "to disagree") is one who disagrees in matters of opinion, belief, etc.

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Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce

The Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce: Restor'd to the Good of Both Sexes, From the Bondage of Canon Law was published by John Milton on 1 August 1643.

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Edmund Burke

Edmund Burke (12 January 17309 July 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman born in Dublin, as well as an author, orator, political theorist and philosopher, who after moving to London in 1750 served as a member of parliament (MP) between 1766 and 1794 in the House of Commons with the Whig Party.

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Edmund Ludlow

Edmund Ludlow (c. 1617–1692) was an English parliamentarian, best known for his involvement in the execution of Charles I, and for his Memoirs, which were published posthumously in a rewritten form and which have become a major source for historians of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms.

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Edmund Spenser

Edmund Spenser (1552/1553 – 13 January 1599) was an English poet best known for The Faerie Queene, an epic poem and fantastical allegory celebrating the Tudor dynasty and Elizabeth I. He is recognized as one of the premier craftsmen of nascent Modern English verse, and is often considered one of the greatest poets in the English language.

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Edward King (British poet)

Edward King (1612 – 10 August 1637) is the subject of John Milton's poem "Lycidas".

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Edward Phillips

Edward Phillips (August 1630 – c. 1696) was an English author.

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Edward Sexby

Colonel Edward Sexby or Saxby (1616 – 13 January 1658) was an English Puritan soldier and Leveller in the army of Oliver Cromwell.

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Edward Whalley

Edward Whalley (c. 1607 – c. 1675) was an English military leader during the English Civil War, and was one of the regicides who signed the death warrant of King Charles I of England.

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Eikon Basilike

The Eikon Basilike (Greek: Εἰκὼν Βασιλική, the "Royal Portrait"), The Pourtrature of His Sacred Majestie in His Solitudes and Sufferings, is a purported spiritual autobiography attributed to King Charles I of England.

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Eikonoklastes (from the Greek εἰκονοκλάστης, "iconoclast") is a book by John Milton, published October 1649.

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An election is a formal group decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold public office.

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In English literature, an elegy is a poem of serious reflection, typically a lament for the dead.

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English Civil War

The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") over, principally, the manner of England's governance.

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English College, Rome

The Venerable English College, commonly referred to as the English College, is a Catholic seminary in Rome, Italy, for the training of priests for England and Wales.

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English Council of State

The English Council of State, later also known as the Protector's Privy Council, was first appointed by the Rump Parliament on 14 February 1649 after the execution of King Charles I. Charles's execution on 30 January was delayed for several hours so that the House of Commons could pass an emergency bill to declare the representatives of the people, the House of Commons, as the source of all just power and to make it an offence to proclaim a new King.

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English language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

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In poetry, enjambment (or; from the French enjambement) is incomplete syntax at the end of a line; the meaning runs over from one poetic line to the next, without terminal punctuation.

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Epic poetry

An epic poem, epic, epos, or epopee is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily involving a time beyond living memory in which occurred the extraordinary doings of the extraordinary men and women who, in dealings with the gods or other superhuman forces, gave shape to the moral universe that their descendants, the poet and his audience, must understand to understand themselves as a people or nation.

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Episcopal polity

An episcopal polity is a hierarchical form of church governance ("ecclesiastical polity") in which the chief local authorities are called bishops.

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Ex nihilo

Ex nihilo is a Latin phrase meaning "out of nothing".

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Exclusion Crisis

The Exclusion Crisis ran from 1679 through 1681 in the reign of King Charles II of England, Scotland and Ireland.

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Eyeless in Gaza (novel)

Eyeless in Gaza is a bestselling novel by Aldous Huxley, first published in 1936.

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Ezra Pound

Ezra Weston Loomis Pound (30 October 1885 – 1 November 1972) was an expatriate American poet and critic, as well as a major figure in the early modernist poetry movement.

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Fall of man

The fall of man, or the fall, is a term used in Christianity to describe the transition of the first man and woman from a state of innocent obedience to God to a state of guilty disobedience.

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Fifth Monarchists

The Fifth Monarchists or Fifth Monarchy Men were an extreme Puritan sect active from 1649 to 1660 during the Interregnum, following the English Civil Wars of the 17th century.

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First Amendment to the United States Constitution

The First Amendment (Amendment I) to the United States Constitution prevents Congress from making any law respecting an establishment of religion, prohibiting the free exercise of religion, or abridging the freedom of speech, the freedom of the press, the right to peaceably assemble, or to petition for a governmental redress of grievances.

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First English Civil War

The First English Civil War (1642–1646) began the series of three wars known as the English Civil War (or "Wars").

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Foot (prosody)

The foot is the basic repeating rhythmic unit that forms part of a line of verse in most Western traditions of poetry, including English accentual-syllabic verse and the quantitative meter of classical ancient Greek and Latin poetry.

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Fore Street, London

Fore Street is a street in the City of London near the Barbican Centre.

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Forest Hill, Oxfordshire

Forest Hill is a village in Forest Hill with Shotover civil parish in Oxfordshire, about east of Oxford.

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Four kingdoms of Daniel

The four kingdoms of Daniel are four kingdoms which, according to the Book of Daniel, precede the "end-time" and the "Kingdom of God".

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Francesco Barberini (1597–1679)

Francesco Barberini (23 September 1597 – 10 December 1679) was an Italian Catholic Cardinal.

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Francis Peck

Francis Peck (1692–1743) was an English antiquary, best known for his Desiderata Curiosa (1732-1735).

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Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus is a novel written by English author Mary Shelley (1797–1851) that tells the story of Victor Frankenstein, a young scientist who creates a grotesque but sapient creature in an unorthodox scientific experiment.

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Freedom of speech

Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or a community to articulate their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation, censorship, or sanction.

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Freedom of the press

Freedom of the press or freedom of the media is the principle that communication and expression through various media, including printed and electronic media, especially published materials, should be considered a right to be exercised freely.

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.

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G. K. Chesterton

Gilbert Keith Chesterton, KC*SG (29 May 1874 – 14 June 1936), was an English writer, poet, philosopher, dramatist, journalist, orator, lay theologian, biographer, and literary and art critic.

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Galileo Galilei

Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564Drake (1978, p. 1). The date of Galileo's birth is given according to the Julian calendar, which was then in force throughout Christendom. In 1582 it was replaced in Italy and several other Catholic countries with the Gregorian calendar. Unless otherwise indicated, dates in this article are given according to the Gregorian calendar. – 8 January 1642) was an Italian polymath.

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Gangraena is a book by English puritan clergyman Thomas Edwards, published in 1646.

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Garden of Eden

The Garden of Eden (Hebrew גַּן עֵדֶן, Gan ʿEḏen) or (often) Paradise, is the biblical "garden of God", described most notably in the Book of Genesis chapters 2 and 3, and also in the Book of Ezekiel.

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Göran Printz-Påhlson

Göran Printz-Påhlson (1931–2006) was a Swedish poet essayist, translator and literary critic.

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Geneva (Genève, Genèva, Genf, Ginevra, Genevra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland.

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Genoa (Genova,; Zêna; English, historically, and Genua) is the capital of the Italian region of Liguria and the sixth-largest city in Italy.

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George Buchanan

George Buchanan (Seòras Bochanan; February 1506 – 28 September 1582) was a Scottish historian and humanist scholar.

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George Eliot

Mary Anne Evans (22 November 1819 – 22 December 1880; alternatively "Mary Ann" or "Marian"), known by her pen name George Eliot, was an English novelist, poet, journalist, translator, and one of the leading writers of the Victorian era.

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George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle

George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle, KG (6 December 1608 – 3 January 1670) was an English soldier and politician, and a key figure in the Restoration of the monarchy to King Charles II in 1660.

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Gerald Aylmer

Gerald Edward Aylmer, FBA (30 April 1926, Greete, Shropshire – 17 December 2000, Oxford) was an English historian of 17th century England.

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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.

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Giambattista Marino

Giambattista Marino (also Giovan Battista Marini) (14 October 1569 – 26 March 1625) was an Italian poet who was born in Naples.

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Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases which result in damage to the optic nerve and vision loss.

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Glorious Revolution

The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (James VII of Scotland) by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III, Prince of Orange, who was James's nephew and son-in-law.

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Good Old Cause

The Good Old Cause was the name given, retrospectively, by the soldiers of the New Model Army, to the complex of reasons that motivated their fight on behalf of the Parliament of England.

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Gordon Campbell (scholar)

Gordon Campbell (born 1944) is a professor of Renaissance Studies at the University of Leicester known for his work on Milton and on the King James Bible.

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Grand Tour

The term "Grand Tour" refers to the 17th- and 18th-century custom of a traditional trip of Europe undertaken by mainly upper-class young European men of sufficient means and rank (typically accompanied by a chaperon, such as a family member) when they had come of age (about 21 years old).

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Great Plague of London

The Great Plague, lasting from 1665 to 1666, was the last major epidemic of the bubonic plague to occur in England.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Hammersmith is a district of west London, England, located west-southwest of Charing Cross.

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Harold Bloom

Harold Bloom (born July 11, 1930) is an American literary critic and Sterling Professor of Humanities at Yale University.

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Hebrew language

No description.

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Henry Fuseli

Henry Fuseli (German: Johann Heinrich Füssli; 7 February 1741 – 17 April 1825) was a Swiss painter, draughtsman and writer on art who spent much of his life in Britain.

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Henry Holden

Henry Holden (1596 – March 1662) was an English Roman Catholic priest, known as a theologian.

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Henry Lawes

Henry Lawes (5 December 1595 – 21 October 1662) was an English musician and composer.

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Henry Marten (regicide)

Henry Marten (1602 – 9 September 1680) was an English lawyer and politician who sat in the House of Commons in two periods between 1640 and 1653.

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Henry Pemberton

Henry Pemberton (1694 – 9 March 1771) was an English physician and man of letters.

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Henry Robinson (writer)

Henry Robinson (c. 1604 – c. 1664) was an English merchant and writer.

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Henry Vane the Younger

Sir Henry Vane (baptised 26 March 161314 June 1662) (often referred to as Harry Vane to distinguish him from his father), son of Henry Vane the Elder, was an English politician, statesman, and colonial governor.

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Henry Wotton

Sir Henry Wotton (30 March 1568 – December 1639) was an English author, diplomat and politician who sat in the House of Commons in 1614 and 1625.

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Herbert Palmer (Puritan)

Herbert Palmer (1601–1647) was an English Puritan clergyman, member of the Westminster Assembly, and President of Queens' College, Cambridge.

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Heresy is any belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs, in particular the accepted beliefs of a church or religious organization.

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Heroic couplet

A heroic couplet is a traditional form for English poetry, commonly used in epic and narrative poetry, and consisting of a rhyming pair of lines in iambic pentameter.

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Hezekiah Woodward

Hezekiah Woodward (1590–1675) was an English nonconformist minister and educator, who was involved in the pamphlet wars of the 1640s.

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His Dark Materials

His Dark Materials is an epic trilogy of fantasy novels by Philip Pullman consisting of Northern Lights (1995) (published as The Golden Compass in North America), The Subtle Knife (1997), and The Amber Spyglass (2000).

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Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature.

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Quintus Horatius Flaccus (December 8, 65 BC – November 27, 8 BC), known in the English-speaking world as Horace, was the leading Roman lyric poet during the time of Augustus (also known as Octavian).

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Horton, Berkshire

Horton is a village and civil parish in Berkshire, England.

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House arrest

In justice and law, house arrest (also called home confinement, home detention, or, in modern times, electronic monitoring) is a measure by which a person is confined by the authorities to a residence.

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House of Stuart

The House of Stuart, originally Stewart, was a European royal house that originated in Scotland.

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Hubert Parry

Sir Charles Hubert Hastings Parry, 1st Baronet (27 February 18487 October 1918) was an English composer, teacher and historian of music.

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Hugo Grotius

Hugo Grotius (10 April 1583 – 28 August 1645), also known as Huig de Groot or Hugo de Groot, was a Dutch jurist.

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Hyperion (poem)

Hyperion is an abandoned epic poem by 19th-century English Romantic poet John Keats.

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Il Penseroso

Il Penseroso (The Serious Man) is a vision of poetic melancholy by John Milton, first found in the 1645/1646 quarto of verses The Poems of Mr.

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Immanuel Tremellius

Immanuel Tremellius (Giovanni Emmanuele Tremellio; 1510 – 9 October 1580) was an Italian Jewish convert to Christianity.

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Indemnity and Oblivion Act

The Indemnity and Oblivion Act 1660 is an Act of the Parliament of England (12 Cha. II c. 11), the long title of which is "An Act of Free and General Pardon, Indemnity, and Oblivion".

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Infinity (symbol) is a concept describing something without any bound or larger than any natural number.

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An intellectual is a person who engages in critical thinking, research, and reflection about society and proposes solutions for its normative problems.

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Interregnum (1649–1660)

The "interregnum" in England, Scotland, and Ireland started with the execution of Charles I in January 1649 (September 1651 in Scotland) and ended in May 1660 when his son Charles II was restored to the thrones of the three realms, although he had been already acclaimed king in Scotland since 1650.

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Isaac Newton

Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.

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Isaac Watts

Isaac Watts (17 July 1674 – 25 November 1748) was an English Christian minister (Congregational), hymn writer, theologian, and logician.

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Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.

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Italian language

Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.

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J. R. R. Tolkien

John Ronald Reuel Tolkien, (Tolkien pronounced his surname, see his phonetic transcription published on the illustration in The Return of the Shadow: The History of The Lord of the Rings, Part One. Christopher Tolkien. London: Unwin Hyman, 1988. (The History of Middle-earth; 6). In General American the surname is also pronounced. This pronunciation no doubt arose by analogy with such words as toll and polka, or because speakers of General American realise as, while often hearing British as; thus or General American become the closest possible approximation to the Received Pronunciation for many American speakers. Wells, John. 1990. Longman pronunciation dictionary. Harlow: Longman, 3 January 1892 – 2 September 1973) was an English writer, poet, philologist, and university professor who is best known as the author of the classic high fantasy works The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings, and The Silmarillion.

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James Harrington (author)

James Harrington (or Harington) (3 January 1611 – 11 September 1677) was an English political theorist of classical republicanism, best known for his controversial work, The Commonwealth of Oceana (1656).

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James II of England

James II and VII (14 October 1633O.S. – 16 September 1701An assertion found in many sources that James II died 6 September 1701 (17 September 1701 New Style) may result from a miscalculation done by an author of anonymous "An Exact Account of the Sickness and Death of the Late King James II, as also of the Proceedings at St. Germains thereupon, 1701, in a letter from an English gentleman in France to his friend in London" (Somers Tracts, ed. 1809–1815, XI, pp. 339–342). The account reads: "And on Friday the 17th instant, about three in the afternoon, the king died, the day he always fasted in memory of our blessed Saviour's passion, the day he ever desired to die on, and the ninth hour, according to the Jewish account, when our Saviour was crucified." As 17 September 1701 New Style falls on a Saturday and the author insists that James died on Friday, "the day he ever desired to die on", an inevitable conclusion is that the author miscalculated the date, which later made it to various reference works. See "English Historical Documents 1660–1714", ed. by Andrew Browning (London and New York: Routledge, 2001), 136–138.) was King of England and Ireland as James II and King of Scotland as James VII, from 6 February 1685 until he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688.

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James Thomson (poet, born 1700)

James Thomson (c. 11 September 1700 – 27 August 1748) was a British poet and playwright, known for his poems The Seasons and The Castle of Indolence, and for the lyrics of "Rule, Britannia!".

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A jeremiad is a long literary work, usually in prose, but sometimes in verse, in which the author bitterly laments the state of society and its morals in a serious tone of sustained invective, and always contains a prophecy of society's imminent downfall.

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Johann Jakob Bodmer

Johann Jakob Bodmer (19 July 16982 January 1783) was a Swiss author, academic, critic and poet.

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John Aubrey

John Aubrey (12 March 1626 – 7 June 1697) was an English antiquary, natural philosopher and writer.

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John Bacon (sculptor)

John Bacon (24 November 1740 – 7 August 1799) was a British sculptor who worked in the late 18th century.

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John Bradshaw (judge)

John Bradshaw (15 July 1602 – 31 October 1659) was an English judge.

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John Calvin

John Calvin (Jean Calvin; born Jehan Cauvin; 10 July 150927 May 1564) was a French theologian, pastor and reformer in Geneva during the Protestant Reformation.

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John Donne

John Donne (22 January 1572 – 31 March 1631) was an English poet and cleric in the Church of England.

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John Dryden

John Dryden (–) was an English poet, literary critic, translator, and playwright who was made England's first Poet Laureate in 1668.

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John Henry Newman

John Henry Newman, (21 February 1801 – 11 August 1890) was a poet and theologian, first an Anglican priest and later a Catholic priest and cardinal, who was an important and controversial figure in the religious history of England in the 19th century.

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John Hutchinson (Roundhead)

Colonel John Hutchinson (1615–1664) was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons of England from 1648 to 1653 and in 1660.

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John Keats

John Keats (31 October 1795 – 23 February 1821) was an English Romantic poet.

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John Knox

John Knox (– 24 November 1572) was a Scottish minister, theologian, and writer who was a leader of the country's Reformation.

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John Lambert (general)

John Lambert (Autumn 1619 – March 1684) was an English Parliamentary general and politician.

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John Locke

John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".

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John Milton (composer)

John Milton (1562–1647) was an English composer and father of poet John Milton.

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John Philipps Kenyon

John Philipps Kenyon (18 June 1927 – 6 January 1996) was an English historian and Fellow of the British Academy.

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John Phillips (author)

John Phillips (1631–1706) was an English author, the brother of Edward Phillips, and a nephew of John Milton.

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John Scott of Amwell

John Scott (January 9, 1731 – December 12, 1783), known as Scott of Amwell, was an English landscape gardener and writer on social matters.

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John Scudamore, 1st Viscount Scudamore

John Scudamore, 1st Viscount Scudamore (22 March 1601 – 19 May 1671) was an English diplomat and politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1621 and 1629.

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John Streater

John Streater (died 1687) was an English soldier, political writer and printer.

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Jonathan Richardson

Jonathan Richardson (London 12 January 1667 – 28 May 1745 London) sometimes called "the Elder" to distinguish him from his son (Jonathan Richardson the Younger) was an English artist, collector of drawings, and writer on art, working almost entirely as a portrait-painter in London.

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Joost van den Vondel

Joost van den Vondel (17 November 1587 – 5 February 1679) was a Dutch poet, writer and playwright.

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Joseph Addison

Joseph Addison (1 May 1672 – 17 June 1719) was an English essayist, poet, playwright, and politician.

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Journal of English and Germanic Philology

The Journal of English and Germanic Philology is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal of medieval studies that was established in 1897 and is now published by University of Illinois Press.

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Judgement of Martin Bucer Concerning Divorce

Judgement of Martin Bucer by John Milton was published on 15 July 1644.

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Kevin Sharpe (historian)

Kevin M. Sharpe (26 January 1949 – 5 November 2011) was a historian, Director of the Centre for Renaissance and Early Modern Studies, Leverhulme Research Professor and Professor of Renaissance Studies at Queen Mary, University of London.

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L'Allegro is a pastoral poem by John Milton published in his 1645 ''Poems''.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Let us with a gladsome mind

Let us with a gladsome mind is a hymn written in 1623 by John Milton, a pupil at St. Paul's School, at the age of 15 as a paraphrase of Psalm 136.

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Liberty, in politics, consists of the social, political, and economic freedoms to which all community members are entitled.

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Lion Hudson

Lion Hudson is British book publishing company.

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Lives of the Most Eminent English Poets

Lives of the Most Eminent English Poets (1779–81), alternatively known by the shorter title Lives of the Poets, is a work by Samuel Johnson comprising short biographies and critical appraisals of 52 poets, most of whom lived during the eighteenth century.

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Livorno is a port city on the Ligurian Sea on the western coast of Tuscany, Italy.

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Titus Livius Patavinus (64 or 59 BCAD 12 or 17) – often rendered as Titus Livy, or simply Livy, in English language sources – was a Roman historian.

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London, 1802

"London, 1802" is a poem by the English Romantic poet William Wordsworth.

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Long Bennington

Long Bennington is a linear village and civil parish in South Kesteven district of Lincolnshire, England.

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Long Parliament

The Long Parliament was an English Parliament which lasted from 1640 until 1660.

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Look Homeward, Angel

Look Homeward, Angel: A Story of the Buried Life is a 1929 novel by Thomas Wolfe.

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Lucas Holstenius

Lucas Holstenius, born Lukas Holste (1596 – February 2, 1661), was a German Catholic humanist, geographer and historian.

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Luke Milbourne

Luke Milbourne or Milbourn (1649–1720) was an English clergyman, known as a High Church supporter of Henry Sacheverell, and also as a critic and poet.

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"Lycidas" is a poem by John Milton, written in 1637 as a pastoral elegy.

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Marchamont Nedham

Marchamont Nedham, also Marchmont and Needham (1620 – November 1678) was a journalist, publisher and pamphleteer during the English Civil War, who wrote official news and propaganda for both sides of the conflict.

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A martyr (Greek: μάρτυς, mártys, "witness"; stem μάρτυρ-, mártyr-) is someone who suffers persecution and death for advocating, renouncing, refusing to renounce, or refusing to advocate a belief or cause as demanded by an external party.

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Mary Shelley

Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (née Godwin; 30 August 1797 – 1 February 1851) was an English novelist, short story writer, dramatist, essayist, biographer, and travel writer, best known for her Gothic novel ''Frankenstein: or, The Modern Prometheus'' (1818).

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The masque was a form of festive courtly entertainment that flourished in 16th- and early 17th-century Europe, though it was developed earlier in Italy, in forms including the intermedio (a public version of the masque was the pageant).

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Master of Arts (Oxbridge and Dublin)

In the universities of Oxford, Cambridge, and Dublin, Bachelors of Arts with Honours of these universities are promoted to the title of Master of Arts or Master in Arts (MA) on application after six or seven years' seniority as members of the university (including years as an undergraduate).

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Masterpiece, magnum opus (Latin, great work) or chef-d’œuvre (French, master of work, plural chefs-d’œuvre) in modern use is a creation that has been given much critical praise, especially one that is considered the greatest work of a person's career or to a work of outstanding creativity, skill, profundity, or workmanship.

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Mechanism (philosophy)

Mechanism is the belief that natural wholes (principally living things) are like complicated machines or artifacts, composed of parts lacking any intrinsic relationship to each other.

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Mermaid Tavern

The Mermaid Tavern was a tavern on Cheapside in London during the Elizabethan era, located east of St. Paul's Cathedral on the corner of Friday Street and Bread Street.

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Metre (poetry)

In poetry, metre is the basic rhythmic structure of a verse or lines in verse.

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A millennium (plural millennia or, rarely, millenniums) is a period equal to 1000 years, also called kiloyears.

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Milton's 1645 Poems

Milton's 1645 Poems is a collection, divided into separate English and Latin sections, of the poet's youthful poetry in a variety of genres, including such notable works as An Ode on the Morning of Christ's Nativity, Comus, and Lycidas.

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Milton's 1673 Poems

Milton's 1673 Poems, formally titled Poems etc.

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Milton's Cottage

Milton's Cottage is a timber-framed 16th-century building in the Buckinghamshire village of Chalfont St Giles.

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Milton's divorce tracts

Milton's divorce tracts refer to the four interlinked polemical pamphlets—The Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce, The Judgment of Martin Bucer, Tetrachordon, and Colasterion—written by John Milton from 1643–1645.

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Milton: A Poem in Two Books

Milton is an epic poem by William Blake, written and illustrated between 1804 and 1810.

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Mind–body dualism

Mind–body dualism, or mind–body duality, is a view in the philosophy of mind that mental phenomena are, in some respects, non-physical,Hart, W.D. (1996) "Dualism", in A Companion to the Philosophy of Mind, ed.

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Modern Language Notes

Modern Language Notes is an academic journal established in 1886 at the Johns Hopkins University, where it is still edited and published, with the intention of introducing continental European literary criticism into American scholarship.

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Monism attributes oneness or singleness (Greek: μόνος) to a concept e.g., existence.

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Morgan Library & Museum

The Morgan Library & Museum – formerly the Pierpont Morgan Library – is a museum and research library located at 225 Madison Avenue at East 36th Street in the Murray Hill neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City.

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Mosesמֹשֶׁה, Modern Tiberian ISO 259-3; ܡܘܫܐ Mūše; موسى; Mωϋσῆς was a prophet in the Abrahamic religions.

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Naples (Napoli, Napule or; Neapolis; lit) is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy after Rome and Milan.

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Neoclassicism (from Greek νέος nèos, "new" and Latin classicus, "of the highest rank") is the name given to Western movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that draw inspiration from the "classical" art and culture of classical antiquity.

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A neologism (from Greek νέο- néo-, "new" and λόγος lógos, "speech, utterance") is a relatively recent or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that has not yet been fully accepted into mainstream language.

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New York Public Library

The New York Public Library (NYPL) is a public library system in New York City.

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Nice (Niçard Niça, classical norm, or Nissa, nonstandard,; Nizza; Νίκαια; Nicaea) is the fifth most populous city in France and the capital of the Alpes-Maritimes département.

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In English church history, a nonconformist was a Protestant who did not "conform" to the governance and usages of the established Church of England.

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An ode (from ōdḗ) is a type of lyrical stanza.

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Of Education

The tractate Of Education was published in 1644, first appearing anonymously as a single eight-page quarto sheet (Ainsworth 6).

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Of Prelatical Episcopacy

Of Prelatical Episcopacy is a religious tract written by John Milton in either June or July 1641.

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Of Reformation

Of Reformation is a 1641 pamphlet by John Milton, and his debut in the public arena.

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Of True Religion

Of True Religion, Heresy, Schism, Toleration; and what best means may be used against the Growth of Popery is the title of a polemical tract against the popery of the Roman Catholic Church written by John Milton which was published in London in 1673.

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Old Testament

The Old Testament (abbreviated OT) is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh), a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God.

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Oligarchy is a form of power structure in which power rests with a small number of people.

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Oliver Cromwell

Oliver Cromwell (25 April 15993 September 1658) was an English military and political leader.

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Oliver Goldsmith

Oliver Goldsmith (10 November 1728 – 4 April 1774) was an Irish novelist, playwright and poet, who is best known for his novel The Vicar of Wakefield (1766), his pastoral poem The Deserted Village (1770), and his plays The Good-Natur'd Man (1768) and She Stoops to Conquer (1771, first performed in 1773).

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On the Late Massacre in Piedmont

"On the Late Massacre in Piedmont" is a sonnet by the English poet John Milton inspired by the massacre of Waldensians in Piedmont by the troops of Charles Emmanuel II, Duke of Savoy in April 1655.

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On the Morning of Christ's Nativity

On the Morning of Christ's Nativity is a nativity ode written by John Milton in 1629 and published in his ''Poems of Mr. John Milton'' (1645).

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Publius Ovidius Naso (20 March 43 BC – 17/18 AD), known as Ovid in the English-speaking world, was a Roman poet who lived during the reign of Augustus.

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Paradise Lost

Paradise Lost is an epic poem in blank verse by the 17th-century English poet John Milton (1608–1674).

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Paradise Regained

Paradise Regained is a poem by English poet John Milton, first published in 1671 by John Milton.

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A pastoral lifestyle (see pastoralism) is that of shepherds herding livestock around open areas of land according to seasons and the changing availability of water and pasture.

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Patrick Cary

Patrick Cary (Carey) (c. 1623 – 1657) was an English poet, an early user in English of the triolet form.

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Patrick Hume (editor)

Patrick Hume (fl. 1695) was a Scottish schoolmaster in London, author of the first commentary on the Paradise Lost of John Milton.

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Paul Fagius

Paul Fagius (1504 – 13 November 1549) was a Renaissance scholar of Biblical Hebrew and Protestant reformer.

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Peter du Moulin

Peter du Moulin (1601–1684) was a French-English Anglican clergyman, son of the Huguenot pastor Pierre du Moulin and brother of Lewis du Moulin.

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Francesco Petrarca (July 20, 1304 – July 18/19, 1374), commonly anglicized as Petrarch, was a scholar and poet of Renaissance Italy who was one of the earliest humanists.

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Philip Pullman

Philip Pullman CBE, FRSL (born 19 October 1946) is an English novelist.

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Pisa is a city in the Tuscany region of Central Italy straddling the Arno just before it empties into the Ligurian Sea.

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Plague (disease)

Plague is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis.

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Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.

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A poet is a person who creates poetry.

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A polemic is contentious rhetoric that is intended to support a specific position by aggressive claims and undermining of the opposing position.

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Polygamy (from Late Greek πολυγαμία, polygamía, "state of marriage to many spouses") is the practice of marrying multiple spouses.

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Primary source

In the study of history as an academic discipline, a primary source (also called original source or evidence) is an artifact, document, diary, manuscript, autobiography, recording, or any other source of information that was created at the time under study.

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Prior restraint

Prior restraint (also referred to as prior censorship or pre-publication censorship) is censorship imposed, usually by a government or institution, on expression, that prohibits particular instances of expression.

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Prose is a form of language that exhibits a natural flow of speech and grammatical structure rather than a rhythmic structure as in traditional poetry, where the common unit of verse is based on meter or rhyme.

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The Puritans were English Reformed Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries who sought to "purify" the Church of England from its "Catholic" practices, maintaining that the Church of England was only partially reformed.

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Quakers (or Friends) are members of a historically Christian group of religious movements formally known as the Religious Society of Friends or Friends Church.

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Racovian Catechism

The Racovian Catechism (Pol.: Katechizm Rakowski) is a nontrinitarian statement of faith from the 16th century.

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Radical Whigs

The Radical Whigs were a group of British political commentators associated with the British Whig faction who were at the forefront of the Radical movement.

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The broad definition of regicide (regis "of king" + cida "killer" or cidium "killing") is the deliberate killing of a monarch, or the person responsible for the killing of a person of royalty.

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The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.

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René Descartes

René Descartes (Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.

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Republicanism is an ideology centered on citizenship in a state organized as a republic under which the people hold popular sovereignty.

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Restoration (England)

The Restoration of the English monarchy took place in the Stuart period.

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Retinal detachment

Retinal detachment is a disorder of the eye in which the retina separates from the layer underneath.

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Richard Baxter

Richard Baxter (12 November 1615 – 8 December 1691) was an English Puritan church leader, poet, hymnodist, theologian, and controversialist.

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Richard Bentley

Richard Bentley (27 January 1662 – 14 July 1742) was an English classical scholar, critic, and theologian.

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Richard Cromwell

Richard Cromwell (4 October 162612 July 1712) became the second Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland, and was one of only two commoners to become the English head of state, the other being his father, Oliver Cromwell, from whom he inherited the post.

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Robert Filmer

Sir Robert Filmer (c. 1588 – 26 May 1653) was an English political theorist who defended the divine right of kings.

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Robert Middlekauff

Robert L. Middlekauff (born 1929) is a professor emeritus of colonial and early United States history at UC Berkeley.

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Robert Overton

Major-General Robert Overton (about 1609–1678) was a prominent English soldier and scholar, who supported the Parliamentary cause during the English Civil War, and was imprisoned a number of times during the Protectorate and the English Restoration for his strong republican views.

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Roger Williams

Roger Williams (c. 21 December 1603 – between 27 January and 15 March 1683) was a Puritan minister, English Reformed theologian, and Reformed Baptist who founded the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.

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Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.

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Rufus Wilmot Griswold

Rufus Wilmot Griswold (February 13, 1815 – August 27, 1857) was an American anthologist, editor, poet, and critic.

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Rump Parliament

The Rump Parliament was the English Parliament after Colonel Thomas Pride purged the Long Parliament, on 6 December 1648, of those members hostile to the Grandees' intention to try King Charles I for high treason.

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Rustication (academia)

Rustication is a term used at Oxford, Cambridge and Durham Universities to mean being "sent down" or expelled temporarily, or, in more recent times, to leave temporarily for welfare and/or health reasons.

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S. Foster Damon

Samuel Foster Damon (February 12, 1893 – December 25, 1971) was an American academic, a specialist in William Blake, a critic and a poet.

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Gaius Sallustius Crispus, usually anglicised as Sallust (86 – c. 35 BC), was a Roman historian, politician, and novus homo from an Italian plebeian family.

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Salvation (salvatio; sōtēría; yāšaʕ; al-ḵalaṣ) is being saved or protected from harm or being saved or delivered from a dire situation.

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Samson (Shimshon, "man of the sun") was the last of the judges of the ancient Israelites mentioned in the Book of Judges in the Hebrew Bible (chapters 13 to 16) and one of the last of the leaders who "judged" Israel before the institution of the monarchy.

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Samson Agonistes

Samson Agonistes (from Greek Σαμσών ἀγωνιστής, "Samson the champion") is a tragic closet drama by John Milton.

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Samuel Hartlib

Samuel Hartlib or Hartlieb (c. 1600 – 10 March 1662) was a German-British polymath.

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Samuel Johnson

Samuel Johnson LL.D. (18 September 1709 – 13 December 1784), often referred to as Dr.

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Samuel Simmons

Samuel Simmons (1640–1687) was an English printer, best known as the first publisher of several works by John Milton.

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Sandra Gilbert

Sandra M. Gilbert (born December 27, 1936), Professor Emerita of English at the University of California, Davis, is an American literary critic and poet who has published in the fields of feminist literary criticism, feminist theory, and psychoanalytic criticism.

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A scrivener (or scribe) was a person who could read and write or who wrote letters to court and legal documents.

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Second Folio

The Second Folio is the 1632 edition of the collected plays of William Shakespeare.

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Separation of church and state

The separation of church and state is a philosophic and jurisprudential concept for defining political distance in the relationship between religious organizations and the nation state.

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Shilling (English coin)

The English shilling was a silver coin of the Kingdom of England, when first introduced known as the testoon.

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Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.

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Smectymnuus was the nom de plume of a group of Puritan clergymen active in England in 1641.

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Social contract

In both moral and political philosophy, the social contract is a theory or model that originated during the Age of Enlightenment.

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Society of Jesus

The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.

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Socinianism is a system of Christian doctrine named for Fausto Sozzini (Latin: Faustus Socinus), which was developed among the Polish Brethren in the Minor Reformed Church of Poland during the 16th and 17th centuries and embraced by the Unitarian Church of Transylvania during the same period.

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Spanish language

Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.

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St Giles-without-Cripplegate

St Giles-without-Cripplegate is a Church of England church in the City of London, located on Fore Street within the modern Barbican complex.

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St Margaret's, Westminster

The Church of St Margaret, Westminster Abbey, is situated in the grounds of Westminster Abbey on Parliament Square, and is the Anglican parish church of the House of Commons of the United Kingdom in London.

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St Mary Aldermary

The Guild Church of St Mary Aldermary is an Anglican church located in Watling Street at the junction with Bow Lane, in the City of London.

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St Paul's School, London

St Paul's School is a selective independent school for boys aged 13–18, founded in 1509 by John Colet and located on a 43-acre (180,000m2) site by the River Thames, in Barnes, London.

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Stress (linguistics)

In linguistics, and particularly phonology, stress or accent is relative emphasis or prominence given to a certain syllable in a word, or to a certain word in a phrase or sentence.

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Sublime (literary)

The literary concept of the sublime became important in the eighteenth century.

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Sublime (philosophy)

In aesthetics, the sublime (from the Latin sublīmis) is the quality of greatness, whether physical, moral, intellectual, metaphysical, aesthetic, spiritual, or artistic.

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Substitution (poetry)

In English poetry substitution, also known as inversion, is the use of an alien metric foot in a line of otherwise regular metrical pattern.

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Susan Gubar

Susan D. Gubar (born November 30, 1944) is an American author and distinguished Professor Emerita of English and Women's Studies at Indiana University.

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A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.

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Syriac language

Syriac (ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ), also known as Syriac Aramaic or Classical Syriac, is a dialect of Middle Aramaic.

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T. S. Eliot

Thomas Stearns Eliot, (26 September 1888 – 4 January 1965), was an essayist, publisher, playwright, literary and social critic, and "one of the twentieth century's major poets".

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Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (–) was a senator and a historian of the Roman Empire.

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Temperance (virtue)

Temperance is defined as moderation or voluntary self-restraint.

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Tetrachordon (from the Greek τετράχορδον "four stringed") was published by John Milton with his Colasterion on 4 March 1645.

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The Anxiety of Influence

The Anxiety of Influence: A Theory of Poetry is a 1973 book by Harold Bloom.

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The Castle of Indolence

The Castle of Indolence is a poem written by James Thomson, a Scottish poet of the 18th century, in 1748.

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The History of Britain (Milton)

The History of Britain, that Part especially now called England; from the first traditional Beginning, continued to the Norman Conquest.

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The Madwoman in the Attic

The Madwoman in the Attic: The Woman Writer and the Nineteenth-Century Literary Imagination is a 1979 book by Sandra Gilbert and Susan Gubar, in which they examine Victorian literature from a feminist perspective.

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The Prelude

The Prelude or, Growth of a Poet's Mind; An Autobiographical Poem is an autobiographical poem in blank verse by the English poet William Wordsworth.

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The Ready and Easy Way to Establish a Free Commonwealth

The Ready and Easy Way to Establish a Free Commonwealth was a political tract by John Milton published in London at the end of February 1660.

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The Reason of Church-Government Urged against Prelaty

The Reason of Church-Government Urged against Prelaty is an essay by English poet John Milton distributed as one of a series of religious pamphlets by the writer.

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The Seasons (Thomson)

The Seasons is a series of four poems written by the Scottish author James Thomson.

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The Spectator (1711)

The Spectator was a daily publication founded by Joseph Addison and Richard Steele in England, lasting from 1711 to 1712.

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The Tenure of Kings and Magistrates

The Tenure of Kings and Magistrates is a book by John Milton, in which he defends the right of people to execute a guilty sovereign, whether tyrannical or not.

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Theodore Haak

Theodore Haak (Neuhausen 1605 – London 1690) was a German Calvinist scholar, resident in England in later life.

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Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine.

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Thomas Edwards (heresiographer)

Thomas Edwards (1599–1647) was an English Puritan clergyman.

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Thomas Erastus

Thomas Erastus (September 7, 1524 – December 31, 1583) was a Swiss physician and theologian.

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Thomas Gataker

Thomas Gataker (* London, 4 September 1574 – † Cambridge, 27 June 1654) was an English clergyman and theologian.

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Thomas Gray

Thomas Gray (26 December 1716 – 30 July 1771) was an English poet, letter-writer, classical scholar, and professor at Pembroke College, Cambridge.

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Thomas Hardy

Thomas Hardy (2 June 1840 – 11 January 1928) was an English novelist and poet.

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Thomas Hobbes

Thomas Hobbes (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury, was an English philosopher who is considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy.

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Thomas Hobson

Thomas Hobson (c. 15441 January 1631), was an English carrier, best known as the origin of the expression Hobson's choice.

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Thomas Newton

Thomas Newton (1 January 1704 – 14 February 1782) was an English cleric, biblical scholar and author.

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Thomas Wolfe

Thomas Clayton Wolfe (October 3, 1900 – September 15, 1938) was an American novelist of the early twentieth century.

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Thomas Young (theologian)

Thomas Young (c. 1587–1655) was a Scottish Presbyterian minister and theologian, resident in England and a member of the Westminster Assembly.

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Toleration is the acceptance of an action, object, or person which one dislikes or disagrees with, where one is in a position to disallow it but chooses not to.

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Torquato Tasso

Torquato Tasso (11 March 1544 – 25 April 1595) was an Italian poet of the 16th century, best known for his poem Gerusalemme liberata (Jerusalem Delivered, 1581), in which he depicts a highly imaginative version of the combats between Christians and Muslims at the end of the First Crusade, during the Siege of Jerusalem.

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A Tory is a person who holds a political philosophy, known as Toryism, based on a British version of traditionalism and conservatism, which upholds the supremacy of social order as it has evolved throughout history.

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Tract (literature)

A tract is a literary work, and in current usage, usually religious in nature.

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The Christian doctrine of the Trinity (from Greek τριάς and τριάδα, from "threefold") holds that God is one but three coeternal consubstantial persons or hypostases—the Father, the Son (Jesus Christ), and the Holy Spirit—as "one God in three Divine Persons".

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Trinity College, Cambridge

Trinity College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in England.

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Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.

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Veronica Wedgwood

Dame Cicely Veronica Wedgwood, (20 July 1910 – 9 March 1997) was an English historian who published under the name C. V. Wedgwood.

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Verse (poetry)

In the countable sense, a verse is formally a single metrical line in a poetic composition.

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Publius Vergilius Maro (traditional dates October 15, 70 BC – September 21, 19 BC), usually called Virgil or Vergil in English, was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period.

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Westminster Assembly

The Westminster Assembly of Divines was a council of theologians (or "divines") and members of the English Parliament appointed to restructure the Church of England which met from 1643 to 1653.

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When I Consider How My Light is Spent

"When I Consider How My Light is Spent" is one of the best known of the sonnets of John Milton (d. 1674).

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Whigs (British political party)

The Whigs were a political faction and then a political party in the parliaments of England, Scotland, Great Britain, Ireland and the United Kingdom.

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William Blake

William Blake (28 November 1757 – 12 August 1827) was an English poet, painter, and printmaker.

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William Chappell (bishop)

William Chappell (Chappel, Chapple) (10 December 1582 – 14 May 1649) was an English scholar and clergyman.

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William Collins (poet)

William Collins (25 December 1721 – 12 June 1759) was an English poet.

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William Dugard

William Dugard, or Du Gard, (9 January 1606 – 3 December 1662) was an English schoolmaster and printer.

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William Empson

Sir William Empson (27 September 1906 – 15 April 1984) was an English literary critic and poet, widely influential for his practice of closely reading literary works, a practice fundamental to New Criticism.

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William Golding

Sir William Gerald Golding CBE (19 September 1911 – 19 June 1993) was a British novelist, playwright, and poet.

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William Hayley

William Hayley (9 November 1745 – 12 November 1820) was an English writer, best known as the friend and biographer of William Cowper.

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William Laud

William Laud (7 October 1573 – 10 January 1645) was an English archbishop and academic.

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William Shakespeare

William Shakespeare (26 April 1564 (baptised)—23 April 1616) was an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as both the greatest writer in the English language, and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.

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William Wordsworth

William Wordsworth (7 April 1770 – 23 April 1850) was a major English Romantic poet who, with Samuel Taylor Coleridge, helped to launch the Romantic Age in English literature with their joint publication Lyrical Ballads (1798).

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Wistaston is a civil parish and village in the unitary authority of Cheshire East and the ceremonial county of Cheshire, in North West England.

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Zachary Pearce

Zachary Pearce, sometimes known as Zachariah (8 September 1690 – 29 June 1774), was an English Bishop of Bangor and Bishop of Rochester.

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Giovanni Milton, J. Milton, Joannis Miltoni, John milton, Katherine Woodcock, Milton, J., Milton, John, Milton, John, 1608-1674, Miltonesque, Miltonian, Miltonic, Miltonist, Miltonists, Post-Miltonic.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Milton

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